Tabela com principais espec.
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Rb||ICC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Referências | 37 Disponível | Ver todas as referências
|Visão geral das referências||Aplicação||Espécies||Pub Med ID|
|Retrovirus-Mediated Expression of E2A-PBX1 Blocks Lymphoid Fate but Permits Retention of Myeloid Potential in Early Hematopoietic Progenitors. |
Woodcroft, MW; Nanan, K; Thompson, P; Tyryshkin, K; Smith, SP; Slany, RK; LeBrun, DP
PloS one 10 e0130495 2015
The oncogenic transcription factor E2A-PBX1 is expressed consequent to chromosomal translocation 1;19 and is an important oncogenic driver in cases of pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Elucidating the mechanism by which E2A-PBX1 induces lymphoid leukemia would be expedited by the availability of a tractable experimental model in which enforced expression of E2A-PBX1 in hematopoietic progenitors induces pre-B-cell ALL. However, hematopoietic reconstitution of irradiated mice with bone marrow infected with E2A-PBX1-expressing retroviruses consistently gives rise to myeloid, not lymphoid, leukemia. Here, we elucidate the hematopoietic consequences of forced E2A-PBX1 expression in primary murine hematopoietic progenitors. We show that introducing E2A-PBX1 into multipotent progenitors permits the retention of myeloid potential but imposes a dense barrier to lymphoid development prior to the common lymphoid progenitor stage, thus helping to explain the eventual development of myeloid, and not lymphoid, leukemia in transplanted mice. Our findings also indicate that E2A-PBX1 enforces the aberrant, persistent expression of some genes that would normally have been down-regulated in the subsequent course of hematopoietic maturation. We show that enforced expression of one such gene, Hoxa9, a proto-oncogene associated with myeloid leukemia, partially reproduces the phenotype produced by E2A-PBX1 itself. Existing evidence suggests that the 1;19 translocation event takes place in committed B-lymphoid progenitors. However, we find that retrovirus-enforced expression of E2A-PBX1 in committed pro-B-cells results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our findings indicate that the neoplastic phenotype induced by E2A-PBX1 is determined by the developmental stage of the cell into which the oncoprotein is introduced.
|Psip1/Ledgf p75 restrains Hox gene expression by recruiting both trithorax and polycomb group proteins. |
Pradeepa, MM; Grimes, GR; Taylor, GC; Sutherland, HG; Bickmore, WA
Nucleic acids research 42 9021-32 2014
Trithorax and polycomb group proteins are generally thought to antagonize one another. The trithorax family member MLL (myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia) is presumed to activate Hox expression, counteracting polycomb-mediated repression. PC4 and SF2 interacting protein 1 (PSIP1)/p75, also known as LEDGF, whose PWWP domain binds to H3K36me3, interacts with MLL and tethers MLL fusion proteins to HOXA9 in leukaemias. Here we show, unexpectedly, that Psip1/p75 regulates homeotic genes by recruiting not only MLL complexes, but also the polycomb group protein Bmi1. In Psip1(-/-) cells binding of Mll1/2, Bmi1 and the co-repressor Ctbp1 at Hox loci are all abrogated and Hoxa and Hoxd mRNA expression increased. Our data not only reveal a potential mechanism of action for Psip1 in the regulation of Hox genes but also suggest an unexpected interplay between proteins usually considered as transcriptional activators and repressors.
|Silencing BMI1 eliminates tumor formation of pediatric glioma CD133+ cells not by affecting known targets but by down-regulating a novel set of core genes. |
Baxter, PA; Lin, Q; Mao, H; Kogiso, M; Zhao, X; Liu, Z; Huang, Y; Voicu, H; Gurusiddappa, S; Su, JM; Adesina, AM; Perlaky, L; Dauser, RC; Leung, HC; Muraszko, KM; Heth, JA; Fan, X; Lau, CC; Man, TK; Chintagumpala, M; Li, XN
Acta neuropathologica communications 2 160 2014
Clinical outcome of children with malignant glioma remains dismal. Here, we examined the role of over-expressed BMI1, a regulator of stem cell self-renewal, in sustaining tumor formation in pediatric glioma stem cells. Our investigation revealed BMI1 over-expression in 29 of 54 (53.7%) pediatric gliomas, 8 of 8 (100%) patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse models, and in both CD133+ and CD133- glioma cells. We demonstrated that lentiviral-shRNA mediated silencing of suppressed cell proliferation in vitro in cells derived from 3 independent PDOX models and eliminated tumor-forming capacity of CD133+ and CD133- cells derived from 2 PDOX models in mouse brains. Gene expression profiling showed that most of the molecular targets of BMI1 ablation in CD133+ cells were different from that in CD133- cells. Importantly, we found that silencing BMI1 in CD133+ cells derived from 3 PDOX models did not affect most of the known genes previously associated with the activated BMI1, but modulated a novel set of core genes, including RPS6KA2, ALDH3A2, FMFB, DTL, API5, EIF4G2, KIF5c, LOC650152, C20ORF121, LOC203547, LOC653308, and LOC642489, to mediate the elimination of tumor formation. In summary, we identified the over-expressed BMI1 as a promising therapeutic target for glioma stem cells, and suggest that the signaling pathways associated with activated BMI1 in promoting tumor growth may be different from those induced by silencing BMI1 in blocking tumor formation. These findings highlighted the importance of careful re-analysis of the affected genes following the inhibition of abnormally activated oncogenic pathways to identify determinants that can potentially predict therapeutic efficacy.
|Transcription factors FOXG1 and Groucho/TLE promote glioblastoma growth. |
Verginelli, F; Perin, A; Dali, R; Fung, KH; Lo, R; Longatti, P; Guiot, MC; Del Maestro, RF; Rossi, S; di Porzio, U; Stechishin, O; Weiss, S; Stifani, S
Nature communications 4 2956 2013
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly malignant brain cancer, with a median survival of less than 2 years. GBM displays a cellular complexity that includes brain tumour-initiating cells (BTICs), which are considered as potential key targets for GBM therapies. Here we show that the transcription factors FOXG1 and Groucho/TLE are expressed in poorly differentiated astroglial cells in human GBM specimens and in primary cultures of GBM-derived BTICs, where they form a complex. FOXG1 knockdown in BTICs causes downregulation of neural stem/progenitor and proliferation markers, increased replicative senescence, upregulation of astroglial differentiation genes and decreased BTIC-initiated tumour growth after intracranial transplantation into host mice. These effects are phenocopied by Groucho/TLE knockdown or dominant inhibition of the FOXG1:Groucho/TLE complex. These results provide evidence that transcriptional programmes regulated by FOXG1 and Groucho/TLE are important for BTIC-initiated brain tumour growth, implicating FOXG1 and Groucho/TLE in GBM tumourigenesis.
|Alu elements in ANRIL non-coding RNA at chromosome 9p21 modulate atherogenic cell functions through trans-regulation of gene networks. |
Holdt, LM; Hoffmann, S; Sass, K; Langenberger, D; Scholz, M; Krohn, K; Finstermeier, K; Stahringer, A; Wilfert, W; Beutner, F; Gielen, S; Schuler, G; G��bel, G; Bergert, H; Bechmann, I; Stadler, PF; Thiery, J; Teupser, D
PLoS genetics 9 e1003588 2013
The chromosome 9p21 (Chr9p21) locus of coronary artery disease has been identified in the first surge of genome-wide association and is the strongest genetic factor of atherosclerosis known today. Chr9p21 encodes the long non-coding RNA (ncRNA) antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL). ANRIL expression is associated with the Chr9p21 genotype and correlated with atherosclerosis severity. Here, we report on the molecular mechanisms through which ANRIL regulates target-genes in trans, leading to increased cell proliferation, increased cell adhesion and decreased apoptosis, which are all essential mechanisms of atherogenesis. Importantly, trans-regulation was dependent on Alu motifs, which marked the promoters of ANRIL target genes and were mirrored in ANRIL RNA transcripts. ANRIL bound Polycomb group proteins that were highly enriched in the proximity of Alu motifs across the genome and were recruited to promoters of target genes upon ANRIL over-expression. The functional relevance of Alu motifs in ANRIL was confirmed by deletion and mutagenesis, reversing trans-regulation and atherogenic cell functions. ANRIL-regulated networks were confirmed in 2280 individuals with and without coronary artery disease and functionally validated in primary cells from patients carrying the Chr9p21 risk allele. Our study provides a molecular mechanism for pro-atherogenic effects of ANRIL at Chr9p21 and suggests a novel role for Alu elements in epigenetic gene regulation by long ncRNAs.
|Ring1b bookmarks genes in pancreatic embryonic progenitors for repression in adult �� cells. |
van Arensbergen, J; Garc��a-Hurtado, J; Maestro, MA; Correa-Tapia, M; Rutter, GA; Vidal, M; Ferrer, J
Genes & development 27 52-63 2013
Polycomb-mediated gene repression is essential for embryonic development, yet its precise role in lineage-specific programming is poorly understood. Here we inactivated Ring1b, encoding a polycomb-repressive complex 1 subunit, in pancreatic multipotent progenitors (Ring1b(progKO)). This caused transcriptional derepression of a subset of direct Ring1b target genes in differentiated pancreatic islet cells. Unexpectedly, Ring1b inactivation in differentiated islet �� cells (Ring1b(��KO)) did not cause derepression, even after multiple rounds of cell division, suggesting a role for Ring1b in the establishment but not the maintenance of repression. Consistent with this notion, derepression in Ring1b(progKO) islets occurred preferentially in genes that were targeted de novo by Ring1b during pancreas development. The results support a model in which Ring1b bookmarks its target genes during embryonic development, and these genes are maintained in a repressed state through Ring1b-independent mechanisms in terminally differentiated cells. This work provides novel insights into how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to shaping the transcriptional identity of differentiated lineages.
|Combined modulation of polycomb and trithorax genes rejuvenates �� cell replication. |
Zhou, JX; Dhawan, S; Fu, H; Snyder, E; Bottino, R; Kundu, S; Kim, SK; Bhushan, A
The Journal of clinical investigation 123 4849-58 2013
Inadequate functional �� cell mass underlies both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. �� Cell growth and regeneration also decrease with age through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Age-dependent loss of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) prevents adult �� cell replication through derepression of the gene encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2a (INK4a). We investigated whether replenishing EZH2 could reverse the age-dependent increase of Ink4a transcription. We generated an inducible pancreatic �� cell-specific Ezh2 transgenic mouse model and showed that transgene expression of Ezh2 was sufficient to increase �� cell replication and regeneration in young adult mice. In mice older than 8 months, induction of Ezh2 was unable to repress Ink4a. Older mice had an enrichment of a trithorax group (TrxG) protein complex at the Ink4a locus. Knockdown of TrxG complex components, in conjunction with expression of Ezh2, resulted in Ink4a repression and increased replication of �� cells in aged mice. These results indicate that combined modulation of polycomb group proteins, such as EZH2, along with TrxG proteins to repress Ink4a can rejuvenate the replication capacity of aged �� cells. This study provides potential therapeutic targets for expansion of adult �� cell mass.
|Inflammation increases cells expressing ZSCAN4 and progenitor cell markers in the adult pancreas. |
Ko, SB; Azuma, S; Yokoyama, Y; Yamamoto, A; Kyokane, K; Niida, S; Ishiguro, H; Ko, MS
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 304 G1103-16 2013
We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas a small number of ZSCAN4-positive (ZSCAN4���) cells are present among cells located in the islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and oval-shaped cells. These cells not only express differentiated cell markers for each compartment of the pancreas but also express other tissue stem/progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, the number of ZSCAN4��� cells dramatically increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis, especially in the pancreatic tissues of autoimmune pancreatitis actively regenerating under corticosteroid treatment. Interestingly, a number of ZSCAN4��� cells in the pancreas of autoimmune pancreatitis returned to the basal level after 1 yr of maintenance corticosteroid treatment. In conclusion, coexpression of progenitor cell markers and differentiated cell markers with ZSCAN4 in each compartment of the pancreas may indicate the presence of facultative progenitors for both exocrine and endocrine cells in the adult pancreas.
|Knockdown BMI1 expression inhibits proliferation and invasion in human bladder cancer T24 cells. |
Liang, W; Zhu, D; Cui, X; Su, J; Liu, H; Han, J; Zhao, F; Xie, W
Molecular and cellular biochemistry 382 283-91 2013
B cell-specific moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) is a transcriptional repressor of polycomb repressive complex 1, which is involved in the proliferation, senescence, migration, and tumorigenesis of cancer. Experimental researchers have convincingly linked BMI1 to tumorigenesis. However, there is no study about the issue on the role of BMI1 in the proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of bladder cancer. To address this question, we examined the expression of BMI1 in bladder cancer tissues and used siRNA to knockdown BMI1 expression in bladder cancer T24 cells. Then we tested the cell proliferation by CCK8 assay and soft agar colony formation assay, apoptosis by flow cytometry assay, and cell invasiveness by transwell migration assay. Our results revealed that BMI1 promoted proliferation, migration, invasion, and progression in bladder cancer. Over-expression of BMI1 was correlated with tumor clinic-pathological features. BMI1 siRNA effectively inhibited bladder cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and it promoted bladder cancer invasion, maybe by causing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Our findings suggested that BMI1 may represent a novel diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target for bladder cancer, and deserves further investigation.
|Multipotent stem cells from trabecular meshwork become phagocytic TM cells. |
Du, Y; Roh, DS; Mann, MM; Funderburgh, ML; Funderburgh, JL; Schuman, JS
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 53 1566-75 2012
To isolate and characterize stem cells from human trabecular meshwork (TM) and to investigate the potential of these stem cells to differentiate into TM cells.Human trabecular meshwork stem cells (TMSCs) were isolated as side population cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or isolated by clonal cultures. Passaged TMSCs were compared with primary TM cells by immunostaining and quantitative RT-PCR. TMSC purity was assessed by flow cytometry and TMSC multipotency was examined by induction of neural cells, adipocytes, keratocytes, or TM cells. Differential gene expression was detected by quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. TM cell function was evaluated by phagocytic assay using inactivated Staphylococcus aureus bioparticles.Side population and clonal isolated cells expressed stem cell markers ABCG2, Notch1, OCT-3/4, AnkG, and MUC1 but not TM markers AQP1, MGP, CHI3L1, or TIMP3. Passaged TMSCs are a homogeneous population with greater than 95% cells positive to CD73, CD90, CD166, or Bmi1. TMSCs exhibited multipotent ability of differentiation into a variety of cell types with expression of neural markers neurofilament, ��-tubulin III, GFAP; or keratocyte-specific markers keratan sulfate and keratocan; or adipocyte markers ap2 and leptin. TMSC readily differentiated into TM cells with phagocytic function and expression of TM markers AQP1, CHI3L1, and TIMP3.TMSCs, isolated as side population or as clones, express specific stem cell markers, are homogeneous and multipotent, with the ability to differentiate into phagocytic TM cells. These cells offer a potential for development of a novel stem cell-based therapy for glaucoma.
|Western Blotting, Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)||Human||22297497|
|Regulation of the potential marker for intestinal cells, Bmi1, by ��-catenin and the zinc finger protein KLF4: implications for colon cancer. |
Yu, T; Chen, X; Zhang, W; Colon, D; Shi, J; Napier, D; Rychahou, P; Lu, W; Lee, EY; Weiss, HL; Evers, BM; Liu, C
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 3760-8 2012
B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 (Bmi1) is a Polycomb Group (PcG) protein important in gene silencing. It is a component of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1), which is required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of many genes. Bmi1 was initially identified as an oncogene that regulates cell proliferation and transformation, and is important in hematopoiesis and the development of nervous systems. Recently, it was reported that Bmi1 is a potential marker for intestinal stem cells. Because Wnt signaling plays a key role in intestinal stem cells, we analyzed the effects of Wnt signaling on Bmi1 expression. We found that Wnt signaling indeed regulates the expression of Bmi1 in colon cancer cells. In addition, the expression of Bmi1 in human colon cancers is significantly associated with nuclear ��-catenin, a hallmark for the activated Wnt signaling. Kr��ppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc finger protein highly expressed in the gut and skin. We recently found that KLF4 cross-talks with Wnt/��-catenin in regulating intestinal homeostasis. We demonstrated that KLF4 directly inhibits the expression of Bmi1 in colon cancer cells. We also found that Bmi1 regulates histone ubiquitination and is required for colon cancer proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Our findings further suggest that Bmi1 is an attractive target for cancer therapeutics.
|A novel human polycomb binding site acts as a functional polycomb response element in Drosophila. |
Cuddapah, S; Roh, TY; Cui, K; Jose, CC; Fuller, MT; Zhao, K; Chen, X
PloS one 7 e36365 2012
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key chromatin regulators implicated in multiple processes including embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, and germ cell differentiation. The PcG proteins recognize target genomic loci through cis DNA sequences known as Polycomb Response Elements (PREs), which are well characterized in Drosophila. However, mammalian PREs have been elusive until two groups reported putative mammalian PREs recently. Consistent with the existence of mammalian PREs, here we report the identification and characterization of a potential PRE from human T cells. The putative human PRE has enriched binding of PcG proteins, and such binding is dependent on a key PcG component SUZ12. We demonstrate that the putative human PRE carries both genetic and molecular features of Drosophila PRE in transgenic flies, implying that not only the trans PcG proteins but also certain features of the cis PREs are conserved between mammals and Drosophila.
|ATRA inhibits the proliferation of DU145 prostate cancer cells through reducing the methylation level of HOXB13 gene. |
Liu, Z; Ren, G; Shangguan, C; Guo, L; Dong, Z; Li, Y; Zhang, W; Zhao, L; Hou, P; Zhang, Y; Wang, X; Lu, J; Huang, B
PloS one 7 e40943 2012
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been widely investigated for treatments of many cancers including prostate cancer. HOXB13, silenced in androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) prostate cancer cells, plays a role in AR(-) prostate cancer cell growth arrest. In this study we intended to elucidate the mechanisms that are involved in the proliferation inhibition of AR(-) prostate cancer cells triggered by ATRA. We discovered that ATRA was able to induce the growth arrest and to increase HOXB13 expression in AR(-) prostate cancer cells. Both EZH2 and DNMT3b participated in the repression of HOXB13 expression through an epigenetic mechanism involving DNA and histone methylation modifications. Specifically, EZH2 recruited DNMT3b to HOXB13 promoter to form a repression complex. Moreover, ATRA could upregulate HOXB13 through decreasing EZH2 and DNMT3b expressions and reducing their interactions with the HOXB13 promoter. Concurrently, the methylation level of the HOXB13 promoter was reduced upon the treatment of ATRA. Results from this study implicated a novel effect of ATRA in inhibition of the growth of AR(-) resistant human prostate cancer cells through alteration of HOXB13 expression as a result of epigenetic modifications.
|Targeting JNK for therapeutic depletion of stem-like glioblastoma cells. |
Matsuda, K; Sato, A; Okada, M; Shibuya, K; Seino, S; Suzuki, K; Watanabe, E; Narita, Y; Shibui, S; Kayama, T; Kitanaka, C
Scientific reports 2 516 2012
Control of the stem-like tumour cell population is considered key to realizing the long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma, one of the most devastating human malignancies. To date, possible therapeutic targets and targeting methods have been described, but none has yet proven to target stem-like glioblastoma cells in the brain to the extent necessary to provide a survival benefit. Here we show that targeting JNK in vivo, the activity of which is required for the maintenance of stem-like glioblastoma cells, via transient, systemic administration of a small-molecule JNK inhibitor depletes the self-renewing and tumour-initiating populations within established tumours, inhibits tumour formation by stem-like glioblastoma cells in the brain, and provide substantial survival benefit without evidence of adverse events. Our findings not only implicate JNK in the maintenance of stem-like glioblastoma cells but also demonstrate that JNK is a viable, clinically relevant therapeutic target in the control of stem-like glioblastoma cells.
|Cyclin E1 is a common target of BMI1 and MYCN and a prognostic marker for neuroblastoma progression. |
Mao, L; Ding, J; Perdue, A; Yang, L; Zha, Y; Ren, M; Huang, S; Cui, H; Ding, HF
Oncogene 31 3785-95 2012
The Polycomb transcription repressor BMI1 is highly expressed in human neuroblastomas and is required for the clonogenic self-renewal and tumorigenicity of human neuroblastoma cell lines. The molecular basis of BMI1 action in neuroblastoma cells is not well understood. Here we report that BMI1 has a critical role in stabilizing cyclin E1 by repressing the expression of FBXW7, a substrate-recognition subunit of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cyclin E1 for degradation. BMI1 binds to the FBXW7 locus in vivo and represses its mRNA expression. Overexpression of cyclin E1 or abrogation of FBXW7 induction rescues the cell-death phenotype of BMI1 knockdown. Moreover, MYCN, an oncoprotein in the pathogenesis of high-risk neuroblastomas, is able to counteract the death-inducing effect of BMI1 knockdown by activating CCNE1 transcription. We further show that high cyclin E1 expression is associated with Stage 4 neuroblastomas and poor prognosis in patients. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the oncogenic activity of BMI1 and MYCN in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and progression by maintaining cyclin E1 levels.
|FoxM1 in tumorigenicity of the neuroblastoma cells and renewal of the neural progenitors. |
Wang, Z; Park, HJ; Carr, JR; Chen, YJ; Zheng, Y; Li, J; Tyner, AL; Costa, RH; Bagchi, S; Raychaudhuri, P
Cancer research 71 4292-302 2011
Malignant neuroblastomas contain stem-like cells. These tumors also overexpress the Forkhead box transcription factor FoxM1. In this study, we investigated the roles of FoxM1 in the tumorigenicity of neuroblastoma. We showed that depletion of FoxM1 inhibits anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in mouse xenografts. Moreover, knockdown of FoxM1 induces differentiation in neuroblastoma cells, suggesting that FoxM1 plays a role in the maintenance of the undifferentiated progenitor population. We showed that inhibition of FoxM1 in malignant neuroblastoma cells leads to the downregulation of the pluripotency genes sex determining region Y box 2 (Sox2) and Bmi1. We provided evidence that FoxM1 directly activates expression of Sox2 in neuroblastoma cells. By using a conditional deletion system and neurosphere cultures, we showed that FoxM1 is important for expression of Sox2 and Bmi1 in the mouse neural stem/progenitor cells and is critical for its self-renewal. Together, our observations suggested that FoxM1 plays an important role in the tumorigenicity of the aggressive neuroblastoma cells through maintenance of the undifferentiated state.
|MYCN and MYC regulate tumor proliferation and tumorigenesis directly through BMI1 in human neuroblastomas. |
Huang, R; Cheung, NK; Vider, J; Cheung, IY; Gerald, WL; Tickoo, SK; Holland, EC; Blasberg, RG
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 25 4138-49 2011
The BMI1 gene is overexpressed in ��� 90% of human neuroblastomas. However, little is known about the regulation of BMI1 expression. Using microarray and immunohistochemical analysis, we show that BMI1 expression correlated with MYCN levels in MYCN-amplified human neuroblastomas, and with MYC levels in the MYCN-nonamplified group. We further demonstrated that BMI1 is a direct target gene of MYCN/MYC in 3 neuroblastoma cell lines: BE (2)-C, LAN1, and SH-SY5Y. Overexpression of MYCN or MYC transactivated the BMI1 promoter and up-regulated BMI1 gene expression. shRNA-mediated knockdown of MYCN or MYC decreased BMI1 gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and point-mutation assays revealed that both MYCN and MYC bind to the E-box within the BMI1 promoter. Overexpression of BMI1, MYCN, and MYC independently increased both cell proliferation and tumor growth. Conversely, specific inhibition of BMI1, MYCN, and MYC decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth. Interestingly, BMI1 suppression in MYCN/MYC-overexpressing cells resulted in significantly greater inhibition compared to that in mock-transduced and parental cells. Our results indicate that MYCN and MYC regulate BMI1 gene expression at the transcriptional level and that dysregulation of the BMI1 gene mediated by MYCN or MYC overexpression, confers increased cell proliferation during neuroblastoma genesis and tumor progression.
|Vein tissue expression of matrix metalloproteinase as biomarker for hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula maturation. |
Lee ES, Shen Q, Pitts RL, Guo M, Wu MH, Yuan SY
Vasc Endovascular Surg 44 674-9. Epub 2010 Aug 18. 2010
Failure of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is attributed to impaired vein remodeling. The purpose of this study is to identify whether vein matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity is associated with AVF maturation. Patients with renal insufficiency undergoing surgery had their vein segments harvested and snap-frozen at time of AVF construction. Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP), tissue inhibitor of metallopreoteinases type 2 (TIMP-2), and TIMP-4 were measured using zymography and Western blotting techniques. Of 14 patients enrolled, 9 had successful maturation and 5 had failure of AVF maturation. Significantly higher levels of MT1-MMP (an MMP-2 activator; P = .01), TIMP-2 (an MMP-2 inhibitor; P = .03), MMP-2 latent (P = .02), and MMP-2 total (P = .03) were associated with AVF maturation. There was a trend toward higher levels of TIMP-4 in the successful group (P = .18). These data demonstrate a positive relationship between MMP-2 expression in veins and AVF maturation. MMP-2 could serve as a potential preoperative marker to predict maturation.
|A novel zinc finger protein Zfp277 mediates transcriptional repression of the Ink4a/arf locus through polycomb repressive complex 1. |
Negishi, M; Saraya, A; Mochizuki, S; Helin, K; Koseki, H; Iwama, A
PloS one 5 e12373 2010
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins play a crucial role in cellular senescence as key transcriptional regulators of the Ink4a/Arf tumor suppressor gene locus. However, how PcG complexes target and contribute to stable gene silencing of the Ink4a/Arf locus remains little understood.We examined the function of Zinc finger domain-containing protein 277 (Zfp277), a novel zinc finger protein that interacts with the PcG protein Bmi1. Zfp277 binds to the Ink4a/Arf locus in a Bmi1-independent manner and interacts with polycomb repressor complex (PRC) 1 through direct interaction with Bmi1. Loss of Zfp277 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) caused dissociation of PcG proteins from the Ink4a/Arf locus, resulting in premature senescence associated with derepressed p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf) expression. Levels of both Zfp277 and PcG proteins inversely correlated with those of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in senescing MEFs, but the treatment of Zfp277(-/-) MEFs with an antioxidant restored the binding of PRC2 but not PRC1 to the Ink4a/Arf locus. Notably, forced expression of Bmi1 in Zfp277(-/-) MEFs did not restore the binding of Bmi1 to the Ink4a/Arf locus and failed to bypass cellular senescence. A Zfp277 mutant that could not bind Bmi1 did not rescue Zfp277(-/-) MEFs from premature senescence.Our findings implicate Zfp277 in the transcriptional regulation of the Ink4a/Arf locus and suggest that the interaction of Zfp277 with Bmi1 is essential for the recruitment of PRC1 to the Ink4a/Arf locus. Our findings also highlight dynamic regulation of both Zfp277 and PcG proteins by the oxidative stress pathways.Texto completo do artigo
|Large Litter Rearing Enhances Leptin Sensitivity and Protects Selectively Bred Diet-Induced Obese Rats from Becoming Obese. |
Patterson CM, Bouret SG, Park S, Irani BG, Dunn-Meynell AA, Levin BE
Because rearing rats in large litters (LLs) protects them from becoming obese, we postulated that LL rearing would protect rats selectively bred to develop diet-induced obesity (DIO) from becoming obese by overcoming their inborn central leptin resistance. Male and female DIO rats were raised in normal litters (NLs; 10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) and assessed for anatomical, biochemical, and functional aspects of leptin sensitivity at various ages when fed low-fat chow or a 31% fat high-energy (HE) diet. LL rearing reduced plasma leptin levels by postnatal day 2 (P2) and body weight gain by P8. At P16, LL DIO neonates had increased arcuate nucleus (ARC) binding of leptin to its extracellular receptors and at P28 an associated increase of their agouti-related peptide and alpha-MSH axonal projections to the paraventricular nucleus. Reduced body weight persisted and was associated with increased ARC leptin receptor binding and sensitivity to the anorectic effects of leptin, reduced adiposity, and enhanced insulin sensitivity in LL DIO rats fed chow until 10 wk of age. The enhanced ARC leptin receptor binding and reduced adiposity of LL DIO rats persisted after an additional 5 wk on the HE diet. Female LL DIO rats had similar reductions in weight gain on both chow and HE diet vs. normal litter DIO rats. We postulate that LL rearing enhances DIO leptin sensitivity by lowering plasma leptin levels and thereby increasing leptin receptor availability and that this both enhances the ARC-paraventricular nucleus pathway development and protects them from becoming obese.
|Crosstalk between the PI3K/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways involved in the maintenance of self-renewal and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma stem-like cells. |
Jun Sunayama,Ken-Ichiro Matsuda,Atsushi Sato,Ken Tachibana,Kaori Suzuki,Yoshitaka Narita,Soichiro Shibui,Kaori Sakurada,Takamasa Kayama,Arata Tomiyama,Chifumi Kitanaka
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 28 2010
The molecular signaling pathways orchestrating the biology of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs), including glioblastoma, remain to be elucidated. We investigated in this study the role of the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in the control of self-renewal and tumorigenicity of glioblastoma CSLCs, particularly in relation to the PI3K/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway. Targeted inactivation of MEK alone using pharmacological inhibitors or siRNAs resulted in reduced sphere formation of both cell line- and patient-derived glioblastoma CSLCs, accompanied by their differentiation into neuronal and glial lineages. Interestingly, this effect of MEK inactivation was apparently augmented in the presence of NVP-BEZ235, a dual inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR. As a potential explanation for this observed synergy, we found that inactivation of either the MEK/ERK or PI3K/mTOR pathway triggered activation of the other, suggesting that there may be mutually inhibitory crosstalk between these two pathways. Significantly, inactivation of either pathway led to the reduced activation of p70S6K, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of p70S6K resulted in the activation of both pathways, which no longer maintained the cross-inhibitory relationship. Finally, combinational blockade of both pathways in glioblastoma CSLCs suppressed their tumorigenicity, whether transplanted subcutaneously or intracranially, more efficiently than blockade of either alone. Our findings suggest that there is p70S6K-mediated, cross-inhibitory regulation between the MEK/ERK and PI3K/mTOR pathways, in which each contribute to the maintenance of the self-renewal and tumorigenic capacity of glioblastoma CSLCs. Thus, combinational disruption of these pathways would be a rational and effective strategy in the treatment of glioblastoma.
|Dual blocking of mTor and PI3K elicits a prodifferentiation effect on glioblastoma stem-like cells. |
Sunayama, J; Sato, A; Matsuda, K; Tachibana, K; Suzuki, K; Narita, Y; Shibui, S; Sakurada, K; Kayama, T; Tomiyama, A; Kitanaka, C
Neuro-oncology 12 1205-19 2010
Glioblastoma, the most intractable cerebral tumor, is highly lethal. Recent studies suggest that cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) have the capacity to repopulate tumors and mediate radio- and chemoresistance, implying that future therapies may need to turn from the elimination of rapidly dividing, but differentiated, tumor cells to specifically targeting the minority of tumor cells that repopulate the tumor. However, the mechanism by which glioblastoma CSLCs maintain their immature stem-like state or, alternatively, become committed to differentiation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the inactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) by the mTor inhibitor rapamycin or knockdown of mTor reduced sphere formation and the expression of neural stem cell (NSC)/progenitor markers in CSLCs of the A172 glioblastoma cell line. Interestingly, combination treatment with rapamycin and LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, not only reduced the expression of NSC/progenitor markers more efficiently than single-agent treatment, but also increased the expression of ��III-tubulin, a neuronal differentiation marker. Consistent with these results, a dual PI3K/mTor inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235, elicited a prodifferentiation effect on A172 CSLCs. Moreover, A172 CSLCs, which were induced to undergo differentiation by pretreatment with NVP-BEZ235, exhibited a significant decrease in their tumorigenicity when transplanted either subcutaneously or intracranially. Importantly, similar results were obtained when patient-derived glioblastoma CSLCs were used. These findings suggest that the PI3K/mTor signaling pathway is critical for the maintenance of glioblastoma CSLC properties, and targeting both mTor and PI3K of CSLCs may be an effective therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma.Texto completo do artigo
|Caloric Restriction Reverses Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Steatosis in Rats with Low Aerobic Capacity. |
Bowman TA, Ramakrishnan SK, Kaw M, Lee SJ, Patel PR, Golla VK, Bourey RE, Haram PM, Koch LG, Britton SL, Wisl��ff U, Lee AD, Najjar SM
Rats selectively bred for low aerobic running capacity exhibit the metabolic syndrome, including hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, visceral obesity, and dyslipidemia. They also exhibit features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, including chicken-wire fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Hyperinsulinemia in these rats is associated with impaired hepatic insulin clearance. The current studies aimed to determine whether these metabolic abnormalities could be reversed by caloric restriction (CR). CR by 30% over a period of 2-3 months improved insulin clearance in parallel to inducing the protein content and activation of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1, a main player in hepatic insulin extraction. It also reduced glucose and insulin intolerance and serum and tissue (liver and muscle) triglyceride levels. Additionally, CR reversed inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis in liver. The data support a significant role of CR in the normalization of insulin and lipid metabolism in liver.
|Role for the MOV10 RNA helicase in polycomb-mediated repression of the INK4a tumor suppressor. |
El Messaoudi-Aubert, S; Nicholls, J; Maertens, GN; Brookes, S; Bernstein, E; Peters, G
Nature structural & molecular biology 17 862-8 2010
Several lines of evidence point to a role for noncoding RNA in transcriptional repression by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that human MOV10, a putative RNA helicase previously implicated in post-transcriptional gene silencing, co-purifies and interacts with components of Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) from human cells. Endogenous human MOV10 is mostly nuclear, and a proportion associates with chromatin in an RNA-dependent manner. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of MOV10 in human fibroblasts leads to the upregulation of the INK4a tumor suppressor, a known target of PcG-mediated repression, accompanied by the dissociation of PRC1 proteins from the locus and a reduction in trimethylation of histone H3 on Lys27 (H3K27me3). As well as prompting reassessment of MOV10's role in other settings, our findings suggest that it is directly involved in transcriptional silencing by PcG complexes.
|GFAP-Cre-mediated activation of oncogenic K-ras results in expansion of the subventricular zone and infiltrating glioma. |
Abel, TW; Clark, C; Bierie, B; Chytil, A; Aakre, M; Gorska, A; Moses, HL
Molecular cancer research : MCR 7 645-53 2009
A subset of neoplastic cells within human high-grade gliomas has features associated with stem cells. These cells may sustain glioma growth, and their stem-like properties may confer resistance to standard glioma treatments. Whether glioma stem cells derive from indigenous neural stem cells (NSC), or from tumor cells that have reacquired stem cell-like properties, is unknown. However, signaling pathways that are tightly regulated and central to NSC biology, including the Ras/Raf/Erk pathway, are hyperactive and pathogenic in gliomagenesis. Furthermore, data in animal models suggests that, in some cases, tumors are initiated in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a stem/progenitor cell niche in the mature brain. We activated oncogenic K-ras in mouse glioneuronal precursor cells and adult SVZ cells using GFAP-Cre. GFAP-Cre+/K-ras(G12D) mice showed a marked expansion of glial fibriallary acidic protein (GFAP)- and TUJ1-expressing cell populations in the SVZ. In addition, mice developed intermediate grade, infiltrating glioma with 100% penetrance. Tumors were consistently located in the amygdalohippocampal region and nearby cortex, often in association with the lateral ventricle and expanded SVZ. Tumor cells expressed markers associated with neural progenitor cells, including Olig2, Bmi-1, and PDGFR-alpha. These data suggest that infiltrating tumor cells may arise from NSC transformed by activation of oncogenic K-ras in vivo.
|Polycomb mediated epigenetic silencing and replication timing at the INK4a/ARF locus during senescence. |
Agherbi, H; Gaussmann-Wenger, A; Verthuy, C; Chasson, L; Serrano, M; Djabali, M
PloS one 4 e5622 2009
The INK4/ARF locus encodes three tumor suppressor genes (p15(Ink4b), Arf and p16(Ink4a)) and is frequently inactivated in a large number of human cancers. Mechanisms regulating INK4/ARF expression are not fully characterized.Here we show that in young proliferating embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) member EZH2 together with PRC1 members BMI1 and M33 are strongly expressed and localized at the INK4/ARF regulatory domain (RD) identified as a DNA replication origin. When cells enter senescence the binding to RD of both PRC1 and PRC2 complexes is lost leading to a decreased level of histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). This loss is accompanied with an increased expression of the histone demethylase Jmjd3 and with the recruitment of the MLL1 protein, and correlates with the expression of the Ink4a/Arf genes. Moreover, we show that the Polycomb protein BMI1 interacts with CDC6, an essential regulator of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Polycomb proteins and associated epigenetic marks are crucial for the control of the replication timing of the INK4a/ARF locus during senescence.We identified the replication licencing factor CDC6 as a new partner of the Polycomb group member BMI1. Our results suggest that in young cells Polycomb proteins are recruited to the INK4/ARF locus through CDC6 and the resulting silent locus is replicated during late S-phase. Upon senescence, Jmjd3 is overexpressed and the MLL1 protein is recruited to the locus provoking the dissociation of Polycomb from the INK4/ARF locus, its transcriptional activation and its replication during early S-phase. Together, these results provide a unified model that integrates replication, transcription and epigenetics at the INK4/ARF locus.Texto completo do artigo
|JDP2 (Jun Dimerization Protein 2)-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts are resistant to replicative senescence. |
Koji Nakade, Jianzhi Pan, Takahito Yamasaki, Takehide Murata, Bohdan Wasylyk, Kazunari K Yokoyama, Koji Nakade, Jianzhi Pan, Takahito Yamasaki, Takehide Murata, Bohdan Wasylyk, Kazunari K Yokoyama
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 10808-17 2009
JDP2 (Jun dimerization protein 2, an AP-1 transcription factor) is involved in the regulation of the differentiation and proliferation of cells. We report here that JDP2-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Jdp2(-/-) MEF) are resistant to replicative senescence. In the absence of JDP2, the level of expression of p16(Ink4a), which is known to rise as normal fibroblasts age, fell significantly when cells were cultured for more than 2 months. Conversely, the overexpression of JDP2 induced the expression of genes for p16(Ink4a) and p19(Arf). Moreover, at the promoter of the gene for p16(Ink4a) in Jdp2(-/-) MEF, the extent of methylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27), which is important for gene silencing, increased. Polycomb-repressive complexes (PRC-1 and PRC-2), which are responsible for histone methylation, bound efficiently to the promoter to repress the expression of the gene for p16(Ink4a). As a result, JDP2-deficient MEF became resistant to replicative senescence. Our results indicate that JDP2 is involved in the signaling pathway for senescence via epigenetic regulation of the expression of the gene for p16(Ink4a).Texto completo do artigo
|Genome-wide uH2A localization analysis highlights Bmi1-dependent deposition of the mark at repressed genes. |
Kallin, EM; Cao, R; Jothi, R; Xia, K; Cui, K; Zhao, K; Zhang, Y
PLoS genetics 5 e1000506 2009
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control organism development by regulating the expression of developmental genes. Transcriptional regulation by PcG proteins is achieved, at least partly, through the PRC2-mediated methylation on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27) and PRC1-mediated ubiquitylation on lysine 119 of histone H2A (uH2A). As an integral component of PRC1, Bmi1 has been demonstrated to be critical for H2A ubiquitylation. Although recent studies have revealed the genome-wide binding patterns of some of the PRC1 and PRC2 components, as well as the H3K27me3 mark, there have been no reports describing genome-wide localization of uH2A. Using the recently developed ChIP-Seq technology, here, we report genome-wide localization of the Bmi1-dependent uH2A mark in MEF cells. Gene promoter averaging analysis indicates a peak of uH2A just inside the transcription start site (TSS) of well-annotated genes. This peak is enriched at promoters containing the H3K27me3 mark and represents the least expressed genes in WT MEF cells. In addition, peak finding reveals regions of local uH2A enrichment throughout the mouse genome, including almost 700 gene promoters. Genes with promoter peaks of uH2A exhibit lower-level expression when compared to genes that do not contain promoter peaks of uH2A. Moreover, we demonstrate that genes with uH2A peaks have increased expression upon Bmi1 knockout. Importantly, local enrichment of uH2A is not limited to regions containing the H3K27me3 mark. We describe the enrichment of H2A ubiquitylation at high-density CpG promoters and provide evidence to suggest that DNA methylation may be linked to uH2A at these regions. Thus, our work not only reveals Bmi1-dependent H2A ubiquitylation, but also suggests that uH2A targeting in differentiated cells may employ a different mechanism from that in ES cells.Texto completo do artigo
|Polycomb-group complex 1 acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for Geminin to sustain hematopoietic stem cell activity. |
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 10396-401 2008
Polycomb-group (PcG) genes encode multimeric nuclear protein complexes, PcG complex 1 and 2. PcG complex 2 was proved to induce transcription repression and to further methylate histone H3 at lysine-27 (H3K27). Subsequently PcG complex 1 is recruited through recognition of methylated H3K27 and maintains the transcription silencing by mediating monoubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine-119. Genetic evidence demonstrated a crucial role for PcG complex 1 in stem cells, and Bmi1, a member of PcG complex 1, was shown to sustain adult stem cells through direct repression of the INK4a locus encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p16CKI, and p19ARF. The molecular functions of PcG complex 1, however, remain insufficiently understood. In our study, deficiency of Rae28, a member of PcG complex 1, was found to impair ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation of Geminin, an inhibitor of DNA replication licensing factor Cdt1, and to increase protein stability. The resultant accumulation of Geminin, based on evidence from retroviral transduction experiments, presumably eliminated hematopoietic stem cell activity in Rae28-deficient mice. Rae28 mediates recruiting Scmh1, which provides PcG complex 1 an interaction domain for Geminin. Moreover, PcG complex 1 acts as the E3 ubiquitin ligase for Geminin, as we demonstrated in vivo as well as in vitro by using purified recombinant PcG complex 1 reconstituted in insect cells. Our findings suggest that PcG complex 1 supports the activity of hematopoietic stem cells, in which high-level Geminin expression induces quiescence securing genome stability, by enhancing cycling capability and hematopoietic activity through direct regulation of Geminin.Texto completo do artigo
|BMI-1 promotes ewing sarcoma tumorigenicity independent of CDKN2A repression. |
Douglas, D; Hsu, JH; Hung, L; Cooper, A; Abdueva, D; van Doorninck, J; Peng, G; Shimada, H; Triche, TJ; Lawlor, ER
Cancer research 68 6507-15 2008
Deregulation of the polycomb group gene BMI-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. In this study, we have investigated if the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) expresses BMI-1 and whether it functions as an oncogene in this highly aggressive group of bone and soft tissue tumors. Our data show that BMI-1 is highly expressed by ESFT cells and that, although it does not significantly affect proliferation or survival, BMI-1 actively promotes anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Moreover, we find that BMI-1 promotes the tumorigenicity of both p16 wild-type and p16-null cell lines, demonstrating that the mechanism of BMI-1 oncogenic function in ESFT is, at least in part, independent of CDKN2A repression. Expression profiling studies of ESFT cells following BMI-1 knockdown reveal that BMI-1 regulates the expression of hundreds of downstream target genes including, in particular, genes involved in both differentiation and development as well as cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Gain and loss of function assays confirm that BMI-1 represses the expression of the adhesion-associated basement membrane protein nidogen 1. In addition, although BMI-1 promotes ESFT adhesion, nidogen 1 inhibits cellular adhesion in vitro. Together, these data support a pivotal role for BMI-1 ESFT pathogenesis and suggest that its oncogenic function in these tumors is in part mediated through modulation of adhesion pathways.
|Expression of VEGF-A/C, VEGF-R2, PDGF-alpha/beta, c-kit, EGFR, Her-2/Neu, Mcl-1 and Bmi-1 in Merkel cell carcinoma. |
Brunner, M; Thurnher, D; Pammer, J; Geleff, S; Heiduschka, G; Reinisch, CM; Petzelbauer, P; Erovic, BM
Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 21 876-84 2008
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare but very aggressive tumor of the skin. With current treatment options, Merkel cell carcinoma is associated with a high incidence of recurrence and metastasis. Targeted anticancer therapies such as receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antisense oligonucleotides have been found to be a promising new type of treatment for various types of cancer. To evaluate whether the use of targeted therapies is a possible treatment option in Merkel cell carcinoma, we determined the expression of the target molecules c-kit, Mcl-1, Bmi-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-receptor 2 (VEGF-R2), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-alpha, PDGF-beta, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Her-2/Neu in a tissue microarray of 32 samples of 29 patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. C-kit-positive samples were analyzed for mutations in exons 9 and 11. The tissue microarray was stained immunohistochemically with antibodies directed against the above-mentioned proteins, and an immunoreactivity score was calculated. DNA was extracted from c-kit-positive samples and was analyzed for exon 9 and 11 mutations using direct DNA sequencing. We found that c-kit (7%), Mcl-1 (88%), Bmi-1 (78%), VEGF-A (91%), VEGF-C (75%) VEGF-R2 (88%), PDGF-alpha (72%) and PDGF-beta (13%) were expressed in Merkel cell carcinomas. All samples showed a lack of EGFR and Her-2/Neu expression. Analysis of c-kit revealed no mutations. As VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-R2, PDGFs and c-kit are targets of new cytostatic agents used in the treatment of other cancers, inhibition by a multitargeted chemotherapy could be a very promising treatment option. High expression of Bmi-1 and Mcl-1 warrants further studies on the use of antisense oligonucleotides in Merkel cell carcinoma.
|Polycomb group protein-associated chromatin is reproduced in post-mitotic G1 phase and is required for S phase progression. |
Aoto, T; Saitoh, N; Sakamoto, Y; Watanabe, S; Nakao, M
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 18905-15 2008
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form two distinct complexes, PRC1 and PRC2, to regulate developmental target genes by maintaining the epigenetic state in cells. PRC2 methylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27), and PRC1 then recognizes methyl-H3K27 to form repressive chromatin. However, it remains unknown how PcG proteins maintain stable and plastic chromatin during cell division. Here we report that PcG-associated chromatin is reproduced in the G(1) phase in post-mitotic cells and is required for subsequent S phase progression. In dividing cells, H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27Me(3)) marked mitotic chromosome arms where PRC2 (Suz12 and Ezh2) co-existed, whereas PRC1 (Bmi1 and Pc2) appeared in distinct foci in the pericentromeric regions. As each PRC complex was increasingly assembled from mitosis to G(1) phase, PRC1 formed H3K27Me(3)-based chromatin intensively during middle and late G(1) phase; this chromatin was highly resistant to in situ nuclease treatment. Thus, the transition from mitosis to G(1) phase is crucial for PcG-mediated chromatin inheritance. Knockdown of Suz12 markedly reduced the amount of H3K27Me(3) on mitotic chromosomes, and as a consequence, PRC1 foci were not fully transmitted to post-mitotic daughter cells. S phase progression was markedly delayed in these Suz12-knockdown cells. The fact that PcG-associated chromatin is reproduced during post-mitotic G(1) phase suggests the possibility that PcG proteins enable their target chromatin to be remodeled in response to stimuli in the G(1) phase.
|Bmi-1 is a novel molecular marker of nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression and immortalizes primary human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells |
Song, Li-Bing, et al
Cancer Res, 66:6225-32 (2006) 2006
|Reduced c-Myc signaling triggers telomere-independent senescence by regulating Bmi-1 and p16(INK4a). |
Guney, I; Wu, S; Sedivy, JM
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 3645-50 2006
Increased mitogenic signaling by positive effectors such as Ras or Myc can trigger senescence in normal cells, a response believed to function as a tumor-suppressive mechanism. We report here the existence of a checkpoint that monitors hypoproliferative signaling imbalances. Normal human fibroblasts with one copy of the c-myc gene inactivated by targeted homologous recombination switched with an increased frequency to a telomere-independent senescent state mediated by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a). p16(INK4a) expression was regulated by the Polycomb group repressor Bmi-1, which we show is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. The Myc-Bmi circuit provides a mechanism for the conversion of environmental inputs that converge on c-Myc into discrete cell-fate decisions coupled to cell-cycle recruitment. A mechanism for limiting the proliferation of damaged or otherwise physiologically compromised cells would be expected to have important consequences on the generation of replicatively senescent cells during organismal aging.Texto completo do artigo
|Histone modifications silence the GATA transcription factor genes in ovarian cancer. |
Caslini, C; Capo-chichi, CD; Roland, IH; Nicolas, E; Yeung, AT; Xu, XX
Oncogene 25 5446-61 2006
Altered expression of GATA factors was found and proposed as the underlying mechanism for dedifferentiation in ovarian carcinogenesis. In particular, GATA6 is lost or excluded from the nucleus in 85% of ovarian tumors and GATA4 expression is absent in majority of ovarian cancer cell lines. Here, we evaluated their DNA and histone epigenetic modifications in five ovarian epithelial and carcinoma cell lines (human 'immortalized' ovarian surface epithelium (HIO)-117, HIO-114, A2780, SKOV3 and ES2). GATA4 and GATA6 gene silencing was found to correlate with hypoacetylation of histones H3 and H4 and loss of histone H3/lysine K4 tri-methylation at their promoters in all lines. Conversely, histone H3/lysine K9 di-methylation and HP1gamma association were not observed, excluding reorganization of GATA genes into heterochromatic structures. The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, but not the DNA methylation inhibitor 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, re-established the expression of GATA4 and/or GATA6 in A2780 and HIO-114 cells, correlating with increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation, histone H3 lysine K4 methylation and DNase I sensitivity at the promoters. Therefore, altered histone modification of the promoter loci is one mechanism responsible for the silencing of GATA transcription factors and the subsequent loss of a target gene, the tumor suppressor Disabled-2, in ovarian carcinogenesis.
|Chromatin-association of the Polycomb group protein BMI1 is cell cycle-regulated and correlates with its phosphorylation status |
Voncken, J. W., et al
J Cell Sci, 112 ( Pt 24):4627-39 (1999) 1999
|Immunoblotting (Western), Immunoprecipitation||10574711|
|Identification of Bmi1-interacting proteins as constituents of a multimeric mammalian polycomb complex |
Alkema, M. J., et al
Genes Dev, 11:226-40 (1997) 1997