|The co-occurrence of myocardial dysfunction and peripheral insensate neuropathy in a streptozotocin-induced rat model of diabetes.|
Marangoni, MN; Brady, ST; Chowdhury, SA; Piano, MR
Cardiomyopathy and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN), including sensory and autonomic dysfunction, often co-occur in diabetic mellitus (DM) patients. However, the temporal relationship and progression between these two complications has not been investigated. Using a streptozotocin DM animal model that develops insensate neuropathy, our aim was to examine in parallel the development of DSPN and DM-associated changes in cardiac structure and function as well as potential mechanisms, such as autonomic dysfunction, evaluated by changes in urinary and myocardial norepinephrine content and myocardial neuronal markers.Sensory neuropathy was measured by behavioral tests using Von Frey filaments and Hargreaves methods. Echocardiography was used to evaluate myocardial structure and function. Autonomic function was evaluated by measuring urinary and myocardial norepinephrine (NE) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to measure the myocardial neuronal markers, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and general neuronal protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5).The DM group developed tactile and thermal insensate neuropathy 4-5 weeks after DM onset. Cardiovascular changes were found between 4 and 12 weeks after DM onset and included bradycardia, diastolic and systolic dysfunction and cardiac dilation. There was a 2.5-fold reduction in myocardial NE levels and a 5-fold increase in urinary NE levels in the DM group. Finally, there was a 2.3-fold increase in myocardial CGRP levels in the DM group and no change in PGP9.5 levels.Cardiovascular structural and functional changes developed early in the course of DM and in combination with insensate neuropathy. In parallel, signs of cardiac autonomic dysfunction were also found and included decreased myocardial NE levels and altered CGRP levels. These results may indicate the need for early cardiovascular evaluation in DM patients with insensate neuropathy.
|A virus-like particle-based anti-nerve growth factor vaccine reduces inflammatory hyperalgesia: potential long-term therapy for chronic pain.|
Röhn, TA; Ralvenius, WT; Paul, J; Borter, P; Hernandez, M; Witschi, R; Grest, P; Zeilhofer, HU; Bachmann, MF; Jennings, GT
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
Chronic pain resulting from inflammatory and neuropathic disorders causes considerable economic and social burden. For a substantial proportion of patients, conventional drug treatments do not provide adequate pain relief. Consequently, novel approaches to pain management, involving alternative targets and new therapeutic modalities compatible with chronic use, are being sought. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a major mediator of chronic pain. Clinical testing of NGF antagonists is ongoing, and clinical proof of concept has been established with a neutralizing mAb. Active immunization, with the goal of inducing therapeutically effective neutralizing autoreactive Abs, is recognized as a potential treatment option for chronic diseases. We have sought to determine if such a strategy could be applied to chronic pain by targeting NGF with a virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine. A vaccine comprising recombinant murine NGF conjugated to VLPs from the bacteriophage Qβ (NGFQβ) was produced. Immunization of mice with NGFQβ induced anti-NGF-specific IgG Abs capable of neutralizing NGF. Titers could be sustained over 1 y by periodic immunization but declined in the absence of boosting. Vaccination with NGFQβ substantially reduced hyperalgesia in collagen-induced arthritis or postinjection of zymosan A, two models of inflammatory pain. Long-term NGFQβ immunization did not change sensory or sympathetic innervation patterns or induce cholinergic deficits in the forebrain, nor did it interfere with blood-brain barrier integrity. Thus, autovaccination targeting NGF using a VLP-based approach may represent a novel modality for the treatment of chronic pain.
|Expression of G protein-coupled receptor 30 in the spinal somatosensory system.|
Keiko Takanami,Hirotaka Sakamoto,Ken-Ichi Matsuda,Koji Hosokawa,Mayumi Nishi,Eric R Prossnitz,Mitsuhiro Kawata
Estrogens were originally identified as the primary sex steroid hormones in females and regulators of reproductive function and sexual behavior, but it has long been suggested that estrogens also have local effects on the somatosensory system at the spinal cord level. It is well known that the effects of estrogens are mediated by nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) through genomic action, but recently a membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptor, GPR30, was identified as a non-genomic estrogen receptor. In this study we investigated the presence and localization of GPR30 in the rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in comparison with ERalpha. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we showed the expression of GPR30 in DRG neurons in male and female rats at mRNA and protein levels without specific sexual difference. A dense accumulation of GPR30 immunoreactivity was observed in the outer layer of the spinal dorsal horn, and selective spinal dorsal rhizotomy revealed that GPR30 was transported from the DRG to terminals located in the spinal dorsal horn. GPR30 expression was downregulated in DRG neurons of ovariectomized female rats. The spinal somatosensory system might be modulated by estradiol via putative membrane ER, GPR30-mediated mechanism.