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|H, M, R||ELISA, ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Ascites mouse monoclonal IgG1k fluid containing no preservatives|
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Referências | 24 Disponível | Ver todas as referências
|Visão geral das referências||Aplicação||Pub Med ID|
|Conserved hippocampal cellular pathophysiology but distinct behavioural deficits in a new rat model of FXS. |
Till, SM; Asiminas, A; Jackson, AD; Katsanevaki, D; Barnes, SA; Osterweil, EK; Bear, MF; Chattarji, S; Wood, ER; Wyllie, DJ; Kind, PC
Human molecular genetics 24 5977-84 2015
Recent advances in techniques for manipulating genomes have allowed the generation of transgenic animals other than mice. These new models enable cross-mammalian comparison of neurological disease from core cellular pathophysiology to circuit and behavioural endophenotypes. Moreover they will enable us to directly test whether common cellular dysfunction or behavioural outcomes of a genetic mutation are more conserved across species. Using a new rat model of Fragile X Syndrome, we report that Fmr1 knockout (KO) rats exhibit elevated basal protein synthesis and an increase in mGluR-dependent long-term depression in CA1 of the hippocampus that is independent of new protein synthesis. These defects in plasticity are accompanied by an increase in dendritic spine density selectively in apical dendrites and subtle changes in dendritic spine morphology of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Behaviourally, Fmr1 KO rats show deficits in hippocampal-dependent, but not hippocampal-independent, forms of associative recognition memory indicating that the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) causes defects in episodic-like memory. In contrast to previous reports from mice, Fmr1 KO rats show no deficits in spatial reference memory reversal learning. One-trial spatial learning in a delayed matching to place water maze task was also not affected by the loss of FMRP in rats. This is the first evidence for conservation across mammalian species of cellular and physiological hippocampal phenotypes associated with the loss of FMRP. Furthermore, while key cellular phenotypes are conserved they manifest in distinct behavioural dysfunction. Finally, our data reveal novel information about the selective role of FMRP in hippocampus-dependent associative memory.
|A novel fragile X syndrome mutation reveals a conserved role for the carboxy-terminus in FMRP localization and function. |
Okray, Z; de Esch, CE; Van Esch, H; Devriendt, K; Claeys, A; Yan, J; Verbeeck, J; Froyen, G; Willemsen, R; de Vrij, FM; Hassan, BA
EMBO molecular medicine 7 423-37 2015
Loss of function of the FMR1 gene leads to fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of intellectual disability. The loss of FMR1 function is usually caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 promoter leading to expansion and subsequent methylation of a CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region. Very few coding sequence variations have been experimentally characterized and shown to be causal to the disease. Here, we describe a novel FMR1 mutation and reveal an unexpected nuclear export function for the C-terminus of FMRP. We screened a cohort of patients with typical FXS symptoms who tested negative for CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 locus. In one patient, we identified a guanine insertion in FMR1 exon 15. This mutation alters the open reading frame creating a short novel C-terminal sequence, followed by a stop codon. We find that this novel peptide encodes a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) targeting the patient FMRP to the nucleolus in human cells. We also reveal an evolutionarily conserved nuclear export function associated with the endogenous C-terminus of FMRP. In vivo analyses in Drosophila demonstrate that a patient-mimetic mutation alters the localization and function of Dfmrp in neurons, leading to neomorphic neuronal phenotypes.
|CNS expression of murine fragile X protein (FMRP) as a function of CGG-repeat size. |
Ludwig, AL; Espinal, GM; Pretto, DI; Jamal, AL; Arque, G; Tassone, F; Berman, RF; Hagerman, PJ
Human molecular genetics 23 3228-38 2014
Large expansions of a CGG-repeat element (greater than 200 repeats; full mutation) in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene cause fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading single-gene form of intellectual disability and of autism spectrum disorder. Smaller expansions (55-200 CGG repeats; premutation) result in the neurodegenerative disorder, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Whereas FXS is caused by gene silencing and insufficient FMR1 protein (FMRP), FXTAS is thought to be caused by 'toxicity' of expanded-CGG-repeat mRNA. However, as FMRP expression levels decrease with increasing CGG-repeat length, lowered protein may contribute to premutation-associated clinical involvement. To address this issue, we measured brain Fmr1 mRNA and FMRP levels as a function of CGG-repeat length in a congenic (CGG-repeat knock-in) mouse model using 57 wild-type and 97 expanded-CGG-repeat mice carrying up to ~250 CGG repeats. While Fmr1 message levels increased with repeat length, FMRP levels trended downward over the same range, subject to significant inter-subject variation. Human comparisons of protein levels in the frontal cortex of 7 normal and 17 FXTAS individuals revealed that the mild FMRP decrease in mice mirrored the more limited data for FMRP expression in the human samples. In addition, FMRP expression levels varied in a subset of mice across the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus, as well as at different ages. These results provide a foundation for understanding both the CGG-repeat-dependence of FMRP expression and for interpreting clinical phenotypes in premutation carriers in terms of the balance between elevated mRNA and lowered FMRP expression levels.
|FMRP S499 is phosphorylated independent of mTORC1-S6K1 activity. |
Bartley, CM; O'Keefe, RA; Bordey, A
PloS one 9 e96956 2014
Hyperactive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is associated with cognitive deficits in several neurological disorders including tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The phosphorylation of the mRNA-binding protein FMRP reportedly depends on mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity via p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). Because this phosphorylation is thought to regulate the translation of messages important for synaptic plasticity, we explored whether FMRP phosphorylation of the S6K1-dependent residue (S499) is altered in TSC and states of dysregulated TSC-mTORC1 signaling. Surprisingly, we found that FMRP S499 phosphorylation was unchanged in heterozygous and conditional Tsc1 knockout mice despite significantly elevated mTORC1-S6K1 activity. Neither up- nor down-regulation of the mTORC1-S6K1 axis in vivo or in vitro had any effect on phospho-FMRP S499 levels. In addition, FMRP S499 phosphorylation was unaltered in S6K1-knockout mice. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that FMRP S499 phosphorylation is independent of mTORC1-S6K1 activity and is not altered in TSC.
|Fragile X mental retardation protein controls synaptic vesicle exocytosis by modulating N-type calcium channel density. |
Ferron, L; Nieto-Rostro, M; Cassidy, JS; Dolphin, AC
Nature communications 5 3628 2014
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable form of mental retardation, is characterized by synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic transmission depends critically on presynaptic calcium entry via voltage-gated calcium (Ca(V)) channels. Here we show that the functional expression of neuronal N-type Ca(V) channels (Ca(V)2.2) is regulated by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). We find that FMRP knockdown in dorsal root ganglion neurons increases Ca(V) channel density in somata and in presynaptic terminals. We then show that FMRP controls Ca(V)2.2 surface expression by targeting the channels to the proteasome for degradation. The interaction between FMRP and Ca(V)2.2 occurs between the carboxy-terminal domain of FMRP and domains of Ca(V)2.2 known to interact with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Finally, we show that FMRP controls synaptic exocytosis via Ca(V)2.2 channels. Our data indicate that FMRP is a potent regulator of presynaptic activity, and its loss is likely to contribute to synaptic dysfunction in FXS.
|A quantitative homogeneous assay for fragile X mental retardation 1 protein. |
Schutzius, G; Bleckmann, D; Kapps-Fouthier, S; di Giorgio, F; Gerhartz, B; Weiss, A
Journal of neurodevelopmental disorders 5 8 2013
Hypermethylation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene FMR1 results in decreased expression of FMR1 protein FMRP, which is the underlying cause of Fragile X syndrome - an incurable neurological disorder characterized by mental retardation, anxiety, epileptic episodes and autism. Disease-modifying therapies for Fragile X syndrome are thus aimed at treatments that increase the FMRP expression levels in the brain. We describe the development and characterization of two assays for simple and quantitative detection of FMRP protein.Antibodies coupled to fluorophores that can be employed for time-resolved Förster's resonance energy transfer were used for the development of homogeneous, one-step immunodetection. Purified recombinant human FMRP and patient cells were used as control samples for assay development.The assays require small sample amounts, display high stability and reproducibility and can be used to quantify endogenous FMRP in human fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Application of the assays to FXS patient cells showed that the methods can be used both for the characterization of clinical FXS patient samples as well as primary readouts in drug-discovery screens aimed at increasing endogenous FMRP levels in human cells.This study provides novel quantitative detection methods for FMRP in FXS patient cells. Importantly, due to the simplicity of the assay protocol, the method is suited to be used in screening applications to identify compounds or genetic interventions that result in increased FMRP levels in human cells.
|Top3β is an RNA topoisomerase that works with fragile X syndrome protein to promote synapse formation. |
Xu, D; Shen, W; Guo, R; Xue, Y; Peng, W; Sima, J; Yang, J; Sharov, A; Srikantan, S; Yang, J; Fox, D; Qian, Y; Martindale, JL; Piao, Y; Machamer, J; Joshi, SR; Mohanty, S; Shaw, AC; Lloyd, TE; Brown, GW; Ko, MS; Gorospe, M; Zou, S; Wang, W
Nature neuroscience 16 1238-47 2013
Topoisomerases are crucial for solving DNA topological problems, but they have not been linked to RNA metabolism. Here we show that human topoisomerase 3β (Top3β) is an RNA topoisomerase that biochemically and genetically interacts with FMRP, a protein that is deficient in fragile X syndrome and is known to regulate the translation of mRNAs that are important for neuronal function, abnormalities of which are linked to autism. Notably, the FMRP-Top3β interaction is abolished by a disease-associated mutation of FMRP, suggesting that Top3β may contribute to the pathogenesis of mental disorders. Top3β binds multiple mRNAs encoded by genes with neuronal functions linked to schizophrenia and autism. Expression of one such gene, that encoding protein tyrosine kinase 2 (ptk2, also known as focal adhesion kinase or FAK), is reduced in the neuromuscular junctions of Top3β mutant flies. Synapse formation is defective in Top3β mutant flies and mice, as well as in FMRP mutant flies and mice. Our findings suggest that Top3β acts as an RNA topoisomerase and works with FMRP to promote the expression of mRNAs that are crucial for neurodevelopment and mental health.
|mRNA and protein expression for novel GABAA receptors θ and ρ2 are altered in schizophrenia and mood disorders; relevance to FMRP-mGluR5 signaling pathway. |
Fatemi, SH; Folsom, TD; Rooney, RJ; Thuras, PD
Translational psychiatry 3 e271 2013
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that targets ∼5% of all mRNAs expressed in the brain. Previous work by our laboratory demonstrated significantly lower protein levels for FMRP in lateral cerebella of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression when compared with controls. Absence of FMRP expression in animal models of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has been shown to reduce expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor mRNAs. Previous work by our laboratory has found reduced expression of FMRP, as well as multiple GABAA and GABAB receptor subunits in subjects with autism. Less is known about levels for GABAA subunit protein expression in brains of subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorders. In the current study, we have expanded our previous studies to examine the protein and mRNA expression of two novel GABAA receptors, theta (GABRθ) and rho 2 (GABRρ2) as well as FMRP, and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in lateral cerebella of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and healthy controls, and in superior frontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9 (BA9)) of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy controls. We observed multiple statistically significant mRNA and protein changes in levels of GABRθ, GABRρ2, mGluR5 and FMRP molecules including concordant reductions in mRNA and proteins for GABRθ and mGluR5 in lateral cerebella of subjects with schizophrenia; for increased mRNA and protein for GABRρ2 in lateral cerebella of subjects with bipolar disorder; and for reduced mRNA and protein for mGluR5 in BA9 of subjects with bipolar disorder. There were no significant effects of confounds on any of the results.
|Inhibition of GSK3β improves hippocampus-dependent learning and rescues neurogenesis in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. |
Guo, W; Murthy, AC; Zhang, L; Johnson, EB; Schaller, EG; Allan, AM; Zhao, X
Human molecular genetics 21 681-91 2012
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common inherited form of intellectual disability with learning deficits, results from a loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Despite extensive research, treatment options for FXS remain limited. Since FMRP is known to play an important role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampus-dependent learning and FMRP regulates the adult neural stem cell fate through the translational regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), we investigated the effects of a GSK3β inhibitor, SB216763, on Fmr1 knockout mice (Fmr1 KO). We found that the inhibition of GSK3β could reverse the hippocampus-dependent learning deficits and rescue adult hippocampal neurogenesis at multiple stages in Fmr1 KO mice. Our results point to GSK3β inhibition as a potential treatment for the learning deficits seen in FXS.
|Efficient detection of RNA-protein interactions using tethered RNAs. |
Iioka, H; Loiselle, D; Haystead, TA; Macara, IG
Nucleic acids research 39 e53 2011
The diverse localization of transcripts in cells suggests that there are many specific RNA-protein interactions that have yet to be identified. Progress has been limited, however, by the lack of a robust method to detect and isolate the RNA-binding proteins. Here we describe the use of an RNA aptamer, scaffolded to a tRNA, to create an affinity matrix that efficiently pulls down transcript-specific RNA-binding proteins from cell lysates. The addition of the tRNA scaffold to a Streptavidin aptamer (tRSA) increased binding efficiency by ∼ 10-fold. The tRSA system with an attached G-quartet sequence also could efficiently and specifically capture endogenous Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), which recognizes this RNA sequence. An alternative method, using biotinylated RNA, captured FMRP less efficiently than did our tRSA method. Finally we demonstrate the identification of novel RNA-binding proteins that interact with intron2 or 3'-UTR of the polarity protein Crumbs3 transcript. Proteins captured by these RNA sequences attached to the tRNA scaffold were identified by mass spectrometry. GFP-tagged versions of these proteins also showed specific interaction with either the Crb3 intron2 or 3'-UTR. Our tRSA technique should find wide application in mapping the RNA-protein interactome.
|Epigenetic characterization of the FMR1 gene and aberrant neurodevelopment in human induced pluripotent stem cell models of fragile X syndrome. |
Sheridan, SD; Theriault, KM; Reis, SA; Zhou, F; Madison, JM; Daheron, L; Loring, JF; Haggarty, SJ
PloS one 6 e26203 2011
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability. In addition to cognitive deficits, FXS patients exhibit hyperactivity, attention deficits, social difficulties, anxiety, and other autistic-like behaviors. FXS is caused by an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the Fragile X Mental Retardation (FMR1) gene leading to epigenetic silencing and loss of expression of the Fragile X Mental Retardation protein (FMRP). Despite the known relationship between FMR1 CGG repeat expansion and FMR1 silencing, the epigenetic modifications observed at the FMR1 locus, and the consequences of the loss of FMRP on human neurodevelopment and neuronal function remain poorly understood. To address these limitations, we report on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from multiple patients with FXS and the characterization of their differentiation into post-mitotic neurons and glia. We show that clones from reprogrammed FXS patient fibroblast lines exhibit variation with respect to the predominant CGG-repeat length in the FMR1 gene. In two cases, iPSC clones contained predominant CGG-repeat lengths shorter than measured in corresponding input population of fibroblasts. In another instance, reprogramming a mosaic patient having both normal and pre-mutation length CGG repeats resulted in genetically matched iPSC clonal lines differing in FMR1 promoter CpG methylation and FMRP expression. Using this panel of patient-specific, FXS iPSC models, we demonstrate aberrant neuronal differentiation from FXS iPSCs that is directly correlated with epigenetic modification of the FMR1 gene and a loss of FMRP expression. Overall, these findings provide evidence for a key role for FMRP early in human neurodevelopment prior to synaptogenesis and have implications for modeling of FXS using iPSC technology. By revealing disease-associated cellular phenotypes in human neurons, these iPSC models will aid in the discovery of novel therapeutics for FXS and other autism-spectrum disorders sharing common pathophysiology.
|A mouse model of the human Fragile X syndrome I304N mutation. |
Zang, JB; Nosyreva, ED; Spencer, CM; Volk, LJ; Musunuru, K; Zhong, R; Stone, EF; Yuva-Paylor, LA; Huber, KM; Paylor, R; Darnell, JC; Darnell, RB
PLoS genetics 5 e1000758 2009
The mental retardation, autistic features, and behavioral abnormalities characteristic of the Fragile X mental retardation syndrome result from the loss of function of the RNA-binding protein FMRP. The disease is usually caused by a triplet repeat expansion in the 5'UTR of the FMR1 gene. This leads to loss of function through transcriptional gene silencing, pointing to a key function for FMRP, but precluding genetic identification of critical activities within the protein. Moreover, antisense transcripts (FMR4, ASFMR1) in the same locus have been reported to be silenced by the repeat expansion. Missense mutations offer one means of confirming a central role for FMRP in the disease, but to date, only a single such patient has been described. This patient harbors an isoleucine to asparagine mutation (I304N) in the second FMRP KH-type RNA-binding domain, however, this single case report was complicated because the patient harbored a superimposed familial liver disease. To address these issues, we have generated a new Fragile X Syndrome mouse model in which the endogenous Fmr1 gene harbors the I304N mutation. These mice phenocopy the symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome in the existing Fmr1-null mouse, as assessed by testicular size, behavioral phenotyping, and electrophysiological assays of synaptic plasticity. I304N FMRP retains some functions, but has specifically lost RNA binding and polyribosome association; moreover, levels of the mutant protein are markedly reduced in the brain specifically at a time when synapses are forming postnatally. These data suggest that loss of FMRP function, particularly in KH2-mediated RNA binding and in synaptic plasticity, play critical roles in pathogenesis of the Fragile X Syndrome and establish a new model for studying the disorder.
|SIRT1 inhibition alleviates gene silencing in Fragile X mental retardation syndrome. |
Biacsi, R; Kumari, D; Usdin, K
PLoS genetics 4 e1000017 2008
Expansion of the CGG.CCG-repeat tract in the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene to greater than 200 repeats leads to heterochromatinization of the promoter and gene silencing. This results in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable form of mental retardation. The mechanism of gene silencing is unknown. We report here that a Class III histone deacetylase, SIRT1, plays an important role in this silencing process and show that the inhibition of this enzyme produces significant gene reactivation. This contrasts with the much smaller effect of inhibitors like trichostatin A (TSA) that inhibit Class I, II and IV histone deacetylases. Reactivation of silenced FMR1 alleles was accompanied by an increase in histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation as well as an increase in the amount of histone H4 that is acetylated at lysine 16 (H4K16) by the histone acetyltransferase, hMOF. DNA methylation, on the other hand, is unaffected. We also demonstrate that deacetylation of H4K16 is a key downstream consequence of DNA methylation. However, since DNA methylation inhibitors require DNA replication in order to be effective, SIRT1 inhibitors may be more useful for FMR1 gene reactivation in post-mitotic cells like neurons where the effect of the gene silencing is most obvious.Texto completo do artigo
|A new function for the fragile X mental retardation protein in regulation of PSD-95 mRNA stability. |
Zalfa, F; Eleuteri, B; Dickson, KS; Mercaldo, V; De Rubeis, S; di Penta, A; Tabolacci, E; Chiurazzi, P; Neri, G; Grant, SG; Bagni, C
Nature neuroscience 10 578-87 2007
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) results from the loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein that regulates a variety of cytoplasmic mRNAs. FMRP regulates mRNA translation and may be important in mRNA localization to dendrites. We report a third cytoplasmic regulatory function for FMRP: control of mRNA stability. In mice, we found that FMRP binds, in vivo, the mRNA encoding PSD-95, a key molecule that regulates neuronal synaptic signaling and learning. This interaction occurs through the 3' untranslated region of the PSD-95 (also known as Dlg4) mRNA, increasing message stability. Moreover, stabilization is further increased by mGluR activation. Although we also found that the PSD-95 mRNA is synaptically localized in vivo, localization occurs independently of FMRP. Through our functional analysis of this FMRP target we provide evidence that dysregulation of mRNA stability may contribute to the cognitive impairments in individuals with FXS.Texto completo do artigo
|Developmental study of fragile X syndrome using human embryonic stem cells derived from preimplantation genetically diagnosed embryos. |
Eiges, R; Urbach, A; Malcov, M; Frumkin, T; Schwartz, T; Amit, A; Yaron, Y; Eden, A; Yanuka, O; Benvenisty, N; Ben-Yosef, D
Cell stem cell 1 568-77 2007
We report on the establishment of a human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line from a preimplantation fragile X-affected embryo and demonstrate its value as an appropriate model to study developmentally regulated events that are involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Fragile X syndrome results from FMR1 gene inactivation due to a CGG expansion at the 5'UTR region of the gene. Early events in FMR1 silencing have not been fully characterized due to the lack of appropriate animal or cellular models. Here we show that, despite the presence of a full mutation, affected undifferentiated HESCs express FMR1 and are DNA unmethylated. However, epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation and histone modification occurs upon differentiation. Our unique cell system allows the dissection of the sequence by which these epigenetic changes are acquired and illustrates the importance of HESCs in unraveling developmentally regulated mechanisms associated with human genetic disorders.
|The RNA-binding protein fragile X-related 1 regulates somite formation in Xenopus laevis. |
Huot, ME; Bisson, N; Davidovic, L; Mazroui, R; Labelle, Y; Moss, T; Khandjian, EW
Molecular biology of the cell 16 4350-61 2005
Fragile X-related 1 protein (FXR1P) is a member of a small family of RNA-binding proteins that includes the Fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMR1P) and the Fragile X-related 2 protein (FXR2P). These proteins are thought to transport mRNA and to control their translation. While FMR1P is highly expressed in neurons, substantial levels of FXR1P are found in striated muscles and heart, which are devoid of FMRP and FXR2P. However, little is known about the functions of FXR1P. We have isolated cDNAs for Xenopus Fxr1 and found that two specific splice variants are conserved in evolution. Knockdown of xFxr1p in Xenopus had highly muscle-specific effects, normal MyoD expression being disrupted, somitic myotomal cell rotation and segmentation being inhibited, and dermatome formation being abnormal. Consistent with the absence of the long muscle-specific xFxr1p isoform during early somite formation, these effects could be rescued by both the long and short mRNA variants. Microarray analyses showed that xFxr1p depletion affected the expression of 129 known genes of which 50% were implicated in muscle and nervous system formation. These studies shed significant new light on Fxr1p function(s).
|Isolation of retinal progenitor cells from post-mortem human tissue and comparison with autologous brain progenitors. |
Henry Klassen, Boback Ziaeian, Ivan I Kirov, Michael J Young, Philip H Schwartz
Journal of neuroscience research 77 334-43 2004
The goal of the present study was threefold: to determine whether viable human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) could be obtained from cadaveric retinal tissue, to evaluate marker expression by these cells, and to compare hRPCs to human brain progenitor cells (hBPCs). Retinas were dissected from post-mortem premature infants, enzymatically dissociated, and grown in the presence of epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. The cells grew as suspended spheres or adherent monolayers, depending on culture conditions. Expanded populations were banked or harvested for analysis by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry. hBPCs derived from forebrain specimens from the same donors were grown and used for RT-PCR. Post-mortem human retinal specimens yielded viable cultures that grew to confluence repeatedly, although not beyond 3 months. Cultured hRPCs expressed a range of markers consistent with CNS progenitor cells, including nestin, vimentin, Sox2, Ki-67, GD2 ganglioside, and CD15 (Lewis X), as well as the tetraspanins CD9 and CD81, CD95 (Fas), and MHC class I antigens. No MHC class II expression was detected. hRPCs, but not hBPCs, expressed Dach1, Pax6, Six3, Six6, and recoverin. Minority subpopulations of hRPCs and hBPCs expressed doublecortin, beta-III tubulin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which is consistent with increased lineage restriction in subsets of cultured cells. Viable progenitor cells can be cultured from the post-mortem retina of premature infants and exhibit a gene expression profile consistent with immature neuroepithelial cells. hRPCs can be distinguished from hBPC cultures by the expression of retinal specification genes and recoverin.
|Fragile X mental retardation protein targets G quartet mRNAs important for neuronal function. |
J C Darnell, K B Jensen, P Jin, V Brown, S T Warren, R B Darnell
Cell 107 489-99 2001
Loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) function causes the fragile X mental retardation syndrome. FMRP harbors three RNA binding domains, associates with polysomes, and is thought to regulate mRNA translation and/or localization, but the RNAs to which it binds are unknown. We have used RNA selection to demonstrate that the FMRP RGG box binds intramolecular G quartets. This data allowed us to identify mRNAs encoding proteins involved in synaptic or developmental neurobiology that harbor FMRP binding elements. The majority of these mRNAs have an altered polysome association in fragile X patient cells. These data demonstrate that G quartets serve as physiologically relevant targets for FMRP and identify mRNAs whose dysregulation may underlie human mental retardation.
|Protein N-arginine methylation in subcellular fractions of lymphoblastoid cells. |
Lin, C H, et al.
J. Biochem., 128: 493-8 (2000) 2000
Arginine methylation in RNA-binding proteins containing arginine- and glycine-rich RGG motifs is catalyzed by specific protein arginine N-methyltransferase in cells. We previously showed that lymphoblastoid cells grown in the presence of an indirect methyltransferase inhibitor, adenosine dialdehyde (AdOx), accumulated high level of hypomethylated protein substrates for the endogenous protein methyltransferases or recombinant yeast arginine methyltransferase [Li, C. et al. (1998) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 351, 53-59]. In this study we fractionated the lymphoblastoid cells to locate the methyltransferases and the substrates in cells. Different sets of hypomethylated methyl-accepting polypeptides with wide range of molecular masses were present in cytosolic, ribosomal, and nucleus fractions. The methylated amino acid residues of the methyl-accepting proteins in these fractions were determined. In all three fractions, dimethylarginine was the most abundant methylated amino acid. The protein-arginine methyltransferase activities in the three fractions were analyzed using recombinant fibrillarin (a nucleolar RGG protein) as the methyl-accepting substrate. Fibrillarin methylation was strongest in the presence of the cytosolic fraction, followed by the ribosomal and then the nucleus fractions. The results demonstrated that protein-arginine methyltransferases as well as their methyl-accepting substrates were widely distributed in different subcellular fractions of lymphoblastoid cells.
|RNAs that interact with the fragile X syndrome RNA binding protein FMRP. |
Y J Sung, J Conti, J R Currie, W T Brown, R B Denman, Y J Sung, J Conti, J R Currie, W T Brown, R B Denman
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 275 973-80 2000
The Fragile X protein FMRP is an RNA binding protein whose targets are not well known; yet, these RNAs may play an integral role in the disease's etiology. Using a biotinylated-FMRP affinity resin, we isolated RNAs from the parietal cortex of a normal adult that bound FMRP. These RNAs were amplified by differential display (DDRT-PCR) and cloned and their identities determined. Nine candidate RNAs were isolated; five RNAs, including FMR1 mRNA, encoded known proteins. Four others were novel. The specificity of binding was demonstrated for each candidate RNA. The domains required for binding a subset of the RNAs were delineated using FMRP truncation mutant proteins and it was shown that only the KH2 domain was required for binding. Binding occurred independently of homoribopolymer binding to the C-terminal arginine-glycine-rich region (RGG box), suggesting that FMRP may bind multiple RNAs simultaneously.
|A heterogeneous set of FMR1 proteins is widely distributed in mouse tissues and is modulated in cell culture. |
Khandjian, E W, et al.
Hum. Mol. Genet., 4: 783-9 (1995) 1995
The fragile X syndrome is an X-linked inherited disease and is the result of transcriptional inactivation of the FMR1 gene and the absence of its encoded FMR protein (FMRP). Using a specific monoclonal antibody directed against human FMRP, we have studied the steady-state levels of its murine homolog in several tissues and organs of adult and young mice. In immunoblot analyses, the antibody recognizes a heterogeneous subset of proteins with apparent molecular weights ranging from 80 to 70 kDa. These proteins are detected in all the 27 tissues tested; however, the relative proportion of each polypeptide recognized varies between tissues, and a significantly higher expression is observed in young animals. Northern blot analysis of RNA extracted from selected tissues from adult mouse shows that these tissues express the major 4.8 kb mRNA, although at different levels, and contain several additional shorter transcripts, particularly in muscular tissues. We also report that expression of the FMR1 gene is modulated in proliferating and quiescent primary mouse kidney cell cultures with an inverse relationship between levels of FMR1 mRNA and of its encoded proteins. This suggests that FMRPs are highly stable in quiescent cells and that FMR1 expression is likely post-transcriptionally controlled. Our results document the widespread expression of the FMR1 gene, and suggest that it is controlled by different mechanisms implicated in cell growth and differentiation.
|Intragenic loss of function mutations demonstrate the primary role of FMR1 in fragile X syndrome. |
Lugenbeel, K A, et al.
Nat. Genet., 10: 483-5 (1995) 1995
Nearly all cases of fragile X syndrome result from expansion of a CGG trinucleotide repeat found in the 5' untranslated portion of the FMR1 gene. Methylation of the expanded repeats correlates with down-regulation of transcription of FMR1; thus fragile X syndrome is postulated to be due to a loss of function of the FMR1 gene product, and this has been demonstrated at the protein level. However, the nature of the mutation offers the possibility of methylation spreading to adjacent genes with consequent loss of expression and contribution to the phenotype. Deletions of FMR1 and flanking sequence (some of substantial size) have been reported in patients with phenotypes consistent with a diagnosis of fragile X-syndrome, however, none is strictly intragenic. We report here the identification of two different intragenic loss of function mutations in FMR1: a single de novo nucleotide deletion in a young male patient (IJ) and an inherited two basepair change in an Adult male (SD), each with classical features of fragile X syndrome.
|Rapid antibody test for fragile X syndrome. |
Willemsen, R, et al.
Lancet, 345: 1147-8 (1995) 1995
Fragile X syndrome is the most common known cause of inherited mental retardation. Identification of patients and carriers of fragile X syndrome is usually done with a DNA test system but we have developed a rapid antibody to identify fragile X patients. This non-invasive test requires only 1 or 2 drops of blood and can be used for screening large groups of mentally retarded people and neonates for fragile X syndrome.
|The FMR-1 protein is cytoplasmic, most abundant in neurons and appears normal in carriers of a fragile X premutation. |
Devys, D, et al.
Nat. Genet., 4: 335-40 (1993) 1993
Fragile X mental retardation syndrome is caused by the unstable expansion of a CGG repeat in the FMR-1 gene. In patients with a full mutation, abnormal methylation results in suppression of FMR-1 transcription. FMR-1 is expressed in many tissues but its function is unknown. We have raised monoclonal antibodies specific for the FMR-1 protein. They detect 4-5 protein bands which appear identical in cells of normal males and of males carrying a premutation, but are absent in affected males with a full mutation. Immunohistochemistry shows a cytoplasmic localization of FMR-1. The highest levels were observed in neurons, while glial cells contain very low levels. In epithelial tissues, levels of FMR-1 were higher in dividing layers. In adult testis, FMR-1 was detected only in spermatogonia. FMR-1 was not detected in dermis and cardiac muscle except under pathological conditions.
|RNA-Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation|
Ficha de dados
|Anti-Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, clone 1C3 - Data Sheet|