Tabela com principais espec.
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M||ELISA, IHC, RIA, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal serum in buffer containing 0.01 M phosphate, 0.09 M NaCl, pH 7.2. No preservatives.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at -20ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Referências | 36 Disponível | Ver todas as referências
|Visão geral das referências||Aplicação||Pub Med ID|
|Revealing cytokine-induced changes in the extracellular matrix with secondary ion mass spectrometry. |
Taylor, AJ; Ratner, BD; Buttery, LD; Alexander, MR
Acta biomaterialia 14 70-83 2015
Cell-secreted matrices (CSMs), where extracellular matrix (ECM) deposited by monolayer cell cultures is decellularized, have been increasingly used to produce surfaces that may be reseeded with cells. Such surfaces are useful to help us understand cell-ECM interactions in a microenvironment closer to the in vivo situation than synthetic substrates with adsorbed proteins. We describe the production of CSMs from mouse primary osteoblasts (mPObs) exposed to cytokine challenge during matrix secretion, mimicking in vivo inflammatory environments. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry data revealed that CSMs with cytokine challenge at day 7 or 12 of culture can be chemically distinguished from one another and from untreated CSM using multivariate analysis. Comparison of the differences with reference spectra from adsorbed protein mixtures points towards cytokine challenge resulting in a decrease in collagen content. This is supported by immunocytochemical and histological staining, demonstrating a 44% loss of collagen mass and a 32% loss in collagen I coverage. CSM surfaces demonstrate greater cell adhesion than adsorbed ECM proteins. When mPObs were reseeded onto cytokine-challenged CSMs they exhibited reduced adhesion and elongated morphology compared to untreated CSMs. Such changes may direct subsequent cell fate and function, and provide insights into pathological responses at sites of inflammation.
|Rictor/mTORC2 signaling mediates TGFβ1-induced fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis. |
Li, J; Ren, J; Liu, X; Jiang, L; He, W; Yuan, W; Yang, J; Dai, C
Kidney international 88 515-27 2015
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was recently identified in two structurally distinct multiprotein complexes: mTORC1 and mTORC2. Previously, we found that Rictor/mTORC2 protects against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, but the role and mechanisms for Rictor/mTORC2 in TGFβ1-induced fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis remains unknown. To study this, we initially treated NRK-49F cells with TGFβ1 and found that TGFβ1 could activate Rictor/mTORC2 signaling in cultured cells. Blocking Rictor/mTORC2 signaling with Rictor or Akt1 small interfering RNAs markedly inhibited TGFβ1-induced fibronection and α-smooth muscle actin expression. Ensuing western blotting or immunostaining results showed that Rictor/mTORC2 signaling was activated in kidney interstitial myofibroblasts from mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction. Next, a mouse model with fibroblast-specific deletion of Rictor was generated. These knockout mice were normal at birth and had no obvious kidney dysfunction or kidney morphological abnormality within 2 months of birth. Compared with control littermates, the kidneys of Rictor knockout mice developed less interstitial extracellular matrix deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration at 1 or 2 weeks after ureteral obstruction. Thus our study suggests that Rictor/mTORC2 signaling activation mediates TGFβ1-induced fibroblast activation and contributes to the development of kidney fibrosis. This may provide a therapeutic target for chronic kidney diseases.
|Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling determines kidney size. |
Chen, JK; Nagai, K; Chen, J; Plieth, D; Hino, M; Xu, J; Sha, F; Ikizler, TA; Quarles, CC; Threadgill, DW; Neilson, EG; Harris, RC
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 2429-44 2015
Kidney size adaptively increases as mammals grow and in response to the loss of 1 kidney. It is not clear how kidneys size themselves or if the processes that adapt kidney mass to lean body mass also mediate renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX). Here, we demonstrated that mice harboring a proximal tubule-specific deletion of Pten (Pten(ptKO)) have greatly enlarged kidneys as the result of persistent activation of the class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT pathway and an increase of the antiproliferative signals p21(Cip1/WAF) and p27(Kip1). Administration of rapamycin to Pten(ptKO) mice diminished hypertrophy. Proximal tubule-specific deletion of Egfr in Pten(ptKO) mice also attenuated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling and reduced the size of enlarged kidneys. In Pten(ptKO) mice, UNX further increased mTORC1 activation and hypertrophy in the remaining kidney; however, mTORC2-dependent AKT phosphorylation did not increase further in the remaining kidney of Pten(ptKO) mice, nor was it induced in the remaining kidney of WT mice. After UNX, renal blood flow and amino acid delivery to the remaining kidney rose abruptly, followed by increased amino acid content and activation of a class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 pathway. Thus, our findings demonstrate context-dependent roles for EGFR-modulated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling in the normal adaptation of kidney size and PTEN-independent, nutrient-dependent class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 signaling in the compensatory enlargement of the remaining kidney following UNX.
|L-Endoglin overexpression increases renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. |
Oujo, B; Muñoz-Félix, JM; Arévalo, M; Núñez-Gómez, E; Pérez-Roque, L; Pericacho, M; González-Núñez, M; Langa, C; Martínez-Salgado, C; Perez-Barriocanal, F; Bernabeu, C; Lopez-Novoa, JM
PloS one 9 e110365 2014
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a pivotal role in renal fibrosis. Endoglin, a 180 KDa membrane glycoprotein, is a TGF-β co-receptor overexpressed in several models of chronic kidney disease, but its function in renal fibrosis remains uncertain. Two membrane isoforms generated by alternative splicing have been described, L-Endoglin (long) and S-Endoglin (short) that differ from each other in their cytoplasmic tails, being L-Endoglin the most abundant isoform. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of L-Endoglin overexpression in renal tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. For this purpose, a transgenic mouse which ubiquitously overexpresses human L-Endoglin (L-ENG+) was generated and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was performed in L-ENG+ mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. Obstructed kidneys from L-ENG+ mice showed higher amounts of type I collagen and fibronectin but similar levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) than obstructed kidneys from WT mice. Smad1 and Smad3 phosphorylation were significantly higher in obstructed kidneys from L-ENG+ than in WT mice. Our results suggest that the higher increase of renal fibrosis observed in L-ENG+ mice is not due to a major abundance of myofibroblasts, as similar levels of α-SMA were observed in both L-ENG+ and WT mice, but to the higher collagen and fibronectin synthesis by these fibroblasts. Furthermore, in vivo L-Endoglin overexpression potentiates Smad1 and Smad3 pathways and this effect is associated with higher renal fibrosis development.
|Tendon proper- and peritenon-derived progenitor cells have unique tenogenic properties. |
Mienaltowski, MJ; Adams, SM; Birk, DE
Stem cell research & therapy 5 86 2014
Multipotent progenitor populations exist within the tendon proper and peritenon of the Achilles tendon. Progenitor populations derived from the tendon proper and peritenon are enriched with distinct cell types that are distinguished by expression of markers of tendon and vascular or pericyte origins, respectively. The objective of this study was to discern the unique tenogenic properties of tendon proper- and peritenon-derived progenitors within an in vitro model. We hypothesized that progenitors from each region contribute differently to tendon formation; thus, when incorporated into a regenerative model, progenitors from each region will respond uniquely. Moreover, we hypothesized that cell populations like progenitors were capable of stimulating tenogenic differentiation, so we generated conditioned media from these cell types to analyze their stimulatory potentials.Isolated progenitors were seeded within fibrinogen/thrombin gel-based constructs with or without supplementation with recombinant growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF5). Early and late in culture, gene expression of differentiation markers and matrix assembly genes was analyzed. Tendon construct ultrastructure was also compared after 45 days. Moreover, conditioned media from tendon proper-derived progenitors, peritenon-derived progenitors, or tenocytes was applied to each of the three cell types to determine paracrine stimulatory effects of the factors secreted from each of the respective cell types.The cell orientation, extracellular domain and fibril organization of constructs were comparable to embryonic tendon. The tendon proper-derived progenitors produced a more tendon-like construct than the peritenon-derived progenitors. Seeded tendon proper-derived progenitors expressed greater levels of tenogenic markers and matrix assembly genes, relative to peritenon-derived progenitors. However, GDF5 supplementation improved expression of matrix assembly genes in peritenon progenitors and structurally led to increased mean fibril diameters. It also was found that peritenon-derived progenitors secrete factor(s) stimulatory to tenocytes and tendon proper progenitors.Data demonstrate that, relative to peritenon-derived progenitors, tendon proper progenitors have greater potential for forming functional tendon-like tissue. Furthermore, factors secreted by peritenon-derived progenitors suggest a trophic role for this cell type as well. Thus, these findings highlight the synergistic potential of including these progenitor populations in restorative tendon engineering strategies.
|Fibroblast α11β1 integrin regulates tensional homeostasis in fibroblast/A549 carcinoma heterospheroids. |
Lu, N; Karlsen, TV; Reed, RK; Kusche-Gullberg, M; Gullberg, D
PloS one 9 e103173 2014
We have previously shown that fibroblast expression of α11β1 integrin stimulates A549 carcinoma cell growth in a xenograft tumor model. To understand the molecular mechanisms whereby a collagen receptor on fibroblast can regulate tumor growth we have used a 3D heterospheroid system composed of A549 tumor cells and fibroblasts without (α11+/+) or with a deletion (α11-/-) in integrin α11 gene. Our data show that α11-/-/A549 spheroids are larger than α11+/+/A549 spheroids, and that A549 cell number, cell migration and cell invasion in a collagen I gel are decreased in α11-/-/A549 spheroids. Gene expression profiling of differentially expressed genes in fibroblast/A549 spheroids identified CXCL5 as one molecule down-regulated in A549 cells in the absence of α11 on the fibroblasts. Blocking CXCL5 function with the CXCR2 inhibitor SB225002 reduced cell proliferation and cell migration of A549 cells within spheroids, demonstrating that the fibroblast integrin α11β1 in a 3D heterospheroid context affects carcinoma cell growth and invasion by stimulating autocrine secretion of CXCL5. We furthermore suggest that fibroblast α11β1 in fibroblast/A549 spheroids regulates interstitial fluid pressure by compacting the collagen matrix, in turn implying a role for stromal collagen receptors in regulating tensional hemostasis in tumors. In summary, blocking stromal α11β1 integrin function might thus be a stroma-targeted therapeutic strategy to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy.
|Chondrocytes transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in endochondral bone during development, postnatal growth and fracture healing in mice. |
Zhou, X; von der Mark, K; Henry, S; Norton, W; Adams, H; de Crombrugghe, B
PLoS genetics 10 e1004820 2014
One of the crucial steps in endochondral bone formation is the replacement of a cartilage matrix produced by chondrocytes with bone trabeculae made by osteoblasts. However, the precise sources of osteoblasts responsible for trabecular bone formation have not been fully defined. To investigate whether cells derived from hypertrophic chondrocytes contribute to the osteoblast pool in trabecular bones, we genetically labeled either hypertrophic chondrocytes by Col10a1-Cre or chondrocytes by tamoxifen-induced Agc1-CreERT2 using EGFP, LacZ or Tomato expression. Both Cre drivers were specifically active in chondrocytic cells and not in perichondrium, in periosteum or in any of the osteoblast lineage cells. These in vivo experiments allowed us to follow the fate of cells labeled in Col10a1-Cre or Agc1-CreERT2 -expressing chondrocytes. After the labeling of chondrocytes, both during prenatal development and after birth, abundant labeled non-chondrocytic cells were present in the primary spongiosa. These cells were distributed throughout trabeculae surfaces and later were present in the endosteum, and embedded within the bone matrix. Co-expression studies using osteoblast markers indicated that a proportion of the non-chondrocytic cells derived from chondrocytes labeled by Col10a1-Cre or by Agc1-CreERT2 were functional osteoblasts. Hence, our results show that both chondrocytes prior to initial ossification and growth plate chondrocytes before or after birth have the capacity to undergo transdifferentiation to become osteoblasts. The osteoblasts derived from Col10a1-expressing hypertrophic chondrocytes represent about sixty percent of all mature osteoblasts in endochondral bones of one month old mice. A similar process of chondrocyte to osteoblast transdifferentiation was involved during bone fracture healing in adult mice. Thus, in addition to cells in the periosteum chondrocytes represent a major source of osteoblasts contributing to endochondral bone formation in vivo.
|Bone response to fluoride exposure is influenced by genetics. |
Kobayashi, CA; Leite, AL; Peres-Buzalaf, C; Carvalho, JG; Whitford, GM; Everett, ET; Siqueira, WL; Buzalaf, MA
PloS one 9 e114343 2014
Genetic factors influence the effects of fluoride (F) on amelogenesis and bone homeostasis but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. A label-free proteomics approach was employed to identify and evaluate changes in bone protein expression in two mouse strains having different susceptibilities to develop dental fluorosis and to alter bone quality. In vivo bone formation and histomorphometry after F intake were also evaluated and related to the proteome. Resistant 129P3/J and susceptible A/J mice were assigned to three groups given low-F food and water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppmF for 8 weeks. Plasma was evaluated for alkaline phosphatase activity. Femurs, tibiae and lumbar vertebrae were evaluated using micro-CT analysis and mineral apposition rate (MAR) was measured in cortical bone. For quantitative proteomic analysis, bone proteins were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), followed by label-free semi-quantitative differential expression analysis. Alterations in several bone proteins were found among the F treatment groups within each mouse strain and between the strains for each F treatment group (ratio ≥1.5 or ≤0.5; pless than 0.05). Although F treatment had no significant effects on BMD or bone histomorphometry in either strain, MAR was higher in the 50 ppmF 129P3/J mice than in the 50 ppmF A/J mice treated with 50 ppmF showing that F increased bone formation in a strain-specific manner. Also, F exposure was associated with dose-specific and strain-specific alterations in expression of proteins involved in osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. In conclusion, our findings confirm a genetic influence in bone response to F exposure and point to several proteins that may act as targets for the differential F responses in this tissue.
|Misexpression of Pknox2 in mouse limb bud mesenchyme perturbs zeugopod development and deltoid crest formation. |
Zhou, W; Zhu, H; Zhao, J; Li, H; Wan, Y; Cao, J; Zhao, H; Yu, J; Zhou, R; Yao, Y; Zhang, L; Wang, L; He, L; Ma, G; Yao, Z; Guo, X
PloS one 8 e64237 2013
The TALE (Three Amino acid Loop Extension) family consisting of Meis, Pbx and Pknox proteins is a group of transcriptional co-factors with atypical homeodomains that play pivotal roles in limb development. Compared to the in-depth investigations of Meis and Pbx protein functions, the role of Pknox2 in limb development remains unclear. Here, we showed that Pknox2 was mainly expressed in the zeugopod domain of the murine limb at E10.5 and E11.5. Misexpression of Pknox2 in the limb bud mesenchyme of transgenic mice led to deformities in the zeugopod and forelimb stylopod deltoid crest, but left the autopod and other stylopod skeletons largely intact. These malformations in zeugopod skeletons were recapitulated in mice overexpressing Pknox2 in osteochondroprogenitor cells. Molecular and cellular analyses indicated that the misexpression of Pknox2 in limb bud mesenchyme perturbed the Hox10-11 gene expression profiles, decreased Col2 expression and Bmp/Smad signaling activity in the limb. These results indicated that Pknox2 misexpression affected mesenchymal condensation and early chondrogenic differentiation in the zeugopod skeletons of transgenic embryos, suggesting Pknox2 as a potential regulator of zeugopod and deltoid crest formation.
|Interleukin-16 promotes cardiac fibrosis and myocardial stiffening in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. |
Tamaki, S; Mano, T; Sakata, Y; Ohtani, T; Takeda, Y; Kamimura, D; Omori, Y; Tsukamoto, Y; Ikeya, Y; Kawai, M; Kumanogoh, A; Hagihara, K; Ishii, R; Higashimori, M; Kaneko, M; Hasuwa, H; Miwa, T; Yamamoto, K; Komuro, I
PloS one 8 e68893 2013
Chronic heart failure (CHF) with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (HFpEF) is observed in half of all patients with CHF and carries the same poor prognosis as CHF with reduced LV ejection fraction (HFrEF). In contrast to HFrEF, there is no established therapy for HFpEF. Chronic inflammation contributes to cardiac fibrosis, a crucial factor in HFpEF; however, inflammatory mechanisms and mediators involved in the development of HFpEF remain unclear. Therefore, we sought to identify novel inflammatory mediators involved in this process.An analysis by multiplex-bead array assay revealed that serum interleukin-16 (IL-16) levels were specifically elevated in patients with HFpEF compared with HFrEF and controls. This was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in HFpEF patients and controls, and serum IL-16 levels showed a significant association with indices of LV diastolic dysfunction. Serum IL-16 levels were also elevated in a rat model of HFpEF and positively correlated with LV end-diastolic pressure, lung weight and LV myocardial stiffness constant. The cardiac expression of IL-16 was upregulated in the HFpEF rat model. Enhanced cardiac expression of IL-16 in transgenic mice induced cardiac fibrosis and LV myocardial stiffening accompanied by increased macrophage infiltration. Treatment with anti-IL-16 neutralizing antibody ameliorated cardiac fibrosis in the mouse model of angiotensin II-induced hypertension.Our data indicate that IL-16 is a mediator of LV myocardial fibrosis and stiffening in HFpEF, and that the blockade of IL-16 could be a possible therapeutic option for HFpEF.
|Intrarenal dopamine inhibits progression of diabetic nephropathy. |
Zhang, MZ; Yao, B; Yang, S; Yang, H; Wang, S; Fan, X; Yin, H; Fogo, AB; Moeckel, GW; Harris, RC
Diabetes 61 2575-84 2012
The kidney has a local intrarenal dopaminergic system, and in the kidney, dopamine modulates renal hemodynamics, inhibits salt and fluid reabsorption, antagonizes the renin-angiotensin system, and inhibits oxidative stress. The current study examined the effects of alterations in the intrarenal dopaminergic system on kidney structure and function in models of type 1 diabetes. We studied catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT)(-/-) mice, which have increased renal dopamine production due to decreased dopamine metabolism, and renal transplantation was used to determine whether the effects seen with COMT deficiency were kidney-specific. To determine the effects of selective inhibition of intrarenal dopamine production, we used mice with proximal tubule deletion of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (ptAADC(-/-)). Compared with wild-type diabetic mice, COMT(-/-) mice had decreased hyperfiltration, decreased macula densa cyclooxygenase-2 expression, decreased albuminuria, decreased glomerulopathy, and inhibition of expression of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. These differences were also seen in diabetic mice with a transplanted kidney from COMT(-/-) mice. In contrast, diabetic ptAADC(-/-) mice had increased nephropathy. Our study demonstrates an important role of the intrarenal dopaminergic system to modulate the development and progression of diabetic kidney injury and indicate that the decreased renal dopamine production may have important consequences in the underlying pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.
|A new model of experimental fibrosis in hindlimb skeletal muscle of adult mdx mouse mimicking muscular dystrophy. |
Isabelle Desguerre,Ludovic Arnold,Alban Vignaud,Sylvain Cuvellier,Houda Yacoub-Youssef,Romain K Gherardi,Jamel Chelly,Fabrice Chretien,Rémi Mounier,Arnaud Ferry,Bénédicte Chazaud
Muscle & nerve 45 2012
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the lack of dystrophin that leads to severe myofiber degeneration. We have shown that endomysial fibrosis is correlated with age at ambulation loss in DMD patients. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse does not have fibrotic lesions in adult limb muscles. Here, we describe a model of chronic mechanical muscle injury that triggers chronic lesions in mdx hindlimb muscle.
|Cathepsin B overexpression due to acid sphingomyelinase ablation promotes liver fibrosis in Niemann-Pick disease. |
Moles, A; Tarrats, N; Fernández-Checa, JC; Marí, M
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 1178-88 2012
Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the loss of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) that features neurodegeneration and liver disease. Because ASMase-knock-out mice models NPD and our previous findings revealed that ASMase activates cathepsins B/D (CtsB/D), our aim was to investigate the expression and processing of CtsB/D in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) from ASMase-null mice and their role in liver fibrosis. Surprisingly, HSCs from ASMase-knock-out mice exhibit increased basal level and activity of CtsB as well as its in vitro processing in culture, paralleling the enhanced expression of fibrogenic markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), TGF-β, and pro-collagen-α1(I) (Col1A1). Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of CtsB blunted the expression of α-SMA and Col1A1 and proliferation of HSCs from ASMase-knock-out mice. Consistent with the enhanced activation of CtsB in HSCs from ASMase-null mice, the in vivo liver fibrosis induced by chronic treatment with CCl(4) increased in ASMase-null compared with wild-type mice, an effect that was reduced upon CtsB inhibition. In addition to liver, the enhanced proteolytic processing of CtsB was also observed in brain and lung of ASMase-knock-out mice, suggesting that the overexpression of CtsB may underlie the phenotype of NPD. Thus, these findings reveal a functional relationship between ASMase and CtsB and that the ablation of ASMase leads to the enhanced processing and activation of CtsB. Therefore, targeting CtsB may be of relevance in the treatment of liver fibrosis in patients with NPD.
|Bone marrow-derived cells contribute to cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrosis in the mouse. |
Wey-Ran Lin,Osamu Inatomi,Chung Y Lee,Yiannis N Kallis,William R Otto,Rosemary Jeffery,Richard Poulsom,Malcolm R Alison
International journal of experimental pathology 93 2012
Bone marrow (BM) cells may transdifferentiate into circulating fibrocytes and myofibroblasts in organ fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the contribution and functional roles of BM-derived cells in murine cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrosis. C57/BL6 female mice wild-type (WT) or Col 1α1(r/r) male BM transplant, received supraphysiological doses of cerulein to induce pancreatic fibrosis. The CD45(+)Col 1(+) fibrocytes isolated from peripheral blood (PB) and pancreatic tissue were examined by in situ hybridization for Y chromosome detection. The number of BM-derived myofibroblasts, the degree of Sirius red staining and the levels of Col 1α1 mRNA were quantified. The Y chromosome was detected in the nuclei of PB CD45(+)Col 1(+) fibrocytes, confirming that circulating fibrocytes can be derived from BM. Co-expression of α-smooth muscle actin illustrated that fibrocytes can differentiate into myofibroblasts. The number of BM-derived myofibroblasts, degree of collagen deposition and pro-collagen I mRNA expression were higher in the mice that received Col 1α1(r/r) BM, (cells that produce mutated, collagenase-resistant collagen) compared to WT BM, indicating that the genotype of BM cells can alter the degree of pancreatic fibrosis. Our data indicate that CD45(+)Col 1(+) fibrocytes in the PB can be BM-derived, functionally contributing to cerulein-induced pancreatic fibrosis in mice by differentiating into myofibroblasts.
|Combination therapy with an angiotensin II receptor blocker and an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor in experimental subtotal nephrectomy. |
Álvarez-Prats, A; Hernández-Perera, O; Díaz-Herrera, P; Ucero, ÁC; Anabitarte-Prieto, A; Losada-Cabrera, A; Ortiz, A; Rodríguez-Pérez, JC
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 27 2720-33 2012
Angiotensin receptor 1 blockers (ARB) are standard nephroprotective drugs in chronic kidney disease. There is less evidence for a nephroprotective effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and much less is known about potential benefits of combination therapy. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of a statin alone or in combination with an ARB in experimental chronic kidney disease.Subtotally nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats were treated early with vehicle, losartan, cerivastatin or losartan/cerivastatin. Expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) was assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Tissue proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation was measured in whole kidneys.In contrast to the sham group, at 6 weeks, vehicle-treated 5/6 Nx rats displayed renal lesions, albuminuria and increased blood pressure, serum creatinine and total kidney NF-κB p65 DNA-binding activity and preproendothelin-1, fibronectin and type I and III collagen mRNA. NF-κB activation correlated with albuminuria and histological renal injury. Losartan or combination therapy preserved renal function, abrogated albuminuria and improved glomerular and interstitial histology. Cerivastatin alone preserved renal function and improved interstitial injury but did not influence albuminuria, glomerular histology or NF-κB activation. Losartan/cerivastatin normalized kidney NF-κB activation and extracellular matrix mRNA expression pattern. The effect of losartan alone on these parameters was less intense. All treatments decreased preproendothelin-1 mRNA and preserved interstitial capillaries.In a chronic kidney disease model, early treatment with either an ARB or a statin preserved renal function although the mechanisms differed. Combination therapy with an ARB and a statin did not confer clear-cut advantages on biochemical and histological parameters over ARB alone, although it further improved the kidney NF-κB and gene expression profile.
|The CYP2D6 animal model: how to induce autoimmune hepatitis in mice. |
Edith Hintermann,Janine Ehser,Urs Christen
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE 2012
Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare but life threatening autoimmune disease of the liver of unknown etiology(1,2). In the past many attempts have been made to generate an animal model that reflects the characteristics of the human disease (3-5). However, in various models the induction of disease was rather complex and often hepatitis was only transient(3-5). Therefore, we have developed a straightforward mouse model that uses the major human autoantigen in type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-2), namely hCYP2D6, as a trigger(6). Type 1 liver-kidney microsomal antibodies (LKM-1) antibodies recognizing hCYP2D6 are the hallmark of AIH-2(7,8). Delivery of hCYP2D6 into wildtype FVB or C57BL/6 mice was by an Adenovirus construct (Ad-2D6) that ensures a direct delivery of the triggering antigen to the liver. Thus, the ensuing local inflammation generates a fertile field(9) for the subsequent development of autoimmunity. A combination of intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of Ad-2D6 is the most effective route to induce a long-lasting autoimmune damage to the liver (section 1). Here we provide a detailed protocol on how autoimmune liver disease is induced in the CYP2D6 model and how the different aspects of liver damage can be assessed. First, the serum levels of markers indicating hepatocyte destruction, such as aminotransferases, as well as the titers of hCYP2D6 antibodies are determined by sampling blood retroorbitaly (section 2). Second, the hCYP2D6-specific T cell response is characterized by collecting lymphocytes from the spleen and the liver. In order to obtain pure liver lymphocytes, the livers are perfused by PBS via the portal vein (section 3), digested in collagen and purified over a Percoll gradient (section 4). The frequency of hCYP2D6-specific T cells is analyzed by stimulation with hCYP2D6 peptides and identification of IFNγ-producing cells by flow cytometry (section 5). Third, cellular infiltration and fibrosis is determined by immunohistochemistry of liver sections (section 6). Such analysis regimen has to be conducted at several times after initiation of the disease in order to prove the chronic nature of the model. The magnitude of the immune response characterized by the frequency and activity of hCYP2D6-specific T and/or B cells and the degree of the liver damage and fibrosis have to be assessed for a subsequent evaluation of possible treatments to prevent, delay or abrogate the autodestructive process of the liver.
|Diabetes is a progression factor for hepatic fibrosis in a high fat fed mouse obesity model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. |
Lisa Lo,Susan V McLennan,Paul F Williams,James Bonner,Sumaiya Chowdhury,Geoffrey W McCaughan,Mark D Gorrell,Dennis K Yue,Stephen M Twigg
Journal of hepatology 55 2011
While type 2 diabetes is an independent risk factor for worsening of human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in clinical studies, it has not been systematically reported in any model whether diabetes exacerbates NASH. The study aim was to determine if diabetes causes NASH progression in a mouse model of diet induced obesity.
|Regulation of collagen fibril nucleation and initial fibril assembly involves coordinate interactions with collagens V and XI in developing tendon. |
Wenstrup, RJ; Smith, SM; Florer, JB; Zhang, G; Beason, DP; Seegmiller, RE; Soslowsky, LJ; Birk, DE
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 20455-65 2011
Collagens V and XI comprise a single regulatory type of fibril-forming collagen with multiple isoforms. Both co-assemble with collagen I or II to form heterotypic fibrils and have been implicated in regulation of fibril assembly. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of collagens V and XI in the regulation of tendon fibrillogenesis. Flexor digitorum longus tendons from a haplo-insufficient collagen V mouse model of classic Ehlers Danlos syndrome (EDS) had decreased biomechanical stiffness compared with controls consistent with joint laxity in EDS patients. However, fibril structure was relatively normal, an unexpected finding given the altered fibrils observed in dermis and cornea from this model. This suggested roles for other related molecules, i.e. collagen XI, and compound Col5a1(+/-),Col11a1(+/-) tendons had altered fibril structures, supporting a role for collagen XI. To further evaluate this, transcript expression was analyzed in wild type tendons. During development (E18-P10) both collagen V and XI were comparably expressed; however, collagen V predominated in mature (P30) tendons. The collagens had a similar expression pattern. Tendons with altered collagen V and/or XI expression (Col5a1(+/-); Col11a1(+/-); Col5a1(+/-),Col11a1(+/-); Col11a1(-/-); Col5a1(+/-),Col11a1(-/-)) were analyzed at E18. All genotypes demonstrated a reduced fibril number and altered structure. This phenotype was more severe with a reduction in collagen XI. However, the absence of collagen XI with a reduction in collagen V was associated with the most severe fibril phenotype. The data demonstrate coordinate roles for collagens V and XI in the regulation of fibril nucleation and assembly during tendon development.
|Comparison of two murine models of thrombosis induced by atherosclerotic plaque injury. |
Béatrice Hechler,Christian Gachet
Thrombosis and haemostasis 105 Suppl 1 2011
Arterial thrombosis occurs at sites of erosion or rupture of atherosclerotic vascular lesions. To better study the pathophysiology of this complex phenomenon, there is a need for animal models of localised thrombosis at sites of atherosclerotic lesions with closer resemblance to the human pathology as compared to commonly used thrombosis models in healthy vessels. In the present study, we describe and compare a new model of thrombosis induced by atherosclerotic plaque rupture in the carotid artery from ApoE-/- mice using a suture needle to a milder model of ultrasound-induced plaque injury. Needle injury induces atherosclerotic plaque rupture with exposure of plaque material and formation of a thrombus that is larger, nearly occlusive and more stable as compared to that formed by application of ultrasounds. These two models have common features such as the concomitant involvement of platelet activation, thrombin generation and fibrin formation, which translates into sensitivity toward both antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants. On the other hand, they display differences with respect to the role of the platelet collagen receptor GPVI, the plaque rupture model being less sensitive to its inhibition as compared to the ultrasound-induced injury, which may be related to the amount of thrombin generated. These models represent an improvement as compared to models in healthy vessels and may help identify specific plaque triggers of thrombosis. They should therefore be useful to evaluate new antithrombotic targets.
|A new mechanism for pillar formation during tumor-induced intussusceptive angiogenesis: inverse sprouting. |
Paku, S; Dezso, K; Bugyik, E; Tóvári, J; Tímár, J; Nagy, P; Laszlo, V; Klepetko, W; Döme, B
The American journal of pathology 179 1573-85 2011
One of the hallmarks of intussusceptive angiogenesis is the development of intraluminal connective tissue pillars. The exact mechanism of pillar formation has not yet been elucidated. By using electron and confocal microscopy, we observed intraluminal nascent pillars that contain a collagen bundle covered by endothelial cells (ECs) in the vasculature of experimental tumors. We proposed a new mechanism for the development of these pillars. First, intraluminal endothelial bridges are formed. Second, localized dissolution of the basement membrane occurs and a bridging EC attaches to a collagen bundle in the underlying connective tissue. A pulling force is then exerted by the actin cytoskeleton of the ECs via specific attachment points, which contain vinculin, to the collagen bundle, resulting in suction and subsequent transport of the collagen bundle into and through the vessel lumen. Third, the pillar matures through the immigration of connective tissue cells and the deposition of new collagenous connective tissue. The proposed simple mechanism generates a connection between the processes of endothelial bridging and intussusceptive angiogenesis and identifies the source of the force behind pillar formation. Moreover, it ensures the rapid formation of pillars from pre-existing building blocks and the maintenance of EC polarity. To describe it, we coined the term inverse sprouting.
|Osteopotentia regulates osteoblast maturation, bone formation, and skeletal integrity in mice. |
Sohaskey ML, Jiang Y, Zhao JJ, Mohr A, Roemer F, Harland RM
J Cell Biol 189 511-25. 2010
During skeletal development and regeneration, bone-forming osteoblasts respond to high metabolic demand by active expansion of their rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and increased synthesis of type I collagen, the predominant bone matrix protein. However, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate this response are not well understood. We show that insertional mutagenesis of the previously uncharacterized osteopotentia (Opt) gene disrupts osteoblast function and causes catastrophic defects in postnatal skeletal development. Opt encodes a widely expressed rER-localized integral membrane protein containing a conserved SUN (Sad1/Unc-84 homology) domain. Mice lacking Opt develop acute onset skeletal defects that include impaired bone formation and spontaneous fractures. These defects result in part from a cell-autonomous failure of osteoblast maturation and a posttranscriptional decline in type I collagen synthesis, which is concordant with minimal rER expansion. By identifying Opt as a crucial regulator of bone formation in the mouse, our results uncover a novel rER-mediated control point in osteoblast function and implicate human Opt as a candidate gene for brittle bone disorders.Texto completo do artigo
|Mutant DLX 3 disrupts odontoblast polarization and dentin formation. |
Choi, SJ; Song, IS; Feng, JQ; Gao, T; Haruyama, N; Gautam, P; Robey, PG; Hart, TC
Developmental biology 344 682-92 2010
Tricho-dento-osseous (TDO) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormalities in the thickness and density of bones and teeth. A 4-bp deletion mutation in the Distal-Less 3 (DLX3) gene is etiologic for most cases of TDO. To investigate the in vivo role of mutant DLX3 (MT-DLX3) on dentin development, we generated transgenic (TG) mice expressing MT-DLX3 driven by a mouse 2.3 Col1A1 promoter. Dentin defects were radiographically evident in all teeth and the size of the nonmineralized pulp was enlarged in TG mice, consistent with clinical characteristics in patients with TDO. High-resolution radiography, microcomputed tomography, and SEM revealed a reduced zone of mineralized dentin with anomalies in the number and organization of dentinal tubules in MT-DLX3 TG mice. Histological and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the decreased dentin was accompanied by altered odontoblast cytology that included disruption of odontoblast polarization and reduced numbers of odontoblasts. TUNEL assays indicated enhanced odontoblast apoptosis. Expression levels of the apoptotic marker caspase-3 were increased in odontoblasts in TG mice as well as in odontoblastic-like MDPC-23 cells transfected with MT-DLX3 cDNA. Expression of Runx2, Wnt 10A, and TBC1D19 colocalized with DLX3 expression in odontoblasts, and MT-DLX3 significantly reduced expression of all three genes. TBC1D19 functions in cell polarity and decreased TBC1D19 expression may contribute to the observed disruption of odontoblast polarity and apoptosis. These data indicate that MT-DLX3 acts to disrupt odontoblast cytodifferentiation leading to odontoblast apoptosis, and aberrations of dentin tubule formation and dentin matrix production, resulting in decreased dentin and taurodontism. In summary, this TG model demonstrates that MT-DLX3 has differential effects on matrix production and mineralization in dentin and bone and provides a novel tool for the investigation of odontoblast biology.Texto completo do artigo
|E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin is involved in liver fibrogenesis. |
Hasegawa, D; Fujii, R; Yagishita, N; Matsumoto, N; Aratani, S; Izumi, T; Azakami, K; Nakazawa, M; Fujita, H; Sato, T; Araya, N; Koike, J; Tadokoro, M; Suzuki, N; Nagata, K; Senoo, H; Friedman, SL; Nishioka, K; Yamano, Y; Itoh, F; Nakajima, T
PloS one 5 e13590 2010
Chronic hepatic damage leads to liver fibrosis, which is characterized by the accumulation of collagen-rich extracellular matrix. However, the mechanism by which E3 ubiquitin ligase is involved in collagen synthesis in liver fibrosis is incompletely understood. This study aimed to explore the involvement of the E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin (Syno) in liver fibrosis.The expression and localization of synoviolin in the liver were analyzed in CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury models and human cirrhosis tissues. The degree of liver fibrosis and the number of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was compared between wild type (wt) and Syno(+/-) mice in the chronic hepatic injury model. We compared the ratio of apoptosis in activated HSCs between wt and Syno(+/-) mice. We also analyzed the effect of synoviolin on collagen synthesis in the cell line from HSCs (LX-2) using siRNA-synoviolin and a mutant synoviolin in which E3 ligase activity was abolished. Furthermore, we compared collagen synthesis between wt and Syno(-/-) mice embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting, and collagen assay; then, we immunohistochemically analyzed the localization of collagen in Syno(-/-) MEF cells.In the hepatic injury model as well as in cirrhosis, synoviolin was upregulated in the activated HSCs, while Syno(+/-) mice developed significantly less liver fibrosis than in wt mice. The number of activated HSCs was decreased in Syno(+/-) mice, and some of these cells showed apoptosis. Furthermore, collagen expression in LX-2 cells was upregulated by synoviolin overexpression, while synoviolin knockdown led to reduced collagen expression. Moreover, in Syno(-/-) MEF cells, the amounts of intracellular and secreted mature collagen were significantly decreased, and procollagen was abnormally accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum.Our findings demonstrate the importance of the E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin in liver fibrosis.Texto completo do artigo
|Severe osteogenesis imperfecta in cyclophilin B-deficient mice. |
Choi, JW; Sutor, SL; Lindquist, L; Evans, GL; Madden, BJ; Bergen, HR; Hefferan, TE; Yaszemski, MJ; Bram, RJ
PLoS genetics 5 e1000750 2009
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a human syndrome characterized by exquisitely fragile bones due to osteoporosis. The majority of autosomal dominant OI cases result from point or splice site mutations in the type I collagen genes, which are thought to lead to aberrant osteoid within developing bones. OI also occurs in humans with homozygous mutations in Prolyl-3-Hydroxylase-1 (LEPRE1). Although P3H1 is known to hydroxylate a single residue (pro-986) in type I collagen chains, it is unclear how this modification acts to facilitate collagen fibril formation. P3H1 exists in a complex with CRTAP and the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase cyclophilin B (CypB), encoded by the Ppib gene. Mutations in CRTAP cause OI in mice and humans, through an unknown mechanism, while the role of CypB in this complex has been a complete mystery. To study the role of mammalian CypB, we generated mice lacking this protein. Early in life, Ppib-/- mice developed kyphosis and severe osteoporosis. Collagen fibrils in Ppib-/- mice had abnormal morphology, further consistent with an OI phenotype. In vitro studies revealed that in CypB-deficient fibroblasts, procollagen did not localize properly to the golgi. We found that levels of P3H1 were substantially reduced in Ppib-/- cells, while CRTAP was unaffected by loss of CypB. Conversely, knockdown of either P3H1 or CRTAP did not affect cellular levels of CypB, but prevented its interaction with collagen in vitro. Furthermore, knockdown of CRTAP also caused depletion of cellular P3H1. Consistent with these changes, post translational prolyl-3-hydroxylation of type I collagen by P3H1 was essentially absent in CypB-deficient cells and tissues from CypB-knockout mice. These data provide significant new mechanistic insight into the pathophysiology of OI and reveal how the members of the P3H1/CRTAP/CypB complex interact to direct proper formation of collagen and bone.
|Tissue transglutaminase contributes to interstitial renal fibrosis by favoring accumulation of fibrillar collagen through TGF-beta activation and cell infiltration. |
Shweke, N; Boulos, N; Jouanneau, C; Vandermeersch, S; Melino, G; Dussaule, JC; Chatziantoniou, C; Ronco, P; Boffa, JJ
The American journal of pathology 173 631-42 2008
Renal fibrosis is defined by the exaggerated accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) modifies the stability of extracellular matrix proteins and renders the extracellular matrix resistant to degradation. In addition, TG2 also activates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). We investigated the involvement of TG2 in the development of renal fibrosis using mice with a knockout of the TG2 gene (KO). These mice were studied at baseline and 12 days after unilateral ureteral obstruction, which induced a significant increase in interstitial TG2 expression in wild-type mice (P less than 0.001). Interstitial fibrosis was evident in both groups, but total and fibrillar collagen was considerably lower in KO mice as compared with wild-type (P less than 0.001). Similarly, mRNA and protein expression of collagen I were significantly lower in KO animals (P less than 0.05). A statistically significant reduction in renal inflammation and fewer myofibroblasts were observed in KO mice (P less than 0.01). Free active TGF-beta was decreased in KO mice (P less than 0.05), although total (active + latent) TFG-beta concentration did not differ between groups. These results show that mice deficient in TG2 are protected against the development of fibrotic lesions in obstructive nephropathy. This protection results from reduced macrophage and myofibroblast infiltration, as well as from a decreased rate of collagen I synthesis because of decreased TGF-beta activation. Our results suggest that inhibition of TG2 may provide a new and important therapeutic target against the progression of renal fibrosis.Texto completo do artigo
|Activation of Erk1/2 and Akt following unilateral ureteral obstruction. |
Rodríguez-Peña, AB; Grande, MT; Eleno, N; Arévalo, M; Guerrero, C; Santos, E; López-Novoa, JM
Kidney international 74 196-209 2008
Chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction is a well characterized model of renal injury leading to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and distinct patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the obstructed kidney. In this study we assessed the contribution of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-ERK1/2 and the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathways to early renal changes following unilateral obstruction. Increased activation of small Ras GTPase and its downstream effectors ERK1/2 and Akt was detected in ligated kidneys. The use of specific pharmacological inhibitors to either ERK1/2 or Akt activation led to decreased levels of fibroblast-myofibroblast markers in the interstitium while inhibition of PI3K reduced the number of proliferating cells and the amount of interstitial extracellular matrix deposition. Treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor diminished the number of apoptotic tubule and interstitial cells. Our results suggest a role for the MAPK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt systems in early changes induced by ureteral obstruction and that inhibition of these signaling pathways may provide a novel approach to prevent progression of renal fibrosis.
|Second harmonic imaging and scoring of collagen in fibrotic tissues. |
M Strupler, A-M Pena, M Hernest, P-L Tharaux, J-L Martin, E Beaurepaire, M-C Schanne-Klein
Optics express 15 4054-65 2007
We compare second harmonic generation (SHG) to histological and immunohistochemical techniques for the visualization and scoring of collagen in biological tissues. We show that SHG microscopy is highly specific for fibrillar collagens and that combined SHG and two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) imaging can provide simultaneous three-dimensional visualization of collagen synthesis and assembly sites in transgenic animal models expressing GFP constructs. Finally, we propose several scores for characterizing collagen accumulation based on SHG images and appropriate for different types of collagen distributions. We illustrate the sensitivity of these scores in a murine model of renal fibrosis using a morphological segmentation of the tissue based on endogenous 2PEF signals.
|Involvement of H- and N-Ras isoforms in transforming growth factor-beta1-induced proliferation and in collagen and fibronectin synthesis |
Martínez-Salgado, Carlos, et al
Exp Cell Res, 312:2093-106 (2006) 2006
|Type I collagen is a molecular target for inhibition of angiogenesis by endogenous thrombospondin-1. |
Zhou, L; Isenberg, JS; Cao, Z; Roberts, DD
Oncogene 25 536-45 2006
Three-dimensional explant cultures of muscle tissue were used to characterize secreted proteins regulated by endogenous levels of the angiogenesis modulator thrombospondin (TSP)-1. Explants from TSP1 null mice exhibit enhanced neovascularization associated with increased endothelial outgrowth but decreased outgrowth of perivascular smooth muscle cells . The absence of endogenous TSP1 did not diminish activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta and moderately decreased matrix metalloproteinase levels. However, significant changes in other secreted proteins were observed. Endogenous TSP1 decreased mRNA levels for collagens Ialpha1, Ialpha2, and IIIalpha1 and laminin alpha4 and increased collagen IValpha1 mRNA expression. Endogenous TSP1 also decreased the level of type I collagen protein produced by the vascular outgrowths. Collagens Ialpha1, Ialpha2, and IIIalpha1 are known tumor endothelial markers, suggesting that TSP1 coordinately regulates a set of extracellular matrix genes that reverse the angiogenic switch. Suppression of collagen Ialpha1 or Ialpha2 mRNAs using antisense morpholinos inhibited outgrowth in TSP1 null explants and proliferation of TSP1 null endothelial cells, indicating that type I collagen synthesis is limiting for this neovascularization response.
|Type I collagen in Hsp47-null cells is aggregated in endoplasmic reticulum and deficient in N-propeptide processing and fibrillogenesis. |
Ishida, Y; Kubota, H; Yamamoto, A; Kitamura, A; Bächinger, HP; Nagata, K
Molecular biology of the cell 17 2346-55 2006
Heat-shock protein of 47 kDa (Hsp47) is a molecular chaperone that recognizes collagen triple helices in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Hsp47-knockout mouse embryos are deficient in the maturation of collagen types I and IV, and collagen triple helices formed in the absence of Hsp47 show increased susceptibility to protease digestion. We show here that the fibrils of type I collagen produced by Hsp47-/- cells are abnormally thin and frequently branched. Type I collagen was highly accumulated in the ER of Hsp47-/- cells, and its secretion rate was much slower than that of Hsp47+/+ cells, leading to accumulation of the insoluble aggregate of type I collagen within the cells. Transient expression of Hsp47 in the Hsp47-/- cells restored normal extracellular fibril formation and intracellular localization of type I collagen. Intriguingly, type I collagen with unprocessed N-terminal propeptide (N-propeptide) was secreted from Hsp47-/- cells and accumulated in the extracellular matrix. These results indicate that Hsp47 is required for correct folding and prevention of aggregation of type I collagen in the ER and that this function is indispensable for efficient secretion, processing, and fibril formation of collagen.Texto completo do artigo
|Glycoprotein VI-dependent and -independent pathways of thrombus formation in vivo. |
Dubois, C; Panicot-Dubois, L; Merrill-Skoloff, G; Furie, B; Furie, BC
Blood 107 3902-6 2006
The role of the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in arteriolar thrombus formation was studied in FcRgamma-null mice (FcRgamma(-/-)) lacking platelet surface GPVI. Thrombi were induced with severe or mild FeCl(3) injury. Collagen exposure was significantly delayed and diminished in mild compared with severe FeCl(3) injury. Times to initial thrombus formation and vessel occlusion were delayed in FcRgamma(-/-) compared with wild-type mice after severe injury. Platelet accumulation in wild-type mice was decreased after mild compared with severe injury. However, there was little difference between platelet accumulation after severe or mild injury in FcRgamma(-/-). These data indicate a significant role for GPVI in FeCl(3)-induced thrombus formation. Pretreatment of wild-type mice with lepirudin further impaired mild FeCl(3)-induced thrombus formation, demonstrating a role for thrombin. Laser-induced thrombus formation in wild-type and FcRgamma(-/-) was comparable. Collagen exposure to circulating blood was undetectable after laser injury. Normalized for thrombus size, thrombus-associated tissue factor was 5-fold higher in laser-induced thrombi than in severe FeCl(3)-induced thrombi. Thus, platelet activation by thrombin appears to be more important after laser injury than platelet activation by GPVI-collagen. It may thus be important when considering targets for antithrombotic therapy to use multiple animal models with diverse pathways to thrombus formation.
|Circulating fibrocytes traffic to the lungs in response to CXCL12 and mediate fibrosis. |
Phillips, Roderick J, et al.
J. Clin. Invest., 114: 438-46 (2004) 2004
|Macroscopic cartilage formation with embryonic stem-cell-derived mesodermal progenitor cells. |
Nakayama, N; Duryea, D; Manoukian, R; Chow, G; Han, CY
Journal of cell science 116 2015-28 2003
The totipotent embryonic stem cell generates various mesodermal cells when stimulated with BMP4. Among the resulting cells, those expressing flk-1 and/or PDGFRalpha displayed chondrogenic activity in the presence of TGFbeta3 and expressed cartilage-specific genes in 7 to 16 day pellet cultures. Depositions of cartilage matrix and type II collagen were detected by day 14. TGFbeta-stimulated chondrogenesis was synergistically enhanced by PDGF-BB, resulting in a larger cartilage particle filled with a cartilaginous area containing type II collagen, with a surface cell layer expressing type I collagen. In contrast, noggin inhibited both the TGFbeta- and TGFbeta+PDGF-stimulated cartilage formation, suggesting that a BMP-dependent pathway is involved. In fact, replacement of TGFbeta3 with BMP4 on days 10 to 12 markedly elevated the cartilage matrix deposition during the following 7 to 8 days. Moreover, culture with TGFbeta3 and PDGF-BB, followed by the incubation with BMP4 alone, resulted in a cartilage particle lacking type I collagen in the matrix and the surface layer, which suggests hyaline cartilage formation. Furthermore, such hyaline cartilage particles were mineralized. These studies indicate that the PDGFRalpha+ and/or flk-1+ cells derived from embryonic stem cells possess the full developmental potential toward chondrocytes, in common with embryonic mesenchymal cells.
|Expression of FACIT collagens XII and XIV during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. |
Eleni G Tzortzaki, Jay A Tischfield, Amrik Sahota, Nikolaos M Siafakas, Marion K Gordon, Donald R Gerecke
The anatomical record. Part A, Discoveries in molecular, cellular, and evolutionary biology 275 1073-80 2003
Collagens XII and XIV are members of a subfamily of fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple-helices (FACITs) that facilitate the interactions of adjacent collagen fibrils. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the spatial and temporal expression pattern of collagens XII and XIV during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57Bl mice were treated with bleomycin (1 U, i.p., every other day for 8 days) or saline (control), and lung tissue samples were analyzed 2-12 weeks later. Collagen I protein expression was increased in the lung 2 weeks post bleomycin treatment and persisted for at least 12 weeks. In contrast, collagen XII and XIV expression was low until 4 weeks after bleomycin treatment. Whereas collagen XII expression was greatest between 4 weeks and 8 weeks, expression of collagen XIV persisted from 4 to 12 weeks, which suggests that these two proteins may play distinct roles in the fibrotic process. The mRNA for lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme for cross-linking of collagens, had a delayed increase in the lung after bleomycin administration. It reached a maximum after 8 weeks, and persisted throughout the 12 weeks of the study. These data support the hypothesis that fibrosis is a multistep process that involves both collagen accumulation and changes in the molecules that modulate the biomechanical properties of fibrils.
|Hepatocytes express nerve growth factor during liver injury: evidence for paracrine regulation of hepatic stellate cell apoptosis. |
Oakley, F; Trim, N; Constandinou, CM; Ye, W; Gray, AM; Frantz, G; Hillan, K; Kendall, T; Benyon, RC; Mann, DA; Iredale, JP
The American journal of pathology 163 1849-58 2003
A key feature of recovery from liver fibrosis is hepatic stellate cell (HSC) apoptosis, which serves the dual function of removing the major source of neomatrix and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases thereby facilitating matrix degradation. The mechanisms regulating HSC apoptosis remain undefined but may include the interaction of nerve growth factor (NGF) with its receptor, p75, on HSC. In this study, by TaqMan polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that NGF is expressed by hepatocytes during fibrotic injury. Peak hepatocyte expression of NGF (48 hours after CCl(4) injection) coincides with maximal rate of apoptosis of HSC by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling staining. Addition of recombinant NGF to HSC in tissue culture causes a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. NGF regulates nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activity, reducing p50/p65 binding detected by electromobility shift assay and reduced NF-kappaB CAT reporter activities from both basal unstimulated levels and after NF-kappaB induction by tumor necrosis factor. In each case, a relative reduction in NF-kappaB binding was associated with a significant increase in caspase 3 activity. These data provide evidence that NGF is expressed during fibrotic liver injury and may regulate number of activated HSCs via induction of apoptosis.
|Electrophoresis and electroblotting of native collagens. |
Ramshaw, J A and Werkmeister, J A
Anal. Biochem., 168: 82-7 (1988) 1988
Electrophoretic and immunoblotting techniques, while now used routinely for the biochemical characterization of many proteins, have not been used for the identification of native collagens. We present here an acidic electrophoresis system using very low percentage acrylamide gels which maintains collagen solubility and allows migration of native dermal collagens. The method gives uniform gels which can be made mechanically stable for subsequent electroblotting. The resulting nitrocellulose transfer allows immunological detection of collagens using either polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies and can be used to screen antibody specificities. The majority of murine monoclonal antibodies directed against collagen bind only to conformational epitopes on the native triple-helical collagen, and thus cannot be screened by Western blotting. This method therefore enables the electrophoretic screening of these monoclonal antibodies and provides an alternative approach for their characterization.
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|Anti-Collagen Type I - Data Sheet|