|Presentation||Purified Goat IgG in buffer containing liquid in PBS, pH 7.1 with 15 mg/mL BSA and 0.01% thimerosal.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
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|Storage Conditions||The undiluted antibody is stable at 2-8°C for 12 months. Do not store in a diluted format. DO NOT FREEZE.|
|Material Size||1 mL|
Referências | 35 Disponível | Ver todas as referências
|Visão geral das referências||Aplicação||Pub Med ID|
|Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. |
Dinh, CH; Szabo, A; Yu, Y; Camer, D; Zhang, Q; Wang, H; Huang, XF
Nutrients 7 4705-23 2015
Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.
|Sox9 is critical for suppression of neurogenesis but not initiation of gliogenesis in the cerebellum. |
Vong, KI; Leung, CK; Behringer, RR; Kwan, KM
Molecular brain 8 25 2015
The high mobility group (HMG) family transcription factor Sox9 is critical for induction and maintenance of neural stem cell pool in the central nervous system (CNS). In the spinal cord and retina, Sox9 is also the master regulator that defines glial fate choice by mediating the neurogenic-to-gliogenic fate switch. On the other hand, the genetic repertoire governing the maintenance and fate decision of neural progenitor pool in the cerebellum has remained elusive.By employing the Cre/loxP strategy, we specifically inactivated Sox9 in the mouse cerebellum. Unexpectedly, the self-renewal capacity and multipotency of neural progenitors at the cerebellar ventricular zone (VZ) were not perturbed upon Sox9 ablation. Instead, the mutants exhibited an increased number of VZ-derived neurons including Purkinje cells and GABAergic interneurons. Simultaneously, we observed continuous neurogenesis from Sox9-null VZ at late gestation, when normally neurogenesis ceases to occur and gives way for gliogenesis. Surprisingly, glial cell specification was not affected upon Sox9 ablation.Our findings suggest Sox9 may mediate the neurogenic-to-gliogenic fate switch in mouse cerebellum by modulating the termination of neurogenesis, and therefore indicate a functional discrepancy of Sox9 between the development of cerebellum and other major neural tissues.
|Purkinje cell compartmentation in the cerebellum of the lysosomal Acid phosphatase 2 mutant mouse (nax - naked-ataxia mutant mouse). |
Bailey, K; Rahimi Balaei, M; Mannan, A; Del Bigio, MR; Marzban, H
PloS one 9 e94327 2014
The Acp2 gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase, which is an isoenzyme that hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in Acp2 results in severe cerebellar defects. These include a reduced size, abnormal lobulation, and an apparent anterior cerebellar disorder with an absent or hypoplastic vermis. Based on differential gene expression in the cerebellum, the mouse cerebellar cortex can normally be compartmentalized anteroposteriorly into four transverse zones and mediolaterally into parasagittal stripes. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed using various Purkinje cell compartmentation markers to examine their expression patterns in the Acp2 mutant. Despite the abnormal lobulation and anterior cerebellar defects, zebrin II and PLCβ4 showed similar expression patterns in the nax mutant and wild type cerebellum. However, fewer stripes were found in the anterior zone of the nax mutant, which could be due to a lack of Purkinje cells or altered expression of the stripe markers. HSP25 expression was uniform in the central zone of the nax mutant cerebellum at around postnatal day (P) 18-19, suggesting that HSP25 immunonegative Purkinje cells are absent or delayed in stripe pattern expression compared to the wild type. HSP25 expression became heterogeneous around P22-23, with twice the number of parasagittal stripes in the nax mutant compared to the wild type. Aside from reduced size and cortical disorganization, both the posterior zone and nodular zone in the nax mutant appeared less abnormal than the rest of the cerebellum. From these results, it is evident that the anterior zone of the nax mutant cerebellum is the most severely affected, and this extends beyond the primary fissure into the rostral central zone/vermis. This suggests that ACP2 has critical roles in the development of the anterior cerebellum and it may regulate anterior and central zone compartmentation.
|Two desmin gene mutations associated with myofibrillar myopathies in Polish families. |
Fichna, JP; Karolczak, J; Potulska-Chromik, A; Miszta, P; Berdynski, M; Sikorska, A; Filipek, S; Redowicz, MJ; Kaminska, A; Zekanowski, C
PloS one 9 e115470 2014
Desmin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament protein which forms a network connecting the sarcomere, T tubules, sarcolemma, nuclear membrane, mitochondria and other organelles. Mutations in the gene coding for desmin (DES) cause skeletal myopathies often combined with cardiomyopathy, or isolated cardiomyopathies. The molecular pathomechanisms of the disease remain ambiguous. Here, we describe and comprehensively characterize two DES mutations found in Polish patients with a clinical diagnosis of desminopathy. The study group comprised 16 individuals representing three families. Two mutations were identified: a novel missense mutation (Q348P) and a small deletion of nine nucleotides (A357_E359del), previously described by us in the Polish population. A common ancestry of all the families bearing the A357_E359del mutation was confirmed. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic using a bioinformatics approach, including molecular dynamics simulations which helped to rationalize abnormal behavior at molecular level. To test the impact of the mutations on DES expression and the intracellular distribution of desmin muscle biopsies were investigated. Elevated desmin levels as well as its atypical localization in muscle fibers were observed. Additional staining for M-cadherin, α-actinin, and myosin heavy chains confirmed severe disruption of myofibrill organization. The abnormalities were more prominent in the Q348P muscle, where both small atrophic fibers as well large fibers with centrally localized nuclei were observed. We propose that the mutations affect desmin structure and cause its aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation, triggering disruption of myofibrils organization.
|Hydrophobin fusion of an influenza virus hemagglutinin allows high transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, easy purification and immune response with neutralizing activity. |
Jacquet, N; Navarre, C; Desmecht, D; Boutry, M
PloS one 9 e115944 2014
The expression of recombinant hemagglutinin in plants is a promising alternative to the current egg-based production system for the influenza vaccines. Protein-stabilizing fusion partners have been developed to overcome the low production yields and the high downstream process costs associated with the plant expression system. In this context, we tested the fusion of hydrophobin I to the hemagglutinin ectodomain of the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus controlled by the hybrid En2PMA4 transcriptional promoter to rapidly produce high levels of recombinant antigen by transient expression in agro-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The fusion increased the expression level by a factor of ∼ 2.5 compared to the unfused protein allowing a high accumulation level of 8.6% of the total soluble proteins. Hemagglutinin was located in ER-derived protein bodies and was successfully purified by combining an aqueous-two phase partition system and a salting out step. Hydrophobin interactions allowed the formation of high molecular weight hemagglutinin structures, while unfused proteins were produced as monomers. Purified protein was shown to be biologically active and to induce neutralizing antibodies after mice immunization. Hydrophobin fusion to influenza hemagglutinin might therefore be a promising approach for rapid, easy, and low cost production of seasonal or pandemic influenza vaccines in plants.
|Alzheimer's therapeutics targeting amyloid beta 1-42 oligomers I: Abeta 42 oligomer binding to specific neuronal receptors is displaced by drug candidates that improve cognitive deficits. |
Izzo, NJ; Staniszewski, A; To, L; Fa, M; Teich, AF; Saeed, F; Wostein, H; Walko, T; Vaswani, A; Wardius, M; Syed, Z; Ravenscroft, J; Mozzoni, K; Silky, C; Rehak, C; Yurko, R; Finn, P; Look, G; Rishton, G; Safferstein, H; Miller, M; Johanson, C; Stopa, E; Windisch, M; Hutter-Paier, B; Shamloo, M; Arancio, O; LeVine, H; Catalano, SM
PloS one 9 e111898 2014
Synaptic dysfunction and loss caused by age-dependent accumulation of synaptotoxic beta amyloid (Abeta) 1-42 oligomers is proposed to underlie cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in membrane trafficking induced by Abeta oligomers mediates reduction in neuronal surface receptor expression that is the basis for inhibition of electrophysiological measures of synaptic plasticity and thus learning and memory. We have utilized phenotypic screens in mature, in vitro cultures of rat brain cells to identify small molecules which block or prevent the binding and effects of Abeta oligomers. Synthetic Abeta oligomers bind saturably to a single site on neuronal synapses and induce deficits in membrane trafficking in neuronal cultures with an EC50 that corresponds to its binding affinity. The therapeutic lead compounds we have found are pharmacological antagonists of Abeta oligomers, reducing the binding of Abeta oligomers to neurons in vitro, preventing spine loss in neurons and preventing and treating oligomer-induced deficits in membrane trafficking. These molecules are highly brain penetrant and prevent and restore cognitive deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Counter-screening these compounds against a broad panel of potential CNS targets revealed they are highly potent and specific ligands of the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor. Brain concentrations of the compounds corresponding to greater than 80% receptor occupancy at the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor restore cognitive function in transgenic hAPP Swe/Ldn mice. These studies demonstrate that synthetic and human-derived Abeta oligomers act as pharmacologically-behaved ligands at neuronal receptors--i.e. they exhibit saturable binding to a target, they exert a functional effect related to their binding and their displacement by small molecule antagonists blocks their functional effect. The first-in-class small molecule receptor antagonists described here restore memory to normal in multiple AD models and sustain improvement long-term, representing a novel mechanism of action for disease-modifying Alzheimer's therapeutics.
|Decreased APOE-containing HDL subfractions and cholesterol efflux capacity of serum in mice lacking Pcsk9. |
Choi, S; Aljakna, A; Srivastava, U; Peterson, BR; Deng, B; Prat, A; Korstanje, R
Lipids in health and disease 12 112 2013
Studies in animals showed that PCSK9 is involved in HDL metabolism. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which PCSK9 regulates HDL cholesterol concentration and also whether Pcsk9 inactivation might affect cholesterol efflux capacity of serum and atherosclerotic fatty streak volume.Mass spectrometry and western blot were used to analyze the level of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and A1 (APOA1). A mouse model overexpressing human LDLR was used to test the effect of high levels of liver LDLR on the concentration of HDL cholesterol and APOE-containing HDL subfractions. Pcsk9 knockout males lacking LDLR and APOE were used to test whether LDLR and APOE are necessary for PCSK9-mediated HDL cholesterol regulation. We also investigated the effects of Pcsk9 inactivation on cholesterol efflux capacity of serum using THP-1 and J774.A1 macrophage foam cells and atherosclerotic fatty streak volume in the aortic sinus of Pcsk9 knockout males fed an atherogenic diet.APOE and APOA1 were reduced in the same HDL subfractions of Pcsk9 knockout and human LDLR transgenic male mice. In Pcsk9/Ldlr double-knockout mice, HDL cholesterol concentration was lower than in Ldlr knockout mice and higher than in wild-type controls. In Pcsk9/Apoe double-knockout mice, HDL cholesterol concentration was similar to that of Apoe knockout males. In Pcsk9 knockout males, THP-1 macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity of serum was reduced and the fatty streak lesion volume was similar to wild-type controls.In mice, LDLR and APOE are important factors for PCSK9-mediated HDL regulation. Our data suggest that, although LDLR plays a major role in PCSK9-mediated regulation of HDL cholesterol concentration, it is not the only mechanism and that, regardless of mechanism, APOE is essential. Pcsk9 inactivation decreases the HDL cholesterol concentration and cholesterol efflux capacity in serum, but does not increase atherosclerotic fatty streak volume.
|Common partner Smad-independent canonical bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the specification process of the anterior rhombic lip during cerebellum development. |
Tong, KK; Kwan, KM
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1925-37 2013
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is critical for cerebellum development. However, the details of receptor regulated-Smad (R-Smad) and common partner Smad (Co-Smad, or Smad4) involvement are unclear. Here, we report that cerebellum-specific double conditional inactivation of Smad1 and Smad5 (Smad1/5) results in cerebellar hypoplasia, reduced granule cell numbers, and disorganized Purkinje neuron migration during embryonic development. However, single conditional inactivation of either Smad1 or Smad5 did not result in cerebellar abnormalities. Surprisingly, conditional inactivation of Smad4, which is considered to be the central mediator of canonical BMP-Smad signaling, resulted only in very mild cerebellar defects. Conditional inactivation of Smad1/5 led to developmental defects in the anterior rhombic lip (ARL), as shown by reduced cell proliferation and loss of Pax6 and Atoh1 expression. These defects subsequently caused the loss of the nuclear transitory zone and a region of the deep cerebellar nuclei. The normal maturation of the remaining granule cell precursors in the external granular layer (EGL) suggests Smad1/5 signaling is required for the specification process in ARL but not for the subsequent EGL development. Our results demonstrate functional redundancy for Smad1 and Smad5 but functional discrepancy between Smad1/5 and Smad4 during cerebellum development.
|Cathepsin H mediates the processing of talin and regulates migration of prostate cancer cells. |
Jevnikar, Z; Rojnik, M; Jamnik, P; Doljak, B; Fonovic, UP; Kos, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 2201-9 2013
The cytoskeletal protein talin, an actin- and β-integrin tail-binding protein, plays an important role in cell migration by promoting integrin activation and focal adhesion formation. Here, we show that talin is a substrate for cathepsin H (CtsH), a lysosomal cysteine protease with a strong aminopeptidase activity. Purified active CtsH sequentially cleaved a synthetic peptide representing the N terminus of the talin F0 head domain. The processing of talin by CtsH was determined also in the metastatic PC-3 prostate cancer cell line, which exhibits increased expression of CtsH. The attenuation of CtsH aminopeptidase activity by a specific inhibitor or siRNA-mediated silencing significantly reduced the migration of PC-3 cells on fibronectin and invasion through Matrigel. We found that in migrating PC-3 cells, CtsH was co-localized with talin in the focal adhesions. Furthermore, specific inhibition of CtsH increased the activation of α(v)β(3)-integrin on PC-3 cells. We propose that CtsH-mediated processing of talin might promote cancer cell progression by affecting integrin activation and adhesion strength.
|Prion protein impairs kinesin-driven transport. |
Hanna Nieznanska,Elzbieta Dudek,Tomasz Zajkowski,Ewa Szczesna,Andrzej A Kasprzak,Krzysztof Nieznanski
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 425 2012
Our previous studies have demonstrated that prion protein (PrP) leads to disassembly of microtubular cytoskeleton through binding to tubulin and its oligomerization. Here we found that PrP-treated cells exhibited improper morphology of mitotic spindles. Formation of aberrant spindles may result not only from altered microtubule dynamics - as expected from PrP-induced tubulin oligomerization - but also from impairing the function of molecular motors. Therefore we checked whether binding of PrP to microtubules affected movement generated by Ncd - a kinesin responsible for the proper organization of division spindles. We found that PrP inhibited Ncd-driven transport of microtubules. Most probably, the inhibition of the microtubule movement resulted from PrP-induced changes in the microtubule structure since Ncd-microtubule binding was reduced already at low PrP to tubulin molar ratios. This study suggests another plausible mechanism of PrP cytotoxicity related to the interaction with tubulin, namely impeding microtubule-dependent transport.
|Fibronectin expression is decreased in metastatic renal cell carcinoma following endostatin gene therapy. |
Karen Cristina Barbosa Chaves,Lauro Thiago Turaça,João Bosco Pesquero,Gregory Mennecier,Maria Lucia Zaidan Dagli,Roger Chammas,Nestor Schor,Maria Helena Bellini
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie 66 2012
Tumor cells induce the disruption of homeostasis between cellular and extracellular compartments to favor tumor progression. The expression of fibronectin (FN), a matrix glycoprotein, is increased in several carcinoma cell types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RCC are highly vascularized tumors and are often amenable to antiangiogenic therapy. Endostatin (ES) is a fragment of collagen XVIII that possesses antiangiogenic activity. In this study, we examined the modulation of FN gene expression by ES gene therapy in a murine metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) model. Balb/C mice bearing Renca cells were treated with NIH/3T3-LXSN cells or NIH/3T3-LendSN cells. At the end of the experiment, the ES serum levels were measured, and the FN gene expression was assessed using real-time PCR. The tissue FN was evaluated by western blotting and by immunofluorescence analysis. The ES serum levels in treated mice were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). ES treatment led to significant decreases at the FN mRNA (P<0.001) and protein levels (P<0.01). Here, we demonstrate the ES antitumor effect that is mediated by down-regulation of FN expression in mRCC.
|GABAergic signaling and connectivity on Purkinje cells are impaired in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. |
Georgia Mandolesi,Giorgio Grasselli,Alessandra Musella,Antonietta Gentile,Gabriele Musumeci,Helena Sepman,Nabila Haji,Diego Fresegna,Giorgio Bernardi,Diego Centonze
Neurobiology of disease 46 2012
A significant proportion of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have functionally relevant cerebellar deficits, which significantly contribute to disability. Although clinical and experimental studies have been conducted to understand the pathophysiology of cerebellar dysfunction in MS, no electrophysiological and morphological studies have investigated potential alterations of synaptic connections of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC). For this reason we analyzed cerebellar PC GABAergic connectivity in mice with MOG((35-55))-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. We observed a strong reduction in the frequency of the spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) recorded from PCs during the symptomatic phase of the disease, and in presence of prominent microglia activation not only in the white matter (WM) but also in the molecular layer (ML). The massive GABAergic innervation on PCs from basket and stellate cells was reduced and associated to a decrease of the number of these inhibitory interneurons. On the contrary no significant loss of the PCs could be detected. Incubation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) was sufficient to mimic the electrophysiological alterations observed in EAE mice. We thus suggest that microglia and pro-inflammatory cytokines, together with a degeneration of basket and stellate cells and their synaptic terminals, contribute to impair GABAergic transmission on PCs during EAE. Our results support a growing body of evidence that GABAergic signaling is compromised in EAE and in MS, and show a selective susceptibility to neuronal and synaptic degeneration of cerebellar inhibitory interneurons.
|A novel, lactase-based selection and strain improvement strategy for recombinant protein expression in Kluyveromyces lactis. |
Krijger, JJ; Baumann, J; Wagner, M; Schulze, K; Reinsch, C; Klose, T; Onuma, OF; Simon, C; Behrens, SE; Breunig, KD
Microbial cell factories 11 112 2012
The Crabtree-negative yeast species Kluyveromyces lactis has been established as an attractive microbial expression system for recombinant proteins at industrial scale. Its LAC genes allow for utilization of the inexpensive sugar lactose as a sole source of carbon and energy. Lactose efficiently induces the LAC4 promoter, which can be used to drive regulated expression of heterologous genes. So far, strain manipulation of K. lactis by homologous recombination was hampered by the high rate of non-homologous end-joining.Selection for growth on lactose was applied to target the insertion of heterologous genes downstream of the LAC4 promoter into the K. lactis genome and found to yield high numbers of positive transformants. Concurrent reconstitution of the β-galactosidase gene indicated the desired integration event of the expression cassette, and β-galactosidase activity measurements were used to monitor gene expression for strain improvement and fermentation optimization. The system was particularly improved by usage of a cell lysis resistant strain, VAK367-D4, which allowed for protein accumulation in long-term fermentation. Further optimization was achieved by increased gene dosage of KlGAL4 encoding the activator of lactose and galactose metabolic genes that led to elevated transcription rates. Pilot experiments were performed with strains expressing a single-chain antibody fragment (scFvox) and a viral envelope protein (BVDV-E2), respectively. scFvox was shown to be secreted into the culture medium in an active, epitope-binding form indicating correct processing and protein folding; the E2 protein could be expressed intracellularly. Further data on the influence of protein toxicity on batch fermentation and potential post-transcriptional bottlenecks in protein accumulation were obtained.A novel Kluyveromyces lactis host-vector system was developed that places heterologous genes under the control of the chromosomal LAC4 promoter and that allows monitoring of its transcription rates by β-galactosidase measurement. The procedure is rapid and efficient, and the resulting recombinant strains contain no foreign genes other than the gene of interest. The recombinant strains can be grown non-selectively in rich medium and stably maintained even when the gene product exerts protein toxicity.
|Adipocytokine levels mark endothelial function in normotensive individuals. |
Solini, A; Stea, F; Santini, E; Bruno, RM; Duranti, E; Taddei, S; Ghiadoni, L
Cardiovascular diabetology 11 103 2012
Endothelial dysfunction is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Inflammatory mediators released by the adipose tissue can lead to local insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. This study addressed the relationship of adipocytokines with endothelial function and blood pressure.In 92 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve essential hypertensive patients (HT, mean age 49 yrs) without organ damage and 66 normotensive subjects (NT, mean age 47 yrs), by an automated system, we measured endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation as brachial artery flow-mediated dilation before and after administration of glyceryl-trinitrate. Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) and resistin levels were determined by ELISA and RIA, respectively. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring serum malondyaldehyde (MDA).Flow-mediated dilation was significantly (p = 0.03) lower in HT (5.3 ± 2.6%) than NT (6.1 ± 3.1%), while response to glyceryl-trinitrate (7.5 ± 3.7% vs 7.9 ± 3.4%) was similar. RBP4 (60.6 ± 25.1 vs 61.3 ± 25.9 μg/ml), resistin (18.8 ± 5.3 vs 19.9 ± 6.1 ng/ml) and MDA levels (2.39 ± 1.26 vs 2.08 ± 1.17 nmol/ml) were not different in HT and NT.RBP4 (r = -0.25; p = 0.04) and resistin levels (r = -0.29; p = 0.03) were related to flow-mediated dilation in NT, but not in HT (r = -0.03 and r = -0.10, respectively). In NT, multivariate analysis including RBP4 and confounders showed that only BMI or waist circumference remained related to flow- mediated dilation. In the multivariate model including resistin and confounders, BMI, age and resistin were significantly related to flow-mediated dilation, while only age significant correlated with this parameter when BMI was replaced by waist circumference.Adipocytokine levels may be independent predictors of endothelial dysfunction in the peripheral circulation of healthy subjects, providing a pathophysiological link between inflammation from adipose tissue and early vascular alterations.
|Identification of elongation factor G as the conserved cellular target of argyrin B. |
Nyfeler, B; Hoepfner, D; Palestrant, D; Kirby, CA; Whitehead, L; Yu, R; Deng, G; Caughlan, RE; Woods, AL; Jones, AK; Barnes, SW; Walker, JR; Gaulis, S; Hauy, E; Brachmann, SM; Krastel, P; Studer, C; Riedl, R; Estoppey, D; Aust, T; Movva, NR; Wang, Z; Salcius, M; Michaud, GA; McAllister, G; Murphy, LO; Tallarico, JA; Wilson, CJ; Dean, CR
PloS one 7 e42657 2012
Argyrins, produced by myxobacteria and actinomycetes, are cyclic octapeptides with antibacterial and antitumor activity. Here, we identify elongation factor G (EF-G) as the cellular target of argyrin B in bacteria, via resistant mutant selection and whole genome sequencing, biophysical binding studies and crystallography. Argyrin B binds a novel allosteric pocket in EF-G, distinct from the known EF-G inhibitor antibiotic fusidic acid, revealing a new mode of protein synthesis inhibition. In eukaryotic cells, argyrin B was found to target mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1), the closest homologue of bacterial EF-G. By blocking mitochondrial translation, argyrin B depletes electron transport components and inhibits the growth of yeast and tumor cells. Further supporting direct inhibition of EF-G1, expression of an argyrin B-binding deficient EF-G1 L693Q variant partially rescued argyrin B-sensitivity in tumor cells. In summary, we show that argyrin B is an antibacterial and cytotoxic agent that inhibits the evolutionarily conserved target EF-G, blocking protein synthesis in bacteria and mitochondrial translation in yeast and mammalian cells.
|Tau inhibits tubulin oligomerization induced by prion protein. |
Osiecka, KM; Nieznanska, H; Skowronek, KJ; Jozwiak, J; Nieznanski, K
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1813 1845-53 2011
In previous studies we have demonstrated that prion protein (PrP) interacts with tubulin and disrupts microtubular cytoskeleton by inducing tubulin oligomerization. These observations may explain the molecular mechanism of toxicity of cytoplasmic PrP in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Here, we check whether microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) that regulate microtubule stability, influence the PrP-induced oligomerization of tubulin. We show that tubulin preparations depleted of MAPs are more prone to oligomerization by PrP than those containing traces of MAPs. Tau protein, a major neuronal member of the MAPs family, reduces the effect of PrP. Importantly, phosphorylation of Tau abolishes its ability to affect the PrP-induced oligomerization of tubulin. We propose that the binding of Tau stabilizes tubulin in a conformation less susceptible to oligomerization by PrP. Since elevated phosphorylation of Tau leading to a loss of its function is observed in Alzheimer disease and related tauopathies, our results point at a possible molecular link between these neurodegenerative disorders and TSEs.
|An association between NUAK2 and MRIP reveals a novel mechanism for regulation of actin stress fibers. |
Vallenius, T; Vaahtomeri, K; Kovac, B; Osiceanu, AM; Viljanen, M; Mäkelä, TP
Journal of cell science 124 384-93 2011
Actin stress fiber assembly and contractility in nonmuscle motile cells requires phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC). Dephosphorylation and disassembly are mediated by MLC phosphatase, which is targeted to actin fibers by the association of its regulatory subunit MYPT1 with myosin phosphatase Rho-interacting protein (MRIP). In the present study, we identify the kinase NUAK2 as a second protein targeted by MRIP to actin fibers. Association of NUAK2 with MRIP increases MLC phosphorylation and promotes formation of stress fibers. This activity does not require the kinase activity of NUAK2 but is dependent on both MRIP and MYPT1, indicating that the NUAK2-MRIP association inhibits fiber disassembly and MYPT1-mediated MLC dephosphorylation. NUAK2 levels are strongly induced by stimuli increasing actomyosin fiber formation, and NUAK2 is required for fiber maintenance in exponentially growing cells, implicating NUAK2 in a positive-feedback loop regulating actin stress fibers independently of the MLC kinase Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK). The identified MRIP-NUAK2 association reveals a novel mechanism for the maintenance of actin stress fibers through counteracting MYPT1 and, together with recent results, implicates the NUAK proteins as important regulators of the MLC phosphatase acting in both a kinase-dependent and kinase-independent manner.
|Perinatal phencyclidine treatment alters neuregulin 1 erbB4 expression and activation in later life. |
du Bois TM, Newell KA, Huang XF
European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2011
Schizophrenia is a complex and devastating mental disorder of unknown etiology. Hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are implicated in the disorder, since phencyclidine (PCP) and other NMDA receptor antagonists mimic schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans and animals so well. Moreover, genetic linkage and post mortem studies strongly suggest a role for altered neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)/erbB4 signaling in schizophrenia pathology. This study investigated the relationship between the NMDA receptor and Nrg1 signaling pathways using the perinatal PCP animal model. Rats (n=5/group) were treated with PCP (10mg/kg) or saline on postnatal days (PN) 7, 9 and 11 and were sacrificed on PN12, 5weeks and 20weeks for biochemical analyses. Western blotting was used to determine total and phosphorylated levels of proteins involved in NMDA receptor/Nrg1 signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. In the cortex, PCP treatment altered Nrg1/erbB4 expression levels throughout development, including decreased Nrg1 and erbB4 at PN12 (-25-30%; p<0.05); increased erbB4 and p-erbB4 (+18-27%; p<0.01) at 5weeks; and decreased erbB4 and p-erbB4 (-16-18%; p<0.05) along with increased Nrg1 (+33%; p<0.01) at 20weeks. In the hippocampus, levels of Nrg1/erbB4 were largely unaffected apart from a significant decrease in p-erbB4 at 20weeks (-13%; p<0.001); however NMDA receptor subunits and PSD-95 showed increases at PN12 and 5weeks (+20-32%; p<0.05), and decreases at 20weeks (-22-29%; p<0.05). This study shows that NMDA receptor antagonism early in development can have long term effects on Nrg1/erbB4 expression which could be important in understanding pathological processes which might be involved in schizophrenia.Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
|Adipocyte P2X(7) receptors expression: A role in modulating inflammatory response in subjects with metabolic syndrome |
Madec S, Rossi C, Chiarugi M, Santini E, Salvati A, Ferrannini E, Solini A
|Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus microRNAs target caspase 3 and regulate apoptosis. |
Suffert, G; Malterer, G; Hausser, J; Viiliäinen, J; Fender, A; Contrant, M; Ivacevic, T; Benes, V; Gros, F; Voinnet, O; Zavolan, M; Ojala, PM; Haas, JG; Pfeffer, S
PLoS pathogens 7 e1002405 2011
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a cluster of twelve micro (mi)RNAs, which are abundantly expressed during both latent and lytic infection. Previous studies reported that KSHV is able to inhibit apoptosis during latent infection; we thus tested the involvement of viral miRNAs in this process. We found that both HEK293 epithelial cells and DG75 cells stably expressing KSHV miRNAs were protected from apoptosis. Potential cellular targets that were significantly down-regulated upon KSHV miRNAs expression were identified by microarray profiling. Among them, we validated by luciferase reporter assays, quantitative PCR and western blotting caspase 3 (Casp3), a critical factor for the control of apoptosis. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that three KSHV miRNAs, miR-K12-1, 3 and 4-3p, were responsible for the targeting of Casp3. Specific inhibition of these miRNAs in KSHV-infected cells resulted in increased expression levels of endogenous Casp3 and enhanced apoptosis. Altogether, our results suggest that KSHV miRNAs directly participate in the previously reported inhibition of apoptosis by the virus, and are thus likely to play a role in KSHV-induced oncogenesis.
|Mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III is required for antimycin A to inhibit autophagy. |
Ma, X; Jin, M; Cai, Y; Xia, H; Long, K; Liu, J; Yu, Q; Yuan, J
Chemistry & biology 18 1474-81 2011
Autophagy is a cellular lysosome-dependent catabolic mechanism mediating the turnover of intracellular organelles and long-lived proteins. We show that antimycin A, a known inhibitor of mETC complex III, can inhibit autophagy. A structural and functional study shows that four close analogs of antimycin A that have no effect on mitochondria inhibition also do not inhibit autophagy, whereas myxothiazol, another mETC complex III inhibitor with unrelated structure to antimycin A, inhibits autophagy. Additionally, antimycin A and myxothiazol cannot inhibit autophagy in mtDNA-depleted H4 and mtDNA-depleted HeLa cells. These data suggest that antimycin A inhibits autophagy through its inhibitory activity on mETC complex III. Our data suggest that mETC complex III may have a role in mediating autophagy induction.
|Immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM) proteins influence the localization of guanylate-binding protein 2 (GBP2) by modulating macroautophagy. |
Traver, MK; Henry, SC; Cantillana, V; Oliver, T; Hunn, JP; Howard, JC; Beer, S; Pfeffer, K; Coers, J; Taylor, GA
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 30471-80 2011
The immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) are a family of proteins induced by interferon-γ that play a crucial role in innate resistance to intracellular pathogens. The M subfamily of IRG proteins (IRGM) plays a profound role in this context, in part because of the ability of its members to regulate the localization and expression of other IRG proteins. We present here evidence that IRGM proteins affect the localization of the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), a second family of interferon-induced GTP-binding proteins that also function in innate immunity. Absence of Irgm1 or Irgm3 led to accumulation of Gbp2 in intracellular compartments that were positive for both the macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) marker LC3 and the autophagic adapter molecule p62/Sqstm1. Gbp2 was similarly relocalized in cells in which autophagy was impaired because of the absence of Atg5. Both in Atg5- and IRGM-deficient cells, the IRG protein Irga6 relocalized to the same compartments as Gbp2, raising the possibility of a common regulatory mechanism. However, other data indicated that Irga6, but not Gbp2, was ubiquitinated in IRGM-deficient cells. Similarly, coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated that although Irgm3 did interact directly with Irgb6, it did not interact with Gbp2. Collectively, these data suggest that IRGM proteins indirectly modulate the localization of GBPs through a distinct mechanism from that through which they regulate IRG protein localization. Further, these results suggest that a core function of IRGM proteins is to regulate autophagic flux, which influences the localization of GBPs and possibly other factors that instruct cell-autonomous immune resistance.
|Transformation of amyloid β(1-40) oligomers into fibrils is characterized by a major change in secondary structure. |
Sarroukh, Rabia, et al.
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, (2010) 2010
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder occurring in the elderly. It is widely accepted that the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) aggregation and especially the oligomeric states rather than fibrils are involved in AD onset. We used infrared spectroscopy to provide structural information on the entire aggregation pathway of Aβ(1-40), starting from monomeric Aβ to the end of the process, fibrils. Our structural study suggests that conversion of oligomers into fibrils results from a transition from antiparallel to parallel β-sheet. These structural changes are described in terms of H-bonding rupture/formation, β-strands reorientation and β-sheet elongation. As antiparallel β-sheet structure is also observed for other amyloidogenic proteins forming oligomers, reorganization of the β-sheet implicating a reorientation of β-strands could be a generic mechanism determining the kinetics of protein misfolding. Elucidation of the process driving aggregation, including structural transitions, could be essential in a search for therapies inhibiting aggregation or disrupting aggregates.
|Retinol-binding protein-4 in women with untreated essential hypertension. |
Anna Solini,Eleonora Santini,Stephanie Madec,Chiara Rossi,Elza Muscelli
American journal of hypertension 22 2009
Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine able to modulate the action of insulin in several tissues. A variable degree of insulin resistance characterizes the vast majority of hypertensive (HYP) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between RBP4 and essential hypertension, exploring potential links between RBP4 and other adipokines with some proxies of early vascular damage in female naive HYP patients.
|Neurite outgrowth is enhanced by laminin-mediated down-regulation of the low affinity neurotrophin receptor, p75NTR. |
Sherri L Rankin, Clifford S Guy, Karen M Mearow
Journal of neurochemistry 107 799-813 2008
Laminin (LN), an extracellular matrix component, is a key factor in promoting axonal regeneration, coordinately regulating growth in conjunction with trophic signals provided by the neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF). This study investigated potential interactions between the LN and NGF-mediated signaling pathways in PC12 cells and primary neurons. Neurite outgrowth stimulated by NGF was enhanced on a LN substrate. Western blot analysis of pertinent signal transduction components revealed both enhanced phosphorylation of early signaling intermediates upon co-stimulation, and a LN-induced down-regulation of p75NTR which could be prevented by the addition of integrin inhibitory arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptides. This p75NTR down-regulation was associated with a LN-mediated up-regulation of PTEN and resulted in a decrease in Rho activity. Studies using over-expression or siRNA-mediated knock-down of PTEN demonstrate a consistent inverse relationship with p75NTR, and the over-expression of p75NTR impaired neurite outgrowth on a LN substrate, as well as resulting in sustained activation of Rho which is inhibitory to neurite outgrowth. p75NTR is documented for its role in the transduction of inhibitory myelin-derived signals, and our results point to extracellular matrix regulation of p75NTR as a potential mechanism to ameliorate inhibitory signaling leading to optimized neurite outgrowth.
|Enhanced bone regeneration associated with decreased apoptosis in mice with partial HIF-1alpha deficiency. |
David E Komatsu, Marta Bosch-Marce, Gregg L Semenza, Michael Hadjiargyrou
Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 22 366-74 2007
HIF-1alpha activates genes under hypoxia and was hypothesized to regulate bone regeneration. Surprisingly, HIF-1alpha+/- fracture calluses are larger, stronger, and stiffer than HIF-1alpha+/+ calluses because of decreased apoptosis. These data identify apoptosis inhibition as a means to enhance bone regeneration. INTRODUCTION: Bone regeneration subsequent to fracture involves the synergistic activation of multiple signaling pathways. Localized hypoxia after fracture activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha), leading to increased expression of HIF-1 target genes. We therefore hypothesized that HIF-1alpha is a key regulator of bone regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fixed femoral fractures were generated in mice with partial HIF-1alpha deficiency (HIF-1alpha+/-) and wildtype littermates (HIF-1alpha+/+). Fracture calluses and intact contralateral femurs from postfracture days (PFDs) 21 and 28 (N=5-10) were subjected to microCT evaluation and four-point bending to assess morphometric and mechanical properties. Molecular analyses were carried out on PFD 7, 10, and 14 samples (N=3) to determine differential gene expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Finally, TUNEL staining was performed on PFD 14 samples (N=2) to elucidate differential apoptosis. RESULTS: Surprisingly, fracture calluses from HIF-1alpha+/- mice exhibited greater mineralization and were larger, stronger, and stiffer. Microarray analyses focused on hypoxia-induced genes revealed differential expression (between genotypes) of several genes associated with the apoptotic pathway. Real-time PCR confirmed these results, showing higher expression of proapoptotic protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A) and lower expression of anti-apoptotic B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in HIF-1alpha+/+ calluses. Subsequent TUNEL staining showed that HIF-1alpha+/+ calluses contained larger numbers of TUNEL+ chondrocytes and osteoblasts than HIF-1alpha+/- calluses. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that partial HIF-1alpha deficiency results in decreased chondrocytic and osteoblastic apoptosis, thereby allowing the development of larger, stiffer calluses and enhancing bone regeneration. Furthermore, apoptosis inhibition may be a promising target for developing new treatments to accelerate bone regeneration.Texto completo do artigo
|Assessment of protein glycoxidation in ventricular tissues. |
Shi-Yan Li, Jun Ren
Methods in molecular medicine 139 313-28 2007
Advanced glycation end products are permanently modified protein derivatives formed in the presence of reducing sugars, such as glucose, fructose, hexose-phosphates, trioses, and triose-phosphates by non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation (glycoxidation) reactions and further irreversible rearrangements. Numerous studies have revealed the pivotal role of protein glycoxidation in the pathogeneses of diabetes-related and age-related diseases. Protein glycoxidation is generally recognized both as a hallmark and as a promoter for progression of diabetes-related and age-related ailments, particularly in cardiovascular system such as increased vascular and myocardial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, altered vascular injury responses, and atherosclerotic plaque formation. An appropriate surveillance on abnormal protein glycoxidation at an early stage of disease progression is of clinical and practical importance to handle diabetes-related and age-related cardiovascular complications especially those leading to ventricular dysfunction.
|Role of PKC in regulation of Fos and TH expression after naloxone induced morphine withdrawal in the heart. |
Pilar Almela, Manuela Cerezo, M Victoria Milanés, M Luisa Laorden
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology 372 374-82 2006
We previously demonstrated that morphine withdrawal induced hyperactivity of the heart by activation of noradrenergic pathways innervating the left and right ventricle, as evaluated by noradrenaline (NA) turnover and Fos expression. The present study was designed to investigate the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in this process, by estimating whether pharmacological inhibition of PKC would attenuate morphine withdrawal induced Fos expression and changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity levels and NA turnover in the left and right ventricle. Dependence on morphine was induced on day 8 by an injection of naloxone. Morphine withdrawal induced Fos expression and increased TH levels and NA turnover in the right and left ventricle. Infusion of calphostin C, a selective PKC inhibitor, did not modify the morphine withdrawal-induced increase in NA turnover and TH levels. However, this inhibitor produced a reduction in the morphine withdrawal-induced Fos expression. The results of the present study provide new information on the mechanisms that underlie morphine withdrawal-induced up-regulation of Fos expression in the heart and suggest that TH is not a target of PKC during morphine withdrawal at heart levels.
|Heat shock protein 27 is involved in neurite extension and branching of dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro. |
Kristy L Williams, Masuma Rahimtula, Karen M Mearow
Journal of neuroscience research 84 716-23 2006
Alteration of the cytoskeleton in response to growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins is necessary for neurite growth. The cytoskeletal components, such as actin and tubulin, can be modified through interaction with other cellular proteins, including the small heat shock protein Hsp27. Our previous work suggested that Hsp27 influences neurite growth, potentially via its phosphorylation state interactions with actin. To investigate further the role of Hsp27 in neurite outgrowth of adult dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, we have both down-regulated endogenous Hsp27 and expressed exogenous Hsp27. Down-regulation of Hsp27 with Hsp27 siRNA resulted in a decrease of neuritic tree length and complexity. In contrast, expression of exogenous Hsp27 in these neurons resulted in an increase in neuritic tree length and branching. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Hsp27 may play a role in neuritic growth via modulation of the actin cytoskeleton.
|Simultaneous in situ detection of RNA, DNA, and protein using tyramide-coupled immunofluorescence. |
Brian A Van Tine, Thomas R Broker, Louise T Chow
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 292 215-30 2005
The use of tyramide-coupled immunofluorescence at the single cell level provides expedient, clean, and sensitive signals for detection of DNA, RNA, or proteins. The principle is based on the ability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to cleave tyramides into a free radical species with a very short diffusion radius. The free radicals are then covalently bound to electron-rich moieties such as tyrosine in proteins proximal to the targets. Here we present protocols for tyramide fluorescent in situ hybridization (T-FISH), which detects unique DNA species using DNA probes as short as approx 300-500 bp, or unique RNA species with probes as small as an oligonucleotide. We also present a protocol for tyramide immunofluorescence (T-IF) to detect protein antigens. By combining these protocols with several tyramide-coupled fluorophores, multiple targets can be detected simultaneously in situ, which is ideal for in-depth analyses at the molecular and cellular levels. Finally, we describe the detection of nascent viral RNA transcripts simultaneously with integrated viral genomes or chromosomal domains in single cells or tissue sections.
|TrkA NGF receptor plays a role in the modulation of p75NTR expression. |
Sherri L Rankin, Clifford S Guy, Karen M Mearow
Neuroscience letters 383 305-10 2005
The cellular response to nerve growth factor (NGF) is mediated by two structurally unrelated receptors, TrkA and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), which have been shown to interact resulting in reciprocal modulation of function. In this study, we have examined the modulation of p75NTR protein expression by specific TrkA autophosphorylation sites in the presence or absence of NGF. We have used cell lines derived from PC12 cells that express either no endogenous TrkA (PC12nnr5) or TrkA receptors mutated via site-directed mutagenesis to abrogate individual tyrosine autophosphorylation sites on the cytoplasmic tail (Y490F, Y785F and Y490/785F). Results indicate that in the absence of TrkA in PC12nnr5 cells there is reduced constitutive p75NTR expression, which can be restored to different degrees by transfection of the Y490F TrkA or the Y490/785F TrkA, but not by transfection of the Y785F TrkA. In addition, the expression of p75NTR was upregulated in the presence of NGF in the parental and Y490F cell lines only. Together these results indicate a role for the individual tyrosine autophosphorylation sites of TrkA in regulating p75NTR expression.
|Involvement of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in regulation of Fos expression and tyrosine hydroxylase levels during morphine withdrawal in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and medulla oblongata catecholaminergic cell groups. |
Marta Benavides, M Luisa Laorden, M Victoria Milanés
Journal of neurochemistry 92 246-54 2005
Morphine withdrawal stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity by activation of nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS)/ventrolateral medulla (VLM) noradrenergic pathways innervating the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). We investigated whether cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) plays a role in this process by estimating changes in PKA immunoreactivity and the influence of inhibition of PKA on Fos protein expression and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity levels in the PVN and NTS/VLM during morphine withdrawal. Dependence on morphine was induced by a 7-day s.c. implantation of morphine pellets. Morphine withdrawal was precipitated on day 8 by an injection of naloxone (5 mg/kg s.c.). When opioid withdrawal was precipitated, an increase in PKA immunoreactivity levels was observed 90 min after naloxone administration in the PVN and NTS/VLM areas. Morphine withdrawal induced expression of Fos in the PVN and NTS/VLM, indicating an activation of neurones in those nuclei. TH immunoreactivity in NTS/VLM was increased 90 min after induction of morphine withdrawal, whereas there was a decrease in TH levels in the PVN at the same time point. When the selective PKA inhibitor HA-1004 was infused it greatly diminished the Fos expression observed in morphine-withdrawn rats. Furthermore, the changes in TH immunoreactivity were significantly modified by infusion of HA-1004. The present findings suggest that an up-regulated PKA-dependent transduction pathway might contribute to the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in response to morphine withdrawal.
|Antigen expression kinetics and immune responses of mice immunized with noninfectious simian-human immunodeficiency virus DNA. |
Hegde, R; Liu, Z; Mackay, G; Smith, M; Chebloune, Y; Narayan, O; Singh, DK
Journal of virology 79 14688-97 2005
In a previous report we demonstrated that three injections of an rt-deleted noninfectious genome of the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(KU2) induced protection against AIDS in macaques (D. K. Singh, Z. Liu, D. Sheffer, G. A. Mackay, M. Smith, S. Dhillon, R. Hegde, F. Jia, I. Adany, and O. Narayan, J. Virol 79:3419-3428, 2005). To make this DNA safer, we deleted two more genes, the integrase gene and vif, along with the 3' long terminal repeat. We also replaced the gag, pro, and nef genes (SIVmac239 origin) with those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 strain SF2. The resultant construct, designated delta4SHIV(KU2) DNA, was used in this study to evaluate gene expression and immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. DNA-transfected human embryonic kidney epithelial cells (HEK 293) produced all of the major viral proteins and released p24 in the supernatant for 12 days. Inoculation of the vaccine DNA into the gastrocnemius muscles resulted in intense mononuclear cell infiltration at the inoculated sites and the production of viral p24 in myocytes, in infiltrating mononuclear cells, and in cells in the spleen and draining lymph nodes between 3 and 10 days postinoculation. Expression of p24 in the muscle cells peaked at day 7 and became undetectable after day 12. The same 12-day period of expression of p24 was observed in mice that were given a second injection 4 weeks after the first. Evaluation of immune responses in BALB/c mice revealed that the DNA induced enzyme-linked immunospot and antigen-specific proliferative cell-mediated immunity responses. The responses were stronger in mice that were coinjected with a second plasmid expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Since new waves of viral antigen production could be induced with each boosting injection of the vaccine DNA, this DNA could be a safe and efficient agent to induce long-term protection against HIV.
|Increase of tyrosine hydroxylase levels and activity during morphine withdrawal in the heart. |
Ana González-Cuello, M Victoria Milanés, M Luisa Laorden
European journal of pharmacology 506 119-28 2004
Our previous studies have shown an enhanced activity of the noradrenergic pathways innervating the heart in rats withdrawn from morphine. However, the possible adaptive changes that can occur in these pathways during morphine dependence are not known. We studied the alterations in tyrosine hydroxylase (the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamines biosynthesis) and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the heart (right and left ventricle) during morphine withdrawal. In the same paradigm, we measured Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation and the normetanephrine/noradrenaline ratio (an index of noradrenaline turnover). We evaluated the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and Fos by quantitative Western blot analysis, and noradrenaline turnover using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Dependence on morphine was induced by a 7-day s.c. implantation of morphine pellets. Morphine withdrawal was precipitated on day 8 by an injection of naloxone (5 mg/kg s.c.). The results show a significant increase in tyrosine hydroxylase levels and activity in the right and left ventricle 30 or 90 min after naloxone precipitated withdrawal in parallel with an increase in noradrenaline turnover. Morphine withdrawal also induced an increase in the Fos expression, which indicates an activation of cardiac cellular activity. Our results suggest that an increase in tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels and tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme activity might contribute to the enhanced noradrenergic activity in the heart in response to morphine withdrawal.
|Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase levels and activity and Fos expression during opioid withdrawal in the hypothalamic PVN and medulla oblongata catecholaminergic cell groups innervating the PVN. |
Marta Benavides, M Luisa Laorden, J Carlos García-Borrón, M Victoria Milanés
The European journal of neuroscience 17 103-12 2003
Morphine withdrawal increases the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, which is dependent on an hyperactivity of noradrenergic pathways innervating the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). However, the possible adaptive changes that can occur in these pathways during morphine dependence are not known. We studied the alterations in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamines biosynthesis) immunoreactivity levels and TH enzyme activity in the rat NTS-A2/VLM-A1 noradrenergic cell groups and in the PVN during morphine withdrawal. In the same paradigm, we measured Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation. TH and Fos immunoreactivity was determined by quantitative Western blot analysis, combined with immunostaining for TH and Fos for immunohistochemical identification of active neurons during morphine withdrawal. Dependence on morphine was induced by a 7-day s.c. implantation of morphine pellets. Morphine withdrawal was precipitated on day 8 by an injection of naloxone (5 mg/kg s.c.). Morphine withdrawal induced the expression of Fos in the PVN and NTS/VLM, which indicates an activation of neurons in these nuclei. TH immunoreactivity in the NTS/VLM was increased 90 min after morphine withdrawal, whereas there was a decrease in TH levels in the PVN at the same time point. Following withdrawal, Fos immunoreactivity was present in most of the TH-positive neurons of the A2 and A1 neurons. TH activity was measured in the PVN, a projection area of noradrenergic neurons arising from NTS-A2/VLM-A1. Morphine withdrawal was associated with an increase in the enzyme activity at different time points after naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The present results suggest that an increase in TH protein levels and TH enzyme activity might contribute to the enhanced noradrenergic activity in the PVN in response to morphine withdrawal.
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|Goat anti-Mouse IgG, Peroxidase Conjugated, H&L - Data Sheet|