|Trehalose-recycling ABC transporter LpqY-SugA-SugB-SugC is essential for virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. |
Rainer Kalscheuer,Brian Weinrick,Usha Veeraraghavan,Gurdyal S Besra,William R Jacobs
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an exclusively human pathogen that proliferates within phagosomes of host phagocytes. Host lipids are believed to provide the major carbon and energy sources for Mtb, with only limited availability of carbohydrates. There is an apparent paradox because five putative carbohydrate uptake permeases are present in Mtb, but there are essentially no host carbohydrates inside phagosomes. Nevertheless, carbohydrate transporters have been implicated in Mtb pathogenesis, suggesting that acquisition of host sugars is important during some stages of infection. Here we show, however, that the LpqY-SugA-SugB-SugC ATP-binding cassette transporter is highly specific for uptake of the disaccharide trehalose, a sugar not present in mammals, thus refuting a role in nutrient acquisition from the host. Trehalose release is known to occur as a byproduct of the biosynthesis of the mycolic acid cell envelope by Mtb's antigen 85 complex. The antigen 85 complex constitutes a group of extracellular mycolyl transferases, which transfer the lipid moiety of the glycolipid trehalose monomycolate (TMM) to arabinogalactan or another molecule of TMM, yielding trehalose dimycolate. These reactions also lead to the concomitant extracellular release of the trehalose moiety of TMM. We found that the LpqY-SugA-SugB-SugC ATP-binding cassette transporter is a recycling system mediating the retrograde transport of released trehalose. Perturbations in trehalose recycling strongly impaired virulence of Mtb. This study reveals an unexpected accessory component involved in the formation of the mycolic acid cell envelope in mycobacteria and provides a previously unknown role for sugar transporters in bacterial pathogenesis.Texto completo do artigo
|Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of penicillin antibiotics residues in bovine muscle according to the European Union Decision 2002/657/EC. |
Victoria F Samanidou,Styliani A Nisyriou,Ioannis N Papadoyannis
Journal of separation science
A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of five penicillins: penicillin G (PENG), penicillin V (PENV), oxacillin (OX), cloxacillin (CLO), and dicloxacillin (DICLO), in bovine muscle. Samples were macerated with a mixture of H(2)O/CH(3)CN (1:1) and purified using RP-8 Adsorbex SPE cartridges after centrifugation, with mean recovery from spiked samples higher than 89%. The separation of the examined penicillins was achieved on an analytical column, an Inertsil C8 5 microm, 250x4 mm(2), at ambient temperature. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% TFA/ACN 50:50 v/v delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1.1 mL/min. Analytes were monitored at 240 nm. The procedure was validated according to the European Union Decision 2002/657/EC by means of selectivity, stability, decision limit, detection capability, accuracy, and precision. Method's LOQ values achieved were 54 microg/kg for PENG and DICLO, 46 microg/kg for PENV, 16 microg/kg for OX, and 43 microg/kg for DICLO. The detection capabilities (CC(beta)) were 73.6 microg/kg for PENG, 29.1 microg/kg for PENV, 350.6 microg/kg for OX, 379.9 microg/kg for CLO, and 355.8 microg/kg for DICLO. The method was applied to various samples from the local market. Two penicillins were identified by photodiode array (PDA) detection and quantified.