Tabela com principais espec.
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|M, H, R, Po, Eq, Rb, Gp, Ht, NhP, Ca||ELISA, ACT||Chemiluminescence|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||96 assays|
|Título||Número do lote|
|Universal EZ-TFA Chemiluminescent Transcription Factor Assay - manual||manual|
Referências | 12 Disponível | Ver todas as referências
|Visão geral das referências||Pub Med ID|
|Stress-induced germ cell apoptosis by a p53 independent pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. |
L S Salinas,E Maldonado,R E Navarro
Cell death and differentiation 13 2006
In Caenorhabditis elegans, several distinct apoptosis pathways have been characterized in the germline. The physiological pathway is though to eliminate excess germ cells during oogenesis to maintain gonad homeostasis and it is activated by unknown mechanisms. The DNA damage-induced germ cell apoptosis occurs in response to genotoxic agents and involves the proteins EGL-1 and CED-13, and the DNA damage response protein p53. Germ cell apoptosis can also be induced in response to pathogen infection through an EGL-1 dependent pathway. To gain insight into the mechanism and functions of germ cell apoptosis, we investigated whether and how other forms of stress induce this cell death. We found that oxidative, osmotic, heat shock and starvation stresses induce germ cell apoptosis through a p53 and EGL-1 independent pathway. We also learned that the MAPK kinases MEK-1 and SEK-1, and the p53 antagonist protein ABL-1, are essential for stress-induced germ cell apoptosis. We conclude that in C. elegans responses to various stresses that do not involve genotoxicity include an increase in germ cell apoptosis through the physiological pathway.
|Biosynthesis of rice phytoalexin: enzymatic conversion of 3beta-hydroxy-9beta-pimara-7,15-dien-19,6beta-olide to momilactone A. |
Anotai Atawong,Morifumi Hasegawa,Osamu Kodama
Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 66 2002
Momilactone A, a major rice diterpene phytoalexin, could be synthesized by dehydrogenation at the 3-position of 3beta-hydroxy-9beta-pimara-7,15-dien-19,6beta-olide in rice leaves. The presence of 3beta-hydroxy-9beta-pimara-7,15-dien-19,6beta-olide in UV-irradiated rice leaves was confirmed by comparing the mass spectra and retention times after a GC/MS analysis of the natural and synthetic compounds. The soluble protein fraction from UV-irradiated rice leaves showed dehydrogenase activity to convert 3beta-hydroxy-9beta-pimara-7,15-dien-19,6beta-olide into momilactone A. The enzyme required NAD+ or NADP+ as a hydrogen acceptor. The optimum pH for the reaction was 8. The Km value to 3beta-hydroxy-9beta-pimara-7,15-dien-19,6beta-olide was 36 microM when NAD+ was supplied as a cofactor at a concentration of 1 mM. 3fl-Hydroxy-9beta-pimara-7,15-dien-19,6beta-olide and its dehydrogenase activity were induced in a time-dependent manner by UV irradiation.
|Potassium ion efflux induced by cationic compounds in yeast. |
E Enríquez-Freire,R López,A Peña
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1418 1999
Potassium efflux in yeast induced by several cationic compounds showed different characteristics. All of the observed efflux required glucose as substrate at the concentrations used. For most of them, the phenomenon required binding of the cationic compound to the cell surface and increased with the negative cell surface charge, and for all the compounds tested, it depended on a metabolizable substrate. Efflux induced with terbium chloride appeared more likely due to the function of a K+/H+ antiporter. With DEAE-dextran and dihydrostreptomycin, potassium efflux was dependent on the cell potassium content and was also sensitive to osmotic changes of the medium. DEAE-dextran-provoked efflux was not due to cell disruption. Dihydrostreptomycin seemed to activate a potassium efflux system which could not be studied in isolation, but its inhibition of potassium uptake may also be involved. Except for cells treated with ethidium bromide, no appreciable cell disruption was observed. The potassium efflux observed appears to be a membrane phenomenon reversible after washing with magnesium chloride.
|GABA-dopamine receptor-receptor interactions in neostriatal membranes of the rat. |
M Pérez de la Mora,S Ferré,K Fuxe
Neurochemical research 22 1997
Recent evidence has shown in membrane preparations that the binding of one ligand to its receptor is able to modify the binding parameters of a second receptor (receptor-receptor interactions), allowing the modulation of incoming signals onto a neuron. To further understand the gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA)-dopamine (DA) interactions in the neostriatum we have carried out experiments to explore whether an activation of the GABA(A) receptor could affect the binding characteristics of the D2 DA receptor in membrane preparations of the rat neostriatum. The results show the GABA (30-100 nM) significantly increases the dissociation constant of the high affinity (KH) D2 DA binding site (labelled with the selective D2 DA receptor antagonist [3H]raclopride and that such an effect is fully counteracted by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (1 microM). It is suggested that such putative GABA(A)/D2 receptor-receptor interactions may take place in the somato-dendritic membrane of the striato-pallidal GABA neurons and that it may modulate the inhibitory effects of DA on these neurons, mediated via D2 receptors.
|Redox sites of NMDA receptors can modulate epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices from kainic acid-treated rats. |
O Quesada,J Hirsch,Y Ben-Ari,C Bernard
Neuroscience letters 212 1996
Using an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, the kainic acid lesioned rat hippocampus, we have evaluated the possibility of modulating glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent evoked epileptiform activity through the manipulation of NMDA receptor redox sites. Epileptiform activity was recorded extracellularly from hippocampal slices, in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 area, and the effects of the oxidizing reagent 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and the reducing agent Tris(2-carboxy ethyl)phosphine (TCEP) on these responses were quantified. Epileptiform activity was substantially reduced in the presence of DTNB but was fully reinstated with the application of TCEP. The effects of both drugs persisted even after wash. Epileptiform activity was totally abolished in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. These results suggest that epileptiform activity can be controlled by manipulation of the redox sites of NMDA receptors and raise the possibility of developing new anticonvulsant drugs which do not fully block NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.
|Cholecystokinin-8 increases K(+)-evoked [3H] gamma-aminobutyric acid release in slices from various brain areas. |
M Pérez de la Mora,A M Hernandez-Gómez,J Méndez-Franco,K Fuxe
European journal of pharmacology 250 1993
[3H] gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) release was studied in rat brain slices in the absence or presence of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8). [3H]GABA release under the conditions used was Ca(2+)-dependent and insensitive to the presence of the glial uptake blocker beta-alanine. While the basal release of [3H]GABA was not affected by CCK-8, the K(+)-stimulated release of [3H]GABA was significantly enhanced by 300 nM of CCK-8 in the caudate putamen, the substantia nigra, the hippocampal formation and the parietofrontal cortex. In the cerebral cortex the CCK-8 enhancement of [3H]GABA release was concentration-dependent and abolished by the CCKB receptor antagonists PD135,158 (1.0 nM) and L-365,260 (100 nM). A significant counteraction of the CCK-8 action was also found with the CCKA receptor antagonist L-364,718 (100 nM) but only in concentrations at which both CCKA and CCKB receptors are blocked. No CCK-8 effects on [3H]GABA release were observed when tetrodotoxin was superfused 5 min before the K(+)-induced [3H]GABA release. It is suggested that the enhancing actions of CCK-8 on K(+)-stimulated [3H]GABA release is mainly related to an activation of CCKB receptors.
|Levels, uptake, and release of glycine and glutamate in the rat pontine reticular formation. |
I Camacho-Arroyo,R Tapia
Neurochemical research 17 1992
In this work we have determined the levels of glycine, glutamate, and other amino acids in the rat pontine reticular formation (PRF), in addition to some properties of the uptake and release of labeled glycine and glutamate in slices of this region. Glutamate was the most concentrated amino acid in the PRF, although its content was about half that of the striatum. Surprisingly, glycine levels in the PRF were 3.2-fold higher than in the striatum, whereas GABA content was similar in both regions. The uptake of both glycine and glutamate by PRF slices was strictly Na(+)-dependent. Their release was stimulated by K(+)-depolarization, but only the release of glycine was Ca(2+)-dependent. These findings suggest that glycine is a strong candidate for a neurotransmitter role in the PRF and that glutamate might also play such a role in this region.
|Release of acetylcholine and GABA, and activity of their synthesizing enzymes in the rat pontine reticular formation. |
I Camacho-Arroyo,R Alvarado,R Tapia
Neurochemical research 16 1991
The aim of this study was to obtain neurochemical information on the possible role of acetylcholine (ACh) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as neurotransmitters in the pontine reticular formation (PRF). We studied the uptake of labeled choline and GABA, as well as the release of this amino acid and of ACh, in PRF slices of the rat. In addition, choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase and glutamate decarboxylase activities were assayed in PRF homogenates. The uptake of GABA was strictly Na(+)-dependent, whereas choline uptake was only partially Na(+)-dependent. The release of both ACh and GABA was stimulated by K(+)-depolarization, but only the former was Ca(2+)-dependent. Choline acetyltransferase activity in the PRF was 74% of that in the striatum, whereas acetylcholinesterase activity was considerably lower. Glutamate decarboxylase activity in the PRF was about half that observed in the striatum. These findings support the possibility that both ACh and GABA may act as neurotransmitters in the rat PRF.
|Taurine release associated to volume regulation in rabbit lymphocytes. |
J Jesu? García,R Sánchez Olea,H Pasantes-Morales
Journal of cellular biochemistry 45 1991
Rabbit lymphocytes exposed to hyposmotic media first swell and then recover their initial volume within 6 min. During volume recovery, free amino acids (FAA) decrease from 451.1 to 208 nmoles/mg protein. Taurine was the dominating FAA, accounting for 70% of the FAA pool. The time course of 3H-taurine release induced by hyposmolarity followed that of volume recovery. Efflux of 3H-taurine in an 8 min period was 17.8% (of total labeled taurine accumulated during loading) in an isosmotic medium. Reducing osmolarity to 0.87, 0.75, 0.62, and 0.5 increased this release to 24.8%, 38.1%, 56.4% and 70.9%, respectively. The volume-sensitive release of 3H-taurine was unaffected by omission of external Na+ or Ca++ and was reduced by 23% in the absence of Cl-. It was unaffected by agents disrupting the cytoskeleton or by tetraethylammonium, barium, quinidine, and gadolinium, but was 26% reduced by DIDS. Taurine release was inhibited at 4 degrees C, but was unchanged at 15 degrees C or 25 degrees C. An involvement of FAA, particularly taurine, in lymphocyte volume regulation is suggested.
|Calcium transport sensitive to ruthenium red in cytochrome oxidase vesicles reconstituted with mitochondrial proteins. |
C Zazueta,J A Holguín,J Ramírez
Journal of bioenergetics and biomembranes 23 1991
We describe a calcium transport that is sensitive to ruthenium red in liposomes reconstituted with mitochondrial extracts. This system is able to build an internally negative membrane potential, which allows the electrogenic influx of Ca2+ and Sr2+. Proteins with molecular weights higher than 35 kDa were incorporated to the vesicles, and enhanced the accumulation of the cation in an energy-dependent fashion.
|cAMP analogs inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride flux and activate protein kinase A in brain synaptoneurosomes. |
R D Schwartz,G Heuschneider,P P Edgar,J A Cohn
Molecular pharmacology 39 1991
The effects of permeant cAMP analogs were studied on the function of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor and on the activation of protein kinase A in brain synaptoneurosomes. Incubation of cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes with permeant cAMP analogs decreased muscimol-induced 36Cl- uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. The order of potency was chlorophenylthio-cAMP (CPT-cAMP) greater than dibutyryl-cAMP greater than 8-bromo-cAMP. This order of potency was reflected by the ability of the analogs to gain access to the intravesicular compartment. cAMP, which failed to penetrate the membrane, had no effect. The half-maximal and maximal effects of the cAMP analogs were similar in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum. To determine whether the cAMP analogs were acting through the activation of protein kinase A, protein kinase A activity was measured in lysed synaptoneurosomes, using kemptide as the substrate. In the lysed preparation, where the cAMP analogs have direct access to intracellular enzymes, the order of potencies of the cAMP analogs to activate protein kinase A (8-bromo-cAMP greater than CPT-cAMP greater than dibutyryl-cAMP) differed from the order of potencies to inhibit muscimol-induced 36Cl- uptake. In regional studies, the greatest effect of CPT-cAMP was observed in the cortex, whereas the smallest effect was observed in the hippocampus and cerebellum. To determine whether cAMP inhibition of GABA-gated ion flux was due to activation of protein kinase A, the time course for each response was measured. Inhibition of muscimol-induced 36Cl- uptake by cAMP analogs was nearly complete by 5 sec. Significant activation of protein kinase A by CPT-cAMP was also observed as early as 5 sec, but protein kinase A activation continued up to 10 min. The protein kinase inhibitor peptide inhibited protein kinase A activity in lysed synaptoneurosomes but had no effect on ion flux in intact synaptoneurosomes, as expected. However, a permeant kinase inhibitor, H-8, also failed to inhibit the effect of cAMP analogs on the muscimol response, yet it inhibited protein kinase A activity. The failure of H-8 to inhibit cAMP analog effects on GABAA receptor function was most likely due to the presence of ATP inside the synaptoneurosomes, because H-8 inhibition of protein kinase A was reduced in the presence of ATP. These results indicate that cAMP and cAMP analogs must penetrate the intravesicular compartment to inhibit GABAA receptor function. Although cAMP analogs decrease GABA-gated ion flux under conditions in which they activate protein kinase A, a causal relationship remains to be established.
|An energy-dependent efflux system for potassium ions in yeast. |
A Peña,J Ramírez
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1068 1991
An efflux of potassium ions was demonstrated in mutants of yeast cells lacking a functional high affinity carrier system for monovalent cations. This efflux showed the following characteristics: (a) It was stimulated by the presence of a substrate, either glucose or ethanol. (b) It was stimulated by several cationic organic molecules, such as ethidium bromide, dihydrostreptomycin, diethylaminoethyldextran, and also by trivalent cations, such as Al3+ and lanthanides; this stimulation also depended on the presence of a substrate. (c) K+ efflux was decreased in yeast mutants with decreased ATPase activity, which generated a lower membrane potential. (d) Although the efflux appeared to be of an electrogenic nature, producing hyperpolarization of cells, it was accompanied by the efflux of phosphate, probably as an anion partially compensating for the large amount of cations leaving the cell. (e) K+ efflux was also accompanied by an uptake of protons. (f) The efflux appeared more clearly in cells grown in YPD medium, and not in more complex media nor in the same YPD medium if supplemented with Ca2+ or Mg2+. Efflux of monovalent cations produced by Tb3+ and organic cationic agents was also demonstrated in wild type strains. This efflux system appears to be, at least partially, electrogenic, but seems to be also an exchange system for protons and to function as a symport with phosphate; it may be involved in the regulation of the internal pH of the cell, and appears to be regulated by its link to the energetic status of the cell, probably through the membrane potential.
|Shaping Epigenetics Discovery - Epigenetics Product Selection Brochure|
|96 well Template 2 Up|
|96 well Template Single|
Manuais do usuário
|Universal EZ-TFA Transcription Factor Assay Chemiluminescent|