Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, WB, IHC||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Parkin Antibody, clone PRK8|
|Presentation||Ascites fluid. Liquid. Contains no preservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Maintain at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months after date of receipt. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Übersicht||Pub Med ID|
|Increasing the Coding Potential of Genomes Through Alternative Splicing: The Case of PARK2 Gene.|
La Cognata, V; Iemmolo, R; D'Agata, V; Scuderi, S; Drago, F; Zappia, M; Cavallaro, S
Current genomics 15 203-16 2014
The completion of the Human Genome Project aroused renewed interest in alternative splicing, an efficient and widespread mechanism that generates multiple protein isoforms from individual genes. Although our knowledge about alternative splicing is growing exponentially, its real impact on cellular life is still to be clarified. Connecting all splicing features (genes, splice transcripts, isoforms, and relative functions) may be useful to resolve this tangle. Herein, we will start from the case of a single gene, Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (PARK2), one of the largest in our genome. This gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism and it has been recently linked to cancer, leprosy, autism, type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. PARK2 primary transcript undergoes an extensive alternative splicing, which enhances transcriptomic diversification and protein diversity in tissues and cells. This review will provide an update of all human PARK2 alternative splice transcripts and isoforms presently known, and correlate them to those in rat and mouse, two common animal models for studying human disease genes. Alternative splicing relies upon a complex process that could be easily altered by both cis and trans-acting mutations. Although the contribution of PARK2 splicing in human disease remains to be fully explored, some evidences show disruption of this versatile form of genetic regulation may have pathological consequences.
|Parkin differently regulates presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 functions by direct control of their promoter transcription.|
Duplan, E; Sevalle, J; Viotti, J; Goiran, T; Bauer, C; Renbaum, P; Levy-Lahad, E; Gautier, CA; Corti, O; Leroudier, N; Checler, F; da Costa, CA
Journal of molecular cell biology 5 132-42 2013
We previously established that besides its canonical function as E3-ubiquitin ligase, parkin also behaves as a transcriptional repressor of p53. Here we show that parkin differently modulates presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 expression and functions at transcriptional level. Thus, parkin enhances/reduces the protein expression, promoter activity and mRNA levels of presenilin-1 and presenilin-2, respectively, in cells and in vivo. This parkin-associated function is independent of its ubiquitin-ligase activity and remains unrelated to its capacity to repress p53. Accordingly, physical interaction of endogenous or overexpressed parkin with presenilins promoters is demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP). Furthermore, we identify a consensus sequence, the deletion of which abolishes parkin-dependent modulation of presenilins-1/2 and p53 promoter activities. Interestingly, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) revealed a physical interaction between this consensus sequence and wild-type but not mutated parkin. Finally, we demonstrate that the RING1-IBR-RING2 domain of parkin harbors parkin's potential to modulate presenilins promoters. This transcriptional control impacts on presenilins-associated phenotypes, since parkin increases presenilin-1-associated γ-secretase activity and reduces presenilin-2-linked caspase-3 activation. Overall, our data delineate a promoter responsive element targeted by parkin that drives differential regulation of presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 transcription with functional consequences for γ-secretase activity and cell death.
|S-Nitrosylation of parkin as a novel regulator of p53-mediated neuronal cell death in sporadic Parkinson's disease.|
Sunico, CR; Nakamura, T; Rockenstein, E; Mante, M; Adame, A; Chan, SF; Newmeyer, TF; Masliah, E; Nakanishi, N; Lipton, SA
Molecular neurodegeneration 8 29 2013
Mutations in the gene encoding parkin, a neuroprotective protein with dual functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and transcriptional repressor of p53, are linked to familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that oxidative posttranslational modification of parkin by environmental toxins may contribute to sporadic PD.We first demonstrated that S-nitrosylation of parkin decreased its activity as a repressor of p53 gene expression, leading to upregulation of p53. Chromatin immunoprecipitation as well as gel-shift assays showed that parkin bound to the p53 promoter, and this binding was inhibited by S-nitrosylation of parkin. Additionally, nitrosative stress induced apoptosis in cells expressing parkin, and this death was, at least in part, dependent upon p53. In primary mesencephalic cultures, pesticide-induced apoptosis was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In a mouse model of pesticide-induced PD, both S-nitrosylated (SNO-)parkin and p53 protein levels were increased, while administration of a NOS inhibitor mitigated neuronal death in these mice. Moreover, the levels of SNO-parkin and p53 were simultaneously elevated in postmortem human PD brain compared to controls.Taken together, our data indicate that S-nitrosylation of parkin, leading to p53-mediated neuronal cell death, contributes to the pathophysiology of sporadic PD.
|Co-regulation of intragenic microRNA miR-153 and its host gene Ia-2 β: identification of miR-153 target genes with functions related to IA-2β in pancreas and brain.|
Mandemakers, W; Abuhatzira, L; Xu, H; Caromile, LA; Hébert, SS; Snellinx, A; Morais, VA; Matta, S; Cai, T; Notkins, AL; De Strooper, B
Diabetologia 56 1547-56 2013
We analysed the genomic organisation of miR-153, a microRNA embedded in genes that encode two of the major type 1 diabetes autoantigens, islet-associated protein (IA)-2 and IA-2β. We also identified miR-153 target genes that correlated with IA-2β localisation and function.A bioinformatics approach was used to identify miR-153's genomic organisation. To analyse the co-regulation of miR-153 and IA-2β, quantitative PCR analysis of miR-153 and Ia-2β (also known as Ptprn2) was performed after a glucose stimulation assay in MIN6B cells and isolated murine pancreatic islets, and also in wild-type Ia-2 (also known as Ptprn), Ia-2β single knockout and Ia-2/Ia-2β double knockout mouse brain and pancreatic islets. Bioinformatics identification of miR-153 target genes and validation via luciferase reporter assays, western blotting and quantitative PCR were also carried out.Two copies of miR-153, miR-153-1 and miR-153-2, are localised in intron 19 of Ia-2 and Ia-2β, respectively. In rodents, only miR-153-2 is conserved. We demonstrated that expression of miR-153-2 and Ia-2β in rodents is partially co-regulated as demonstrated by a strong reduction of miR-153 expression levels in Ia-2β knockout and Ia-2/Ia-2β double knockout mice. miR-153 levels were unaffected in Ia-2 knockout mice. In addition, glucose stimulation, which increases Ia-2 and Ia-2β expression, also significantly increased expression of miR-153. Several predicted targets of miR-153 were reduced after glucose stimulation in vitro, correlating with the increase in miR-153 levels.This study suggests the involvement of miR-153, IA-2β and miR-153 target genes in a regulatory network, which is potentially relevant to insulin and neurotransmitter release.
|Characterization of the Brain 26S Proteasome and its Interacting Proteins.|
Tai, HC; Besche, H; Goldberg, AL; Schuman, EM
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 3 2010
Proteasome-mediated proteolysis is important for synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, protein quality control, and many other processes in neurons. To define proteasome composition in brain, we affinity purified 26S proteasomes from cytosolic and synaptic compartments of the rat cortex. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified the standard 26S subunits and a set of 28 proteasome-interacting proteins that associated substoichiometrically and may serve as regulators or cofactors. This set differed from those in other tissues and we also found several proteins that associated only with either the cytosolic or the synaptic proteasome. The latter included the ubiquitin-binding factor TAX1BP1 and synaptic vesicle protein SNAP-25. Native gel electrophoresis revealed a higher proportion of doubly-capped 26S proteasome (19S-20S-19S) in the cortex than in the liver or kidney. To investigate the interplay between proteasome regulation and synaptic plasticity, we exposed cultured neurons to glutamate receptor agonist NMDA. Within 4 h, this agent caused a prolonged decrease in the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system as shown by disassembly of 26S proteasomes, decrease in ubiquitin-protein conjugates, and dissociation of the ubiquitin ligases UBE3A (E6-AP) and HUWE1 from the proteasome. Surprisingly, the regulatory 19S particles were rapidly degraded by proteasomal, not lysosomal degradation, and the dissociated E3 enzymes also degraded. Thus the content of proteasomes and their set of associated proteins can be altered by neuronal activity, in a manner likely to influence synaptic plasticity and learning.Volltextartikel
|Parkin deficiency delays motor decline and disease manifestation in a mouse model of synucleinopathy.|
Fournier, M; Vitte, J; Garrigue, J; Langui, D; Dullin, JP; Saurini, F; Hanoun, N; Perez-Diaz, F; Cornilleau, F; Joubert, C; Ardila-Osorio, H; Traver, S; Duchateau, R; Goujet-Zalc, C; Paleologou, K; Lashuel, HA; Haass, C; Duyckaerts, C; Cohen-Salmon, C; Kahle, PJ; Hamon, M; Brice, A; Corti, O
PloS one 4 e6629 2009
In synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease, partially ubiquitylated alpha-synuclein species phosphorylated on serine 129 (P(S129)-alpha-synuclein) accumulate abnormally. Parkin, an ubiquitin-protein ligase that is dysfunctional in autosomal recessive parkinsonism, protects against alpha-synuclein-mediated toxicity in various models.We analyzed the effects of Parkin deficiency in a mouse model of synucleinopathy to explore the possibility that Parkin and alpha-synuclein act in the same biochemical pathway. Whether or not Parkin was present, these mice developed an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder preceded by a progressive decline in performance in tasks predictive of sensorimotor dysfunction. The symptoms were accompanied by the deposition of P(S129)-alpha-synuclein but not P(S87)-alpha-synuclein in neuronal cell bodies and neuritic processes throughout the brainstem and the spinal cord; activation of caspase 9 was observed in 5% of the P(S129)-alpha-synuclein-positive neurons. As in Lewy bodies, ubiquitin-immunoreactivity, albeit less abundant, was invariably co-localized with P(S129)-alpha-synuclein. During late disease stages, the disease-specific neuropathological features revealed by ubiquitin- and P(S129)-alpha-synuclein-specific antibodies were similar in mice with or without Parkin. However, the proportion of P(S129)-alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies and neurites co-stained for ubiquitin was lower in the absence than in the presence of Parkin, suggesting less advanced synucleinopathy. Moreover, sensorimotor impairment and manifestation of the neurodegenerative phenotype due to overproduction of human alpha-synuclein were significantly delayed in Parkin-deficient mice.These findings raise the possibility that effective compensatory mechanisms modulate the phenotypic expression of disease in parkin-related parkinsonism.
|Transcriptional repression of p53 by parkin and impairment by mutations associated with autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson's disease.|
da Costa, CA; Sunyach, C; Giaime, E; West, A; Corti, O; Brice, A; Safe, S; Abou-Sleiman, PM; Wood, NW; Takahashi, H; Goldberg, MS; Shen, J; Checler, F
Nature cell biology 11 1370-5 2009
Mutations of the ubiquitin ligase parkin account for most autosomal recessive forms of juvenile Parkinson's disease (AR-JP). Several studies have suggested that parkin possesses DNA-binding and transcriptional activity. We report here that parkin is a p53 transcriptional repressor. First, parkin prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced caspase-3 activation in a p53-dependent manner. Concomitantly, parkin reduced p53 expression and activity, an effect abrogated by familial parkin mutations known to either abolish or preserve its ligase activity. ChIP experiments indicate that overexpressed and endogenous parkin interact physically with the p53 promoter and that pathogenic mutations abolish DNA binding to and promoter transactivation of p53. Parkin lowered p53 mRNA levels and repressed p53 promoter transactivation through its Ring1 domain. Conversely, parkin depletion enhanced p53 expression and mRNA levels in fibroblasts and mouse brains, and increased cellular p53 activity and promoter transactivation in cells. Finally, familial parkin missense and deletion mutations enhanced p53 expression in human brains affected by AR-JP. This study reveals a ubiquitin ligase-independent function of parkin in the control of transcription and a functional link between parkin and p53 that is altered by AR-JP mutations.
|Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin-ligase for normal and mutant ataxin-2 and prevents ataxin-2-induced cell death.|
Huynh, DP; Nguyen, DT; Pulst-Korenberg, JB; Brice, A; Pulst, SM
Experimental neurology 203 531-41 2007
Expansion of the polyQ repeat in ataxin-2 results in degeneration of Purkinje neurons and other neuronal groups including the substantia nigra in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). In animal and cell models, overexpression of mutant ataxin-2 induces cell dysfunction and death, but little is known about steady-state levels of normal and mutant ataxin-2 and cellular mechanisms regulating their abundance. Based on preliminary findings that ataxin-2 interacted with parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase mutated in an autosomal recessive form of Parkinsonism, we sought to determine whether parkin played a role in regulating the steady-state levels of ataxin-2. Parkin interacted with the N-terminal half of normal and mutant ataxin-2, and ubiquitinated the full-length form of both wild-type and mutant ataxin-2. Parkin also regulated the steady-state levels of endogenous ataxin-2 in PC12 cells with regulatable parkin expression. Parkin reduced abnormalities in Golgi morphology induced by mutant ataxin-2 and decreased ataxin-2 induced cytotoxicity. In brains of SCA2 patients, parkin labeled cytoplasmic ataxin-2 aggregates in Purkinje neurons. These studies suggest a role for parkin in regulating the intracellular levels of both wild-type and mutant ataxin-2, and in rescuing cells from ataxin-2-induced cytotoxicity. The role of parkin variants in modifying the SCA2 phenotype and its use as a therapeutic target should be further investigated.