Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Ca||WB||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit polyclonal antiserum IgG in buffer containing 0.05% sodium azide and 30% glycerol.|
|Application||Detect AS160 (Rab-GAP) using this Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) Antibody validated for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab GAP) - 30554||30554|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab GAP) - DAM1394820||DAM1394820|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab GAP) - JBC1361857||JBC1361857|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - 2455680||2455680|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - 1962662||1962662|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - 2044107||2044107|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - 2056630||2056630|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - 2190639||2190639|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - 2309075||2309075|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - 2536834||2536834|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - DAM1604977||DAM1604977|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - DAM1745368||DAM1745368|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) - JBC1913124||JBC1913124|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) -2664284||2664284|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) -2724296||2724296|
|Anti-AS160 (Rab-GAP) -2766478||2766478|
Referencias bibliográficas | 41 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|PKB-Mediated Thr649 Phosphorylation of AS160/TBC1D4 Regulates the R-Wave Amplitude in the Heart. |
Quan, C; Xie, B; Wang, HY; Chen, S
PloS one 10 e0124491 2015
The Rab GTPase activating protein (RabGAP), AS160/TBC1D4, is an important substrate of protein kinase B (PKB), and regulates insulin-stimulated trafficking of glucose transporter 4. Besides, AS160/TBC1D4 has also been shown to regulate trafficking of many other membrane proteins including FA translocase/CD36 in cardiomyocytes. However, it is not clear whether it plays any role in regulating heart functions in vivo. Here, we found that PKB-mediated phosphorylation of Thr649 on AS160/TBC1D4 represented one of the major PAS-binding signals in the heart in response to insulin. Mutation of Thr649 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine increased the R-wave amplitude in the AS160Thr649Ala knockin mice. However, this knockin mutation did not affect the heart functions under both normal and infarct conditions. Interestingly, myocardial infarction induced the expression of a related RabGAP, TBC1D1, in the infarct zone as well as in the border zone. Together, these data show that the Thr649 phosphorylation of AS160/TBC1D4 plays an important role in the heart's electrical conduction system through regulating the R-wave amplitude.
|Acute mTOR inhibition induces insulin resistance and alters substrate utilization in vivo. |
Kleinert, M; Sylow, L; Fazakerley, DJ; Krycer, JR; Thomas, KC; Oxbøll, AJ; Jordy, AB; Jensen, TE; Yang, G; Schjerling, P; Kiens, B; James, DE; Ruegg, MA; Richter, EA
Molecular metabolism 3 630-41 2014
The effect of acute inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 on metabolism is unknown. A single injection of the mTOR kinase inhibitor, AZD8055, induced a transient, yet marked increase in fat oxidation and insulin resistance in mice, whereas the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin had no effect. AZD8055, but not rapamycin reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into incubated muscles, despite normal GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells. AZD8055 inhibited glycolysis in MEF cells. Abrogation of mTORC2 activity by SIN1 deletion impaired glycolysis and AZD8055 had no effect in SIN1 KO MEFs. Re-expression of wildtype SIN1 rescued glycolysis. Glucose intolerance following AZD8055 administration was absent in mice lacking the mTORC2 subunit Rictor in muscle, and in vivo glucose uptake into Rictor-deficient muscle was reduced despite normal Akt activity. Taken together, acute mTOR inhibition is detrimental to glucose homeostasis in part by blocking muscle mTORC2, indicating its importance in muscle metabolism in vivo.
|Increased postexercise insulin sensitivity is accompanied by increased AS160 phosphorylation in slow-twitch soleus muscle. |
Iwabe, M; Kawamoto, E; Koshinaka, K; Kawanaka, K
Physiological reports 2 2014
A single bout of exercise can enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both fast-twitch (type II) and slow-twitch (type I) skeletal muscle for several hours postexercise. Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) is most distal insulin signaling proteins that have been proposed to contribute to the postexercise enhancement of insulin action in fast-twitch muscle. In this study, we examined whether the postexercise increase in insulin action of glucose uptake in slow-twitch muscle is accompanied by increased phosphorylation of AS160 and its paralog TBC1D1. Male Wistar rats (~1-month-old) were exercised on a treadmill for 180 min (9 m/min). Insulin (50 μU/mL)-stimulated glucose uptake was increased at 2 h after cessation of exercise in soleus muscle composed of predominantly slow-twitch fibers. This postexercise increase in insulin action of glucose uptake was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of AS160 (detected by phospho-Thr642 and phospho-Ser588 antibody). On the other hand, prior exercise did not increase phosphorylation of TBC1D1 (detected by phospho-Thr590) at 2 h postexercise. These results suggest the possibility that an enhancement in AS160 phosphorylation but not TBC1D1 phosphorylation is involved with increased postexercise insulin action of glucose uptake in slow-twitch muscle.
|Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients in response to endurance and strength training. |
Broholm, C; Mathur, N; Hvid, T; Grøndahl, TS; Frøsig, C; Pedersen, BK; Lindegaard, B
Physiological reports 1 e00060 2013
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Both endurance and resistance training improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients, but the mechanisms are unknown. This study aims to identify the molecular pathways involved in the beneficial effects of training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of HIV-infected patients. Eighteen sedentary male HIV-infected patients underwent a 16 week supervised training intervention, either resistance or strength training. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps with muscle biopsies were performed before and after the training interventions. Fifteen age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched HIV-negative men served as a sedentary baseline group. Phosphorylation and total protein expression of insulin signaling molecules as well as glycogen synthase (GS) activity were analyzed in skeletal muscle biopsies in relation to insulin stimulation before and after training. HIV-infected patients had reduced basal and insulin-stimulated GS activity (%fractional velocity, [FV]) as well as impaired insulin-stimulated Akt(thr308) phosphorylation. Despite improving insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, neither endurance nor strength training changed the phosphorylation status of insulin signaling proteins or affected GS activity. However; endurance training markedly increased the total Akt protein expression, and both training modalities increased hexokinase II (HKII) protein. HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy have decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and defects in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt(thr308). Endurance and strength training increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in these patients, and the muscular training adaptation is associated with improved capacity for phosphorylation of glucose by HKII, rather than changes in markers of insulin signaling to glucose uptake or glycogen synthesis.
|AS160 deficiency causes whole-body insulin resistance via composite effects in multiple tissues. |
Wang, HY; Ducommun, S; Quan, C; Xie, B; Li, M; Wasserman, DH; Sakamoto, K; Mackintosh, C; Chen, S
The Biochemical journal 449 479-89 2013
AS160 (Akt substrate of 160 kDa) is a Rab GTPase-activating protein implicated in insulin control of GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) trafficking. In humans, a truncation mutation (R363X) in one allele of AS160 decreased the expression of the protein and caused severe postprandial hyperinsulinaemia during puberty. To complement the limited studies possible in humans, we generated an AS160-knockout mouse. In wild-type mice, AS160 expression is relatively high in adipose tissue and soleus muscle, low in EDL (extensor digitorum longus) muscle and detectable in liver only after enrichment. Despite having lower blood glucose levels under both fasted and random-fed conditions, the AS160-knockout mice exhibited insulin resistance in both muscle and liver in a euglycaemic clamp study. Consistent with this paradoxical phenotype, basal glucose uptake was higher in AS160-knockout primary adipocytes and normal in isolated soleus muscle, but their insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and overall GLUT4 levels were markedly decreased. In contrast, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 levels were normal in EDL muscle. The liver also contributes to the AS160-knockout phenotype via hepatic insulin resistance, elevated hepatic expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase isoforms and pyruvate intolerance, which are indicative of increased gluconeogenesis. Overall, as well as its catalytic function, AS160 influences expression of other proteins, and its loss deregulates basal and insulin-regulated glucose homoeostasis, not only in tissues that normally express AS160, but also by influencing liver function.
|6-Mercaptopurine augments glucose transport activity in skeletal muscle cells in part via a mechanism dependent upon orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3. |
Liu, Q; Zhu, X; Xu, L; Fu, Y; Garvey, WT
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 305 E1081-92 2013
The purine anti-metabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is widely used for the treatment of leukemia and inflammatory diseases. The cellular effects of 6-MP on metabolism remain unknown; however, 6-MP was recently found to activate the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3 in skeletal muscle cell lines. We have reported previously that NR4A3 (also known as NOR-1, MINOR) is a positive regulator of insulin sensitivity in adipocytes. To further explore the role of NR4A3 activation in insulin action, we explored whether 6-MP activation of NR4A3 could modulate glucose transport system activity in L6 skeletal muscle cells. We found that 6-MP increased both NR4A3 expression and NR4A3 transcriptional activity and enhanced glucose transport activity via increasing GLUT4 translocation in both basal and insulin-stimulated L6 cells in an NR4A3-dependent manner. Furthermore, 6-MP increased levels of phospho-AS160, although this effect was not modulated by NR4A3 overexpression or knockdown. These primary findings provide a novel proof of principle that 6-MP, a small molecule NR4A3 agonist, can augment glucose uptake in insulin target cells, although this occurs via both NR4A3-dependent and -independent actions; the latter is related to an increase in phospho-AS160. These results establish a novel target for development of new treatments for insulin resistance.
|A persistent increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by both fast-twitch and slow-twitch skeletal muscles after a single exercise session by old rats. |
Xiao, Y; Sharma, N; Arias, EB; Castorena, CM; Cartee, GD
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 35 573-82 2013
Exercise has been demonstrated to enhance subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) by predominantly type II (fast-twitch) muscle of old rats, but previous research has not evaluated exercise effects on GU by type I (slow-twitch) muscle from old rats. Accordingly, we studied male Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats (24 months old) and determined GU (0, 100, 200, and 5,000 μU/ml insulin) of isolated soleus (predominantly type I) and epitrochlearis (predominantly type II) muscles after one exercise session. Epitrochlearis (100, 200, and 5,000 μU/ml insulin) and soleus (100 and 200 μU/ml insulin) GU were greater at 3-h postexercise vs. age-matched sedentary controls. Insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr1162/1163) was unaltered by exercise in either muscle. Akt phosphorylation (pAkt) was greater for exercised vs. sedentary rats in the epitrochlearis (Ser473 and Thr308 with 100 and 200 μU/ml, respectively) and soleus (Ser473 with 200 μU/ml). AS160 phosphorylation (pAS160) was greater for exercised vs. sedentary rats in the epitrochlearis (Thr642 with 100 μU/ml), but not the soleus. Exercised vs. sedentary rats did not differ for total protein abundance of insulin receptor, Akt, AS160, or GLUT4 in either muscle. These results demonstrate that both predominantly type I and type II muscles from old rats are susceptible to exercise-induced improvement in insulin-mediated GU by mechanisms that are independent of enhanced insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation or altered abundance of important signaling proteins or GLUT4. Exercise-induced elevation in pAkt, and possibly pAS160, may contribute to this effect in the epitrochlearis of old rats, but other mechanisms are likely important for the soleus.
|Specialized sorting of GLUT4 and its recruitment to the cell surface are independently regulated by distinct Rabs. |
Sadacca, LA; Bruno, J; Wen, J; Xiong, W; McGraw, TE
Molecular biology of the cell 24 2544-57 2013
Adipocyte glucose uptake in response to insulin is essential for physiological glucose homeostasis: stimulation of adipocytes with insulin results in insertion of the glucose transporter GLUT4 into the plasma membrane and subsequent glucose uptake. Here we establish that RAB10 and RAB14 are key regulators of GLUT4 trafficking that function at independent, sequential steps of GLUT4 translocation. RAB14 functions upstream of RAB10 in the sorting of GLUT4 to the specialized transport vesicles that ferry GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. RAB10 and its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) AS160 comprise the principal signaling module downstream of insulin receptor activation that regulates the accumulation of GLUT4 transport vesicles at the plasma membrane. Although both RAB10 and RAB14 are regulated by the GAP activity of AS160 in vitro, only RAB10 is under the control of AS160 in vivo. Insulin regulation of the pool of RAB10 required for GLUT4 translocation occurs through regulation of AS160, since activation of RAB10 by DENND4C, its GTP exchange factor, does not require insulin stimulation.
|The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism. |
Szekeres, F; Chadt, A; Tom, RZ; Deshmukh, AS; Chibalin, AV; Björnholm, M; Al-Hasani, H; Zierath, JR
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 303 E524-33 2012
The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has emerged as a novel candidate involved in metabolic regulation. Our aim was to determine whether TBC1D1 is involved in insulin as well as energy-sensing signals controlling skeletal muscle metabolism. TBC1D1-deficient congenic B6.SJL-Nob1.10 (Nob1.10(SJL)) and wild-type littermates were studied. Glucose and insulin tolerance, glucose utilization, hepatic glucose production, and tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake were determined. The effect of insulin, AICAR, or contraction on glucose transport was studied in isolated skeletal muscle. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were normal in TBC1D1-deficient Nob1.10(SJL) mice, yet the 4-h-fasted insulin concentration was increased. Insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose utilization during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was similar between genotypes, whereas the suppression of hepatic glucose production was increased in TBC1D1-deficient mice. In isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) but not soleus muscle, glucose transport in response to insulin, AICAR, or contraction was impaired by TBC1D1 deficiency. The reduction in glucose transport in EDL muscle from TBC1D1-deficient Nob1.10(SJL) mice may be explained partly by a 50% reduction in GLUT4 protein, since proximal signaling at the level of Akt, AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was unaltered. Paradoxically, in vivo insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was increased in EDL and tibialis anterior muscle from TBC1D1-deficient mice. In conclusion, TBC1D1 plays a role in regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Moreover, functional TBC1D1 is required for AICAR- or contraction-induced metabolic responses, implicating a role in energy-sensing signals.
|Muscle-specific knock-out of NUAK family SNF1-like kinase 1 (NUAK1) prevents high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance. |
Inazuka, F; Sugiyama, N; Tomita, M; Abe, T; Shioi, G; Esumi, H
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 16379-89 2012
NUAK1 is a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase-related kinase family. Recent studies have shown that NUAK1 is involved in cellular senescence and motility in epithelial cells and fibroblasts. However, the physiological roles of NUAK1 are poorly understood because of embryonic lethality in NUAK1 null mice. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the roles of NUAK1 in adult tissues. We determined the tissue distribution of NUAK1 and generated muscle-specific NUAK1 knock-out (MNUAK1KO) mice. For phenotypic analysis, whole body glucose homeostasis and muscle glucose metabolism were examined. Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis of soleus muscle was performed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the knock-out phenotype. Nuak1 mRNA was preferentially expressed in highly oxidative tissues such as brain, heart, and soleus muscle. On a high fat diet, MNUAK1KO mice had a lower fasting blood glucose level, greater glucose tolerance, higher insulin sensitivity, and higher concentration of muscle glycogen than control mice. Phosphoproteome analysis revealed that phosphorylation of IRS1 Ser-1097 was markedly decreased in NUAK1-deficient muscle. Consistent with this, insulin signaling was enhanced in the soleus muscle of MNUAK1KO mice, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of IRS1 Tyr-608, AKT Thr-308, and TBC1D4 Thr-649. These observations suggest that a physiological role of NUAK1 is to suppress glucose uptake through negative regulation of insulin signaling in oxidative muscle.
|Calorie restriction enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and akt phosphorylation in both fast-twitch and slow-twitch skeletal muscle of 24-month-old rats. |
Donel A Sequea,Naveen Sharma,Edward B Arias,Gregory D Cartee
The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences 67 2012
Calorie restriction (CR) induces enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in fast-twitch (type II) muscle from old rats, but the effect of CR on slow-twitch (type I) muscle from old rats is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and phosphorylation of key insulin signaling proteins in isolated epitrochlearis (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles from 24-month-old ad libitum fed and CR (consuming 65% of ad libitum, intake) rats. Muscles were incubated with and without 1.2 nM insulin. CR versus ad libitum rats had greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation (pAkt) on T308 and S473 for both muscles incubated with insulin. GLUT4 protein abundance and phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (Y1162/1163) and AS160 (T642) were unaltered by CR in both muscles. These results implicate enhanced pAkt as a potential mechanism for the CR-induced increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the fast-twitch epitrochlearis and slow-twitch soleus of old rats.
|Differential regulation of stimulated glucose transport by free fatty acids and PPARα or -δ agonists in cardiac myocytes. |
Mohamed Asrih,René Lerch,Irène Papageorgiou,Corinne Pellieux,Christophe Montessuit
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 302 2012
Stimulation of glucose transport in response to insulin or metabolic stress is an important determinant of cardiac myocyte function and survival, particularly during ischemia-reperfusion episodes. The impact of dyslipidemia and its consequence PPAR activation on stimulated glucose transport in cardiac myocytes remains unknown. Isolated adult rat cardiac myocytes were chronically exposed to free fatty acids (FFA) or PPAR agonists. Insulin- (ISGT) and oligomycin-stimulated glucose transport (OSGT) and related cell signaling were analyzed. Exposure of cardiac myocytes to FFA reduced both ISGT and OSGT. Exposure to either PPARα or PPARδ agonists, but not to a PPARγ agonist, reduced ISGT but not OSGT and increased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). The reduction in ISGT was associated with impaired insulin signaling and, in the case of PPAR stimulation, overexpression of SOCS-3, a protein known to hinder proximal insulin signaling. In contrast, the reduction of OSGT could not be explained by a reduced activity of the cellular energy-sensing system, as assessed from the maintained phosphorylation state of AMPK. Inhibition of FAO at the level of mitochondrial acylcarnitine uptake restored OSGT but not ISGT. Seemingly paradoxically, further stimulation of FAO with PPARα or PPARδ agonists also restored OSGT but not ISGT. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of OSGT occurs downstream of energy gauging and is caused by some intermediate(s) of fatty acid oxidation, which does not appear to be acylcarnitines. The results indicate that the mechanisms underlying FFA-mediated inhibition of ISGT and OSGT differ remarkably.
|EMG-normalised kinase activation during exercise is higher in human gastrocnemius compared to soleus muscle. |
Jensen, TE; Leutert, R; Rasmussen, ST; Mouatt, JR; Christiansen, ML; Jensen, BR; Richter, EA
PloS one 7 e31054 2012
In mice, certain proteins show a highly confined expression in specific muscle groups. Also, resting and exercise/contraction-induced phosphorylation responses are higher in rat skeletal muscle with low mitochondrial content compared to muscles with high mitochondrial content, possibly related to differential reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging ability or resting glycogen content. To evaluate these parameters in humans, biopsies from soleus, gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles were taken before and after a 45 min inclined (15%) walking exercise bout at 69% VO2(max) aimed at simultaneously activating soleus and gastrocnemius in a comparable dynamic work-pattern. Hexokinase II and GLUT4 were 46-59% and 26-38% higher (pless than 0.05) in soleus compared to the two other muscles. The type I muscle fiber percentage was highest in soleus and lowest in vastus lateralis. No differences were found in protein expression of signalling proteins (AMPK subunits, eEF2, ERK1/2, TBC1D1 and 4), mitochondrial markers (F1 ATPase and COX1) or ROS-handling enzymes (SOD2 and catalase). Gastrocnemius was less active than soleus measured as EMG signal and glycogen use yet gastrocnemius displayed larger increases than soleus in phosphorylation of AMPK Thr172, eEF2 Thr56 and ERK 1/2 Thr202/Tyr204 when normalised to the mean relative EMG-signal. In conclusion, proteins with muscle-group restricted expression in mice do not show this pattern in human lower extremity muscle groups. Nonetheless the phosphorylation-response is greater for a number of kinase signalling pathways in human gastrocnemius than soleus at a given activation-intensity. This may be due to the combined subtle effects of a higher type I muscle fiber content and higher training status in soleus compared to gastrocnemius muscle.
|Preventing the calorie restriction-induced increase in insulin-stimulated Akt2 phosphorylation eliminates calorie restriction's effect on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. |
Sharma, N; Arias, EB; Sequea, DA; Cartee, GD
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1822 1735-40 2012
Calorie restriction (CR; ~60% of ad libitum, AL, consumption) improves insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The precise cellular mechanism for this healthful outcome is unknown, but it is accompanied by enhanced insulin-stimulated activation of Akt. Previous research using Akt2-null mice demonstrated that Akt2 is essential for the full CR-effect on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle. However, because Akt2-null mice were completely deficient in Akt2 in every cell throughout life, it would be valuable to assess the efficacy of transient, muscle-specific Akt inhibition for attenuation of CR-effects on glucose uptake. Accordingly, we used a selective Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) to eliminate the CR-induced elevation in insulin-stimulated Akt2 phosphorylation and determined the effects on Akt substrates and glucose uptake. We incubated isolated epitrochlearis muscles from 9-month-old AL and CR (~60-65% of AL intake for 6months) rats with or without MK-2206 and measured insulin-stimulated (1.2nM) glucose uptake and phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (Tyr1162/1163), pan-Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), Akt2 (Thr308 and Ser473), AS160/TBC1D4 (Thr642), and Filamin C (Ser2213). Incubation of isolated skeletal muscles with a dose of a selective Akt inhibitor that eliminated the CR-induced increases in Akt2 phosphorylation prevented CR's effects on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, pAS160(Thr642) and pFilamin C(Ser2213) without altering pIR(Tyr1162/1163). These data provide compelling new evidence linking the CR-induced increase in insulin-stimulated Akt2 phosphorylation to CR's effects on insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt substrates and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.
|Sustained postexercise increases in AS160 Thr642 and Ser588 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle without sustained increases in kinase phosphorylation. |
Schweitzer, GG; Arias, EB; Cartee, GD
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 113 1852-61 2012
Prior exercise by rats can induce a sustained increase in muscle Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation on Thr(642) (pAS160(Thr642)). Because phosphorylation of AS160 on both AS160(Thr642) and AS160(Ser588) is important for insulin-stimulated glucose transport (GT), we determined if exercise would also induce a sustained increase in pAS160(Ser588) concomitant with persistently elevated pAS160(Thr642) and GT. Given that the mechanisms for sustained postexercise (PEX) effects on pAS160 were uncertain, we also studied the four kinases known to phosphorylate AS160 (Akt, AMPK, RSK, and SGK1). In addition, because the serine/threonine phosphatase(s) that dephosphorylate muscle AS160 were previously unidentified, we assessed the ability of four serine/threonine phosphatases (PP1, PP2A, PP2B, and PP2C) to dephosphorylate AS160. We also evaluated exercise effects on posttranslational modifications (Tyr(307) and Leu(309)) that regulate PP2A. In isolated epitrochlearis muscles from rats, GT at 3hPEX with insulin significantly (P less than 0.05) exceeded SED controls. Muscles from 0hPEX vs. 0hSED and 3hPEX vs. 3hSED rats had greater pAS160(Thr642) and pAS160(Ser588). AMPK was the only kinase with greater phosphorylation at 0hPEX vs. 0hSED, and none had greater phosphorylation at 3hPEX vs. 3hSED. Each phosphatase was able to dephosphorylate pAS160(Thr642) and pAS160(Ser588) in cell-free assays. Exercise did not alter posttranslational modifications of PP2A. Our results revealed: 1) pAMPK as a potential trigger for increased pAS160(Thr642) and pAS160(Ser588) at 0hPEX; 2) PP1, PP2A, PP2B, and PP2C were each able to dephosphorylate AS160; and 3) sustained PEX-induced elevations of pAS160(Thr642) and pAS160(Ser588) were attributable to mechanisms other than persistent phosphorylation of known AS160 kinases or altered posttranslational modifications of PP2A.
|Myricetin Ameliorates Defective Post-Receptor Insulin Signaling via β-Endorphin Signaling in the Skeletal Muscles of Fructose-Fed Rats. |
Tzeng, TF; Liou, SS; Liu, IM
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2011 150752 2011
β-Endorphin plays a major role in the amelioration of insulin resistance. The present study documents that myricetin (3,5,7,3', 4', 5'-hexahydroxyflavone) ameliorates insulin resistance by enhancing β-endorphin production in insulin-resistant rats. The rats were induced for insulin resistance by feeding them a diet containing 60% fructose for 6 weeks. The degree of insulin resistance was measured by the homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The plasma levels of insulin and β-endorphin were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The insulin receptor-related signaling mediators in the soleus muscles of rats were evaluated by immunoprecipitation or immunoblotting. Myricetin was injected daily (1 mg kg(-1) per injection, thrice daily) for 14 days. Consequently, the high-glucose plasma levels in fructose-fed rats decreased significantly concomitant with an increase in plasma β-endorphin. The reduction of the elevated HOMA-IR index following treatment with myricetin was subsequently inhibited by the administration of β-funaltrexamine hydrochloride (β-FNA) at doses sufficient to block μ-opioid receptors (MOR). The myricetin treatment was also observed to affect the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa, with subsequent effects on glucose-transporter subtype 4 translocation, all of which were blocked by β-FNA pretreatment. These results indicated that enhancement of β-endorphin secretion, which in turn leads to peripheral MOR activation, is involved in the action of myricetin on the amelioration of impaired signaling intermediates downstream of insulin receptors.
|Recovered insulin response by 2 weeks of leptin administration in high-fat fed rats is associated with restored AS160 activation and decreased reactive lipid accumulation. |
Stefanyk, LE; Gulli, RA; Ritchie, IR; Chabowski, A; Snook, LA; Bonen, A; Dyck, DJ
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 301 R159-71 2011
Leptin is an adipokine that increases fatty acid (FA) oxidation, decreases intramuscular lipid stores, and improves insulin response in skeletal muscle. In an attempt to elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which these metabolic changes occur, we administered leptin (Lep) or saline (Sal) by miniosmotic pumps to rats during the final 2 wk of a 6-wk low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was impaired by the HF diet (HF-Sal) but was restored with leptin administration (HF-Lep). This improvement was associated with restored phosphorylation of Akt and AS160 and decreased in reactive lipid species (ceramide, diacylglycerol), known inhibitors of the insulin-signaling cascade. Total muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity was increased by both leptin and HF diet, but was not additive. Leptin increased subsarcolemmal (SS) and intramyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria CS activity. Total muscle, sarcolemmal, and mitochondrial (SS and IMF) FA transporter (FAT/CD36) protein content was significantly increased with the HF diet, but not altered by leptin. Therefore, the decrease in reactive lipid stores and subsequent improvement in insulin response, secondary to leptin administration in rats fed a HF diet was not due to a decrease in FA transport protein content or altered cellular distribution.
|Myo1c regulates glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle. |
Toyoda, T; An, D; Witczak, CA; Koh, HJ; Hirshman, MF; Fujii, N; Goodyear, LJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 4133-40 2011
Contraction and insulin promote glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through GLUT4 translocation to cell surface membranes. Although the signaling mechanisms leading to GLUT4 translocation have been extensively studied in muscle, the cellular transport machinery is poorly understood. Myo1c is an actin-based motor protein implicated in GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes; however, the expression profile and role of Myo1c in skeletal muscle have not been investigated. Myo1c protein abundance was higher in more oxidative skeletal muscles and heart. Voluntary wheel exercise (4 weeks, 8.2 ± 0.8 km/day), which increased the oxidative profile of the triceps muscle, significantly increased Myo1c protein levels by ∼2-fold versus sedentary controls. In contrast, high fat feeding (9 weeks, 60% fat) significantly reduced Myo1c by 17% in tibialis anterior muscle. To study Myo1c regulation of glucose uptake, we expressed wild-type Myo1c or Myo1c mutated at the ATPase catalytic site (K111A-Myo1c) in mouse tibialis anterior muscles in vivo and assessed glucose uptake in vivo in the basal state, in response to 15 min of in situ contraction, and 15 min following maximal insulin injection (16.6 units/kg of body weight). Expression of wild-type Myo1c or K111A-Myo1c had no effect on basal glucose uptake. However, expression of wild-type Myo1c significantly increased contraction- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, whereas expression of K111A-Myo1c decreased both contraction-stimulated and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Neither wild-type nor K111A-Myo1c expression altered GLUT4 expression, and neither affected contraction- or insulin-stimulated signaling proteins. Myo1c is a novel mediator of both insulin-stimulated and contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.
|AS160 phosphotyrosine-binding domain constructs inhibit insulin-stimulated GLUT4 vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. |
Koumanov, Françoise, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 286: 16574-82 (2011) 2011
AS160 (TBC1D4) is a known Akt substrate that is phosphorylated downstream of insulin action and that leads to regulated traffic of GLUT4. As GLUT4 vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane is a highly regulated step in GLUT4 traffic, we investigated whether AS160 and 14-3-3 interactions are involved in this process. Fusion was inhibited by a human truncated AS160 variant that encompasses the first N-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, by either of the two N-terminal PTB domains, and by a tandem construct of both PTB domains of rat AS160. We also found that in vitro GLUT4 vesicle fusion was strongly inhibited by the 14-3-3-quenching inhibitors R18 and fusicoccin. To investigate the mode of interaction of AS160 and 14-3-3, we examined insulin-dependent increases in the levels of these proteins on GLUT4 vesicles. 14-3-3γ was enriched on insulin-stimulated vesicles, and its binding to AS160 on GLUT4 vesicles was inhibited by the AS160 tandem PTB domain construct. These data suggest a model for PTB domain action on GLUT4 vesicle fusion in which these constructs inhibit insulin-stimulated 14-3-3γ interaction with AS160 rather than AS160 phosphorylation.
|A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang, Prepared from Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis, Ameliorates Insulin Resistance Induced by A High-Fructose Diet in Rats. |
Liu, IM; Tzeng, TF; Liou, SS
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2011 248231 2011
Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DBT), a Chinese medicinal decoction contains Radix Angelicae sinensis (Danggui) and Radix Astragali (Huangqi) at a ratio of 1 : 5, is used commonly for treating women's ailments. This study was conducted to explore the effects of this preparation on insulin resistance in rats fed with 6-week diet containing 60% fructose. Similar to the action of rosiglitazone (4 mg kg(-1) per day by an oral administration), repeated oral administration of DBT (2.5 g kg(-1) per day) for 14 days was found to significantly alleviate the hyperglycemia but made no influence on plasma lipid profiles nor weight gain in fructose chow-fed rats. Also, the higher degree of insulin resistance as measured by homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance in fructose chow-fed rats was significantly decreased by repeated DBT treatment. DBT displays the characteristic of rosiglitazone by increasing the whole-body insulin sensitivity in fructose chow-fed rats after 2-week treatment, as evidenced by the marked elevation of composite whole-body insulin sensitivity index during the oral glucose tolerance test. DBT improves insulin sensitivity through increased post-receptor insulin signaling mediated by enhancements in insulin receptor substrate-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase step and glucose transporter subtype 4 translocation in soleus muscles of animals exhibiting insulin resistance. DBT is therefore proposed as potentially useful adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance and/or the patients who wish to increase insulin sensitivity.
|Mechanisms for increased insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles of calorie-restricted rats. |
Sharma, N; Arias, EB; Bhat, AD; Sequea, DA; Ho, S; Croff, KK; Sajan, MP; Farese, RV; Cartee, GD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 300 E966-78 2011
Calorie restriction [CR; ~65% of ad libitum (AL) intake] improves insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. We aimed to elucidate the effects of CR on 1) processes that regulate Akt phosphorylation [insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine phosphorylation, IR substrate 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (IRS-PI3K) activity, and Akt binding to regulatory proteins (heat shock protein 90, Appl1, protein phosphatase 2A)]; 2) Akt substrate of 160-kDa (AS160) phosphorylation on key phosphorylation sites; and 3) atypical PKC (aPKC) activity. Isolated epitrochlearis (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles from AL or CR (6 mo duration) 9-mo-old male F344BN rats were incubated with 0, 1.2, or 30 nM insulin and 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose. Some CR effects were independent of insulin dose or muscle type: CR caused activation of Akt (Thr(308) and Ser(473)) and GU in both muscles at both insulin doses without CR effects on IRS1-PI3K, Akt-PP2A, or Akt-Appl1. Several muscle- and insulin dose-specific CR effects were revealed. Akt-HSP90 binding was increased in the epitrochlearis; AS160 phosphorylation (Ser(588) and Thr(642)) was greater for CR epitrochlearis at 1.2 nM insulin; and IR phosphorylation and aPKC activity were greater for CR in both muscles with 30 nM insulin. On the basis of these data, our working hypothesis for improved insulin-stimulated GU with CR is as follows: 1) elevated Akt phosphorylation is fundamental, regardless of muscle or insulin dose; 2) altered Akt binding to regulatory proteins (HSP90 and unidentified Akt partners) is involved in the effects of CR on Akt phosphorylation; 3) Akt effects on GU depend on muscle- and insulin dose-specific elevation in phosphorylation of Akt substrates, including, but not limited to, AS160; and 4) greater IR phosphorylation and aPKC activity may contribute at higher insulin doses.
|Clustering of GLUT4, TUG, and RUVBL2 protein levels correlate with myosin heavy chain isoform pattern in skeletal muscles, but AS160 and TBC1D1 levels do not. |
Castorena, CM; Mackrell, JG; Bogan, JS; Kanzaki, M; Cartee, GD
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 111 1106-17 2011
Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue. To further elucidate this heterogeneity, we probed relationships between myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition and abundance of GLUT4 and four other proteins that are established or putative GLUT4 regulators [Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc 16-domain member 1 (TBC1D1), Tethering protein containing an UBX-domain for GLUT4 (TUG), and RuvB-like protein two (RUVBL2)] in 12 skeletal muscles or muscle regions from Wistar rats [adductor longus, extensor digitorum longus, epitrochlearis, gastrocnemius (mixed, red, and white), plantaris, soleus, tibialis anterior (red and white), tensor fasciae latae, and white vastus lateralis]. Key results were 1) significant differences found among the muscles (range of muscle expression values) for GLUT4 (2.5-fold), TUG (1.7-fold), RUVBL2 (2.0-fold), and TBC1D1 (2.7-fold), but not AS160; 2) significant positive correlations for pairs of proteins: GLUT4 vs. TUG (R = 0.699), GLUT4 vs. RUVBL2 (R = 0.613), TUG vs. RUVBL2 (R = 0.564), AS160 vs. TBC1D1 (R = 0.293), and AS160 vs. TUG (R = 0.246); 3) significant positive correlations for %MHC-I: GLUT4 (R = 0.460), TUG (R = 0.538), and RUVBL2 (R = 0.511); 4) significant positive correlations for %MHC-IIa: GLUT4 (R = 0.293) and RUVBL2 (R = 0.204); 5) significant negative correlations for %MHC-IIb vs. GLUT4 (R = -0.642), TUG (R = -0.626), and RUVBL2 (R = -0.692); and 6) neither AS160 nor TBC1D1 significantly correlated with MHC isoforms. In 12 rat muscles, GLUT4 abundance tracked with TUG and RUVBL2 and correlated with MHC isoform expression, but was unrelated to AS160 or TBC1D1. Our working hypothesis is that some of the mechanisms that regulate GLUT4 abundance in rat skeletal muscle also influence TUG and RUVBL2 abundance.
|Identification of a novel phosphorylation site on TBC1D4 regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle. |
Treebak, JT; Taylor, EB; Witczak, CA; An, D; Toyoda, T; Koh, HJ; Xie, J; Feener, EP; Wojtaszewski, JF; Hirshman, MF; Goodyear, LJ
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 298 C377-85 2010
TBC1D4 (also known as AS160) regulates glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscle. Its mode of action involves phosphorylation of serine (S)/threonine (T) residues by upstream kinases resulting in inactivation of Rab-GTPase-activating protein (Rab-GAP) activity leading to GLUT4 mobilization. The majority of known phosphorylation sites on TBC1D4 lie within the Akt consensus motif and are phosphorylated by insulin stimulation. However, the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other kinases may also phosphorylate TBC1D4, and therefore we hypothesized the presence of additional phosphorylation sites. Mouse skeletal muscles were contracted or stimulated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), and muscle lysates were subjected to mass spectrometry analyses resulting in identification of novel putative phosphorylation sites on TBC1D4. The surrounding amino acid sequence predicted that S711 would be recognized by AMPK. Using a phosphospecific antibody against S711, we found that AICAR and contraction increased S711 phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle, and this increase was abolished in muscle-specific AMPKalpha2 kinase-dead transgenic mice. Exercise in human vastus lateralis muscle also increased TBC1D4 S711 phosphorylation. Recombinant AMPK, but not Akt1, Akt2, or PKCzeta, phosphorylated purified muscle TBC1D4 on S711 in vitro. Interestingly, S711 was also phosphorylated in response to insulin in an Akt2- and rapamycin-independent, but a wortmannin-sensitive, manner, suggesting this site is regulated by one or more additional upstream kinases. Despite increased S711 phosphorylation with AICAR, contraction, and insulin, mutation of S711 to alanine did not alter glucose uptake in response to these stimuli. S711 is a novel TBC1D4 phosphorylation site regulated by AMPK in skeletal muscle.Artículo Texto completo
|TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle. |
An, D; Toyoda, T; Taylor, EB; Yu, H; Fujii, N; Hirshman, MF; Goodyear, LJ
Diabetes 59 1358-65 2010
TBC1D1 is a member of the TBC1 Rab-GTPase family of proteins and is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Insulin and contraction increase TBC1D1 phosphorylation on phospho-Akt substrate motifs (PASs), but the function of TBC1D1 in muscle is not known. Genetic linkage analyses show a TBC1D1 R125W missense variant confers risk for severe obesity in humans. The objective of this study was to determine whether TBC1D1 regulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle.In vivo gene injection and electroporation were used to overexpress wild-type and several mutant TBC1D1 proteins in mouse tibialis anterior muscles, and glucose transport was measured in vivo.Expression of the obesity-associated R125W mutant significantly decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in the absence of changes in TBC1D1 PAS phosphorylation. Simultaneous expression of an inactive Rab-GTPase (GAP) domain of TBC1D1 in the R125W mutant reversed this decrease in glucose transport caused by the R125W mutant. Surprisingly, expression of TBC1D1 mutated to Ala on four conserved Akt and/or AMP-activated protein kinase predicted phosphorylation sites (4P) had no effect on insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In contrast, expression of the TBC1D1 4P mutant decreased contraction-stimulated glucose transport, an effect prevented by concomitant disruption of TBC1D1 Rab-GAP activity. There was no effect of the R125W mutation on contraction-stimulated glucose transport.TBC1D1 regulates both insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose transport, and this occurs via distinct mechanisms. The R125W mutation of TBC1D1 impairs skeletal muscle glucose transport, which could be a mechanism for the obesity associated with this mutation.Artículo Texto completo
|Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation||20299473|
|Insulin resistance for glucose uptake and Akt2 phosphorylation in the soleus, but not epitrochlearis, muscles of old vs. adult rats. |
Naveen Sharma,Edward B Arias,Mini P Sajan,James G MacKrell,Abhijit D Bhat,Robert V Farese,Gregory D Cartee
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 108 2010
The slow-twitch soleus, but not fast-twitch muscle, of old vs. adult rats has previously been demonstrated to become insulin resistant for in vivo glucose uptake. We probed cellular mechanisms for the age effect by assessing whether insulin resistance for glucose uptake was an intrinsic characteristic of the muscle ex vivo and by analyzing key insulin signaling steps. We hypothesized that isolated soleus and epitrochlearis (fast-twitch) muscles from old (25 mo) vs. adult (9 mo) male Fisher-344 x Brown Norway rats would have insulin resistance for Akt2 Thr308 phosphorylation (pAkt2Thr308), AS160 phosphorylation Thr642 (pAS160Thr642), and atypical PKC (aPKCzeta/lambda) activity corresponding in magnitude to the extent of insulin resistance for [3H]-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake. Epitrochlearis insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake above basal values was unaltered by age, and epitrochlearis pAkt2Thr308, pAS160Thr642, and aPKCzeta/lambda activity were not significantly different in adult vs. old rats. Conversely, insulin-stimulated 2-DG uptake by the soleus of old vs. adult rats was reduced with 1.2 nM (42%) and 30 nM (28%) insulin concomitant with an age-related decline in pAkt2Thr308 of the insulin-stimulated soleus. There were no age effects on pAS160Thr642 or aPKCzeta/lambda activity or abundance of Akt2, AS160, GLUT4 or Appl1 protein in either muscle. The results suggest the possibility that an age-related decline in pAkt2Thr308, acting by a mechanism other than reduced pAS160Thr642, may play a role in the insulin resistance in the soleus of old rats. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance in old age is distinctive compared with other insulin-resistant rodent models that are not selective for greater insulin resistance in the soleus vs. the epitrochlearis.Artículo Texto completo
|In vivo exercise followed by in vitro contraction additively elevates subsequent insulin-stimulated glucose transport by rat skeletal muscle. |
Funai, K; Schweitzer, GG; Castorena, CM; Kanzaki, M; Cartee, GD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 298 E999-1010 2010
The cellular mechanisms whereby prior exercise enhances insulin-stimulated glucose transport (GT) are not well understood. Previous studies suggested that a prolonged increase in phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) may be important for the postexercise increase in insulin sensitivity. In the current study, the effects of in vivo exercise and in vitro contraction on subsequent insulin-stimulated GT were studied separately and together. Consistent with results from previous studies, prior exercise resulted in an increase in AS160 (642)Thr phosphorylation immediately after exercise in rat epitrochlearis muscles, and this increase remained 3 h postexercise concomitant with enhanced insulin-stimulated GT. For experiments with in vitro contraction, isolated rat epitrochlearis muscles were electrically stimulated to contract in the presence or absence of rat serum. As expected, insulin-stimulated GT measured 3 h after electrical stimulation in serum, but not after electrical stimulation without serum, exceeded resting controls. Immediately after electrical stimulation with or without serum, phosphorylation of both AS160 (detected by phospho-Akt substrate, PAS, antibody, or phospho-(642)Thr antibody) and its paralog TBC1D1 (detected by phospho-(237)Ser antibody) was increased. However, both AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation had reversed to resting values at 3 h poststimulation with or without serum. Increasing the amount of exercise (from 1 to 2 h) or electrical stimulation (from 5 to 10 tetani) did not further elevate insulin-stimulated GT. In contrast, the combination of prior exercise and electrical stimulation had an additive effect on the subsequent increase in insulin-stimulated GT, suggesting that these exercise and electrical stimulation protocols may amplify insulin-stimulated GT through distinct mechanisms, with a persistent increase in AS160 phosphorylation potentially important for increased insulin sensitivity after exercise, but not after in vitro contraction.
|Increased AS160 phosphorylation, but not TBC1D1 phosphorylation, with increased postexercise insulin sensitivity in rat skeletal muscle. |
Funai, K; Schweitzer, GG; Sharma, N; Kanzaki, M; Cartee, GD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 297 E242-51 2009
A single exercise bout can increase insulin-independent glucose transport immediately postexercise and insulin-dependent glucose transport (GT) for several hours postexercise. Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and TBC1D1 are paralog Rab GTPase-activating proteins that have been proposed to contribute to these exercise effects. Previous research demonstrated greater AS160 and Akt threonine phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle at 3-4 h postexercise concomitant with enhanced insulin-stimulated GT. To further probe whether these signaling events or TBC1D1 phosphorylation were important for the enhanced postexercise insulin-stimulated GT, male Wistar rats were studied using four experimental protocols (2-h swim exercise, differing with regard to timing of muscle sampling and whether food was provided postexercise) that were known to vary in their influence of insulin-independent and insulin-dependent GT postexercise. The results indicated that, in isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle, 1) elevated phosphorylation of AS160 (measured using anti-phospho-Akt substrate, PAS-AS160, and phosphospecific anti-Thr(642)-AS160, pThr(642)-AS160) consistently tracked with elevated insulin-stimulated GT; 2) PAS-TBC1D1 was not different from sedentary values at 3 or 27 h postexercise, when insulin sensitivity was increased; 3) insulin-stimulated Akt activity was not increased postexercise in muscles with increased insulin sensitivity; 4) PAS-TBC1D1 was increased immediately postexercise, when insulin-independent GT was elevated, and reversed at 3 and 27 h postexercise, when insulin-independent GT was also reversed; and 5) there was no significant effect of exercise or insulin on total abundance of AS160, TBC1D1, Akt, or GLUT4 protein with any of the protocols. The results are consistent with increased AS160 phosphorylation (PAS-AS160 or pThr(642)-AS160) but not increased PAS-TBC1D1 or Akt activity, which is important for increased postexercise insulin-stimulated GT in rat skeletal muscle. They also support the idea that increased TBC1D1 phosphorylation may play a role in the insulin-independent increase in GT postexercise.Artículo Texto completo
|Resistance exercise increases human skeletal muscle AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation in association with enhanced leg glucose uptake during postexercise recovery. |
Dreyer, HC; Drummond, MJ; Glynn, EL; Fujita, S; Chinkes, DL; Volpi, E; Rasmussen, BB
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 105 1967-74 2008
Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160/TBC1D4) is associated with insulin and contraction-mediated glucose uptake. Human skeletal muscle AS160 phosphorylation is increased during aerobic exercise but not immediately following resistance exercise. It is not known whether AS160 phosphorylation is altered during recovery from resistance exercise. Therefore, we hypothesized that muscle AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation and glucose uptake across the leg would be increased during recovery following resistance exercise. We studied 9 male subjects before, during, and for 2 h of postexercise recovery. We utilized femoral catheterizations and muscle biopsies in combination with indirect calorimetry and immunoblotting to determine whole body glucose and fat oxidation, leg glucose uptake, muscle AMPKalpha2 activity, and the phosphorylation of muscle Akt and AS160/TBC1D4. Glucose oxidation was reduced while fat oxidation increased ( approximately 35%) during postexercise recovery (P less than or= 0.05). Glucose uptake increased during exercise and postexercise recovery (P less than or= 0.05). Akt phosphorylation was increased at 1 h and AMPKalpha2 activity increased at 2 h postexercise (P less than or= 0.05). Phospho(Ser/Thr)-Akt substrate (PAS) phosphorylation (often used as a marker for AS160) was unchanged immediately postexercise and increased at 1 h (P less than or= 0.05) and 2 h postexercise (P = 0.07). The PAS antibody is not always specific for AS160/TBC1D4 and can detect proteins at a similar molecular weight. Therefore, we immunoprecipitated AS160/TBC1D4 and then blotted with the PAS antibody, which confirmed that PAS phosphorylation is occurring on AS160/TBC1D4. There was also a positive correlation between PAS phosphorylation and leg glucose uptake during recovery (P less than 0.05). We conclude that resistance exercise increases AS160/TBC1D4 phosphorylation in association with an increase in leg glucose uptake during postexercise recovery.Artículo Texto completo
|The effect of exercise and insulin on AS160 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding capacity in human skeletal muscle. |
Howlett, KF; Mathews, A; Garnham, A; Sakamoto, K
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 294 E401-7 2008
AS160 is an Akt substrate of 160 kDa implicated in the regulation of both insulin- and contraction-mediated GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. The effects of aerobic exercise and subsequent insulin stimulation on AS160 phosphorylation and the binding capacity of 14-3-3, a novel protein involved in the dissociation of AS160 from GLUT4 vesicles, in human skeletal muscle are unknown. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed on seven men at rest and immediately and 3 h after a single bout of cycling exercise. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken before and after the clamps. The insulin sensitivity index calculated during the final 30 min of the clamp was 8.0 +/- 0.8, 9.1 +/- 0.5, and 9.2 +/- 0.8 for the rest, postexercise, and 3-h postexercise trials, respectively. AS160 phosphorylation increased immediately after exercise and remained elevated 3 h after exercise. In contrast, the 14-3-3 binding capacity of AS160 and phosphorylation of Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase were only increased immediately after exercise. Insulin increased AS160 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding capacity and insulin receptor substrate-1 and Akt phosphorylation, but the response to insulin was not enhanced by prior exercise. In conclusion, the 14-3-3 binding capacity of AS160 is increased immediately after acute exercise in human skeletal muscle, but this is not maintained 3 h after exercise completion despite sustained AS160 phosphorylation. Insulin increases AS160 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding capacity, but prior exercise does not appear to enhance the response to insulin.
|Discovery of TBC1D1 as an insulin-, AICAR-, and contraction-stimulated signaling nexus in mouse skeletal muscle. |
Taylor, EB; An, D; Kramer, HF; Yu, H; Fujii, NL; Roeckl, KS; Bowles, N; Hirshman, MF; Xie, J; Feener, EP; Goodyear, LJ
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 9787-96 2008
The Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) is phosphorylated on Akt substrate (PAS) motifs in response to insulin and contraction in skeletal muscle, regulating glucose uptake. Here we discovered a dissociation between AS160 protein expression and apparent AS160 PAS phosphorylation among soleus, tibialis anterior, and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Immunodepletion of AS160 in tibialis anterior muscle lysates resulted in minimal depletion of the PAS band at 160 kDa, suggesting the presence of an additional PAS immunoreactive protein. By immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified this protein as the AS160 paralog TBC1D1, an obesity candidate gene regulating GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. TBC1D1 expression was severalfold higher in skeletal muscles compared with all other tissues and was the dominant protein detected by the anti-PAS antibody at 160 kDa in tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus but not soleus muscles. In vivo stimulation by insulin, contraction, and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator AICAR increased TBC1D1 PAS phosphorylation. Using mass spectrometry on TBC1D1 from mouse skeletal muscle, we identified several novel phosphorylation sites on TBC1D1 and found the majority were consensus or near consensus sites for AMPK. Semiquantitative analysis of spectra suggested that AICAR caused greater overall phosphorylation of TBC1D1 sites compared with insulin. Purified Akt and AMPK phosphorylated TBC1D1 in vitro, and AMPK, but not Akt, reduced TBC1D1 electrophoretic mobility. TBC1D1 is a major PAS immunoreactive protein in skeletal muscle that is phosphorylated in vivo by insulin, AICAR, and contraction. Both Akt and AMPK phosphorylate TBC1D1, but AMPK may be the more robust regulator.Artículo Texto completo
|Nuclear receptor agonists improve insulin responsiveness in cultured cardiomyocytes through enhanced signaling and preserved cytoskeletal architecture. |
Montessuit, C; Papageorgiou, I; Lerch, R
Endocrinology 149 1064-74 2008
Insulin resistance is the failure of insulin to stimulate the transport of glucose into its target cells. A highly regulatable supply of glucose is important for cardiomyocytes to cope with situations of metabolic stress. We recently observed that isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes become insulin resistant in vitro. Insulin resistance is combated at the whole body level with agonists of the nuclear receptor complex peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)/retinoid X receptor (RXR). We investigated the effects of PPARgamma/RXR agonists on the insulin-stimulated glucose transport and on insulin signaling in insulin-resistant adult rat cardiomyocytes. Treatment of cardiomyocytes with ciglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, or 9-cis retinoic acid (RA), a RXR agonist, increased insulin- and metabolic stress-stimulated glucose transport, whereas agonists of PPARalpha or PPARbeta/delta had no effect. Stimulation of glucose transport in response to insulin requires the phosphorylation of the signaling intermediate Akt on the residues Thr308 and Ser473 and, downstream of Akt, AS160 on several Thr and Ser residues. Phosphorylation of Akt and AS160 in response to insulin was lower in insulin-resistant cardiomyocytes. However, treatment with 9-cis RA markedly increased phosphorylation of both proteins. Treatment with 9-cis RA also led to better preservation of microtubules in cultured cardiomyocytes. Disruption of microtubules in insulin-responsive cardiomyocytes abolished insulin-stimulated glucose transport and reduced phosphorylation of AS160 but not Akt. Metabolic stress-stimulated glucose transport also involved AS160 phosphorylation in a microtubule-dependent manner. Thus, the stimulation of glucose uptake in response to insulin or metabolic stress is dependent in cardiomyocytes on the presence of intact microtubules.
|Contraction-stimulated glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle is sustained despite reversal of increased PAS-phosphorylation of AS160 and TBC1D1. |
Funai, K; Cartee, GD
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 105 1788-95 2008
Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), the most distal insulin signaling protein known to be important for insulin-stimulated glucose transport, becomes phosphorylated with skeletal muscle contraction. Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) have been implicated in regulating AS160 and/or glucose transport. Our primary aim was to assess time courses for contraction's effects on glucose transport and phosphorylation of Akt, AMPK, CaMKII, and AS160. Isolated rat epitrochlearis muscles were studied without or with contraction (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 min). Phospho-Akt substrate (PAS) antibody was used to measure AS160 PAS phosphorylation by quantifying the approximately 160-kDa band on PAS immunoblots (PAS-160); a separate band at 150 kDa (PAS-150) that responded similarly to contraction was also identified. Using specific antibodies for AS160 or TBC1D1 on immunoblots, the molecular mass of PAS-160 was found to correspond with that of AS160 and not TBC1D1, whereas PAS-150 corresponded with TBC1D1 and not AS160. Furthermore, supernatant of sample immunodepleted with anti-AS160 had greatly reduced PAS-160, whereas supernatant of sample immunodepleted with anti-TBC1D1 had greatly reduced PAS-150, providing further evidence that PAS-160 and PAS-150 correspond with PAS-AS160 and PAS-TBC1D1, respectively. Contraction induced transient increases in PAS-160, PAS-150, phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3 (an Akt substrate) and phospho-CaMKII; glucose transport and phospho-AMPK increases were maintained for 60 min of contraction. These data suggest the following: 1) PAS-160 (AS160) and PAS-150 (TBC1D1) respond to contraction transiently, despite sustained stimulation; 2) continual AMPK activation was insufficient for sustained increase in PAS-160 or PAS-150; and 3) sustained elevation of PAS-160 or PAS-150 was unnecessary to maintain contraction-stimulated glucose transport for up to 60 min.Artículo Texto completo
|Effects of endurance exercise training on insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle: interactions at the level of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, and AS160. |
Frøsig, C; Rose, AJ; Treebak, JT; Kiens, B; Richter, EA; Wojtaszewski, JF
Diabetes 56 2093-102 2007
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms explaining improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after exercise training in human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy men performed 3 weeks of one-legged knee extensor endurance exercise training. Fifteen hours after the last exercise bout, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was approximately 60% higher (P less than 0.01) in the trained compared with the untrained leg during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after training as well as after 10 and 120 min of insulin stimulation in both legs. Protein content of Akt1/2 (55 +/- 17%, P less than 0.05), AS160 (25 +/- 8%, P = 0.08), GLUT4 (52 +/- 19%, P less than 0.001), hexokinase 2 (HK2) (197 +/- 40%, P less than 0.001), and insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (65 +/- 15%, P less than 0.001) increased in muscle in response to training. During hyperinsulinemia, activities of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) (P less than 0.005), Akt1 (P less than 0.05), Akt2 (P less than 0.005), and glycogen synthase (GS) (percent I-form, P less than 0.05) increased similarly in both trained and untrained muscle, consistent with increased phosphorylation of Akt Thr(308), Akt Ser(473), AS160, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3alpha Ser(21), and GSK-3beta Ser(9) and decreased phosphorylation of GS site 3a+b (all P less than 0.005). Interestingly, training improved insulin action on thigh blood flow, and, furthermore, in both basal and insulin-stimulated muscle tissue, activities of Akt1 and GS and phosphorylation of AS160 increased with training (all P less than 0.05). In contrast, training reduced IRS-1-associated PI3-K activity (P less than 0.05) in both basal and insulin-stimulated muscle tissue. Our findings do not support generally improved insulin signaling after endurance training; rather it seems that improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake may result from hemodynamic adaptations as well as increased cellular protein content of individual insulin signaling components and molecules involved in glucose transport and metabolism.
|AS160 phosphorylation is associated with activation of alpha2beta2gamma1- but not alpha2beta2gamma3-AMPK trimeric complex in skeletal muscle during exercise in humans. |
Treebak, JT; Birk, JB; Rose, AJ; Kiens, B; Richter, EA; Wojtaszewski, JF
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 292 E715-22 2007
We investigated time- and intensity-dependent effects of exercise on phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) in human skeletal muscle. Subjects performed cycle exercise for 90 min (67% VO2 peak, n=8), 20 min (80% VO2 peak, n=11), 2 min (110% of peak work rate, n=9), or 30 s (maximal sprint, n=10). Muscle biopsies were obtained before, during, and after exercise. In trial 1, AS160 phosphorylation increased at 60 min (60%, P=0.06) and further at 90 min of exercise (120%, Pless than 0.05). alpha2beta2gamma3-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity increased significantly to a steady-state level after 30 min, whereas alpha2beta2gamma1-AMPK activity increased after 60 min of exercise with a further significant increase after 90 min. alpha2beta2gamma1-AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation correlated positively (r2=0.55). In exercise trials 2, 3, and 4, alpha2beta2gamma3-AMPK activity but neither AS160 phosphorylation nor alpha2beta2gamma1-AMPK activity increased. Akt Ser473 phosphorylation was unchanged in all trials, whereas Akt Thr308 phosphorylation increased significantly in trial 3 and 4 only. These results show that AS160 is phosphorylated in a time-dependent manner during moderate-intensity exercise and suggest that alpha2beta2gamma1- but not alpha2beta2gamma3-AMPK may act in a pathway responsible for exercise-induced AS160 phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that AMPK complexes in skeletal muscle are activated differently depending on exercise intensity and duration.
|Prior exercise increases phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) in rat skeletal muscle. |
Arias, EB; Kim, J; Funai, K; Cartee, GD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 292 E1191-200 2007
The main purpose of this study was to determine whether the increased glucose transport (GT) found immediately postexercise (IPEX) or 4 h postexercise (4hPEX) is accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160, a protein regulator of GLUT4 translocation). Paired epitrochlearis muscles were dissected from rats (sedentary or IPEX, 2-h swim) and used to measure protein phosphorylation and insulin-independent GT. IPEX values exceeded sedentary values for GT and phosphorylations of AS160, AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC) but not for AS160 abundance or phosphorylation of Akt serine (pSerAkt), Akt threonine (pThrAkt), or glycogen synthase kinase-3 (pGSK3). AS160 phosphorylation was significantly correlated with GT (R=0.801, Pless than 0.01) and pAMPK (R=0.655, Pless than 0.05). Muscles from other rats were studied 4hPEX along with sedentary controls. One muscle per rat was incubated without insulin, and the contralateral muscle was incubated with insulin. 4hPEX values exceeded sedentary values for insulin-stimulated GT. The elevated pAMPK and pACC found IPEX had reversed by 4hPEX. Insulin caused a significant increase in pSerAkt, pThrAkt, pGSK3, and AS160 phosphorylation with or without exercise. Exercise significantly increased AS160 phosphorylation, regardless of insulin, with unchanged AS160 abundance. Among the signaling proteins studied, insulin-stimulated GT was significantly correlated only with insulin-stimulated pThrAkt (R=0.720, Pless than 0.0005). The results are consistent with a role for increased AS160 phosphorylation in the increased insulin-independent GT IPEX, and the exercise effects on AS160 phosphorylation and/or pThrAkt at 4hPEX are potentially relevant to the increased insulin-stimulated glucose transport at this time.
|Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation||17179389|
|AS160, the Akt substrate regulating GLUT4 translocation, has a functional Rab GTPase-activating protein domain. |
Mîinea, Cristinel P, et al.
Biochem. J., 391: 87-93 (2005) 2005
Recently, we described a 160 kDa protein (designated AS160, for Akt substrate of 160 kDa) with a predicted Rab GAP (GTPase-activating protein) domain that is phosphorylated on multiple sites by the protein kinase Akt. Phosphorylation of AS160 in adipocytes is required for insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. The aim of the present study was to determine whether AS160 is in fact a GAP for Rabs, and, if so, what its specificity is. We first identified a group of 16 Rabs in a preparation of intracellular vesicles containing GLUT4 by MS. We then prepared the recombinant GAP domain of AS160 and examined its activity against many of these Rabs, as well as several others. The GAP domain was active against Rabs 2A, 8A, 10 and 14. There was no significant activity against 14 other Rabs. GAP activity was further validated by the finding that the recombinant GAP domain with the predicted catalytic arginine residue replaced by lysine was inactive. Finally, it was found by immunoblotting that Rabs 2A, 8A and 14 are present in GLUT4 vesicles. These results indicate that AS160 is a Rab GAP, and suggest novel Rabs that may participate in GLUT4 translocation.
|Contraction signaling to glucose transport in skeletal muscle. |
Jessen, Niels and Goodyear, Laurie J
J. Appl. Physiol., 99: 330-7 (2005) 2005
Contracting skeletal muscles acutely increases glucose transport in both healthy individuals and in people with Type 2 diabetes, and regular physical exercise is a cornerstone in the treatment of the disease. Glucose transport in skeletal muscle is dependent on the translocation of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the cell surface. It has long been believed that there are two major signaling mechanisms leading to GLUT4 translocation. One mechanism is insulin-activated signaling through insulin receptor substrate-1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. The other is an insulin-independent signaling mechanism that is activated by contractions, but the mediators of this signal are still unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests that the energy-sensing enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase plays an important role in contraction-stimulated glucose transport. However, more recent studies in transgenic and knockout animals show that AMP-activated protein kinase is not the sole mediator of the signal to GLUT4 translocation and suggest that there may be redundant signaling pathways leading to contraction-stimulated glucose transport. The search for other possible signal intermediates is ongoing, and calcium, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and the Akt substrate AS160 have been suggested as possible candidates. Further research is needed because full elucidation of an insulin-independent signal leading to glucose transport would be a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.
|Full intracellular retention of GLUT4 requires AS160 Rab GTPase activating protein. |
Eguez, Lorena, et al.
Cell Metab., 2: 263-72 (2005) 2005
Insulin controls glucose flux into muscle and fat by regulating the trafficking of GLUT4 between the interior and surface of cells. Here, we show that the AS160 Rab GTPase activating protein (GAP) is a negative regulator of basal GLUT4 exocytosis. AS160 knockdown resulted in a partial redistribution of GLUT4 from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane, a concomitant increase in basal glucose uptake, and a 3-fold increase in basal GLUT4 exocytosis. Reexpression of wild-type AS160 restored normal GLUT4 behavior to the knockdown adipocytes, whereas reexpression of a GAP domain mutant did not revert the phenotype, providing the first direct evidence that AS160 GAP activity is required for basal GLUT4 retention. AS160 is the first protein identified that is specially required for basal GLUT4 retention. Our findings that AS160 knockdown only partially releases basal GLUT4 retention provides evidence that insulin signals to GLUT4 exocytosis by both AS160-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
|Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of a Rab GTPase-activating protein regulates GLUT4 translocation |
Sano, Hiroyuki, et al
J Biol Chem, 278:14599-602 (2003) 2003
|A method to identify serine kinase substrates. Akt phosphorylates a novel adipocyte protein with a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain |
Kane, Susan, et al
J Biol Chem, 277:22115-8 (2002) 2002
|TBC 11251. IPI 1040. |
[No authors listed]
Drugs in RD 2 38-9 2001