Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||ELISA, ICC, IF, IHC, IH(P), WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Mouse monoclonal Ascites fluid, with 0.01% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable at -20°C in undiluted aliquots for up to 12 months from date of receipt. Do not store in a diluted format. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 555 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Increased Infiltration of Extra-Cardiac Cells in Myxomatous Valve Disease. |
Sauls, K; Toomer, K; Williams, K; Johnson, AJ; Markwald, RR; Hajdu, Z; Norris, RA
Journal of cardiovascular development and disease 2 200-213 2015
Mutations in the actin-binding gene Filamin-A have been linked to non-syndromic myxomatous valvular dystrophy and associated mitral valve prolapse. Previous studies by our group traced the adult valve defects back to developmental errors in valve interstitial cell-mediated extracellular matrix remodeling during fetal valve gestation. Mice deficient in Filamin-A exhibit enlarged mitral leaflets at E17.5, and subsequent progression to a myxomatous phenotype is observed by two months. For this study, we sought to define mechanisms that contribute to myxomatous degeneration in the adult Filamin-A-deficient mouse. In vivo experiments demonstrate increased infiltration of hematopoietic-derived cells and macrophages in adolescent Filamin-A conditional knockout mice. Concurrent with this infiltration of hematopoietic cells, we show an increase in Erk activity, which localizes to regions of MMP2 expression. Additionally, increases in cell proliferation are observed at two months, when hematopoietic cell engraftment and signaling are pronounced. Similar changes are observed in human myxomatous mitral valve tissue, suggesting that infiltration of hematopoietic-derived cells and/or increased Erk signaling may contribute to myxomatous valvular dystrophy. Consequently, immune cell targeting and/or suppression of pErk activities may represent an effective therapeutic option for mitral valve prolapse patients.
|Let-7-mediated suppression of mucin 1 expression in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation. |
Inyawilert, W; Fu, TY; Lin, CT; Tang, PC
The Journal of reproduction and development 61 138-44 2015
Mucin 1 (Muc1) is an integral transmembrane mucin glycoprotein expressed on the apical surface of most epithelia. It is considered to be a barrier to the regulation of embryo implantation by inhibiting attachment of the embryo to the endometrium. Therefore, loss of Muc1 on the surface of uterine epithelial cells is necessary for embryo implantation. Studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in enhancing embryo implantation in mammals. In this study, we investigated the regulatory role of two miRNAs (let-7a and let-7b) on the expression of Muc1 in mouse uteri during implantation. Western blotting indicated that Muc1 expression was highest on day1 of pregnancy and constantly decreased thereafter until day 4. In contrast to Muc1 expression, increased expression of let-7a and let-7b was evident on day 4 of pregnancy as measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). We demonstrated direct binding of let-7a and let-7b to the 3'untranslated region of muc1. Furthermore, Muc1 expression was suppressed after transfection of mouse uterine epithelial cells isolated from day 1 of pregnancy with let-7a and let-7b. In summary, the present study provides evidence that Muc1 is a direct target of let-7a and let-7b. Additionally, the current study suggests that miRNAs are novel targets which can be used to facilitate a successful pregnancy and repair implantation failure.
|AMPA Receptor-mTOR Activation is Required for the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in Rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role. |
Chen, KT; Tsai, MH; Wu, CH; Jou, MJ; Wei, IH; Huang, CC
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 9 162 2015
Sarcosine, an endogenous amino acid, is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter and an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist. Recently, we found that sarcosine, an NMDAR enhancer, can improve depression-related behaviors in rodents and humans. This result differs from previous studies, which have reported antidepressant effects of NMDAR antagonists. The mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response of sarcosine remain unknown. This study examines the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptor (AMPAR) activation, which are involved in the antidepressant-like effects of several glutamatergic system modulators. The effects of sarcosine in a forced swim test (FST) and the expression levels of phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins were examined in the absence or presence of mTOR and AMPAR inhibitors. In addition, the influence of sarcosine on AMPAR trafficking was determined by analyzing the phosphorylation of AMPAR subunit GluR1 at the PKA site (often considered an indicator for GluR1 membrane insertion in neurons). A single injection of sarcosine exhibited antidepressant-like effects in rats in the FST and rapidly activated the mTOR signaling pathway, which were significantly blocked by mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or the AMPAR inhibitor 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) pretreatment. Moreover, NBQX pretreatment eliminated the ability of sarcosine to stimulate the phosphorylated mTOR signaling proteins. Furthermore, GluR1 phosphorylation at its PKA site was significantly increased after an acute in vivo sarcosine treatment. The results demonstrated that sarcosine exerts antidepressant-like effects by enhancing AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway activity and facilitating AMPAR membrane insertion. Highlights-A single injection of sarcosine rapidly exerted antidepressant-like effects with a concomitant increase in the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR signaling pathway.-The antidepressant-like effects of sarcosine occur through the activated AMPAR-mTOR signaling pathway.-Sarcosine could enhance AMPAR membrane insertion via an AMPAR throughput.
|The ribonucleotidyl transferase USIP-1 acts with SART3 to promote U6 snRNA recycling. |
Rüegger, S; Miki, TS; Hess, D; Großhans, H
Nucleic acids research 43 3344-57 2015
The spliceosome is a large molecular machine that serves to remove the intervening sequences that are present in most eukaryotic pre-mRNAs. At its core are five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes, the U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6 snRNPs, which undergo dynamic rearrangements during splicing. Their reutilization for subsequent rounds of splicing requires reversion to their original configurations, but little is known about this process. Here, we show that ZK863.4/USIP-1 (U Six snRNA-Interacting Protein-1) is a ribonucleotidyl transferase that promotes accumulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans U6 snRNA. Endogenous USIP-1-U6 snRNA complexes lack the Lsm proteins that constitute the protein core of the U6 snRNP, but contain the U6 snRNP recycling factor SART3/B0035.12. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that SART3 but not USIP-1 occurs also in a separate complex containing both the U4 and U6 snRNPs. Based on this evidence, genetic interaction between usip-1 and sart-3, and the apparent dissociation of Lsm proteins from the U6 snRNA during spliceosome activation, we propose that USIP-1 functions upstream of SART3 to promote U6 snRNA recycling.
|Autophagy Regulates Formation of Primary Cilia in Mefloquine-Treated Cells. |
Shin, JH; Bae, DJ; Kim, ES; Kim, HB; Park, SJ; Jo, YK; Jo, DS; Jo, DG; Kim, SY; Cho, DH
Biomolecules & therapeutics 23 327-32 2015
Primary cilia have critical roles in coordinating multiple cellular signaling pathways. Dysregulation of primary cilia is implicated in various ciliopathies. To identify specific regulators of autophagy, we screened chemical libraries and identified mefloquine, an anti-malaria medicine, as a potent regulator of primary cilia in human retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. Not only ciliated cells but also primary cilium length was increased in mefloquine-treated RPE cells. Treatment with mefloquine strongly induced the elongation of primary cilia by blocking disassembly of primary cilium. In addition, we found that autophagy was increased in mefloquine-treated cells by enhancing autophagic flux. Both chemical and genetic inhibition of autophagy suppressed ciliogenesis in mefloquine-treated RPE cells. Taken together, these results suggest that autophagy induced by mefloquine positively regulates the elongation of primary cilia in RPE cells.
|Unique Effects of Acute Aripiprazole Treatment on the Dopamine D2 Receptor Downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β Signalling Pathways in Rats. |
Pan, B; Chen, J; Lian, J; Huang, XF; Deng, C
PloS one 10 e0132722 2015
Aripiprazole is a wide-used antipsychotic drug with therapeutic effects on both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and reduced side-effects. Although aripiprazole was developed as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) partial agonist, all other D2R partial agonists that aimed to mimic aripiprazole failed to exert therapeutic effects in clinic. The present in vivo study aimed to investigate the effects of aripiprazole on the D2R downstream cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways in comparison with a D2R antagonist--haloperidol and a D2R partial agonist--bifeprunox. Rats were injected once with aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, i.p.), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, i.p.), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle. Five brain regions--the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) were collected. The protein levels of PKA, Akt and GSK3β were measured by Western Blotting; the cAMP levels were examined by ELISA tests. The results showed that aripiprazole presented similar acute effects on PKA expression to haloperidol, but not bifeprunox, in the CPU and VTA. Additionally, aripiprazole was able to increase the phosphorylation of GSK3β in the PFC, NAc, CPu and SN, respectively, which cannot be achieved by bifeprunox and haloperidol. These results suggested that acute treatment of aripiprazole had differential effects on the cAMP-PKA and Akt-GSK3β signalling pathways from haloperidol and bifeprunox in these brain areas. This study further indicated that, by comparison with bifeprunox, the unique pharmacological profile of aripiprazole may be attributed to the relatively lower intrinsic activity at D2R.
|TORC1 promotes phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 via the AGC kinase Ypk3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. |
González, A; Shimobayashi, M; Eisenberg, T; Merle, DA; Pendl, T; Hall, MN; Moustafa, T
PloS one 10 e0120250 2015
The target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is an evolutionarily conserved sensor of nutrient availability. Genetic and pharmacological studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided mechanistic insights on the regulation of TORC1 signaling in response to nutrients. Using a highly specific antibody that recognizes phosphorylation of the bona fide TORC1 target ribosomal protein S6 (Rps6) in yeast, we found that nutrients rapidly induce Rps6 phosphorylation in a TORC1-dependent manner. Moreover, we demonstrate that Ypk3, an AGC kinase which exhibits high homology to human S6 kinase (S6K), is required for the phosphorylation of Rps6 in vivo. Rps6 phosphorylation is completely abolished in cells lacking Ypk3 (ypk3Δ), whereas Sch9, previously reported to be the yeast ortholog of S6K, is dispensable for Rps6 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation-deficient mutations in regulatory motifs of Ypk3 abrogate Rps6 phosphorylation, and complementation of ypk3Δ cells with human S6 kinase restores Rps6 phosphorylation in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Our findings demonstrate that Ypk3 is a critical component of the TORC1 pathway and that the use of a phospho-S6 specific antibody offers a valuable tool to identify new nutrient-dependent and rapamycin-sensitive targets in vivo.
|STAT3 upregulation in pituitary somatotroph adenomas induces growth hormone hypersecretion. |
Zhou, C; Jiao, Y; Wang, R; Ren, SG; Wawrowsky, K; Melmed, S
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 1692-702 2015
Pituitary somatotroph adenomas result in dysregulated growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion and acromegaly; however, regulatory mechanisms that promote GH hypersecretion remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that STAT3 directly induces somatotroph tumor cell GH. Evaluation of pituitary tumors revealed that STAT3 expression was enhanced in human GH-secreting adenomas compared with that in nonsecreting pituitary tumors. Moreover, STAT3 and GH expression were concordant in a somatotroph adenoma tissue array. Promoter and expression analysis in a GH-secreting rat cell line (GH3) revealed that STAT3 specifically binds the Gh promoter and induces transcription. Stable expression of STAT3 in GH3 cells induced expression of endogenous GH, and expression of a constitutively active STAT3 further enhanced GH production. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative STAT3 abrogated GH expression. In primary human somatotroph adenoma-derived cell cultures, STAT3 suppression with the specific inhibitor S3I-201 attenuated GH transcription and reduced GH secretion in the majority of derivative cultures. In addition, S3I-201 attenuated somatotroph tumor growth and GH secretion in a rat xenograft model. GH induced STAT3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, indicating a positive feedback loop between STAT3 and GH in somatotroph tumor cells. Together, these results indicate that adenoma GH hypersecretion is the result of STAT3-dependent GH induction, which in turn promotes STAT3 expression, and suggest STAT3 as a potential therapeutic target for pituitary somatotroph adenomas.
|Recognition of Linear B-Cell Epitope of Betanodavirus Coat Protein by RG-M18 Neutralizing mAB Inhibits Giant Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (GGNNV) Infection. |
Chen, CW; Wu, MS; Huang, YJ; Cheng, CA; Chang, CY
PloS one 10 e0126121 2015
Betanodavirus is a causative agent of viral nervous necrosis syndrome in many important aquaculture marine fish larvae, resulting in high global mortality. The coat protein of Betanodavirus is the sole structural protein, and it can assemble the virion particle by itself. In this study, we used a high-titer neutralizing mAB, RG-M18, to identify the linear B-cell epitope on the viral coat protein. By mapping a series of recombinant proteins generated using the E. coli PET expression system, we demonstrated that the linear epitope recognized by RG-M18 is located at the C-terminus of the coat protein, between amino acid residues 195 and 338. To define the minimal epitope region, a set of overlapping peptides were synthesized and evaluated for RG-M18 binding. Such analysis identified the 195VNVSVLCR202 motif as the minimal epitope. Comparative analysis of Alanine scanning mutagenesis with dot-blotting and ELISA revealed that Valine197, Valine199, and Cysteine201 are critical for antibody binding. Substitution of Leucine200 in the RGNNV, BFNNV, and TPNNV genotypes with Methionine200 (thereby simulating the SJNNV genotype) did not affect binding affinity, implying that RG-M18 can recognize all genotypes of Betanodaviruses. In competition experiments, synthetic multiple antigen peptides of this epitope dramatically suppressed giant grouper nervous necrosis virus (GGNNV) propagation in grouper brain cells. The data provide new insights into the protective mechanism of this neutralizing mAB, with broader implications for Betanodavirus vaccinology and antiviral peptide drug development.
|Prdx4 is a compartment-specific H2O2 sensor that regulates neurogenesis by controlling surface expression of GDE2. |
Yan, Y; Wladyka, C; Fujii, J; Sockanathan, S
Nature communications 6 7006 2015
Neural progenitors and terminally differentiated neurons show distinct redox profiles, suggesting that coupled-redox cascades regulate the initiation and progression of neuronal differentiation. Discrete cellular compartments have different redox environments and how they contribute to differentiation is unclear. Here we show that Prdx4, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) enzyme that metabolizes H2O2, acts as a tunable regulator of neurogenesis via its compartmentalized thiol-oxidative function. Prdx4 ablation causes premature motor neuron differentiation and progenitor depletion, leading to imbalances in subtype-specific motor neurons. GDE2, a six-transmembrane protein that induces differentiation by downregulating Notch signalling through surface cleavage of GPI-anchored proteins, is targeted by Prdx4 oxidative activity. Prdx4 dimers generated by H2O2 metabolism oxidize two cysteine residues within the GDE2 enzymatic domain, which blocks GDE2 trafficking to the plasma membrane and prevents GDE2 neurogeneic function. Thus, Prdx4 oxidative activity acts as a sensor to directly couple neuronal differentiation with redox environments in the ER.
|Electroacupuncture at different frequencies (5Hz and 25Hz) ameliorates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: possible involvement of p38 MAPK-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. |
Cheng, CY; Lin, JG; Tang, NY; Kao, ST; Hsieh, CL
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 15 241 2015
This study aimed to determine the effects of electroacupuncture stimulation at the Baihui (GV20) and Fengfu (GV16) acupoints, at frequencies of 5Hz (EA-5Hz) and 25Hz (EA-25Hz), 7 days after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and to evaluate the possible signaling mechanisms involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways.Rats were subjected to 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 7 days of reperfusion. EA-5Hz or EA-25Hz was applied immediately after MCAo and then once daily for 7 consecutive days.Results indicated that EA-5Hz and EA-25Hz both markedly attenuated cerebral infarction and neurological deficits. EA-5Hz and EA-25Hz both markedly downregulated cytosolic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), mitochondrial Bax, mitochondrial and cytosolic second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspase/direct inhibitor of apoptosis protein-binding protein with low isoelectric point (Smac/DIABLO), and cytosolic cleaved caspase-3 expression, and effectively restored cytosolic phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK), cytosolic cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), mitochondrial Bcl-xL, and cytosolic X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression, in the ischemic cortical penumbra 7 days after reperfusion. Both EA-5Hz and EA-25Hz also significantly increased the ratios of mitochondrial Bcl-xL/Bax and Bcl-2/Bax, respectively.Both EA-5Hz and EA-25Hz effectively downregulate reactive astrocytosis to provide neuroprotection against cerebral infarction, most likely by activating the p38 MAPK/CREB signaling pathway. The modulating effects of EA-5Hz and EA-25Hz on Bax-mediated apoptosis are possibly due to the activation of p38 MAPK/CREB/Bcl-xL and p38 MAPK/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathways, respectively, and eventually contribute to the prevention of Smac/DIABLO translocation and subsequent restoration of XIAP-mediated suppression of caspase-3 in the cortical periinfarct area 7 days after reperfusion.
|Astaxanthin protects steroidogenesis from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in mouse Leydig cells. |
Wang, JY; Lee, YJ; Chou, MC; Chang, R; Chiu, CH; Liang, YJ; Wu, LS
Marine drugs 13 1375-88 2015
Androgens, especially testosterone produced in Leydig cells, play an essential role in development of the male reproductive phenotype and fertility. However, testicular oxidative stress may cause a decline in testosterone production. Many antioxidants have been used as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers to eliminate oxidative stress to protect steroidogenesis. Astaxanthin (AST), a natural extract from algae and plants ubiquitous in the marine environment, has been shown to have antioxidant activity in many previous studies. In this study, we treated primary mouse Leydig cells or MA-10 cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to cause oxidative stress. Testosterone and progesterone production was suppressed and the expression of the mature (30 kDa) form of StAR protein was down-regulated in MA-10 cells by H2O2 and cAMP co-treatment. However, progesterone production and expression of mature StAR protein were restored in MA-10 cells by a one-hour pretreatment with AST. AST also reduced ROS levels in cells so that they were lower than the levels in untreated controls. These results provide additional evidence of the potential health benefits of AST as a potential food additive to ease oxidative stress.
|Consequences of combining siRNA-mediated DNA methyltransferase 1 depletion with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in human leukemic KG1 cells. |
Vispé, S; Deroide, A; Davoine, E; Desjobert, C; Lestienne, F; Fournier, L; Novosad, N; Bréand, S; Besse, J; Busato, F; Tost, J; De Vries, L; Cussac, D; Riond, J; Arimondo, PB
Oncotarget 6 15265-82 2015
5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine are clinically used to treat patients with blood neoplasia. Their antileukemic property is mediated by the trapping and the subsequent degradation of a family of proteins, the DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B) leading to DNA demethylation, tumor suppressor gene re-expression and DNA damage. Here we studied the respective role of each DNMT in the human leukemia KG1 cell line using a RNA interference approach. In addition we addressed the role of DNA damage formation in DNA demethylation by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Our data show that DNMT1 is the main DNMT involved in DNA methylation maintenance in KG1 cells and in mediating DNA damage formation upon exposure to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Moreover, KG1 cells express the DNMT1 protein at a level above the one required to ensure DNA methylation maintenance, and we identified a threshold for DNMT1 depletion that needs to be exceeded to achieve DNA demethylation. Most interestingly, by combining DNMT1 siRNA and treatment with low dose of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, it is possible to uncouple DNA damage formation from DNA demethylation. This work strongly suggests that a direct pharmacological inhibition of DNMT1, unlike the use of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, should lead to tumor suppressor gene hypomethylation and re-expression without inducing major DNA damage in leukemia.
|Dynamic response of RNA editing to temperature in Drosophila. |
Rieder, LE; Savva, YA; Reyna, MA; Chang, YJ; Dorsky, JS; Rezaei, A; Reenan, RA
BMC biology 13 1 2015
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is a highly conserved process that post-transcriptionally modifies mRNA, generating proteomic diversity, particularly within the nervous system of metazoans. Transcripts encoding proteins involved in neurotransmission predominate as targets of such modifications. Previous reports suggest that RNA editing is responsive to environmental inputs in the form of temperature alterations. However, the molecular determinants underlying temperature-dependent RNA editing responses are not well understood.Using the poikilotherm Drosophila, we show that acute temperature alterations within a normal physiological range result in substantial changes in RNA editing levels. Our examination of particular sites reveals diversity in the patterns with which editing responds to temperature, and these patterns are conserved across five species of Drosophilidae representing over 10 million years of divergence. In addition, we show that expression of the editing enzyme, ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA), is dramatically decreased at elevated temperatures, partially, but not fully, explaining some target responses to temperature. Interestingly, this reduction in editing enzyme levels at elevated temperature is only partially reversed by a return to lower temperatures. Lastly, we show that engineered structural variants of the most temperature-sensitive editing site, in a sodium channel transcript, perturb thermal responsiveness in RNA editing profile for a particular RNA structure.Our results suggest that the RNA editing process responds to temperature alterations via two distinct molecular mechanisms: through intrinsic thermo-sensitivity of the RNA structures that direct editing, and due to temperature sensitive expression or stability of the RNA editing enzyme. Environmental cues, in this case temperature, rapidly reprogram the Drosophila transcriptome through RNA editing, presumably resulting in altered proteomic ratios of edited and unedited proteins.
|Initiation and maintenance of pluripotency gene expression in the absence of cohesin. |
Lavagnolli, T; Gupta, P; Hörmanseder, E; Mira-Bontenbal, H; Dharmalingam, G; Carroll, T; Gurdon, JB; Fisher, AG; Merkenschlager, M
Genes & development 29 23-38 2015
Cohesin is implicated in establishing and maintaining pluripotency. Whether this is because of essential cohesin functions in the cell cycle or in gene regulation is unknown. Here we tested cohesin's contribution to reprogramming in systems that reactivate the expression of pluripotency genes in the absence of proliferation (embryonic stem [ES] cell heterokaryons) or DNA replication (nuclear transfer). Contrary to expectations, cohesin depletion enhanced the ability of ES cells to initiate somatic cell reprogramming in heterokaryons. This was explained by increased c-Myc (Myc) expression in cohesin-depleted ES cells, which promoted DNA replication-dependent reprogramming of somatic fusion partners. In contrast, cohesin-depleted somatic cells were poorly reprogrammed in heterokaryons, due in part to defective DNA replication. Pluripotency gene induction was rescued by Myc, which restored DNA replication, and by nuclear transfer, where reprogramming does not require DNA replication. These results redefine cohesin's role in pluripotency and reveal a novel function for Myc in promoting the replication-dependent reprogramming of somatic nuclei.
|A Compartmental Comparison of Major Lipid Species in a Coral-Symbiodinium Endosymbiosis: Evidence that the Coral Host Regulates Lipogenesis of Its Cytosolic Lipid Bodies. |
Chen, HK; Song, SN; Wang, LH; Mayfield, AB; Chen, YJ; Chen, WN; Chen, CS
PloS one 10 e0132519 2015
The lipid body (LB) formation in the host coral gastrodermal cell cytoplasm is a hallmark of the coral-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis, and such lipid-based entities are not found in endosymbiont-free cnidarian cells. Therefore, the elucidation of lipogenesis regulation in LBs and how it is related to the lipid metabolism of the host and endosymbiont could provide direct insight to understand the symbiosis mechanism. Herein, the lipid composition of host cells of the stony coral Euphyllia glabrescens, as well as that of their cytoplasmic LBs and in hospite Symbiodinium populations, was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and six major lipid species were identified: wax esters, sterol esters, triacylglycerols, cholesterols, free fatty acids, and phospholipids. Their concentrations differed significantly between host coral cells, LBs, and Symbiodinium, suggesting compartmental regulation. WE were only present in the host coral and were particularly highly concentrated in LBs. Amongst the four species of WE, the monoene R = C18:1/R = C16 was found to be LB-specific and was not present in the host gastrodermal cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, the acyl pool profiles of the individual LB lipid species were more similar, but not equal to, those of the host gastrodermal cells in which they were located, indicating partially autonomous lipid metabolism in these LBs. Nevertheless, given the overall similarity in the host gastrodermal cell and LB lipid profiles, these data suggest that a significant portion of the LB lipids may be of host coral origin. Finally, lipid profiles of the in hospite Symbiodinium populations were significantly distinct from those of the cultured Symbiodinium, potentially suggesting a host regulation effect that may be fundamental to lipid metabolism in endosymbiotic associations involving clade C Symbiodinium.
|Monitoring the Activation of the DNA Damage Response Pathway in a 3D Spheroid Model. |
Mondesert, O; Frongia, C; Clayton, O; Boizeau, ML; Lobjois, V; Ducommun, B
PloS one 10 e0134411 2015
Monitoring the DNA-Damage Response (DDR) activated pathway in multicellular tumor spheroid models is an important challenge as these 3D models have demonstrated their major relevance in pharmacological evaluation. Herein we present DDR-Act-FP, a fluorescent biosensor that allows detection of DDR activation through monitoring of the p21 promoter p53-dependent activation. We show that cells expressing the DDR-Act-FP biosensor efficiently report activation of the DDR pathway after DNA damage and its pharmacological manipulation using ATM kinase inhibitors. We also report the successful use of this assay to screen a small compound library in order to identify activators of the DDR response. Finally, using multicellular spheroids expressing the DDR-Act-FP we demonstrate that DDR activation and its pharmacological manipulation with inhibitory and activatory compounds can be efficiently monitored in live 3D spheroid model. This study paves the way for the development of innovative screening and preclinical evaluation assays.
|Prognostic and therapeutic impact of RPN2-mediated tumor malignancy in non-small-cell lung cancer. |
Fujita, Y; Yagishita, S; Takeshita, F; Yamamoto, Y; Kuwano, K; Ochiya, T
Oncotarget 6 3335-45 2015
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful gene-silencing platform for cancer treatment. Previously, we demonstrated that ribophorin II (RPN2), which is part of the N-oligosaccharyl transferase complex, regulates docetaxel sensitivity and tumor lethal phenotypes in breast cancer. However, the molecular functions and clinical relevance of RPN2 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unknown. Here, we examined RPN2 expression in tumor specimens from recurrent NSCLC patients after resection (n = 32 and = 177) and assessed the correlation between RPN2 expression and various clinical features. We also investigated whether RPN2 affects cancer malignancy in vitro and tumor growth and drug resistance in vivo. Our data show that RPN2 expression confers early and distant recurrence as well as poor survival in NSCLC patients. Furthermore, RPN2 silencing suppressed cell proliferation and invasiveness, and increased the sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs in vitro. Remarkably, we found that intrinsic apoptosis signaling is the mechanism of cell death involved with RPN2 knockdown. Strikingly, RPN2 silencing repressed tumorigenicity and sensitized the tumors to cisplatin treatment, which led to the longer survival of NSCLC-bearing mice. In conclusion, these data suggest that RPN2 is involved in the regulation of lethal cancer phenotypes and represents a promising new target for RNAi-based medicine against NSCLC.
|VPS35 pathogenic mutations confer no dominant toxicity but partial loss of function in Drosophila and genetically interact with parkin. |
Malik, BR; Godena, VK; Whitworth, AJ
Human molecular genetics 24 6106-17 2015
Mutations in VPS35 (PARK17) cause autosomal dominant, late onset Parkinson's disease (PD). VPS35 forms a core component of the retromer complex that mediates the retrieval of membrane proteins from endosomes back to either the Golgi or plasma membrane. While aberrant endosomal protein sorting has been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms by which VPS35 mutations and retromer function contribute to PD pathogenesis are not clear. To address this, we generated transgenic Drosophila that express variant forms of human VPS35 found in PD cases and the corresponding variants of the Drosophila ortholog. We did not find evidence of dominant toxicity from any variant form including the pathogenic D620N mutation, even with aging. However, assessing the ability of Vps35 variants to rescue multiple vps35-mutant phenotypes, we found that the D620N mutation confers a partial loss of function. Recently, VPS35 has been linked to the formation of mitochondria-derived vesicles, which mediate the degradation of mitochondrial proteins and contribute to mitochondrial quality control. This process is also promoted by two other PD-lined genes parkin (PARK2) and PINK1 (PARK6). We demonstrate here that vps35 genetically interacts with parkin but interestingly not with pink1. Strikingly, Vps35 overexpression is able to rescue several parkin-mutant phenotypes. Together these findings provide in vivo evidence that the D620N mutation likely confers pathogenicity through a partial loss of function mechanism and that this may be linked to other known pathogenic mechanisms such as mitochondrial dysfunction.
|Low glucose microenvironment of normal kidney cells stabilizes a subset of messengers involved in angiogenesis. |
de Laplanche, E; Boudria, A; Dacheux, E; Vincent, A; Gadot, N; Assade, F; Le Corf, K; Leroy, X; Mège Lechevallier, F; Eymin, B; Dalla Venezia, N; Simonnet, H
Physiological reports 3 2015
As glucose is a mandatory nutrient for cell proliferation and renewal, it is suspected that glucose microenvironment is sensed by all cell types to regulate angiogenesis. Several glucose-sensing components have been partially described to respond to high glucose levels. However, little is known about the response to low glucose. Here, we used well-differentiated isolated normal rat renal tubules under normal oxygenation conditions to assess the angiogenic response to low glucose. In apparent paradox, but confirming observations made separately in other models, high glucose but also low glucose increased mRNA level of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). A subset of mRNAs including hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A), angiopoietin receptor (TIE-2), and VEGF receptor 2 (FLK1) were similarly glucose-sensitive and responded to low glucose by increased stability independently of HIF1A and HIF2A proteins. These results contribute to gain some insights as to how normal cells response to low glucose may play a role in the tumor microenvironment.
|Causal Modeling of Cancer-Stromal Communication Identifies PAPPA as a Novel Stroma-Secreted Factor Activating NFκB Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. |
Engelmann, JC; Amann, T; Ott-Rötzer, B; Nützel, M; Reinders, Y; Reinders, J; Thasler, WE; Kristl, T; Teufel, A; Huber, CG; Oefner, PJ; Spang, R; Hellerbrand, C
PLoS computational biology 11 e1004293 2015
Inter-cellular communication with stromal cells is vital for cancer cells. Molecules involved in the communication are potential drug targets. To identify them systematically, we applied a systems level analysis that combined reverse network engineering with causal effect estimation. Using only observational transcriptome profiles we searched for paracrine factors sending messages from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We condensed these messages to predict ten proteins that, acting in concert, cause the majority of the gene expression changes observed in HCC cells. Among the 10 paracrine factors were both known and unknown cancer promoting stromal factors, the former including Placental Growth Factor (PGF) and Periostin (POSTN), while Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A (PAPPA) was among the latter. Further support for the predicted effect of PAPPA on HCC cells came from both in vitro studies that showed PAPPA to contribute to the activation of NFκB signaling, and clinical data, which linked higher expression levels of PAPPA to advanced stage HCC. In summary, this study demonstrates the potential of causal modeling in combination with a condensation step borrowed from gene set analysis [Model-based Gene Set Analysis (MGSA)] in the identification of stromal signaling molecules influencing the cancer phenotype.
|Conditioned Media from Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibits Melanogenesis by Promoting Proteasomal Degradation of MITF. |
Kim, ES; Jeon, HB; Lim, H; Shin, JH; Park, SJ; Jo, YK; Oh, W; Yang, YS; Cho, DH; Kim, JY
PloS one 10 e0128078 2015
Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) secrete various beneficial molecules, which have anti-apoptotic activity and cell proliferation. However, the effect of hUCB-MSCs in melanogenesis is largely unclear. In this study, we show that conditioned media (CM) derived from hUCB-MSCs inhibit melanogenesis by regulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression via the ERK signalling pathway. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM strongly inhibited the alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced hyperpigmentation in melanoma cells as well as melanocytes. Treatment of hUCB-MSC-CM induced ERK1/2 activation in melanocytes. In addition, inhibition of ERK1/2 suppressed the anti-pigmentation activity of the hUCB-MSC-CM in melanocytes and in vitro artificial skin models. We also found that the expression of MITF was appreciably diminished while expression of phosphorylated MITF, which leads to its proteasomal degradation, was increased in cells treated with hUCB-MSC-CM. These results suggested that hUCB-MSC-CM significantly suppresses melanin synthesis via MITF degradation by the ERK pathway activation.
|A mouse model of human primitive neuroectodermal tumors resulting from microenvironmentally-driven malignant transformation of orthotopically transplanted radial glial cells. |
Malchenko, S; Sredni, ST; Hashimoto, H; Kasai, A; Nagayasu, K; Xie, J; Margaryan, NV; Seiriki, K; Lulla, RR; Seftor, RE; Pachman, LM; Meltzer, HY; Hendrix, MJ; Soares, MB
PloS one 10 e0121707 2015
There is growing evidence and a consensus in the field that most pediatric brain tumors originate from stem cells, of which radial glial cells constitute a subtype. Here we show that orthotopic transplantation of human radial glial (RG) cells to the subventricular zone of the 3rd ventricle--but not to other transplantation sites--of the brain in immunocompromised NOD-SCID mice, gives rise to tumors that have the hallmarks of CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). The resulting mouse model strikingly recapitulates the phenotype of PNETs. Importantly, the observed tumorigenic transformation was accompanied by aspects of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process. It is also noteworthy that the tumors are highly invasive, and that they effectively recruit mouse endothelial cells for angiogenesis. These results are significant for several reasons. First, they show that malignant transformation of radial glial cells can occur in the absence of specific mutations or inherited genomic alterations. Second, they demonstrate that the same radial glial cells may either give rise to brain tumors or differentiate normally depending upon the microenvironment of the specific region of the brain to which the cells are transplanted. In addition to providing a prospect for drug screening and development of new therapeutic strategies, the resulting mouse model of PNETs offers an unprecedented opportunity to identify the cancer driving molecular alterations and the microenvironmental factors that are responsible for committing otherwise normal radial glial cells to a malignant phenotype.
|Autophagy-Regulated ROS from Xanthine Oxidase Acts as an Early Effector for Triggering Late Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis in Cathepsin S-Targeted Tumor Cells. |
Huang, CC; Lee, CC; Lin, HH; Chen, MC; Lin, CC; Chang, JY
PloS one 10 e0128045 2015
Cathepsin S (CTSS), which is highly expressed in various malignant tumor cells, has been proposed to promote tumor progression, migration, and invasion. CTSS inhibition not only blocks tumor cell invasion and endothelial tube formation but also induces cellular cytotoxicity. In our previous studies, we have observed that CTSS inhibition induces autophagy, which is responsible for up-regulating xanthine oxidase for early ROS generation and consequent cell death. However, whether the autophagy-regulated early ROS triggers apoptosis remains unclear. We conducted a long-term follow-up study to investigate the relationship between early autophagy and late mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. We demonstrated that early ROS generation is critical for mitochondria damage and the activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Attenuating the early ROS level diminished later mitochondrial damage and downstream apoptotic signaling. Collectively, mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is regulated by autophagy-regulated early ROS, which serves as an early effector that triggers mitochondrial signaling for late apoptosis. The data emphasize the essential role of autophagy-regulated early ROS in triggering late apoptotic signaling.
|STIM2 protects hippocampal mushroom spines from amyloid synaptotoxicity. |
Popugaeva, E; Pchitskaya, E; Speshilova, A; Alexandrov, S; Zhang, H; Vlasova, O; Bezprozvanny, I
Molecular neurodegeneration 10 37 2015
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a disease of lost memories. Mushroom postsynaptic spines play a key role in memory storage, and loss of mushroom spines has been proposed to be linked to memory loss in AD. Generation of amyloidogenic peptides and accumulation of amyloid plaques is one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. It is important to evaluate effects of amyloid on stability of mushroom spines.In this study we used in vitro and in vivo models of amyloid synaptotoxicity to investigate effects of amyloid peptides on hippocampal mushroom spines. We discovered that application of Aβ42 oligomers to hippocampal cultures or injection of Aβ42 oligomers directly into hippocampal region resulted in reduction of mushroom spines and activity of synaptic calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). We further discovered that expression of STIM2 protein rescued CaMKII activity and protected mushroom spines from amyloid toxicity in vitro and in vivo.Obtained results suggest that downregulation of STIM2-dependent stability of mushroom spines and reduction in activity of synaptic CaMKII is a mechanism of hippocampal synaptic loss in AD model of amyloid synaptotoxicity and that modulators/activators of this pathway may have a potential therapeutic value for treatment of AD.
|Elevated expression of mechanosensory polycystins in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques: association with p53 activation and disease severity. |
Varela, A; Piperi, C; Sigala, F; Agrogiannis, G; Davos, CH; Andri, MA; Manopoulos, C; Tsangaris, S; Basdra, EK; Papavassiliou, AG
Scientific reports 5 13461 2015
Atherosclerotic plaque formation is associated with irregular distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) that modulates endothelial function and integrity. Polycystins (PC)-1/-2 constitute a flow-sensing protein complex in endothelial cells, able to respond to WSS and induce cell-proliferation changes leading to atherosclerosis. An endothelial cell-culture system of measurable WSS was established to detect alterations in PCs expression under conditions of low- and high-oscillatory shear stress in vitro. PCs expression and p53 activation as a regulator of cell proliferation were further evaluated in vivo and in 69 advanced human carotid atherosclerotic plaques (AAPs). Increased PC-1/PC-2 expression was observed at 30-60 min of low shear stress (LSS) in endothelial cells. Elevated PC-1 expression at LSS was followed by p53 potentiation. PCs immunoreactivity localizes in areas with macrophage infiltration and neovascularization. PC-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher than PC-2 in stable fibroatherotic (V) and unstable/complicated (VI) AAPs. Elevated PC-1 immunostaining was detected in AAPs from patients with diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension and carotid stenosis, at both arteries (50%) or in one artery (90%). PCs seem to participate in plaque formation and progression. Since PC-1 upregulation coincides with p38 and p53 activation, a potential interplay of these molecules in atherosclerosis induction is posed.
|TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator promotes proliferation and invasiveness of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. |
Wong, EY; Wong, SC; Chan, CM; Lam, EK; Ho, LY; Lau, CP; Au, TC; Chan, AK; Tsang, CM; Tsao, SW; Lui, VW; Chan, AT
Oncology letters 9 569-574 2015
The TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) is the protein product of the p53 target gene, C12orf5. TIGAR blocks glycolysis and promotes cellular metabolism via the pentose phosphate pathway; it promotes the production of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which leads to enhanced scavenging of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in normal cells. Our previous study identified a novel nucleoside analog that inhibited cellular growth and induced apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines via downregulation of TIGAR expression. Furthermore, the growth inhibitory effects of c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors were ameliorated by the overexpression of TIGAR in the NPC cell lines. These results indicate a significant role for TIGAR expression in the survival of NPCs. The present study aimed to further define the function of TIGAR expression in NPC cells. In total, 36 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded NPC tissue samples were obtained for the immunohistochemical determination of TIGAR expression. The effects of TIGAR expression on cell proliferation, NADPH production and cellular invasiveness were also assessed in NPC cell lines. Overall, TIGAR was overexpressed in 27/36 (75%) of the NPC tissues compared with the adjacent non-cancer epithelial cells. Similarly, TIGAR overexpression was also observed in a panel of six NPC cell lines compared with normal NP460 hTert and Het1A cell lines. TIGAR overexpression led to increased cellular growth, NADPH production and invasiveness of the NPC cell lines, whereas a knockdown of TIGAR expression resulted in significant inhibition of cellular growth and invasiveness. The expression of the two mesenchymal markers, fibronectin and vimentin, was increased by TIGAR overexpression, but reduced following TIGAR-knockdown. The present study revealed that TIGAR overexpression led to increased cellular growth, NADPH production and invasiveness, and the maintenance of a mesenchymal phenotype, in NPC tissues.
|Regulation of chromatin accessibility and Zic binding at enhancers in the developing cerebellum. |
Frank, CL; Liu, F; Wijayatunge, R; Song, L; Biegler, MT; Yang, MG; Vockley, CM; Safi, A; Gersbach, CA; Crawford, GE; West, AE
Nature neuroscience 18 647-56 2015
To identify chromatin mechanisms of neuronal differentiation, we characterized chromatin accessibility and gene expression in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) of the developing mouse. We used DNase-seq to map accessibility of cis-regulatory elements and RNA-seq to profile transcript abundance across postnatal stages of neuronal differentiation in vivo and in culture. We observed thousands of chromatin accessibility changes as CGNs differentiated, and verified, using H3K27ac ChIP-seq, reporter gene assays and CRISPR-mediated activation, that many of these regions function as neuronal enhancers. Motif discovery in differentially accessible chromatin regions suggested a previously unknown role for the Zic family of transcription factors in CGN maturation. We confirmed the association of Zic with these elements by ChIP-seq and found, using knockdown, that Zic1 and Zic2 are required for coordinating mature neuronal gene expression patterns. Together, our data reveal chromatin dynamics at thousands of gene regulatory elements that facilitate the gene expression patterns necessary for neuronal differentiation and function.
|GCN5 inhibits XBP-1S-mediated transcription by antagonizing PCAF action. |
Lew, QJ; Chu, KL; Chia, YL; Soo, B; Ho, JP; Ng, CH; Kwok, HS; Chiang, CM; Chang, Y; Chao, SH
Oncotarget 6 271-87 2015
Cellular unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced when endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is under stress. XBP-1S, the active isoform of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), is a key regulator of UPR. Previously, we showed that a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), binds to XBP-1S and functions as an activator of XBP-1S. Here, we identify general control nonderepressible 5 (GCN5), a HAT with 73% identity to PCAF, as a novel XBP-1S regulator. Both PCAF and GCN5 bind to the same domain of XBP-1S. Surprisingly, GCN5 potently blocks the XBP-1S-mediated transcription, including cellular UPR genes and latent membrane protein 1 of Epstein-Barr virus. Unlike PCAF, GCN5 acetylates XBP-1S and enhances nuclear retention and protein stability of XBP-1S. However, such GCN5-mediated acetylation of XBP-1S shows no effects on XBP-1S activity. In addition, the HAT activity of GCN5 is not required for repression of XBP-1S target genes. We further demonstrate that GCN5 inhibits XBP-1S-mediated transcription by disrupting the PCAF-XBP-1S interaction and preventing the recruitment of XBP-1S to its target genes. Taken together, our results represent the first work demonstrating that GCN5 and PCAF exhibit different functions and antagonistically regulate the XBP-1S-mediated transcription.
|N-(1-pyrenyl) maleimide induces bak oligomerization and mitochondrial dysfunction in Jurkat Cells. |
Huang, PR; Hung, SC; Pao, CC; Wang, TC
BioMed research international 2015 798489 2015
N-(1-pyrenyl) maleimide (NPM) is a fluorescent reagent that is frequently used as a derivatization agent for the detection of thio-containing compounds. NPM has been shown to display a great differential cytotoxicity against hematopoietic cancer cells. In this study, the molecular mechanism by which NPM induces apoptosis was examined. Here, we show that treatment of Jurkat cells with NPM leads to Bak oligomerization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), and release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytosol. Induction of Bak oligomerization appears to play a critical role in NPM-induced apoptosis, as downregulation of Bak by shRNA significantly prevented NPM-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of caspase 8 by Z-IETD-FMK and/or depletion of Bid did not affect NPM-induced oligomerization of Bak. Taken together, these results suggest that NPM-induced apoptosis is mediated through a pathway that is independent of caspase-8 activation.
|Novel Mechanisms of Spinal Cord Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Motoneuron Disease. |
Gulino, R; Parenti, R; Gulisano, M
BioMed research international 2015 654637 2015
A hopeful spinal cord repairing strategy involves the activation of neural precursor cells. Unfortunately, their ability to generate neurons after injury appears limited. Another process promoting functional recovery is synaptic plasticity. We have previously studied some mechanisms of spinal plasticity involving BDNF, Shh, Notch-1, Numb, and Noggin, by using a mouse model of motoneuron depletion induced by cholera toxin-B saporin. TDP-43 is a nuclear RNA/DNA binding protein involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Interestingly, TDP-43 could be localized at the synapse and affect synaptic strength. Here, we would like to deepen the investigation of this model of spinal plasticity. After lesion, we observed a glial reaction and an activity-dependent modification of Shh, Noggin, and Numb proteins. By using multivariate regression models, we found that Shh and Noggin could affect motor performance and that these proteins could be associated with both TDP-43 and Numb. Our data suggest that TDP-43 is likely an important regulator of synaptic plasticity, probably in collaboration with other proteins involved in both neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Moreover, given the rapidly increasing knowledge about spinal cord plasticity, we believe that further efforts to achieve spinal cord repair by stimulating the intrinsic potential of spinal cord will produce interesting results.
|Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. |
Dinh, CH; Szabo, A; Yu, Y; Camer, D; Zhang, Q; Wang, H; Huang, XF
Nutrients 7 4705-23 2015
Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity.
|Caspase-7: a critical mediator of optic nerve injury-induced retinal ganglion cell death. |
Choudhury, S; Liu, Y; Clark, AF; Pang, IH
Molecular neurodegeneration 10 40 2015
Axonal injury of the optic nerve (ON) is involved in various ocular diseases, such as glaucoma and traumatic optic neuropathy, which leads to apoptotic death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and loss of vision. Caspases have been implicated in RGC pathogenesis. However, the role of caspase-7, a functionally unique caspase, in ON injury and RGC apoptosis has not been reported previously. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of caspase-7 in ON injury-induced RGC apoptosis.C57BL/6 (wildtype, WT) and caspase-7 knockout (Casp7(-/-)) mice were used. We show that ON crush activated caspase-7 and calpain-1, an upstream activator of caspase-7, in mouse RGCs, as well as hydrolysis of kinectin and co-chaperone P23, specific substrates of caspase-7. ON crush caused a progressive loss of RGCs to 28 days after injury. Knockout of caspase-7 partially and significantly protected against the ON injury-induced RGC loss; RGC density at 28 days post ON crush in Casp7(-/-) mice was approximately twice of that in WT ON injured retinas. Consistent with changes in RGC counts, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography analysis revealed that ON crush significantly reduced the in vivo thickness of the ganglion cell complex layer (including ganglion cell layer, nerve fiber layer, and inner plexiform layer) in the retina. The ON crush-induced thinning of retinal layer was significantly ameliorated in Casp7(-/-) mice when compared to WT mice. Moreover, electroretinography analysis demonstrated a decline in the positive component of scotopic threshold response amplitude in ON crushed eyes of the WT mice, whereas this RGC functional response was significantly higher in Casp7(-/-) mice at 28 days post injury.Altogether, our findings indicate that caspase-7 plays a critical role in ON injury-induced RGC death, and inhibition of caspase-7 activity may be a novel therapeutic strategy for glaucoma and other neurodegenerative diseases of the retina.
|Genome and infection characteristics of human parechovirus type 1: the interplay between viral infection and type I interferon antiviral system. |
Chang, JT; Yang, CS; Chen, YS; Chen, BC; Chiang, AJ; Chang, YH; Tsai, WL; Lin, YS; Chao, D; Chang, TH
PloS one 10 e0116158 2015
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs), members of the family Picornaviridae, are associated with severe human clinical conditions such as gastrointestinal disease, encephalitis, meningitis, respiratory disease and neonatal sepsis. A new contemporary strain of HPeV1, KVP6 (accession no. KC769584), was isolated from a clinical specimen. Full-genome alignment revealed that HPeV1 KVP6 shares high genome homology with the German strain of HPeV1, 7555312 (accession no. FM178558) and could be classified in the clade 1B group. An intertypic recombination was shown within the P2-P3 genome regions of HPeV1. Cell-type tropism test showed that T84 cells (colon carcinoma cells), A549 cells (lung carcinoma cells) and DBTRG-5MG cells (glioblastoma cells) were susceptible to HPeV1 infection, which might be relevant clinically. A facilitated cytopathic effect and increased viral titers were reached after serial viral passages in Vero cells, with viral genome mutation found in later passages. HPeV1 is sensitive to elevated temperature because 39C incubation impaired virion production. HPeV1 induced innate immunity with phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) regulatory transcription factor 3 and production of type I IFN in A549 but not T84 cells. Furthermore, type I IFN inhibited HPeV1 production in A549 cells but not T84 cells; T84 cells may be less responsive to type I IFN stimulation. Moreover, HPeV1-infected cells showed downregulated type I IFN activation, which indicated a type I IFN evasion mechanism. The characterization of the complete genome and infection features of HPeV1 provide comprehensive information about this newly isolated HPeV1 for further diagnosis, prevention or treatment strategies.
|HIV-1 Tat alters neuronal autophagy by modulating autophagosome fusion to the lysosome: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. |
Fields, J; Dumaop, W; Eleuteri, S; Elueteri, S; Campos, S; Serger, E; Trejo, M; Kosberg, K; Adame, A; Spencer, B; Rockenstein, E; He, JJ; Masliah, E
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 1921-38 2015
Antiretroviral therapy has increased the life span of HIV+ individuals; however, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) occurrence is increasing in aging HIV patients. Previous studies suggest HIV infection alters autophagy function in the aging CNS and HIV-1 proteins affect autophagy in monocyte-derived cells. Despite these findings, the mechanisms leading to dysregulated autophagy in the CNS remain unclear. Here we sought to determine how HIV Tat dysregulates autophagy in neurons. Tat caused a dose-dependent decrease in autophagosome markers, microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain β II (LC3II), and sequestosome 1(SQSTM1), in a membrane-enriched fraction, suggesting Tat increases autophagic degradation. Bafilomycin A1 increased autophagosome number, LC3II, and SQSTM1 accumulation; Tat cotreatment diminished this effect. Tat had no effect when 3-methyladenine or knockdown of beclin 1 blocked early stages of autophagy. Tat increased numbers of LC3 puncta and resulted in the formation of abnormal autophagosomes in vitro. Likewise, in vivo studies in GFAP-Tat tg mice showed increased autophagosome accumulation in neurons, altered LC3II levels, and neurodegeneration. These effects were reversed by rapamycin treatment. Tat colocalized with autophagosome and lysosomal markers and enhanced the colocalization of autophagosome with lysosome markers. Furthermore, co-IP studies showed that Tat interacts with lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) in vitro and in vivo, and LAMP2A overexpression reduces Tat-induced neurotoxicity. Hence, Tat protein may induce autophagosome and lysosome fusion through interaction with LAMP2A leading to abnormal neuronal autophagy function and dysregulated degradation of critical intracellular components. Therapies targeting Tat-mediated autophagy alterations may decrease neurodegeneration in aging patients with HAND.
|Activity-dependent rapid local RhoA synthesis is required for hippocampal synaptic plasticity. |
Briz, V; Zhu, G; Wang, Y; Liu, Y; Avetisyan, M; Bi, X; Baudry, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 2269-82 2015
Dendritic protein synthesis and actin cytoskeleton reorganization are important events required for the consolidation of hippocampal LTP and memory. However, the temporal and spatial relationships between these two processes remain unclear. Here, we report that treatment of adult rat hippocampal slices with BDNF or with tetraethylammonium (TEA), which induces a chemical form of LTP, produces a rapid and transient increase in RhoA protein levels. Changes in RhoA were restricted to dendritic spines of CA3 and CA1 and require de novo protein synthesis regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). BDNF-mediated stimulation of RhoA activity, cofilin phosphorylation, and actin polymerization were completely suppressed by protein synthesis inhibitors. Furthermore, intrahippocampal injections of RhoA antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibited theta burst stimulation (TBS)-induced RhoA upregulation in dendritic spines and prevented LTP consolidation. Addition of calpain inhibitors after BDNF or TEA treatment maintained RhoA levels elevated and prolonged the effects of BDNF and TEA on actin polymerization. Finally, the use of isoform-selective calpain inhibitors revealed that calpain-2 was involved in RhoA synthesis, whereas calpain-1 mediated RhoA degradation. Overall, this mechanism provides a novel link between dendritic protein synthesis and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in hippocampal dendritic spines during LTP consolidation.
|α-Actinin-4 enhances colorectal cancer cell invasion by suppressing focal adhesion maturation. |
Fukumoto, M; Kurisu, S; Yamada, T; Takenawa, T
PloS one 10 e0120616 2015
α-Actinins (ACTNs) are known to crosslink actin filaments at focal adhesions in migrating cells. Among the four isoforms of mammalian ACTNs, ACTN1 and ACTN4 are ubiquitously expressed. Recently, ACTN4 was reported to enhance cancer cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which ACTN4 drives these malignant phenotypes remains unclear. Here, we show that ACTN4, but not ACTN1, induces the formation of immature focal adhesions in DLD-1 cells, leading to the rapid turnover of focal adhesions. Interestingly, zyxin (ZYX) assembly to focal adhesions was markedly decreased in ACTN4-expressing DLD-1 cells, while the recruitment of paxillin (PAX) occurred normally. On the other hand, in ACTN1-expressing DLD-1 cells, PAX and ZYX were normally recruited to focal adhesions, suggesting that ACTN4 specifically impairs focal adhesion maturation by inhibiting the recruitment of ZYX to focal complexes. Using purified recombinant proteins, we found that ZYX binding to ACTN4 was defective under conditions where ZYX binding to ACTN1 was observed. Furthermore, Matrigel invasion of SW480 cells that express high endogenous levels of ACTN4 protein was inhibited by ectopic expression of ACTN1. Altogether, our results suggest that ZYX defective binding to ACTN4, which occupies focal adhesions instead of ACTN1, induces the formation of immature focal adhesions, resulting in the enhancement of cell motility and invasion.
|Spinoculation Enhances HBV Infection in NTCP-Reconstituted Hepatocytes. |
Yan, R; Zhang, Y; Cai, D; Liu, Y; Cuconati, A; Guo, H
PloS one 10 e0129889 2015
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its sequelae remain a major public health burden, but both HBV basic research and the development of antiviral therapeutics have been hindered by the lack of an efficient in vitro infection system. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) has been identified as the HBV receptor. We herein report that we established a NTCP-complemented HepG2 cell line (HepG2-NTCP12) that supports HBV infection, albeit at a low infectivity level following the reported infection procedures. In our attempts to optimize the infection conditions, we found that the centrifugation of HepG2-NTCP12 cells during HBV inoculation (termed "spinoculation") significantly enhanced the virus infectivity. Moreover, the infection level gradually increased with accelerated speed of spinoculation up to 1,000g tested. However, the enhancement of HBV infection was not significantly dependent upon the duration of centrifugation. Furthermore, covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA was detected in infected cells under optimized infection condition by conventional Southern blot, suggesting a successful establishment of HBV infection after spinoculation. Finally, the parental HepG2 cells remained uninfected under HBV spinoculation, and HBV entry inhibitors targeting NTCP blocked HBV infection when cells were spinoculated, suggesting the authentic virus entry mechanism is unaltered under centrifugal inoculation. Our data suggest that spinoculation could serve as a standard protocol for enhancing the efficiency of HBV infection in vitro.
|Integrin-linked kinase regulates the niche of quiescent epidermal stem cells. |
Morgner, J; Ghatak, S; Jakobi, T; Dieterich, C; Aumailley, M; Wickström, SA
Nature communications 6 8198 2015
Stem cells reside in specialized niches that are critical for their function. Quiescent hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are confined within the bulge niche, but how the molecular composition of the niche regulates stem cell behaviour is poorly understood. Here we show that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a key regulator of the bulge extracellular matrix microenvironment, thereby governing the activation and maintenance of HFSCs. ILK mediates deposition of inverse laminin (LN)-332 and LN-511 gradients within the basement membrane (BM) wrapping the hair follicles. The precise BM composition tunes activities of Wnt and transforming growth factor-β pathways and subsequently regulates HFSC activation. Notably, reconstituting an optimal LN microenvironment restores the altered signalling in ILK-deficient cells. Aberrant stem cell activation in ILK-deficient epidermis leads to increased replicative stress, predisposing the tissue to carcinogenesis. Overall, our findings uncover a critical role for the BM niche in regulating stem cell activation and thereby skin homeostasis.
|Inhibition of autophagy suppresses sertraline-mediated primary ciliogenesis in retinal pigment epithelium cells. |
Kim, ES; Shin, JH; Park, SJ; Jo, YK; Kim, JS; Kang, IH; Nam, JB; Chung, DY; Cho, Y; Lee, EH; Chang, JW; Cho, DH
PloS one 10 e0118190 2015
Primary cilia are conserved cellular organelles that regulate diverse signaling pathways. Autophagy is a complex process of cellular degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles, and plays an important role in cellular homeostasis. Despite its potential importance, the role of autophagy in ciliogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we identified sertraline as a regulator of autophagy and ciliogenesis. Sertraline, a known antidepressant, induced the growth of cilia and blocked the disassembly of cilia in htRPE cells. Following treatment of sertraline, there was an increase in the number of cells with autophagic puncta and LC3 protein conversion. In addition, both a decrease of ATG5 expression and the treatment of an autophagy inhibitor resulted in the suppression of the sertraline-induced activation of autophagy in htRPE cells. Interestingly, we found that genetic and chemical inhibition of autophagy attenuated the growth of primary cilia in htRPE cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the inhibition of autophagy suppresses sertraline-induced ciliogenesis.
|A Glaucoma-Associated Variant of Optineurin, M98K, Activates Tbk1 to Enhance Autophagosome Formation and Retinal Cell Death Dependent on Ser177 Phosphorylation of Optineurin. |
Sirohi, K; Kumari, A; Radha, V; Swarup, G
PloS one 10 e0138289 2015
Certain missense mutations in optineurin/OPTN and amplification of TBK1 are associated with normal tension glaucoma. A glaucoma-associated variant of OPTN, M98K, induces autophagic degradation of transferrin receptor (TFRC) and death in retinal cells. Here, we have explored the role of Tbk1 in M98K-OPTN-induced autophagy and cell death, and the effect of Tbk1 overexpression in retinal cells. Cell death induced by M98K-OPTN was dependent on Tbk1 as seen by the effect of Tbk1 knockdown and blocking of Tbk1 activity by a chemical inhibitor. Inhibition of Tbk1 also restores M98K-OPTN-induced transferrin receptor degradation. M98K-OPTN-induced autophagosome formation, autophagy and cell death were dependent on its phosphorylation at S177 by Tbk1. Knockdown of OPTN reduced starvation-induced autophagosome formation. M98K-OPTN expressing cells showed higher levels of Tbk1 activation and enhanced phosphorylation at Ser177 compared to WT-OPTN expressing cells. M98K-OPTN-induced activation of Tbk1 and its ability to be phosphorylated better by Tbk1 was dependent on ubiquitin binding. Phosphorylated M98K-OPTN localized specifically to autophagosomes and endogenous Tbk1 showed increased localization to autophagosomes in M98K-OPTN expressing cells. Overexpression of Tbk1 induced cell death and caspase-3 activation that were dependent on its catalytic activity. Tbk1-induced cell death possibly involves autophagy, as shown by the effect of Atg5 knockdown, and requirement of autophagic function of OPTN. Our results show that phosphorylation of Ser177 plays a crucial role in M98K-OPTN-induced autophagosome formation, autophagy flux and retinal cell death. In addition, we provide evidence for cross talk between two glaucoma associated proteins and their inter-dependence to mediate autophagy-dependent cell death.
|PAT1 inversely regulates the surface Amyloid Precursor Protein level in mouse primary neurons. |
Dilsizoglu Senol, A; Tagliafierro, L; Huguet, L; Gorisse-Hussonnois, L; Chasseigneaux, S; Allinquant, B
BMC neuroscience 16 10 2015
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a key molecule in Alzheimer disease. Its localization at the cell surface can trigger downstream signaling and APP cleavages. APP trafficking to the cell surface in neurons is not clearly understood and may be related to the interactions with its partners. In this respect, by having homologies with kinesin light chain domains and because of its capacity to bind APP, PAT1 represents a good candidate.We observed that PAT1 binds poorly APP at the cell surface of primary cortical neurons contrary to cytoplasmic APP. Using down and up-regulation of PAT1, we observed respectively an increase and decrease of APP at the cell surface. The increase of APP at the cell surface induced by low levels of PAT1 did not trigger cell death signaling.These data suggest that PAT1 slows down APP trafficking to the cell surface in primary cortical neurons. Our results contribute to the elucidation of mechanisms involved in APP trafficking in Alzheimer disease.
|Involvement of cAMP-guanine nucleotide exchange factor II in hippocampal long-term depression and behavioral flexibility. |
Lee, K; Kobayashi, Y; Seo, H; Kwak, JH; Masuda, A; Lim, CS; Lee, HR; Kang, SJ; Park, P; Sim, SE; Kogo, N; Kawasaki, H; Kaang, BK; Itohara, S
Molecular brain 8 38 2015
Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate small GTPases that are involved in several cellular functions. cAMP-guanine nucleotide exchange factor II (cAMP-GEF II) acts as a target for cAMP independently of protein kinase A (PKA) and functions as a GEF for Rap1 and Rap2. Although cAMP-GEF II is expressed abundantly in several brain areas including the cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, its specific function and possible role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes remain elusive. Here, we investigated how cAMP-GEF II affects synaptic function and animal behavior using cAMP-GEF II knockout mice.We found that deletion of cAMP-GEF II induced moderate decrease in long-term potentiation, although this decrease was not statistically significant. On the other hand, it produced a significant and clear impairment in NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of hippocampus, while microscopic morphology, basal synaptic transmission, and depotentiation were normal. Behavioral testing using the Morris water maze and automated IntelliCage system showed that cAMP-GEF II deficient mice had moderately reduced behavioral flexibility in spatial learning and memory.We concluded that cAMP-GEF II plays a key role in hippocampal functions including behavioral flexibility in reversal learning and in mechanisms underlying induction of long-term depression.
|Proteins from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded prostate cancer sections that predict the risk of metastatic disease. |
Dunne, JC; Lamb, DS; Delahunt, B; Murray, J; Bethwaite, P; Ferguson, P; Nacey, JN; Sondhauss, S; Jordan, TW
Clinical proteomics 12 24 2015
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men and the third leading cause of cancer related deaths among men living in developed countries. Biomarkers that predict disease outcome at the time of initial diagnosis would substantially aid disease management.Proteins extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue were identified using nanoflow liquid chromatography-MALDI MS/MS or after separation by one- or two-dimensional electrophoresis. The proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000963. A list of potential biomarker candidates, based on proposed associations with prostate cancer, was derived from the 320 identified proteins. Candidate biomarkers were then examined by multiplexed Western blotting of archival specimens from men with premetastatic disease and subsequent disease outcome data. Annexin A2 provided the best prediction of risk of metastatic disease (log-rank Chi squared p = 0. 025). A tumor/control tissue greater than 2-fold relative abundance increase predicted early biochemical failure, while less than 2-fold change predicted late or no biochemical failure.This study confirms the potential for use of archival FFPE specimens in the search for prognostic biomarkers for prostate cancer and suggests that annexin A2 abundance in diagnostic biopsies is predictive for metastatic potential. Protein profiling each cancer may lead to an overall reduction in mortality from metastatic prostate cancer as well as reduced treatment associated morbidity.
|Insulin demand regulates β cell number via the unfolded protein response. |
Sharma, RB; O'Donnell, AC; Stamateris, RE; Ha, B; McCloskey, KM; Reynolds, PR; Arvan, P; Alonso, LC
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 3831-46 2015
Although stem cell populations mediate regeneration of rapid turnover tissues, such as skin, blood, and gut, a stem cell reservoir has not been identified for some slower turnover tissues, such as the pancreatic islet. Despite lacking identifiable stem cells, murine pancreatic β cell number expands in response to an increase in insulin demand. Lineage tracing shows that new β cells are generated from proliferation of mature, differentiated β cells; however, the mechanism by which these mature cells sense systemic insulin demand and initiate a proliferative response remains unknown. Here, we identified the β cell unfolded protein response (UPR), which senses insulin production, as a regulator of β cell proliferation. Using genetic and physiologic models, we determined that among the population of β cells, those with an active UPR are more likely to proliferate. Moreover, subthreshold endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) drove insulin demand-induced β cell proliferation, through activation of ATF6. We also confirmed that the UPR regulates proliferation of human β cells, suggesting that therapeutic UPR modulation has potential to expand β cell mass in people at risk for diabetes. Together, this work defines a stem cell-independent model of tissue homeostasis, in which differentiated secretory cells use the UPR sensor to adapt organ size to meet demand.
|A novel fragile X syndrome mutation reveals a conserved role for the carboxy-terminus in FMRP localization and function. |
Okray, Z; de Esch, CE; Van Esch, H; Devriendt, K; Claeys, A; Yan, J; Verbeeck, J; Froyen, G; Willemsen, R; de Vrij, FM; Hassan, BA
EMBO molecular medicine 7 423-37 2015
Loss of function of the FMR1 gene leads to fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of intellectual disability. The loss of FMR1 function is usually caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 promoter leading to expansion and subsequent methylation of a CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region. Very few coding sequence variations have been experimentally characterized and shown to be causal to the disease. Here, we describe a novel FMR1 mutation and reveal an unexpected nuclear export function for the C-terminus of FMRP. We screened a cohort of patients with typical FXS symptoms who tested negative for CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 locus. In one patient, we identified a guanine insertion in FMR1 exon 15. This mutation alters the open reading frame creating a short novel C-terminal sequence, followed by a stop codon. We find that this novel peptide encodes a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) targeting the patient FMRP to the nucleolus in human cells. We also reveal an evolutionarily conserved nuclear export function associated with the endogenous C-terminus of FMRP. In vivo analyses in Drosophila demonstrate that a patient-mimetic mutation alters the localization and function of Dfmrp in neurons, leading to neomorphic neuronal phenotypes.
|Exclusion of the unfolded protein response in light-induced retinal degeneration in the canine T4R RHO model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. |
Marsili, S; Genini, S; Sudharsan, R; Gingrich, J; Aguirre, GD; Beltran, WA
PloS one 10 e0115723 2015
To examine the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) following acute light damage in the naturally-occurring canine model of RHO-adRP (T4R RHO dog).The left eyes of T4R RHO dogs were briefly light-exposed and retinas collected 3, 6 and 24 hours later. The contra-lateral eyes were shielded and used as controls. To evaluate the time course of cell death, histology and TUNEL assays were performed. Electron microscopy was used to examine ultrastructural alterations in photoreceptors at 15 min, 1 hour, and 6 hours after light exposure. Gene expression of markers of ER stress and UPR were assessed by RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and western blot at the 6 hour time-point. Calpain and caspase-3 activation were assessed at 1, 3 and 6 hours after exposure.A brief exposure to clinically-relevant levels of white light causes within minutes acute disruption of the rod outer segment disc membranes, followed by prominent ultrastructural alterations in the inner segments and the initiation of cell death by 6 hours. Activation of the PERK and IRE1 pathways, and downstream targets (BIP, CHOP) of the UPR was not observed. However increased transcription of caspase-12 and hsp70 occurred, as well as calpain activation, but not that of caspase-3.The UPR is not activated in the early phase of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in the T4R RHO model. Instead, disruption in rods of disc and plasma membranes within minutes after light exposure followed by increase in calpain activity and caspase-12 expression suggests a different mechanism of degeneration.
|Expression of TGFβ superfamily components and other markers of oocyte quality in oocytes selected by brilliant cresyl blue staining: relevance to early embryonic development. |
Ashry, M; Lee, K; Mondal, M; Datta, TK; Folger, JK; Rajput, SK; Zhang, K; Hemeida, NA; Smith, GW
Molecular reproduction and development 82 251-64 2015
Brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) is a super-vital stain that has been used to select competent oocytes in different species. One objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between BCB staining, which correlates with an oocyte's developmental potential, and the transcript abundance for select TGFβ-superfamily components, SMAD2/3 and SMAD1/5 phosphorylation levels, and oocyte (JY1) and cumulus-cell (CTSB, CTSK, CTSS, and CTSZ) transcript markers in bovine oocytes and/or adjacent cumulus cells. The capacity of exogenous follistatin or JY1 supplementation or cathepsin inhibitor treatment to enhance development of embryos derived from low-quality oocytes, based on BCB staining, was also determined. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) from abattoir-derived ovaries were subjected to BCB staining, and germinal-vesicle-stage oocytes and cumulus cells were harvested from control, BCB+, and BCB- (low-quality oocyte) groups for real-time PCR or Western-blot analysis. Remaining COCs underwent in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and embryo culture in the presence or absence of the above exogenous supplements. Levels of FST, JY1, BMP15, and SMAD1, 2, 3, and 5 transcripts were higher in BCB+ oocytes whereas CTSB, CTSK, CTSS, and CTSZ mRNA abundance was higher in cumulus cells surrounding BCB- oocytes. Western-blot analysis revealed higher SMAD1/5 and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation in BCB+ than BCB- oocytes. Embryo-culture studies demonstrated that follistatin and cathepsin inhibitor treatment, but not JY-1 treatment, improve the developmental competence of BCB- oocytes. These results contribute to a better understanding of molecular indices of oocyte competence.
|The Cell Adhesion Molecule Necl-4/CADM4 Serves as a Novel Regulator for Contact Inhibition of Cell Movement and Proliferation. |
Yamana, S; Tokiyama, A; Mizutani, K; Hirata, K; Takai, Y; Rikitake, Y
PloS one 10 e0124259 2015
Contact inhibition of cell movement and proliferation is critical for proper organogenesis and tissue remodeling. We show here a novel regulatory mechanism for this contact inhibition using cultured vascular endothelial cells. When the cells were confluently cultured, Necl-4 was up-regulated and localized at cell-cell contact sites where it cis-interacted with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor. This interaction inhibited the tyrosine-phosphorylation of the VEGF receptor through protein-tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (PTPN13), eventually reducing cell movement and proliferation. When the cells were sparsely cultured, Necl-4 was down-regulated but accumulated at leading edges where it inhibited the activation of Rho-associated protein kinase through PTPN13, eventually facilitating the VEGF-induced activation of Rac1 and enhancing cell movement. Necl-4 further facilitated the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, eventually enhancing cell proliferation. Thus, Necl-4 serves as a novel regulator for contact inhibition of cell movement and proliferation cooperatively with the VEGF receptor and PTPN13.
|Toward a Broader View of Ube3a in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome: Expression in Brain, Spinal Cord, Sciatic Nerve and Glial Cells. |
Grier, MD; Carson, RP; Lagrange, AH
PloS one 10 e0124649 2015
Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, speech impairment, movement disorder, sleep disorders and refractory epilepsy. AS is caused by loss of the Ube3a protein encoded for by the imprinted Ube3a gene. Ube3a is expressed nearly exclusively from the maternal chromosome in mature neurons. While imprinting in neurons of the brain has been well described, the imprinting and expression of Ube3a in other neural tissues remains relatively unexplored. Moreover, given the overwhelming deficits in brain function in AS patients, the possibility of disrupted Ube3a expression in the infratentorial nervous system and its consequent disability have been largely ignored. We evaluated the imprinting status of Ube3a in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve and show that it is also imprinted in these neural tissues. Furthermore, a growing body of clinical and radiological evidence has suggested that myelin dysfunction may contribute to morbidity in many neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, findings regarding Ube3a expression in non-neuronal cells of the brain have varied. Utilizing enriched primary cultures of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, we show that Ube3a is expressed, but not imprinted in these cell types. Unlike many other neurodevelopmental disorders, AS symptoms do not become apparent until roughly 6 to 12 months of age. To determine the temporal expression pattern and silencing, we analyzed Ube3a expression in AS mice at several time points. We confirm relaxed imprinting of Ube3a in neurons of the postnatal developing cortex, but not in structures in which neurogenesis and migration are more complete. This furthers the hypothesis that the apparently normal window of development in AS patients is supported by an incompletely silenced paternal allele in developing neurons, resulting in a relative preservation of Ube3a expression during this crucial epoch of early development.
|Role of anoctamin-1 and bestrophin-1 in spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain in rats. |
Pineda-Farias, JB; Barragán-Iglesias, P; Loeza-Alcocer, E; Torres-López, JE; Rocha-González, HI; Pérez-Severiano, F; Delgado-Lezama, R; Granados-Soto, V
Molecular pain 11 41 2015
Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) activation induces membrane depolarization by increasing chloride efflux in primary sensory neurons that can facilitate action potential generation. Previous studies suggest that CaCCs family members bestrophin-1 and anoctamin-1 are involved in inflammatory pain. However, their role in neuropathic pain is unclear. In this investigation we assessed the involvement of these CaCCs family members in rats subjected to the L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation. In addition, anoctamin-1 and bestrophin-1 mRNA and protein expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord was also determined in the presence and absence of selective inhibitors.L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation induced mechanical tactile allodynia. Intrathecal administration of non-selective CaCCs inhibitors (NPPB, 9-AC and NFA) dose-dependently reduced tactile allodynia. Intrathecal administration of selective CaCCs inhibitors (T16Ainh-A01 and CaCCinh-A01) also dose-dependently diminished tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Anoctamin-1 and bestrophin-1 mRNA and protein were expressed in the dorsal spinal cord and DRG of naïve, sham and neuropathic rats. L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation rose mRNA and protein expression of anoctamin-1, but not bestrophin-1, in the dorsal spinal cord and DRG from day 1 to day 14 after nerve ligation. In addition, repeated administration of CaCCs inhibitors (T16Ainh-A01, CaCCinh-A01 or NFA) or anti-anoctamin-1 antibody prevented spinal nerve ligation-induced rises in anoctamin-1 mRNA and protein expression. Following spinal nerve ligation, the compound action potential generation of putative C fibers increased while selective CaCCs inhibitors (T16Ainh-A01 and CaCCinh-A01) attenuated such increase.There is functional anoctamin-1 and bestrophin-1 expression in rats at sites related to nociceptive processing. Blockade of these CaCCs suppresses compound action potential generation in putative C fibers and lessens established tactile allodynia. As CaCCs activity contributes to neuropathic pain maintenance, selective inhibition of their activity may function as a tool to generate analgesia in nerve injury pain states.
|Synaptic dysregulation in a human iPS cell model of mental disorders. |
Wen, Z; Nguyen, HN; Guo, Z; Lalli, MA; Wang, X; Su, Y; Kim, NS; Yoon, KJ; Shin, J; Zhang, C; Makri, G; Nauen, D; Yu, H; Guzman, E; Chiang, CH; Yoritomo, N; Kaibuchi, K; Zou, J; Christian, KM; Cheng, L; Ross, CA; Margolis, RL; Chen, G; Kosik, KS; Song, H; Ming, GL
Dysregulated neurodevelopment with altered structural and functional connectivity is believed to underlie many neuropsychiatric disorders, and 'a disease of synapses' is the major hypothesis for the biological basis of schizophrenia. Although this hypothesis has gained indirect support from human post-mortem brain analyses and genetic studies, little is known about the pathophysiology of synapses in patient neurons and how susceptibility genes for mental disorders could lead to synaptic deficits in humans. Genetics of most psychiatric disorders are extremely complex due to multiple susceptibility variants with low penetrance and variable phenotypes. Rare, multiply affected, large families in which a single genetic locus is probably responsible for conferring susceptibility have proven invaluable for the study of complex disorders. Here we generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from four members of a family in which a frameshift mutation of disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) co-segregated with major psychiatric disorders and we further produced different isogenic iPS cell lines via gene editing. We showed that mutant DISC1 causes synaptic vesicle release deficits in iPS-cell-derived forebrain neurons. Mutant DISC1 depletes wild-type DISC1 protein and, furthermore, dysregulates expression of many genes related to synapses and psychiatric disorders in human forebrain neurons. Our study reveals that a psychiatric disorder relevant mutation causes synapse deficits and transcriptional dysregulation in human neurons and our findings provide new insight into the molecular and synaptic etiopathology of psychiatric disorders.
|Functional characterization of C. elegans Y-box-binding proteins reveals tissue-specific functions and a critical role in the formation of polysomes. |
Arnold, A; Rahman, MM; Lee, MC; Muehlhaeusser, S; Katic, I; Gaidatzis, D; Hess, D; Scheckel, C; Wright, JE; Stetak, A; Boag, PR; Ciosk, R
Nucleic acids research 42 13353-69 2014
The cold shock domain is one of the most highly conserved motifs between bacteria and higher eukaryotes. Y-box-binding proteins represent a subfamily of cold shock domain proteins with pleiotropic functions, ranging from transcription in the nucleus to translation in the cytoplasm. These proteins have been investigated in all major model organisms except Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, we set out to fill this gap and present a functional characterization of CEYs, the C. elegans Y-box-binding proteins. We find that, similar to other organisms, CEYs are essential for proper gametogenesis. However, we also report a novel function of these proteins in the formation of large polysomes in the soma. In the absence of the somatic CEYs, polysomes are dramatically reduced with a simultaneous increase in monosomes and disomes, which, unexpectedly, has no obvious impact on animal biology. Because transcripts that are enriched in polysomes in wild-type animals tend to be less abundant in the absence of CEYs, our findings suggest that large polysomes might depend on transcript stabilization mediated by CEY proteins.
|Role of the C-terminal region of vervet monkey polyomavirus 1 VP1 in virion formation. |
Yamaguchi, H; Kobayashi, S; Maruyama, J; Sasaki, M; Takada, A; Kimura, T; Sawa, H; Orba, Y
The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science 76 637-44 2014
Recently, we detected novel vervet monkey polyomavirus 1 (VmPyV) in a vervet monkey. Among amino acid sequences of major capsid protein VP1s of other polyomaviruses, VmPyV VP1 is the longest with additional amino acid residues in the C-terminal region. To examine the role of VmPyV VP1 in virion formation, we generated virus-like particles (VLPs) of VmPyV VP1, because VLP is a useful tool for the investigation of the morphological characters of polyomavirus virions. After the full-length VmPyV VP1 was subcloned into a mammalian expression plasmid, the plasmid was transfected into human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells. Thereafter, VmPyV VLPs were purified from the cell lysates of the transfected cells via sucrose gradient sedimentation. Electron microscopic analyses revealed that VmPyV VP1 forms VLPs with a diameter of approximately 50 nm that are exclusively localized in cell nuclei. Furthermore, we generated VLPs consisting of the deletion mutant VmPyV VP1 (ΔC VP1) lacking the C-terminal 116 amino acid residues and compared its VLP formation efficiency and morphology to those of VLPs from wild-type VmPyV VP1 (WT VP1). WT and ΔC VP1 VLPs were similar in size, but the number of ΔC VP1 VLPs was much lower than that of WT VP1 VLPs in VP1-expressing HEK293T cells. These results suggest that the length of VP1 is unrelated to virion morphology; however, the C-terminal region of VmPyV VP1 affects the efficiency of its VLP formation.
|Regulation and regulatory role of WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during bovine dominant follicle selection. |
Gupta, PS; Folger, JK; Rajput, SK; Lv, L; Yao, J; Ireland, JJ; Smith, GW
PloS one 9 e100201 2014
Follicular development occurs in wave like patterns in monotocous species such as cattle and humans and is regulated by a complex interaction of gonadotropins with local intrafollicular regulatory molecules. To further elucidate potential mechanisms controlling dominant follicle selection, granulosa cell RNA harvested from F1 (largest) and F2 (second largest) follicles isolated at predeviation (PD) and onset of diameter deviation (OD) stages of the first follicular wave was subjected to preliminary RNA transcriptome analysis. Expression of numerous WNT system components was observed. Hence experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that WNT signaling modulates FSH action on granulosa cells during follicular waves. Abundance of mRNA for WNT pathway members was evaluated in granulosa cells harvested from follicles at emergence (EM), PD, OD and early dominance (ED) stages of the first follicular wave. In F1 follicles, abundance of CTNNB1 and DVL1 mRNAs was higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower at ED versus EM stages and DVL1 and FZD6 mRNAs were higher and AXIN2 mRNA was lower in F1 versus F2 follicle at the ED stage. Bovine granulosa cells were treated in vitro with increasing doses of the WNT inhibitor IWR-1+/- maximal stimulatory dose of FSH. IWR-1 treatment blocked the FSH-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers and reduced the FSH-induced increase in estradiol. Granulosa cells were also cultured in the presence or absence of FSH +/- IWR-1 and hormonal regulation of mRNA for WNT pathway members and known FSH targets determined. FSH treatment increased CYP19A1, CCND2, CTNNB1, AXIN2 and FZD6 mRNAs and the stimulatory effect on CYP19A1 mRNA was reduced by IWR-1. In contrast, FSH reduced CARTPT mRNA and IWR-1 partially reversed the inhibitory effect of FSH. Results support temporal and hormonal regulation and a potential role for WNT signaling in potentiating FSH action during dominant follicle selection.
|Assessment of cytochrome C oxidase dysfunction in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area in schizophrenia. |
Rice, MW; Smith, KL; Roberts, RC; Perez-Costas, E; Melendez-Ferro, M
PloS one 9 e100054 2014
Perturbations in metabolism are a well-documented but complex facet of schizophrenia pathology. Optimal cellular performance requires the proper functioning of the electron transport chain, which is constituted by four enzymes located within the inner membrane of mitochondria. These enzymes create a proton gradient that is used to power the enzyme ATP synthase, producing ATP, which is crucial for the maintenance of cellular functioning. Anomalies in a single enzyme of the electron transport chain are sufficient to cause disruption of cellular metabolism. The last of these complexes is the cytochrome c oxidase (COX) enzyme, which is composed of thirteen different subunits. COX is a major site for oxidative phosphorylation, and anomalies in this enzyme are one of the most frequent causes of mitochondrial pathology. The objective of the present report was to assess if metabolic anomalies linked to COX dysfunction may contribute to substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) pathology in schizophrenia. We tested COX activity in postmortem SN/VTA from schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We also tested the protein expression of key subunits for the assembly and activity of the enzyme, and the effect of antipsychotic medication on subunit expression. COX activity was not significantly different between schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. However, we found significant decreases in the expression of subunits II and IV-I of COX in schizophrenia. Interestingly, these decreases were observed in samples containing the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SN/VTA, while no significant differences were observed for samples containing only mid-caudal regions of the SN/VTA. Finally, rats chronically treated with antipsychotic drugs did not show significant changes in COX subunit expression. These findings suggest that COX subunit expression may be compromised in specific sub-regions of the SN/VTA (i.e. rostral regions), which may lead to a faulty assembly of the enzyme and a greater vulnerability to metabolic insult.
|Partial interchangeability of Fz3 and Fz6 in tissue polarity signaling for epithelial orientation and axon growth and guidance. |
Hua, ZL; Chang, H; Wang, Y; Smallwood, PM; Nathans, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 3944-54 2014
In mammals, a set of anatomically diverse polarity processes - including axon growth and guidance, hair follicle orientation, and stereociliary bundle orientation in inner ear sensory hair cells - appear to be mechanistically related, as judged by their dependence on vertebrate homologues of core tissue polarity/planar cell polarity (PCP) genes in Drosophila. To explore more deeply the mechanistic similarities between different polarity processes, we have determined the extent to which frizzled 3 (Fz3) can rescue the hair follicle and Merkel cell polarity defects in frizzled 6-null (Fz6(-/-)) mice, and, reciprocally, the extent to which Fz6 can rescue the axon growth and guidance defects in Fz3(-/-) mice. These experiments reveal full rescue of the Fz6(-/-) phenotype by Fz3 and partial rescue of the Fz3(-/-) phenotype by Fz6, implying that these two proteins are likely to act in a conserved manner in these two contexts. Stimulated by these observations, we searched for additional anatomical structures that exhibit macroscopic polarity and that might plausibly use Fz3 and/or Fz6 signaling. This search has revealed a hitherto unappreciated pattern of papillae on the dorsal surface of the tongue that depends, at least in part, on redundant signaling by Fz3 and Fz6. Taken together, these experiments provide compelling evidence for a close mechanistic relationship between multiple anatomically diverse polarity processes.
|Novel implications of Lingo-1 and its signaling partners in schizophrenia. |
Fernandez-Enright, F; Andrews, JL; Newell, KA; Pantelis, C; Huang, XF
Translational psychiatry 4 e348 2014
Myelination and neurite outgrowth both occur during brain development, and their disturbance has been previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein (Lingo-1) is a potent negative regulator of axonal myelination and neurite extension. As co-factors of Lingo-1 signaling (Nogo receptor (NgR), With No Lysine (K) (WNK1) and Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1)) have been implicated in the genetics of schizophrenia, we explored for the first time the role of Lingo-1 signaling pathways in this disorder. Lingo-1 protein, together with its co-receptor and co-factor proteins NgR, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor orphan Y (TROY), p75, WNK1 and Myt1, have never been explored in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We examined protein levels of Lingo-1, NgR, TROY, p75, WNK1, Myt1 and myelin basic protein (MBP) (as a marker of myelination) within the post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (37 schizophrenia patients versus 37 matched controls) and hippocampus (Cornu Ammonis, CA1 and CA3) (20 schizophrenia patients versus 20 matched controls from the same cohort). Both of these brain regions are highly disrupted in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. There were significant increases in Lingo-1 (Pless than 0.001) and Myt1 (P=0.023) and a reduction in NgR (Pless than 0.001) in the DLPFC in schizophrenia subjects compared with controls. There were also increases in both TROY (P=0.001) and WNK1 (P=0.011) in the CA1 of schizophrenia subjects and, in contrast to the DLPFC, there was an increase in NgR (P=0.006) in the CA3 of schizophrenia subjects compared with controls. No significant difference was reported for MBP levels (Pgreater than 0.05) between the schizophrenia and control groups in the three tested regions. This is the first time that a study has shown altered Lingo-1 signaling in the schizophrenia brain. Our novel findings may present a direct application for the use of a Lingo-1 antagonist to complement current and future schizophrenia therapies.
|Synaptic proteins in the postmortem anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia: relationship to treatment and treatment response. |
Barksdale, KA; Lahti, AC; Roberts, RC
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 39 2095-103 2014
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is one of several brain regions that are abnormal in schizophrenia (SZ). Here we compared markers of synapse and mitochondrial function using western blots of postmortem ACC in: 1) normal controls (NCs, n=13) vs subjects with SZ (n=25); NC, treatment-resistant SZ, and treatment-responsive SZ; and 3) NC and SZ treated with typical or atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Protein levels of synaptophysin, mitofusin-2, vGLUT1, and calcineurin did not differ between the NC and SZ group as a whole, or the NCs vs the SZ group divided by treatment response or type of APDs. In several cases, the levels of vGLUT1 were minuscule or absent. The proportion of NCs lacking vGLUT1 was significantly less than that of the SZ groups. There were several positive correlations across all subjects between: 1) synaptophysin and vGLUT1; 2) synaptophysin and calcineurin; 3) synaptophysin and mitofusin; and 4) calcineurin and mitofusin. Synaptophysin and calcineurin were positively correlated in responders, and this correlation was significantly stronger than that in treatment-resistant SZ subjects or in NCs. Synaptophysin and calcineurin were positively correlated in SZ patients on atypical APDs; this correlation was significantly stronger than that in SZ patients on typical APDs or in NCs. Mitofusin-2 and calcineurin were positively correlated in SZ patients on atypical APDs and in NCs; this correlation was stronger in SZ patients on atypical rather than typical APDs or in NCs. The correlation between these proteins, which have roles in synaptic vesicle cycling, glutamate transmission, mitochondrial fusion, and calcium buffering, is complex and was differentially regulated among the groups.
|AGR2, an endoplasmic reticulum protein, is secreted into the gastrointestinal mucus. |
Bergström, JH; Berg, KA; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, AM; Stecher, B; Johansson, ME; Hansson, GC
PloS one 9 e104186 2014
The MUC2 mucin is the major constituent of the two mucus layers in colon. Mice lacking the disulfide isomerase-like protein Agr2 have been shown to be more susceptible to colon inflammation. The Agr2(-/-) mice have less filled goblet cells and were now shown to have a poorly developed inner colon mucus layer. We could not show AGR2 covalently bound to recombinant MUC2 N- and C-termini as have previously been suggested. We found relatively high concentrations of Agr2 in secreted mucus throughout the murine gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that Agr2 may play extracellular roles. In tissue culture (CHO-K1) cells, AGR2 is normally not secreted. Replacement of the single Cys in AGR2 with Ser (C81S) allowed secretion, suggesting that modification of this Cys might provide a mechanism for circumventing the KTEL endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. In conclusion, these results suggest that AGR2 has both intracellular and extracellular effects in the intestine.
|Sinoatrial node dysfunction induces cardiac arrhythmias in diabetic mice. |
Soltysinska, E; Speerschneider, T; Winther, SV; Thomsen, MB
Cardiovascular diabetology 13 122 2014
The aim of this study was to probe cardiac complications, including heart-rate control, in a mouse model of type-2 diabetes. Heart-rate development in diabetic patients is not straight forward: In general, patients with diabetes have faster heart rates compared to non-diabetic individuals, yet diabetic patients are frequently found among patients treated for slow heart rates. Hence, we hypothesized that sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction could contribute to our understanding of the mechanism behind this conundrum and the consequences thereof.Cardiac hemodynamic and electrophysiological characteristics were investigated in diabetic db/db and control db/+ mice.We found improved contractile function and impaired filling dynamics of the heart in db/db mice, relative to db/+ controls. Electrophysiologically, we observed comparable heart rates in the two mouse groups, but SAN recovery time was prolonged in diabetic mice. Adrenoreceptor stimulation increased heart rate in all mice and elicited cardiac arrhythmias in db/db mice only. The arrhythmias emanated from the SAN and were characterized by large RR fluctuations. Moreover, nerve density was reduced in the SAN region.Enhanced systolic function and reduced diastolic function indicates early ventricular remodeling in obese and diabetic mice. They have SAN dysfunction, and adrenoreceptor stimulation triggers cardiac arrhythmia originating in the SAN. Thus, dysfunction of the intrinsic cardiac pacemaker and remodeling of the autonomic nervous system may conspire to increase cardiac mortality in diabetic patients.
|Regulation of p53 by Mdm2 E3 ligase function is dispensable in embryogenesis and development, but essential in response to DNA damage. |
Tollini, LA; Jin, A; Park, J; Zhang, Y
Cancer cell 26 235-47 2014
Mdm2 E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated p53 degradation is generally accepted as the major mechanism for p53 regulation; nevertheless, the in vivo significance of this function has not been unequivocally established. Here, we have generated an Mdm2(Y487A) knockin mouse; Mdm2(Y487A) mutation inactivates Mdm2 E3 ligase function without affecting its ability to bind its homolog MdmX. Unexpectedly, Mdm2(Y487A/Y487A) mice were viable and developed normally into adulthood. While disruption of Mdm2 E3 ligase function resulted in p53 accumulation, p53 transcriptional activity remained low; however, exposure to sublethal stress resulted in hyperactive p53 and p53-dependent mortality in Mdm2(Y487A/Y487A) mice. These findings reveal a potentially dispensable nature for Mdm2 E3 ligase function in p53 regulation, providing insight that may affect how this pathway is targeted therapeutically.
|Electroacupuncture-like stimulation at Baihui and Dazhui acupoints exerts neuroprotective effects through activation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated MEK1/2/ERK1/2/p90RSK/bad signaling pathway in mild transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. |
Cheng, CY; Lin, JG; Su, SY; Tang, NY; Kao, ST; Hsieh, CL
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 14 92 2014
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture-like stimulation at Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints (EA at acupoints) following mild cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Furthermore, we investigated whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling pathway is involved in the neuroprotection induced by EA at acupoints.Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 15 min followed by reperfusion for 3 d. EA at acupoints was applied 1 d postreperfusion then once daily for 2 consecutive days.Following the application of EA at acupoints, initiated 1 d postreperfusion, we observed significant reductions in the cerebral infarct area, neurological deficit scores, active caspase-3 protein expression, and apoptosis in the ischemic cortex after 3 d of reperfusion. We also observed markedly upregulated BDNF, phospho-Raf-1 (pRaf-1), phospho-MEK1/2 (pMEK1/2), phospho-ERK1/2 (pERK1/2), phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (pp90RSK), and phospho-Bad (pBad) expression, and restored neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) expression. Pretreatment with the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 abrogated the effects of EA at acupoints on cerebral infarct size, neurological deficits, active caspase-3 protein, and apoptosis in the ischemic cortex after 3 d of reperfusion. Pretreatment with U0126 also abrogated the effects of EA at acupoints on pMEK1/2, pERK1/2, pp90RSK, pBad, and NeuN expression, but did not influence BDNF and pRaf-1 expression.Overall, our study results indicated that EA at acupoints, initiated 1 d postreperfusion, upregulates BDNF expression to provide BDNF-mediated neuroprotection against caspase-3-dependent neuronal apoptosis through activation of the Raf-1/MEK1/2/ERK1/2/p90RSK/Bad signaling cascade after 3 d of reperfusion in mild MCAo.
|Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway. |
Purves-Tyson, TD; Owens, SJ; Double, KL; Desai, R; Handelsman, DJ; Weickert, CS
PloS one 9 e91151 2014
Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase), breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase), transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), dopamine transporter (DAT)] and receptors (DRD1-D5)] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen receptor-driven events as estradiol had minimal effect. We conclude that nigrostriatal responsivity to dopamine may be modulated by testosterone acting via androgen receptors to alter gene expression of molecules involved in dopamine signaling during adolescence.
|Circadian regulation of myocardial sarcomeric Titin-cap (Tcap, telethonin): identification of cardiac clock-controlled genes using open access bioinformatics data. |
Podobed, PS; Alibhai, FJ; Chow, CW; Martino, TA
PloS one 9 e104907 2014
Circadian rhythms are important for healthy cardiovascular physiology and are regulated at the molecular level by a circadian clock mechanism. We and others previously demonstrated that 9-13% of the cardiac transcriptome is rhythmic over 24 h daily cycles; the heart is genetically a different organ day versus night. However, which rhythmic mRNAs are regulated by the circadian mechanism is not known. Here, we used open access bioinformatics databases to identify 94 transcripts with expression profiles characteristic of CLOCK and BMAL1 targeted genes, using the CircaDB website and JTK_Cycle. Moreover, 22 were highly expressed in the heart as determined by the BioGPS website. Furthermore, 5 heart-enriched genes had human/mouse conserved CLOCK:BMAL1 promoter binding sites (E-boxes), as determined by UCSC table browser, circadian mammalian promoter/enhancer database PEDB, and the European Bioinformatics Institute alignment tool (EMBOSS). Lastly, we validated findings by demonstrating that Titin cap (Tcap, telethonin) was targeted by transcriptional activators CLOCK and BMAL1 by showing 1) Tcap mRNA and TCAP protein had a diurnal rhythm in murine heart; 2) cardiac Tcap mRNA was rhythmic in animals kept in constant darkness; 3) Tcap and control Per2 mRNA expression and cyclic amplitude were blunted in Clock(Δ19/Δ19) hearts; 4) BMAL1 bound to the Tcap promoter by ChIP assay; 5) BMAL1 bound to Tcap promoter E-boxes by biotinylated oligonucleotide assay; and 6) CLOCK and BMAL1 induced tcap expression by luciferase reporter assay. Thus this study identifies circadian regulated genes in silico, with validation of Tcap, a critical regulator of cardiac Z-disc sarcomeric structure and function.
|Adequate Th2-type response associates with restricted bacterial growth in latent mycobacterial infection of zebrafish. |
Hammarén, MM; Oksanen, KE; Nisula, HM; Luukinen, BV; Pesu, M; Rämet, M; Parikka, M
PLoS pathogens 10 e1004190 2014
Tuberculosis is still a major health problem worldwide. Currently it is not known what kind of immune responses lead to successful control and clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This gap in knowledge is reflected by the inability to develop sufficient diagnostic and therapeutic tools to fight tuberculosis. We have used the Mycobacterium marinum infection model in the adult zebrafish and taken advantage of heterogeneity of zebrafish population to dissect the characteristics of adaptive immune responses, some of which are associated with well-controlled latency or bacterial clearance while others with progressive infection. Differences in T cell responses between subpopulations were measured at the transcriptional level. It was discovered that a high total T cell level was usually associated with lower bacterial loads alongside with a T helper 2 (Th2)-type gene expression signature. At late time points, spontaneous reactivation with apparent symptoms was characterized by a low Th2/Th1 marker ratio and a substantial induction of foxp3 reflecting the level of regulatory T cells. Characteristic gata3/tbx21 has potential as a biomarker for the status of mycobacterial disease.
|Loss of γ-cytoplasmic actin triggers myofibroblast transition of human epithelial cells. |
Lechuga, S; Baranwal, S; Li, C; Naydenov, NG; Kuemmerle, JF; Dugina, V; Chaponnier, C; Ivanov, AI
Molecular biology of the cell 25 3133-46 2014
Transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells and myofibroblasts plays an important role in tumor progression and tissue fibrosis. Such epithelial plasticity is accompanied by dramatic reorganizations of the actin cytoskeleton, although mechanisms underlying cytoskeletal effects on epithelial transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. In the present study, we observed that selective siRNA-mediated knockdown of γ-cytoplasmic actin (γ-CYA), but not β-cytoplasmic actin, induced epithelial-to-myofibroblast transition (EMyT) of different epithelial cells. The EMyT manifested by increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and other contractile proteins, along with inhibition of genes responsible for cell proliferation. Induction of EMyT in γ-CYA-depleted cells depended on activation of serum response factor and its cofactors, myocardial-related transcriptional factors A and B. Loss of γ-CYA stimulated formin-mediated actin polymerization and activation of Rho GTPase, which appear to be essential for EMyT induction. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated, unique role of γ-CYA in regulating epithelial phenotype and suppression of EMyT that may be essential for cell differentiation and tissue fibrosis.
|Mechanisms of the scaffold subunit in facilitating protein phosphatase 2A methylation. |
Stanevich, V; Zheng, A; Guo, F; Jiang, L; Wlodarchak, N; Xing, Y
PloS one 9 e86955 2014
The function of the biologically essential protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) relies on formation of diverse heterotrimeric holoenzymes, which involves stable association between PP2A scaffold (A) and catalytic (C or PP2Ac) subunits and binding of variable regulatory subunits. Holoenzyme assembly is highly regulated by carboxyl methylation of PP2Ac-tail; methylation of PP2Ac and association of the A and C subunits are coupled to activation of PP2Ac. Here we showed that PP2A-specific methyltransferase, LCMT-1, exhibits a higher activity toward the core enzyme (A-C heterodimer) than free PP2Ac, and the A-subunit facilitates PP2A methylation via three distinct mechanisms: 1) stabilization of a proper protein fold and an active conformation of PP2Ac; 2) limiting the space of PP2Ac-tail movement for enhanced entry into the LCMT-1 active site; and 3) weak electrostatic interactions between LCMT-1 and the N-terminal HEAT repeats of the A-subunit. Our results revealed a new function and novel mechanisms of the A-subunit in PP2A methylation, and coherent control of PP2A activity, methylation, and holoenzyme assembly.
|Electroacupuncture-like stimulation at the Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints protects rats against subacute-phase cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injuries by reducing S100B-mediated neurotoxicity. |
Cheng, CY; Lin, JG; Tang, NY; Kao, ST; Hsieh, CL
PloS one 9 e91426 2014
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture-like stimulation at the Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints (EA at acupoints) during the subacute phase of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and to establish the neuroprotective mechanisms involved in the modulation of the S100B-mediated signaling pathway.The experimental rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 15 min followed by 1 d or 7 d of reperfusion. EA at acupoints was applied 1 d postreperfusion then once daily for 6 consecutive days.We observed that 15 min of MCAo caused delayed infarct expansion 7 d after reperfusion. EA at acupoints significantly reduced the cerebral infarct and neurological deficit scores. EA at acupoints also downregulated the expression of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100B, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB; p50), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and reduced the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and apoptosis in the ischemic cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. Western blot analysis showed that EA at acupoints significantly downregulated the cytosolic expression of phospho-p38 MAP kinase (p-p38 MAP kinase), tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD), Fas-associated death domain (FADD), cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-3 in the ischemic cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. EA at acupoints significantly reduced the numbers of GFAP/S100B and S100B/nitrotyrosine double-labeled cells.Our study results indicate that EA at acupoints initiated 1 d postreperfusion effectively downregulates astrocytic S100B expression to provide neuroprotection against delayed infarct expansion by modulating p38 MAP kinase-mediated NF-κB expression. These effects subsequently reduce oxidative/nitrative stress and inhibit the TNF-α/TRADD/FADD/cleaved caspase-8/cleaved caspase-3 apoptotic pathway in the ischemic cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion.
|Assembly and validation of versatile transcription activator-like effector libraries. |
Li, Y; Ehrhardt, K; Zhang, MQ; Bleris, L
Scientific reports 4 4857 2014
The ability to perturb individual genes in genome-wide experiments has been instrumental in unraveling cellular and disease properties. Here we introduce, describe the assembly, and demonstrate the use of comprehensive and versatile transcription activator-like effector (TALE) libraries. As a proof of principle, we built an 11-mer library that covers all possible combinations of the nucleotides that determine the TALE-DNA binding specificity. We demonstrate the versatility of the methodology by constructing a constraint library, customized to bind to a known p53 motif. To verify the functionality in assays, we applied the 11-mer library in yeast-one-hybrid screens to discover TALEs that activate human SCN9A and miR-34b respectively. Additionally, we performed a genome-wide screen using the complete 11-mer library to confirm known genes that confer cycloheximide resistance in yeast. Considering the highly modular nature of TALEs and the versatility and ease of constructing these libraries we envision broad implications for high-throughput genomic assays.
|An evolutionarily conserved protein CHORD regulates scaling of dendritic arbors with body size. |
Shimono, K; Fujishima, K; Nomura, T; Ohashi, M; Usui, T; Kengaku, M; Toyoda, A; Uemura, T
Scientific reports 4 4415 2014
Most organs scale proportionally with body size through regulation of individual cell size and/or cell number. Here we addressed how postmitotic and morphologically complex cells such as neurons scale with the body size by using the dendritic arbor of one Drosophila sensory neuron as an assay system. In small adults eclosed under a limited-nutrition condition, the wild-type neuron preserved the branching complexity of the arbor, but scaled down the entire arbor, making a "miniature". In contrast, mutant neurons for the Insulin/IGF signaling (IIS) or TORC1 pathway exhibited "undergrowth", which was characterized by decreases in both the branching complexity and the arbor size, despite a normal diet. These contrasting phenotypes hinted that a novel regulatory mechanism contributes to the dendritic scaling in wild-type neurons. Indeed, we isolated a mutation in the gene CHORD/morgana that uncoupled the neuron size and the body size: CHORD mutant neurons generated miniature dendritic arbors regardless of the body size. CHORD encodes an evolutionarily conserved co-chaperone of HSP90. Our results support the notion that dendritic growth and branching are controlled by partly separate mechanisms. The IIS/TORC1 pathways control both growth and branching to avert underdevelopment, whereas CHORD together with TORC2 realizes proportional scaling of the entire arbor.
|Retinoic acid suppresses the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in embryonic stem cells and activates the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway. |
Osei-Sarfo, K; Gudas, LJ
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 32 2061-71 2014
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have both the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into various cell lineages. Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of Vitamin A, has a critical function in initiating lineage differentiation of ESCs through binding to the retinoic acid receptors. Additionally, the Wnt signaling pathway plays a role in pluripotency and differentiation, depending on the activation status of the canonical and noncanonical pathways. The activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which requires the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and its interaction with Tcf1/Lef at Wnt response elements, is involved in ESC stemness maintenance. The noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway, through actions of Tcf3, can antagonize the canonical pathway. We show that RA activates the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway, while concomitantly inhibiting the canonical pathway. RA increases the expression of ligands and receptors of the noncanonical Wnt pathway (Wnt 5a, 7a, Fzd2 and Fzd6), downstream signaling, and Tcf3 expression. RA reduces the phosphorylated β-catenin levels by fourfold, although total β-catenin levels do not change. We show that RA signaling increases the dissociation of Tcf1 and the association of Tcf3 at promoters of genes that regulate stemness (e.g., NR5A2, Lrh-1) or differentiation (e.g. Cyr61, Zic5). Knockdown of Tcf3 increases Lrh-1 transcript levels in mESCs and prevents the RA-associated, fourfold increase in Zic5, indicating that RA requires Tcf3 to effect changes in Zic5 levels. We demonstrate a novel role for RA in altering the activation of these two Wnt signaling pathways and show that Tcf3 mediates some actions of RA during differentiation.
|Bak and Mcl-1 are essential for Temozolomide induced cell death in human glioma. |
Gratas, C; Séry, Q; Rabé, M; Oliver, L; Vallette, FM
Oncotarget 5 2428-35 2014
Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the main form of human brain tumours in adults. It has been reported that TMZ induced DNA lesions that subsequently trigger cell death but the actual mechanisms involved in the process are still unclear. We investigated the implication of major proteins of the Bcl-2 family in TMZ-induced cell death in GBM cell lines at concentrations closed to that reached in the brain during the treatments. We did not observe modulation of autophagy at these concentrations but we found an induction of apoptosis. Using RNA interference, we showed that TMZ induced apoptosis is dependent on the pro-apoptotic protein Bak but independent of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Apoptosis was not enhanced by ABT-737, an inhibitor of Bcl-2/Bcl-Xl/Bcl-W but not Mcl-1. The knock-down of Mcl-1 expression increased TMZ induced apoptosis. Our results identify a Mcl-1/Bak axis for TMZ induced apoptosis in GBM and thus unravel a target to overcome therapeutic resistance toward TMZ.
|Maturation stage of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia determines BCL-2 versus BCL-XL dependence and sensitivity to ABT-199. |
Chonghaile, TN; Roderick, JE; Glenfield, C; Ryan, J; Sallan, SE; Silverman, LB; Loh, ML; Hunger, SP; Wood, B; DeAngelo, DJ; Stone, R; Harris, M; Gutierrez, A; Kelliher, MA; Letai, A
Cancer discovery 4 1074-87 2014
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a hematopoietic malignancy derived from immature B-lymphoid and T-lymphoid cells (T-ALL). In T-ALL, there is an early T-cell progenitor (ETP) subgroup that has a very high risk for relapse. In this study, we used mitochondrial BH3 profiling to determine antiapoptotic protein dependencies in T-ALL. We found that T-ALL cell lines and primary patient samples are dependent upon BCL-XL, except when the cancer bears an ETP phenotype, in which case it is BCL-2 dependent. These distinctions directly relate to differential sensitivity to the BH3 mimetics ABT-263 and ABT-199, both in vitro and in vivo. We thus describe for the first time a change of antiapoptotic protein dependence that is related to the differentiation stage of the leukemic clone. Our findings demonstrate that BCL-2 is a clinically relevant target for therapeutic intervention with ABT-199 in ETP-ALL.ETP T-ALL is a treatment-resistant subtype of T-ALL for which novel targeted therapies are urgently needed. We have discovered, through BH3 profiling, that ETP-ALL is BCL-2 dependent and is very sensitive to in vitro and in vivo treatment with ABT-199, a drug well tolerated in clinical trials.
|Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase type 5 prevents L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. |
Park, HY; Kang, YM; Kang, Y; Park, TS; Ryu, YK; Hwang, JH; Kim, YH; Chung, BH; Nam, KH; Kim, MR; Lee, CH; Han, PL; Kim, KS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 11744-53 2014
The dopamine precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is widely used as a therapeutic choice for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the long-term use of L-DOPA leads to the development of debilitating involuntary movements, called L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). The cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in the striatum is known to play a role in LID. However, from among the nine known adenylyl cyclases (ACs) present in the striatum, the AC that mediates LID remains unknown. To address this issue, we prepared an animal model with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in the substantia nigra in wild-type and AC5-knock-out (KO) mice, and examined behavioral responses to short-term or long-term treatment with L-DOPA. Compared with the behavioral responses of wild-type mice, LID was profoundly reduced in AC5-KO mice. The behavioral protection of long-term treatment with L-DOPA in AC5-KO mice was preceded by a decrease in the phosphorylation levels of PKA substrates ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) 1/2, MSK1 (mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1), and histone H3, levels of which were all increased in the lesioned striatum of wild-type mice. Consistently, FosB/ΔFosB expression, which was induced by long-term L-DOPA treatment in the lesioned striatum, was also decreased in AC5-KO mice. Moreover, suppression of AC5 in the dorsal striatum with lentivirus-shRNA-AC5 was sufficient to attenuate LID, suggesting that the AC5-regulated signaling cascade in the striatum mediates LID. These results identify the AC5/cAMP system in the dorsal striatum as a therapeutic target for the treatment of LID in patients with Parkinson's disease.
|A critical role of autophagy in antileukemia/lymphoma effects of APO866, an inhibitor of NAD biosynthesis. |
Ginet, V; Puyal, J; Rummel, C; Aubry, D; Breton, C; Cloux, AJ; Majjigapu, SR; Sordat, B; Vogel, P; Bruzzone, S; Nencioni, A; Duchosal, MA; Nahimana, A
Autophagy 10 603-17 2014
APO866, an inhibitor of NAD biosynthesis, exhibits potent antitumor properties in various malignancies. Recently, it has been shown that APO866 induces apoptosis and autophagy in human hematological cancer cells, but the role of autophagy in APO866-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we report studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying APO866-induced cell death with emphasis on autophagy. Treatment of leukemia and lymphoma cells with APO866 induced both autophagy, as evidenced by an increase in autophagosome formation and in SQSTM1/p62 degradation, but also increased caspase activation as revealed by CASP3/caspase 3 cleavage. As an underlying mechanism, APO866-mediated autophagy was found to deplete CAT/catalase, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, thus promoting ROS production and cell death. Inhibition of autophagy by ATG5 or ATG7 silencing prevented CAT degradation, ROS production, caspase activation, and APO866-induced cell death. Finally, supplementation with exogenous CAT also abolished APO866 cytotoxic activity. Altogether, our results indicated that autophagy is essential for APO866 cytotoxic activity on cells from hematological malignancies and also indicate an autophagy-dependent CAT degradation, a novel mechanism for APO866-mediated cell killing. Autophagy-modulating approaches could be a new way to enhance the antitumor activity of APO866 and related agents.
|Profiling of the Chromatin-Associated Proteome Identifies HP1BP3 as a Novel Regulator of Cell Cycle Progression. |
Dutta, B; Ren, Y; Hao, P; Sim, KH; Cheow, E; Adav, S; Tam, JP; Sze, SK
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2014
The chromatin-associated proteome (chromatome) regulates cellular gene expression by restricting access of transcriptional machinery to template DNA, and dynamic re-modeling of chromatin structure is required to regulate critical cell functions including growth and replication, DNA repair and recombination, and oncogenic transformation in progression to cancer. Central to the control of these processes is efficient regulation of the host cell cycle, which is maintained by rapid changes in chromatin conformation during normal cycle progression. A global overview of chromatin protein organization is therefore essential to fully understand cell cycle regulation, but the influence of the chromatome and chromatin binding topology on host cell cycle progression remains poorly defined. Here we used partial MNase digestion together with iTRAQ-based high-throughput quantitative proteomics to quantify chromatin-associated proteins during interphase progression. We identified a total of 481 proteins with high confidence that were involved in chromatin-dependent events including transcriptional regulation, chromatin re-organization, and DNA replication and repair, while the quantitative data revealed the temporal interactions of these proteins with chromatin during interphase progression. When combined with biochemical and functional assays, these data revealed a strikingly dynamic association of protein HP1BP3 with the chromatin complex during different stages of interphase, and uncovered a novel regulatory role for this molecule in transcriptional regulation. We report that HP1BP3 protein maintains heterochromatin integrity during G1-S progression and regulates the duration of G1 phase to critically influence cell proliferative capacity.
|CACN-1/Cactin plays a role in Wnt signaling in C. elegans. |
LaBonty, M; Szmygiel, C; Byrnes, LE; Hughes, S; Woollard, A; Cram, EJ
PloS one 9 e101945 2014
Wnt signaling is tightly regulated during animal development and controls cell proliferation and differentiation. In C. elegans, activation of Wnt signaling alters the activity of the TCF/LEF transcription factor, POP-1, through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathways. In this study, we have identified CACN-1 as a potential regulator of POP-1 in C. elegans larval development. CACN-1/Cactin is a well-conserved protein of unknown molecular function previously implicated in the regulation of several developmental signaling pathways. Here we have used activation of POPTOP, a POP-1-responsive reporter construct, as a proxy for Wnt signaling. POPTOP requires POP-1 and SYS-1/β-catenin for activation in L4 uterine cells. RNAi depletion experiments show that CACN-1 is needed to prevent excessive activation of POPTOP and for proper levels and/or localization of POP-1. Surprisingly, high POPTOP expression correlates with increased levels of POP-1 in uterine nuclei, suggesting POPTOP may not mirror endogenous gene expression in all respects. Genetic interaction studies suggest that CACN-1 may act partially through LIT-1/NLK to alter POP-1 localization and POPTOP activation. Additionally, CACN-1 is required for proper proliferation of larval seam cells. Depletion of CACN-1 results in a loss of POP-1 asymmetry and reduction of terminal seam cell number, suggesting an adoption of the anterior, differentiated fate by the posterior daughter cells. These findings suggest CACN-1/Cactin modulates Wnt signaling during larval development.
|OFD1 and flotillins are integral components of a ciliary signaling protein complex organized by polycystins in renal epithelia and odontoblasts. |
Jerman, S; Ward, HH; Lee, R; Lopes, CA; Fry, AM; MacDougall, M; Wandinger-Ness, A
PloS one 9 e106330 2014
Mutation of the X-linked oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) gene is embryonic lethal in males and results in craniofacial malformations and adult onset polycystic kidney disease in females. While the OFD1 protein localizes to centriolar satellites, centrosomes and basal bodies, its cellular function and how it relates to cystic kidney disease is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that OFD1 is assembled into a protein complex that is localized to the primary cilium and contains the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and domain organizing flotillin proteins. This protein complex, which has similarity to a basolateral adhesion domain formed during cell polarization, also contains the polycystin proteins that when mutant cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Importantly, in human ADPKD cells where mutant polycystin-1 fails to localize to cilia, there is a concomitant loss of localization of polycystin-2, OFD1, EGFR and flotillin-1 to cilia. Together, these data suggest that polycystins are necessary for assembly of a novel flotillin-containing ciliary signaling complex and provide a molecular rationale for the common renal pathologies caused by OFD1 and PKD mutations.
|Induction of the unfolded protein response by constitutive G-protein signaling in rod photoreceptor cells. |
Wang, T; Chen, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 29310-21 2014
Phototransduction is a G-protein signal transduction cascade that converts photon absorption to a change in current at the plasma membrane. Certain genetic mutations affecting the proteins in the phototransduction cascade cause blinding disorders in humans. Some of these mutations serve as a genetic source of "equivalent light" that activates the cascade, whereas other mutations lead to amplification of the light response. How constitutive phototransduction causes photoreceptor cell death is poorly understood. We showed that persistent G-protein signaling, which occurs in rod arrestin and rhodopsin kinase knock-out mice, caused a rapid and specific induction of the PERK pathway of the unfolded protein response. These changes were not observed in the cGMP-gated channel knock-out rods, an equivalent light condition that mimics light-stimulated channel closure. Thus transducin signaling, but not channel closure, triggers rapid cell death in light damage caused by constitutive phototransduction. Additionally, we show that in the albino light damage model cell death was not associated with increase in global protein ubiquitination or unfolded protein response induction. Taken together, these observations provide novel mechanistic insights into the cell death pathway caused by constitutive phototransduction and identify the unfolded protein response as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
|Calcitonin controls bone formation by inhibiting the release of sphingosine 1-phosphate from osteoclasts. |
Keller, J; Catala-Lehnen, P; Huebner, AK; Jeschke, A; Heckt, T; Lueth, A; Krause, M; Koehne, T; Albers, J; Schulze, J; Schilling, S; Haberland, M; Denninger, H; Neven, M; Hermans-Borgmeyer, I; Streichert, T; Breer, S; Barvencik, F; Levkau, B; Rathkolb, B; Wolf, E; Calzada-Wack, J; Neff, F; Gailus-Durner, V; Fuchs, H; de Angelis, MH; Klutmann, S; Tsourdi, E; Hofbauer, LC; Kleuser, B; Chun, J; Schinke, T; Amling, M
Nature communications 5 5215 2014
The hormone calcitonin (CT) is primarily known for its pharmacologic action as an inhibitor of bone resorption, yet CT-deficient mice display increased bone formation. These findings raised the question about the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism of CT action. Here we show that either ubiquitous or osteoclast-specific inactivation of the murine CT receptor (CTR) causes increased bone formation. CT negatively regulates the osteoclast expression of Spns2 gene, which encodes a transporter for the signalling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). CTR-deficient mice show increased S1P levels, and their skeletal phenotype is normalized by deletion of the S1P receptor S1P3. Finally, pharmacologic treatment with the nonselective S1P receptor agonist FTY720 causes increased bone formation in wild-type, but not in S1P3-deficient mice. This study redefines the role of CT in skeletal biology, confirms that S1P acts as an osteoanabolic molecule in vivo and provides evidence for a pharmacologically exploitable crosstalk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
|BET bromodomain proteins are required for glioblastoma cell proliferation. |
Pastori, C; Daniel, M; Penas, C; Volmar, CH; Johnstone, AL; Brothers, SP; Graham, RM; Allen, B; Sarkaria, JN; Komotar, RJ; Wahlestedt, C; Ayad, NG
Epigenetics 9 611-20 2014
Epigenetic proteins have recently emerged as novel anticancer targets. Among these, bromodomain and extra terminal domain (BET) proteins recognize lysine-acetylated histones, thereby regulating gene expression. Newly described small molecules that inhibit BET proteins BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 reduce proliferation of NUT (nuclear protein in testis)-midline carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings prompted us to determine whether BET proteins may be therapeutic targets in the most common primary adult brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM). We performed NanoString analysis of GBM tumor samples and controls to identify novel therapeutic targets. Several cell proliferation assays of GBM cell lines and stem cells were used to analyze the efficacy of the drug I-BET151 relative to temozolomide (TMZ) or cell cycle inhibitors. Lastly, we performed xenograft experiments to determine the efficacy of I-BET151 in vivo. We demonstrate that BRD2 and BRD4 RNA are significantly overexpressed in GBM, suggesting that BET protein inhibition may be an effective means of reducing GBM cell proliferation. Disruption of BRD4 expression in glioblastoma cells reduced cell cycle progression. Similarly, treatment with the BET protein inhibitor I-BET151 reduced GBM cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. I-BET151 treatment enriched cells at the G1/S cell cycle transition. Importantly, I-BET151 is as potent at inhibiting GBM cell proliferation as TMZ, the current chemotherapy treatment administered to GBM patients. Since I-BET151 inhibits GBM cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle progression, we propose that BET protein inhibition may be a viable therapeutic option for GBM patients suffering from TMZ resistant tumors.
|The granin VGF promotes genesis of secretory vesicles, and regulates circulating catecholamine levels and blood pressure. |
Fargali, S; Garcia, AL; Sadahiro, M; Jiang, C; Janssen, WG; Lin, WJ; Cogliani, V; Elste, A; Mortillo, S; Cero, C; Veitenheimer, B; Graiani, G; Pasinetti, GM; Mahata, SK; Osborn, JW; Huntley, GW; Phillips, GR; Benson, DL; Bartolomucci, A; Salton, SR
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 28 2120-33 2014
Secretion of proteins and neurotransmitters from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) is a highly regulated process. Adrenal LDCV formation involves the granin proteins chromogranin A (CgA) and chromogranin B (CgB); CgA- and CgB-derived peptides regulate catecholamine levels and blood pressure. We investigated function of the granin VGF (nonacronymic) in LDCV formation and the regulation of catecholamine levels and blood pressure. Expression of exogenous VGF in nonendocrine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts resulted in the formation of LDCV-like structures and depolarization-induced VGF secretion. Analysis of germline VGF-knockout mouse adrenal medulla revealed decreased LDCV size in noradrenergic chromaffin cells, increased adrenal norepinephrine and epinephrine content and circulating plasma epinephrine, and decreased adrenal CgB. These neurochemical changes in VGF-knockout mice were associated with hypertension. Germline knock-in of human VGF1-615 into the mouse Vgf locus rescued the hypertensive knockout phenotype, while knock-in of a truncated human VGF1-524 that lacks several C-terminal peptides, including TLQP-21, resulted in a small but significant increase in systolic blood pressure compared to hVGF1-615 mice. Finally, acute and chronic administration of the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 to rodents decreased blood pressure. Our studies establish a role for VGF in adrenal LDCV formation and the regulation of catecholamine levels and blood pressure.
|Anti-cancer effects of REIC/Dkk-3-encoding adenoviral vector for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. |
Shien, K; Tanaka, N; Watanabe, M; Soh, J; Sakaguchi, M; Matsuo, K; Yamamoto, H; Furukawa, M; Asano, H; Tsukuda, K; Nasu, Y; Huh, NH; Miyoshi, S; Kumon, H; Toyooka, S
PloS one 9 e87900 2014
REIC/Dkk-3 is down-regulated in a broad range of human cancer cells and is considered to function as a tumor suppressor. We previously reported that REIC/Dkk-3-expressing adenovirus vector (Ad-REIC) induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cancer-specific apoptosis in human prostate cancer. In this study, we examined the therapeutic impact of Ad-REIC on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).We examined the anti-tumor effect of Ad-REIC on 25 NSCLC cell lines in vitro and A549 cells in vivo. Two of these cell lines were artificially established as EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistant sublines.Ad-REIC-treatment inhibited the cell viability by 40% or more in 13 (52%) of the 25 cell lines at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 20 (20 MOI). These cell lines were regarded as being highly sensitive cells. The cell viability of a non-malignant immortalized cell line, OUMS-24, was not inhibited at 200 MOI of Ad-REIC. The effects of Ad-REIC on EGFR-TKI resistant sublines were equivalent to those in the parental cell lines. Here, we demonstrated that Ad-REIC treatment activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in NSCLC cell lines, indicating the induction of ER stress with GRP78/BiP (GRP78) up-regulation and resulting in apoptosis. A single intratumoral injection of Ad-REIC significantly inhibited the tumorigenic growth of A549 cells in vivo. As predictive factors of sensitivity for Ad-REIC treatment in NSCLC, we examined the expression status of GRP78 and coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). We found that the combination of the GRP78 and CAR expressional statuses may be used as a predictive factor for Ad-REIC sensitivity in NSCLC cells.Ad-REIC induced JNK activation and subsequent apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Our study indicated that Ad-REIC has therapeutic potential against NSCLC and that the expression statuses of GRP78 and CAR may predict a potential therapeutic benefit of Ad-REIC.
|Subcellular fractionation and localization studies reveal a direct interaction of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) with nucleolin. |
Taha, MS; Nouri, K; Milroy, LG; Moll, JM; Herrmann, C; Brunsveld, L; Piekorz, RP; Ahmadian, MR
PloS one 9 e91465 2014
Fragile X mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is a well-known regulator of local translation of its mRNA targets in neurons. However, despite its ubiquitous expression, the role of FMRP remains ill-defined in other cell types. In this study we investigated the subcellular distribution of FMRP and its protein complexes in HeLa cells using confocal imaging as well as detergent-free fractionation and size exclusion protocols. We found FMRP localized exclusively to solid compartments, including cytosolic heavy and light membranes, mitochondria, nuclear membrane and nucleoli. Interestingly, FMRP was associated with nucleolin in both a high molecular weight ribosomal and translation-associated complex (≥6 MDa) in the cytosol, and a low molecular weight complex (∼200 kDa) in the nucleoli. Consistently, we identified two functional nucleolar localization signals (NoLSs) in FMRP that are responsible for a strong nucleolar colocalization of the C-terminus of FMRP with nucleolin, and a direct interaction of the N-terminus of FMRP with the arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) domain of nucleolin. Taken together, we propose a novel mechanism by which a transient nucleolar localization of FMRP underlies a strong nucleocytoplasmic translocation, most likely in a complex with nucleolin and possibly ribosomes, in order to regulate translation of its target mRNAs.
|Integrated genomic analysis identifies the mitotic checkpoint kinase WEE1 as a novel therapeutic target in medulloblastoma. |
Harris, PS; Venkataraman, S; Alimova, I; Birks, DK; Balakrishnan, I; Cristiano, B; Donson, AM; Dubuc, AM; Taylor, MD; Foreman, NK; Reigan, P; Vibhakar, R
Molecular cancer 13 72 2014
Medulloblastoma is the most common type of malignant brain tumor that afflicts children. Although recent advances in chemotherapy and radiation have improved outcomes, high-risk patients do poorly with significant morbidity.To identify new molecular targets, we performed an integrated genomic analysis using structural and functional methods. Gene expression profiling in 16 medulloblastoma patient samples and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis indicated that cell cycle-related kinases were associated with disease development. In addition a kinome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen was performed to identify kinases that, when inhibited, could prevent cell proliferation. The two genome-scale analyses were combined to identify key vulnerabilities in medulloblastoma. The inhibition of one of the identified targets was further investigated using RNAi and a small molecule inhibitor.Combining the two analyses revealed that mitosis-related kinases were critical determinants of medulloblastoma cell proliferation. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of WEE1 kinase and other mitotic kinases was sufficient to reduce medulloblastoma cell proliferation. These data prompted us to examine the effects of inhibiting WEE1 by RNAi and by a small molecule inhibitor of WEE1, MK-1775, in medulloblastoma cell lines. MK-1775 inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma cell lines, induced apoptosis and increased DNA damage at nanomolar concentrations. Further, MK-1775 was synergistic with cisplatin in reducing medulloblastoma cell proliferation and resulted in an associated increase in cell death. In vivo MK-1775 suppressed medulloblastoma tumor growth as a single agent.Taken together, these findings highlight mitotic kinases and, in particular, WEE1 as a rational therapeutic target for medulloblastoma.
|Role of neurotrophic factor alterations in the neurodegenerative process in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders. |
Fields, J; Dumaop, W; Langford, TD; Rockenstein, E; Masliah, E
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology 9 102-16 2014
Migration of HIV infected cells into the CNS is associated with a spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) to HIV-associated dementia (HAD). These neuro-psychiatric syndromes are related to the neurodegenerative pathology triggered by the release of HIV proteins and cytokine/chemokines from monocytes/macrophages into the CNS -a condition known as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). As a result of more effective combined anti-retroviral therapy patients with HIV are living longer and thus the frequency of HAND has increased considerably, resulting in an overlap between the neurodegenerative pathology associated with HIV and that related to aging. In fact, HIV infection is believed to hasten the aging process. The mechanisms through which HIV and aging lead to neurodegeneration include: abnormal calcium flux, excitotoxicity, signaling abnormalities, oxidative stress and autophagy defects. Moreover, recent studies have shown that defects in the processing and transport of neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), neural growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) might also play a role. Recent evidence implicates alterations in neurotrophins in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with HAND in the context of aging. Here, we report FGF overexpression curtails gp120-induced neurotoxicity in a double transgenic mouse model. Furthermore, our data show disparities in brain neurotrophic factor levels may be exacerbated in HIV patients over 50 years of age. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on neurotrophins and HAND in the context of developing new therapies to combat HIV infection in the aging population.
|Ring finger protein 34 (RNF34) interacts with and promotes γ-aminobutyric acid type-A receptor degradation via ubiquitination of the γ2 subunit. |
Jin, H; Chiou, TT; Serwanski, DR; Miralles, CP; Pinal, N; De Blas, AL
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 29420-36 2014
We have found that the large intracellular loop of the γ2 GABAA receptor (R) subunit (γ2IL) interacts with RNF34 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase), as shown by yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pulldown assays. In brain extracts, RNF34 co-immunoprecipitates with assembled GABAARs. In co-transfected HEK293 cells, RNF34 reduces the expression of the γ2 GABAAR subunit by increasing the ratio of ubiquitinated/nonubiquitinated γ2. Mutating several lysines of the γ2IL into arginines makes the γ2 subunit resistant to RNF34-induced degradation. RNF34 also reduces the expression of the γ2 subunit when α1 and β3 subunits are co-assembled with γ2. This effect is partially reversed by leupeptin or MG132, indicating that both the lysosomal and proteasomal degradation pathways are involved. Immunofluorescence of cultured hippocampal neurons shows that RNF34 forms clusters and that a subset of these clusters is associated with GABAergic synapses. This association is also observed in the intact rat brain by electron microscopy immunocytochemistry. RNF34 is not expressed until the 2nd postnatal week of rat brain development, being highly expressed in some interneurons. Overexpression of RNF34 in hippocampal neurons decreases the density of γ2 GABAAR clusters and the number of GABAergic contacts that these neurons receive. Knocking down endogenous RNF34 with shRNA leads to increased γ2 GABAAR cluster density and GABAergic innervation. The results indicate that RNF34 regulates postsynaptic γ2-GABAAR clustering and GABAergic synaptic innervation by interacting with and ubiquitinating the γ2-GABAAR subunit promoting GABAAR degradation.
|Altered protein phosphatase 2A methylation and Tau phosphorylation in the young and aged brain of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficient mice. |
Sontag, JM; Wasek, B; Taleski, G; Smith, J; Arning, E; Sontag, E; Bottiglieri, T
Frontiers in aging neuroscience 6 214 2014
Common functional polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, a key enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, influence risk for a variety of complex disorders, including developmental, vascular, and neurological diseases. MTHFR deficiency is associated with elevation of homocysteine levels and alterations in the methylation cycle. Here, using young and aged Mthfr knockout mouse models, we show that mild MTHFR deficiency can lead to brain-region specific impairment of the methylation of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Relative to wild-type controls, decreased expression levels of PP2A and leucine carboxyl methyltransferase (LCMT1) were primarily observed in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and to a lesser extent in the cortex of young null Mthfr (-/-) and aged heterozygous Mthfr (+/-) mice. A marked down regulation of LCMT1 correlated with the loss of PP2A/Bα holoenzymes. Dietary folate deficiency significantly decreased LCMT1, methylated PP2A and PP2A/Bα levels in all brain regions examined from aged Mthfr (+/+) mice, and further exacerbated the regional effects of MTHFR deficiency in aged Mthfr (+/-) mice. In turn, the down regulation of PP2A/Bα was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of Tau, a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our findings identify hypomethylation of PP2A enzymes, which are major CNS phosphatases, as a novel mechanism by which MTHFR deficiency and Mthfr gene-diet interactions could lead to disruption of neuronal homeostasis, and increase the risk for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including age-related diseases like sporadic AD.
|Aprataxin resolves adenylated RNA-DNA junctions to maintain genome integrity. |
Tumbale, P; Williams, JS; Schellenberg, MJ; Kunkel, TA; Williams, RS
Nature 506 111-5 2014
Faithful maintenance and propagation of eukaryotic genomes is ensured by three-step DNA ligation reactions used by ATP-dependent DNA ligases. Paradoxically, when DNA ligases encounter nicked DNA structures with abnormal DNA termini, DNA ligase catalytic activity can generate and/or exacerbate DNA damage through abortive ligation that produces chemically adducted, toxic 5'-adenylated (5'-AMP) DNA lesions. Aprataxin (APTX) reverses DNA adenylation but the context for deadenylation repair is unclear. Here we examine the importance of APTX to RNase-H2-dependent excision repair (RER) of a lesion that is very frequently introduced into DNA, a ribonucleotide. We show that ligases generate adenylated 5' ends containing a ribose characteristic of RNase H2 incision. APTX efficiently repairs adenylated RNA-DNA, and acting in an RNA-DNA damage response (RDDR), promotes cellular survival and prevents S-phase checkpoint activation in budding yeast undergoing RER. Structure-function studies of human APTX-RNA-DNA-AMP-Zn complexes define a mechanism for detecting and reversing adenylation at RNA-DNA junctions. This involves A-form RNA binding, proper protein folding and conformational changes, all of which are affected by heritable APTX mutations in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1. Together, these results indicate that accumulation of adenylated RNA-DNA may contribute to neurological disease.
|MeCP2 phosphorylation limits psychostimulant-induced behavioral and neuronal plasticity. |
Deng, JV; Wan, Y; Wang, X; Cohen, S; Wetsel, WC; Greenberg, ME; Kenny, PJ; Calakos, N; West, AE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 4519-27 2014
The methyl-DNA binding protein MeCP2 is emerging as an important regulator of drug reinforcement processes. Psychostimulants induce phosphorylation of MeCP2 at Ser421; however, the functional significance of this posttranslational modification for addictive-like behaviors was unknown. Here we show that MeCP2 Ser421Ala knock-in mice display both a reduced threshold for the induction of locomotor sensitization by investigator-administered amphetamine and enhanced behavioral sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of self-administered cocaine. These behavioral differences were accompanied in the knock-in mice by changes in medium spiny neuron intrinsic excitability and nucleus accumbens gene expression typically observed in association with repeated exposure to these drugs. These data show that phosphorylation of MeCP2 at Ser421 functions to limit the circuit plasticities in the nucleus accumbens that underlie addictive-like behaviors.
|Divergent signaling pathways cooperatively regulate TGFβ induction of cysteine-rich protein 2 in vascular smooth muscle cells. |
Wu, ML; Chen, CH; Lin, YT; Jheng, YJ; Ho, YC; Yang, LT; Chen, L; Layne, MD; Yet, SF
Cell communication and signaling : CCS 12 22 2014
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of the arterial wall play a critical role in the development of occlusive vascular diseases. Cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2) is a VSMC-expressed LIM-only protein, which functionally limits VSMC migration and protects against pathological vascular remodeling. The multifunctional cytokine TGFβ has been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through numerous downstream signaling pathways. We showed previously that TGFβ upregulates CRP2 expression; however, the detailed signaling mechanisms remain unclear.TGFβ treatment of VSMCs activated both Smad2/3 and ATF2 phosphorylation. Individually knocking down Smad2/3 or ATF2 pathways with siRNA impaired the TGFβ induction of CRP2, indicating that both contribute to CRP2 expression. Inhibiting TβRI kinase activity by SB431542 or TβRI knockdown abolished Smad2/3 phosphorylation but did not alter ATF2 phosphorylation, indicating while Smad2/3 phosphorylation was TβRI-dependent ATF2 phosphorylation was independent of TβRI. Inhibiting Src kinase activity by SU6656 suppressed TGFβ-induced RhoA and ATF2 activation but not Smad2 phosphorylation. Blocking ROCK activity, the major downstream target of RhoA, abolished ATF2 phosphorylation and CRP2 induction but not Smad2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, JNK inhibition with SP600125 reduced TGFβ-induced ATF2 (but not Smad2) phosphorylation and CRP2 protein expression while ROCK inhibition blocked JNK activation. These results indicate that downstream of TβRII, Src family kinase-RhoA-ROCK-JNK signaling pathway mediates TβRI-independent ATF2 activation. Promoter analysis revealed that the TGFβ induction of CRP2 was mediated through the CRE and SBE promoter elements that were located in close proximity.Our results demonstrate that two signaling pathways downstream of TGFβ converge on the CRE and SBE sites of the Csrp2 promoter to cooperatively control CRP2 induction in VSMCs, which represents a previously unrecognized mechanism of VSMC gene induction by TGFβ.
|Muscle-specific SIRT1 gain-of-function increases slow-twitch fibers and ameliorates pathophysiology in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy. |
Chalkiadaki, A; Igarashi, M; Nasamu, AS; Knezevic, J; Guarente, L
PLoS genetics 10 e1004490 2014
SIRT1 is a metabolic sensor and regulator in various mammalian tissues and functions to counteract metabolic and age-related diseases. Here we generated and analyzed mice that express SIRT1 at high levels specifically in skeletal muscle. We show that SIRT1 transgenic muscle exhibits a fiber shift from fast-to-slow twitch, increased levels of PGC-1α, markers of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis, and decreased expression of the atrophy gene program. To examine whether increased activity of SIRT1 protects from muscular dystrophy, a muscle degenerative disease, we crossed SIRT1 muscle transgenic mice to mdx mice, a genetic model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. SIRT1 overexpression in muscle reverses the phenotype of mdx mice, as determined by histology, creatine kinase release into the blood, and endurance in treadmill exercise. In addition, SIRT1 overexpression also results in increased levels of utrophin, a functional analogue of dystrophin, as well as increased expression of PGC-1α targets and neuromuscular junction genes. Based on these findings, we suggest that pharmacological interventions that activate SIRT1 in skeletal muscle might offer a new approach for treating muscle diseases.
|Nuclear localization of Haa1, which is linked to its phosphorylation status, mediates lactic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. |
Sugiyama, M; Akase, SP; Nakanishi, R; Horie, H; Kaneko, Y; Harashima, S
Applied and environmental microbiology 80 3488-95 2014
Improvement of the lactic acid resistance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for the application of the yeast in industrial production of lactic acid from renewable resources. However, we still do not know the precise mechanisms of the lactic acid adaptation response in yeast and, consequently, lack effective approaches for improving its lactic acid tolerance. To enhance our understanding of the adaptation response, we screened for S. cerevisiae genes that confer enhanced lactic acid resistance when present in multiple copies and identified the transcriptional factor Haa1 as conferring resistance to toxic levels of lactic acid when overexpressed. The enhanced tolerance probably results from increased expression of its target genes. When cells that expressed Haa1 only from the endogenous promoter were exposed to lactic acid stress, the main subcellular localization of Haa1 changed from the cytoplasm to the nucleus within 5 min. This nuclear accumulation induced upregulation of the Haa1 target genes YGP1, GPG1, and SPI1, while the degree of Haa1 phosphorylation observed under lactic acid-free conditions decreased. Disruption of the exportin gene MSN5 led to accumulation of Haa1 in the nucleus even when no lactic acid was present. Since Msn5 was reported to interact with Haa1 and preferentially exports phosphorylated cargo proteins, our results suggest that regulation of the subcellular localization of Haa1, together with alteration of its phosphorylation status, mediates the adaptation to lactic acid stress in yeast.
|PINK1-Parkin pathway activity is regulated by degradation of PINK1 in the mitochondrial matrix. |
Thomas, RE; Andrews, LA; Burman, JL; Lin, WY; Pallanck, LJ
PLoS genetics 10 e1004279 2014
Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1, which encodes a mitochondrially targeted serine/threonine kinase, result in an early-onset heritable form of Parkinson's disease. Previous work has shown that PINK1 is constitutively degraded in healthy cells, but selectively accumulates on the surface of depolarized mitochondria, thereby initiating their autophagic degradation. Although PINK1 is known to be a cleavage target of several mitochondrial proteases, whether these proteases account for the constitutive degradation of PINK1 in healthy mitochondria remains unclear. To explore the mechanism by which PINK1 is degraded, we performed a screen for mitochondrial proteases that influence PINK1 abundance in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that genetic perturbations targeting the matrix-localized protease Lon caused dramatic accumulation of processed PINK1 species in several mitochondrial compartments, including the matrix. Knockdown of Lon did not decrease mitochondrial membrane potential or trigger activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein stress response (UPRmt), indicating that PINK1 accumulation in Lon-deficient animals is not a secondary consequence of mitochondrial depolarization or the UPRmt. Moreover, the influence of Lon on PINK1 abundance was highly specific, as Lon inactivation had little or no effect on the abundance of other mitochondrial proteins. Further studies indicated that the processed forms of PINK1 that accumulate upon Lon inactivation are capable of activating the PINK1-Parkin pathway in vivo. Our findings thus suggest that Lon plays an essential role in regulating the PINK1-Parkin pathway by promoting the degradation of PINK1 in the matrix of healthy mitochondria.
|Nuclear translocation uncovers the amyloid peptide Aβ42 as a regulator of gene transcription. |
Barucker, C; Harmeier, A; Weiske, J; Fauler, B; Albring, KF; Prokop, S; Hildebrand, P; Lurz, R; Heppner, FL; Huber, O; Multhaup, G
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 20182-91 2014
Although soluble species of the amyloid-β peptide Aβ42 correlate with disease symptoms in Alzheimer disease, little is known about the biological activities of amyloid-β (Aβ). Here, we show that Aβ peptides varying in lengths from 38 to 43 amino acids are internalized by cultured neuroblastoma cells and can be found in the nucleus. By three independent methods, we demonstrate direct detection of nuclear Aβ42 as follows: (i) biochemical analysis of nuclear fractions; (ii) detection of biotin-labeled Aβ in living cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy; and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of Aβ in cultured cells, as well as brain tissue of wild-type and transgenic APPPS1 mice (overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 with Swedish and L166P mutations, respectively). Also, this study details a novel role for Aβ42 in nuclear signaling, distinct from the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Aβ42 specifically interacts as a repressor of gene transcription with LRP1 and KAI1 promoters. By quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the examined candidate genes were exclusively decreased by the potentially neurotoxic Aβ42 wild-type peptide. Shorter peptides (Aβ38 or Aβ40) and other longer peptides (nontoxic Aβ42 G33A substitution or Aβ43) did not affect mRNA levels. Overall, our data indicate that the nuclear translocation of Aβ42 impacts gene regulation, and deleterious effects of Aβ42 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis may be influenced by altering the expression profiles of disease-modifying genes.
|Modulation of stemness in a human normal intestinal epithelial crypt cell line by activation of the WNT signaling pathway. |
Guezguez, A; Paré, F; Benoit, YD; Basora, N; Beaulieu, JF
Experimental cell research 322 355-64 2014
The small intestine consists of two histological compartments composed of the crypts and the villi. The function of the adult small intestinal epithelium is mediated by four different types of mature cells: enterocytes, goblet, enteroendocrine and Paneth. Undifferentiated cells reside in the crypts and produce these four types of mature cells. The niche-related Wnt and Bmp signaling pathways have been suggested to be involved in the regulation and maintenance of the stem cell microenvironment. In our laboratory, we isolated the first normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell model from the human fetal intestine and in this study we investigated the expression of a panel of intestinal stem cell markers in HIEC cells under normal culture parameters as well as under conditions that mimic the stem cell microenvironment. The results showed that short term stimulation of HIEC cells with R-spondin 1 and Wnt-3a±SB-216763, a glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibitor, induced β-catenin/TCF activity and expression of the WNT target genes, cyclin D2 and LGR5. Treatment of HIEC cells with noggin, an antagonist of BMP signaling, abolished SMAD2/5/8 phosphorylation. Inducing a switch from inactive WNT/active BMP toward active WNT/inactive BMP pathways was sufficient to trigger a robust intestinal primordial stem-like cell signature with predominant LGR5, PHLDA1, PROM1, SMOC2 and OLFM4 expression. These findings demonstrate that even fully established cultures of intestinal cells can be prompted toward a CBC stem cell-like phenotype. This model should be useful for studying the regulation of human intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.
|Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2C is highly expressed in breast microcalcification lesions. |
Chou, CP; Huang, NC; Jhuang, SJ; Pan, HB; Peng, NJ; Cheng, JT; Chen, CF; Chen, JJ; Chang, TH
PloS one 9 e93934 2014
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) contributes to ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer. Microcalcification (MC) is the most common mammographic feature of early breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether UBE2C could be a tumor marker of early breast cancer with MC found on screening mammography. UBE2C protein and mRNA expression were measured in breast core biopsy pairs of MC and adjacent non-MC breast tissue from each subject. Immunohistochemistry revealed UBE2C positivity in 69.4% of MC samples and 77.6% negativity in non-MC samples (pless than 0.0001). On RT-qPCR, 56.1% of malignant MC lesion samples showed high mRNA level of UBE2C and 80% of benign MC lesion samples showed a low level of UBE2C (p = 0.1766). We investigated the carcinogenic role of UBE2C in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with UBE2C knockdown; UBE2C knockdown downregulated cell proliferation and activated the cellular apoptosis pathway to inhibit cell colony formation. Furthermore, UBE2C expression was associated with that of carcinogenic genes human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene (KRAS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), C-C motif chemokine 5 (CCL5), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) and Ras homolog family member C (RhoC). UBE2C may be a marker for diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions but not benign or malignant tumors in mammography core biopsies. Suppression of UBE2C may be a potential therapy target in breast cancer.
|Prdm16 is required for the maintenance of brown adipocyte identity and function in adult mice. |
Harms, MJ; Ishibashi, J; Wang, W; Lim, HW; Goyama, S; Sato, T; Kurokawa, M; Won, KJ; Seale, P
Cell metabolism 19 593-604 2014
Prdm16 is a transcription factor that regulates the thermogenic gene program in brown and beige adipocytes. However, whether Prdm16 is required for the development or physiological function of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in vivo has been unclear. By analyzing mice that selectively lacked Prdm16 in the brown adipose lineage, we found that Prdm16 was dispensable for embryonic BAT development. However, Prdm16 was required in young mice to suppress the expression of white-fat-selective genes in BAT through recruitment of the histone methyltransferase Ehmt1. Additionally, Prdm16 deficiency caused a severe adult-onset decline in the thermogenic character of interscapular BAT. This resulted in BAT dysfunction and cold sensitivity but did not predispose the animals to obesity. Interestingly, the loss of brown fat identity due to ablation of Prdm16 was accelerated by concurrent deletion of the closely related Prdm3 gene. Together, these results show that Prdm16 and Prdm3 control postnatal BAT identity and function.
|An Immunomodulatory Protein (Ling Zhi-8) from a Ganoderma lucidum Induced Acceleration of Wound Healing in Rat Liver Tissues after Monopolar Electrosurgery. |
Lin, HJ; Chang, YS; Lin, LH; Haung, CF; Wu, CY; Ou, KL
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2014 916531 2014
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an immunomodulatory protein (Ling Zhi-8, LZ-8) on wound healing in rat liver tissues after monopolar electrosurgery. Animals were sacrificed for evaluations at 0, 3, 7, and 28 days postoperatively. It was found that the wound with the LZ-8 treatment significantly increases wound healing. Western blot analysis clearly indicated that the expression of NF-κB was decreased at 3, 7, and 28 days when liver tissues were treated with LZ-8. Moreover, caspase-3 activity of the liver tissue also significantly decreases at 7 and 28 days, respectively. DAPI staining and TUNEL assays revealed that only a minimal dispersion of NF-κB was found on the liver tissue treated with LZ-8 at day 7 as compared with day 3 and tissues without LZ-8 treatment. Similarly, apoptosis was decreased on liver tissues treated with LZ-8 at 7 days when compared to the control (monopolar electrosurgery) tissues. Therefore, the analytical results demonstrated that LZ-8 induced acceleration of wound healing in rat liver tissues after monopolar electrosurgery.
|RPN2-mediated glycosylation of tetraspanin CD63 regulates breast cancer cell malignancy. |
Tominaga, N; Hagiwara, K; Kosaka, N; Honma, K; Nakagama, H; Ochiya, T
Molecular cancer 13 134 2014
The tetraspanin CD63 is a highly N-glycosylated protein that is known to regulate cancer malignancy. However, the contribution of glycosylation of CD63 to cancer malignancy remains unclear. Previously, we reported that ribophorin II (RPN2), which is part of an N-oligosaccharyle transferase complex, is responsible for drug resistance in breast cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that cancer malignancy associated with the glycosylation of CD63 is regulated by RPN2.Inhibition of RPN2 expression led to a reduction in CD63 glycosylation. In addition, the localization of CD63 was deregulated by knockdown of RPN2. Interestingly, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) localization was displaced from the cell surface in CD63-silenced cells. CD63 silencing reduced the chemoresistance and invasion ability of malignant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the enrichment of CD63/MDR1-double positive cells was associated with lymph node metastasis. Taken together, these results indicated that high glycosylation of CD63 by RPN2 is implicated in clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients.These findings describe a novel and important function of RPN2-mediated CD63 glycosylation, which regulates MDR1 localization and cancer malignancy, including drug resistance and invasion.
|Intermittent hypoxia-induced protein phosphatase 2A activation reduces PC12 cell proliferation and differentiation. |
Chen, TI; Chiu, HW; Pan, YC; Hsu, ST; Lin, JH; Yang, KT
Journal of biomedical science 21 46 2014
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) plays a critical role in sleep breathing disorder-associated hippocampus impairments, including neurocognitive deficits, irreversible memory and learning impairments. IH-induced neuronal injury in the hippocampus may result from reduced precursor cell proliferation and the relative numbers of postmitotic differentiated neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying IH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation effects on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation remain largely unknown.ROS generation significantly increased after 1-4 days of IH without increased pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cell death, which resulted in increased protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) mRNA and protein levels. After 3-4 days of IH, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) protein phosphorylation decreased, which could be reversed by superoxide dismutase (SOD), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phe), the PP2A phosphorylation inhibitors, okadaic acid (OKA) and cantharidin, and the ERK phosphorylation activator nicotine (p less than 0.05). In particular, the significantly reduced cell proliferation and increased proportions of cells in the G0/G1 phase after 1-4 days of IH (p less than 0.05), which resulted in decreased numbers of PC12 cells, could be reversed by treatment with SOD, Phe, PP2A inhibitors and an ERK activator. In addition, the numbers of nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced PC12 cells with neurite outgrowths after 3-4 days of IH were less than those after 4 days of RA, which was also reversed by SOD, Phe, PP2A inhibitors and an ERK activator.Our results suggest that IH-induced ROS generation increases PP2A activation and subsequently downregulates ERK1/2 activation, which results in inhibition of PC12 cell proliferation through G0/G1 phase arrest and NGF-induced neuronal differentiation.
|Functional and molecular characterization of hyposensitive underactive bladder tissue and urine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. |
Nirmal, J; Tyagi, P; Chuang, YC; Lee, WC; Yoshimura, N; Huang, CC; Rajaganapathy, B; Chancellor, MB
PloS one 9 e102644 2014
The functional and molecular alterations of nerve growth factor (NGF) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its receptors were studied in bladder and urine in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Diabetes mellitus was induced with a single dose of 45 mg/kg STZ Intraperitoneally (i.p) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Continuous cystometrogram were performed on control rats and STZ treated rats at week 4 or 12 under urethane anesthesia. Bladder was then harvested for histology, expression of EP receptors and NGF by western blotting, PGE2 levels by ELISA, and detection of apoptosis by TUNEL staining. In addition, 4-hr urine was collected from all groups for urine levels of PGE2, and NGF assay. DM induced progressive increase of bladder weight, urine production, intercontraction interval (ICI) and residual urine in a time dependent fashion. Upregulation of Prostaglandin E receptor (EP)1 and EP3 receptors and downregulation of NGF expression, increase in urine NGF and decrease levels of urine PGE2 at week 12 was observed. The decrease in ICI by intravesical instillation of PGE2 was by 51% in control rats and 31.4% in DM group at week 12.DM induced hyposensitive underactive bladder which is characterized by increased inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, urine NGF levels, upregulation of EP1 and EP3 receptors and decreased bladder NGF and urine PGE2. The data suggest that EP3 receptor are potential targets in the treatment of diabetes induced underactive bladder.
|FOXF1 mediates mesenchymal stem cell fusion-induced reprogramming of lung cancer cells. |
Wei, HJ; Nickoloff, JA; Chen, WH; Liu, HY; Lo, WC; Chang, YT; Yang, PC; Wu, CW; Williams, DF; Gelovani, JG; Deng, WP
Oncotarget 5 9514-29 2014
Several reports suggest that malignant cells generate phenotypic diversity through fusion with various types of stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is one of the critical components in the tumor microenvironment and a promising fusogenic candidate, but the underlying functions of MSC fusion with malignant cell have not been fully examined. Here, we demonstrate that MSCs fuse spontaneously with lung cancer cells, and the latter is reprogrammed to slow growth and stem-like state. Transcriptome profiles reveal that lung cancer cells are reprogrammed to a more benign state upon MSC fusion. We further identified FOXF1 as a reprogramming mediator that contributes not only to the reprogramming toward stemness but also to the p21-regulated growth suppression in fusion progeny. Collectively, MSC fusion does not enhance the intrinsic malignancy of lung cancer cells. The anti-malignant effects of MSC fusion-induced reprogramming on lung cancer cells were accomplished by complementation of tumorigenic defects, including restoration of p21 function and normal terminal differentiation pathways as well as up-regulation of FOXF1, a putative tumor suppressor. Such fusion process raises the therapeutic potential that MSC fusion can be utilized to reverse cellular phenotypes in cancer.
|Prepuberal stimulation of 5-HT7-R by LP-211 in a rat model of hyper-activity and attention-deficit: permanent effects on attention, brain amino acids and synaptic markers in the fronto-striatal interface. |
Ruocco, LA; Treno, C; Gironi Carnevale, UA; Arra, C; Boatto, G; Nieddu, M; Pagano, C; Illiano, P; Barbato, F; Tino, A; Carboni, E; Laviola, G; Lacivita, E; Leopoldo, M; Adriani, W; Sadile, AG
PloS one 9 e83003 2014
The cross-talk at the prefronto-striatal interface involves excitatory amino acids, different receptors, transducers and modulators. We investigated long-term effects of a prepuberal, subchronic 5-HT7-R agonist (LP-211) on adult behaviour, amino acids and synaptic markers in a model for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Naples High Excitability rats (NHE) and their Random Bred controls (NRB) were daily treated with LP-211 in the 5th and 6th postnatal week. One month after treatment, these rats were tested for indices of activity, non selective (NSA), selective spatial attention (SSA) and emotionality. The quantity of L-Glutamate (L-Glu), L-Aspartate (L-Asp) and L-Leucine (L-Leu), dopamine transporter (DAT), NMDAR1 subunit and CAMKIIα, were assessed in prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal (DS) and ventral striatum (VS), for their role in synaptic transmission, neural plasticity and information processing. Prepuberal LP-211 (at lower dose) reduced horizontal activity and (at higher dose) increased SSA, only for NHE but not in NRB rats. Prepuberal LP-211 increased, in NHE rats, L-Glu in the PFC and L-Asp in the VS (at 0.250 mg/kg dose), whereas (at 0.125 mg/kg dose) it decreased L-Glu and L-Asp in the DS. The L-Glu was decreased, at 0.125 mg/kg, only in the VS of NRB rats. The DAT levels were decreased with the 0.125 mg/kg dose (in the PFC), and increased with the 0.250 mg/kg dose (in the VS), significantly for NHE rats. The basal NMDAR1 level was higher in the PFC of NHE than NRB rats; LP-211 treatment (at 0.125 mg/kg dose) decreased NMDAR1 in the VS of NRB rats. This study represents a starting point about the impact of developmental 5-HT7-R activation on neuro-physiology of attentive processes, executive functions and their neural substrates.
|Cranberry extract standardized for proanthocyanidins promotes the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK pathway and HSF-1. |
Dinh, J; Angeloni, JT; Pederson, DB; Wang, X; Cao, M; Dong, Y
PloS one 9 e103290 2014
Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP), a major component of cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype)) infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs), may play an important role in enhancing the host innate immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS), and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms.
|A molecular brake controls the magnitude of long-term potentiation. |
Wang, Y; Zhu, G; Briz, V; Hsu, YT; Bi, X; Baudry, M
Nature communications 5 3051 2014
Overexpression of suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP), a negative ERK regulator, blocks long-term memory encoding. Inhibition of calpain-mediated SCOP degradation also prevents the formation of long-term memory, suggesting rapid SCOP breakdown is necessary for memory encoding. However, whether SCOP levels also control the magnitude of long-term synaptic plasticity is unknown. Here we show that following synaptic activity-induced SCOP degradation, SCOP is rapidly replaced via mTOR-mediated protein synthesis. We further show that early SCOP degradation is specifically catalysed by μ-calpain, whereas late SCOP resynthesis is mediated by m-calpain. We propose that μ-calpain promotes long-term potentiation induction by degrading SCOP and activating ERK, whereas m-calpain activation limits the magnitude of potentiation by terminating the ERK response via enhanced SCOP synthesis. This unique braking mechanism could account for the advantages of spaced versus massed training in the formation of long-term memory.
|Orally active microtubule-targeting agent, MPT0B271, for the treatment of human non-small cell lung cancer, alone and in combination with erlotinib. |
Tsai, AC; Wang, CY; Liou, JP; Pai, HC; Hsiao, CJ; Chang, JY; Wang, JC; Teng, CM; Pan, SL
Cell death & disease 5 e1162 2014
Microtubule-binding agents, such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids, are used in the treatment of cancer. The limitations of these treatments, such as resistance to therapy and the need for intravenous administration, have encouraged the development of new agents. MPT0B271 (N-[1-(4-Methoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-7-yl]-1-oxy-isonicotinamide), an orally active microtubule-targeting agent, is a completely synthetic compound that possesses potent anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Tubulin polymerization assay and immunofluorescence experiment showed that MPT0B271 caused depolymerization of tubulin at both molecular and cellular levels. MPT0B271 reduced cell growth and viability at nanomolar concentrations in numerous cancer cell lines, including a multidrug-resistant cancer cell line NCI/ADR-RES. Further studies indicated that MPT0B271 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as determined by flow cytometric analysis of rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) dye efflux and the calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein AM) assay. MPT0B271 also caused G2/M cell-cycle arrest, accompanied by the up-regulation of cyclin B1, p-Thr161 Cdc2/p34, serine/threonine kinases polo-like kinase 1, aurora kinase A and B and the downregulation of Cdc25C and p-Tyr15 Cdc2/p34 protein levels. The appearance of MPM2 and the nuclear translocation of cyclin B1 denoted M phase arrest in MPT0B271-treated cells. Moreover, MPT0B271 induced cell apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner; it also reduced the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 and increased the cleavage of caspase-3 and -7 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Finally, this study demonstrated that MPT0B271 in combination with erlotinib significantly inhibits the growth of the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells as compared with erlotinib treatment alone, both in vitro and in vivo. These findings identify MPT0B271 as a promising new tubulin-binding compound for the treatment of various cancers.
|PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin boosts Parkin activity in Drosophila. |
Shiba-Fukushima, K; Inoshita, T; Hattori, N; Imai, Y
PLoS genetics 10 e1004391 2014
Two genes linked to early onset Parkinson's disease, PINK1 and Parkin, encode a protein kinase and a ubiquitin-ligase, respectively. Both enzymes have been suggested to support mitochondrial quality control. We have reported that Parkin is phosphorylated at Ser65 within the ubiquitin-like domain by PINK1 in mammalian cultured cells. However, it remains unclear whether Parkin phosphorylation is involved in mitochondrial maintenance and activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Here, we examined the effects of Parkin phosphorylation in Drosophila, in which the phosphorylation residue is conserved at Ser94. Morphological changes of mitochondria caused by the ectopic expression of wild-type Parkin in muscle tissue and brain dopaminergic neurons disappeared in the absence of PINK1. In contrast, phosphomimetic Parkin accelerated mitochondrial fragmentation or aggregation and the degradation of mitochondrial proteins regardless of PINK1 activity, suggesting that the phosphorylation of Parkin boosts its ubiquitin-ligase activity. A non-phosphorylated form of Parkin fully rescued the muscular mitochondrial degeneration due to the loss of PINK1 activity, whereas the introduction of the non-phosphorylated Parkin mutant in Parkin-null flies led to the emergence of abnormally fused mitochondria in the muscle tissue. Manipulating the Parkin phosphorylation status affected spontaneous dopamine release in the nerve terminals of dopaminergic neurons, the survivability of dopaminergic neurons and flight activity. Our data reveal that Parkin phosphorylation regulates not only mitochondrial function but also the neuronal activity of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, suggesting that the appropriate regulation of Parkin phosphorylation is important for muscular and dopaminergic functions.
|Amino Acid Uptake and Metabolism of Legionella pneumophila Hosted by Acanthamoeba castellanii. |
Schunder, E; Gillmaier, N; Kutzner, E; Eisenreich, W; Herrmann, V; Lautner, M; Heuner, K
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 21040-54 2014
Legionella pneumophila survives and replicates within a Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) of amoebae and macrophages. Less is known about the carbon metabolism of the bacteria within the LCV. We have now analyzed the transfer and usage of amino acids from the natural host organism Acanthamoeba castellanii to Legionella pneumophila under in vivo (LCV) conditions. For this purpose, A. castellanii was 13C-labeled by incubation in buffer containing [U-(13)C(6)]glucose. Subsequently, these 13C-prelabeled amoebae were infected with L. pneumophila wild type or some mutants defective in putative key enzymes or regulators of carbon metabolism. 13C-Isotopologue compositions of amino acids from bacterial and amoebal proteins were then determined by mass spectrometry. In a comparative approach, the profiles documented the efficient uptake of Acanthamoeba amino acids into the LCV and further into L. pneumophila where they served as precursors for bacterial protein biosynthesis. More specifically, A. castellanii synthesized from exogenous [U-13C6]glucose unique isotopologue mixtures of several amino acids including Phe and Tyr, which were also observed in the same amino acids from LCV-grown L. pneumophila. Minor but significant differences were only detected in the isotopologue profiles of Ala, Asp, and Glu from the amoebal or bacterial protein fractions, respectively, indicating partial de novo synthesis of these amino acids by L. pneumophila. The similar isotopologue patterns in amino acids from L. pneumophila wild type and the mutants under study reflected the robustness of amino acid usage in the LCV of A. castellannii.
|Hippocampal long-term potentiation is disrupted during expression and extinction but is restored after reinstatement of morphine place preference. |
Portugal, GS; Al-Hasani, R; Fakira, AK; Gonzalez-Romero, JL; Melyan, Z; McCall, JG; Bruchas, MR; Morón, JA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 527-38 2014
Learned associations between environmental cues and morphine use play an important role in the maintenance and/or relapse of opioid addiction. Although previous studies suggest that context-dependent morphine treatment alters glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, their role in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) and reinstatement remains unknown. We investigated changes in synaptic plasticity and NMDAR expression in the hippocampus after the expression, extinction, and reinstatement of morphine CPP. Here we report that morphine CPP is associated with increased basal synaptic transmission, impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), and increased synaptic expression of the NR1 and NR2b NMDAR subunits. Changes in synaptic plasticity, synaptic NR1 and NR2b expression, and morphine CPP were absent when morphine was not paired with a specific context. Furthermore, hippocampal LTP was impaired and synaptic NR2b expression was increased after extinction of morphine CPP, indicating that these alterations in plasticity may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the learning of drug-environment associations. After extinction of morphine CPP, a priming dose of morphine was sufficient to reinstate morphine CPP and was associated with LTP that was indistinguishable from saline control groups. In contrast, morphine CPP extinguished mice that received a saline priming dose did not show CPP and had disrupted hippocampal LTP. Finally, we found that reinstatement of morphine CPP was prevented by the selective blockade of the NR2b subunit in the hippocampus. Together, these data suggest that alterations in synaptic plasticity and glutamatergic transmission play an important role in the reinstatement of morphine CPP.
|Ponatinib overcomes FGF2-mediated resistance in CML patients without kinase domain mutations. |
Traer, E; Javidi-Sharifi, N; Agarwal, A; Dunlap, J; English, I; Martinez, J; Tyner, JW; Wong, M; Druker, BJ
Blood 123 1516-24 2014
Development of resistance to kinase inhibitors remains a clinical challenge. Kinase domain mutations are a common mechanism of resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), yet the mechanism of resistance in the absence of mutations remains unclear. We tested proteins from the bone marrow microenvironment and found that FGF2 promotes resistance to imatinib in vitro. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was uniquely capable of promoting growth in both short- and long-term assays through the FGF receptor 3/RAS/c-RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Resistance could be overcome with ponatinib, a multikinase inhibitor that targets BCR-ABL and FGF receptor. Clinically, we identified CML patients without kinase domain mutations who were resistant to multiple ABL kinase inhibitors and responded to ponatinib treatment. In comparison to CML patients with kinase domain mutations, these patients had increased FGF2 in their bone marrow when analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, FGF2 in the marrow decreased concurrently with response to ponatinib, further suggesting that FGF2-mediated resistance is interrupted by FGF receptor inhibition. These results illustrate the clinical importance of ligand-induced resistance to kinase inhibitors and support an approach of developing rational inhibitor combinations to circumvent resistance.
|Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression. |
Triantaphyllopoulos, KA; Laliotis, GP; Bizelis, IA
Adipocyte 3 30-8 2014
G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P greater than 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.)
|A Drosophila model of mitochondrial disease caused by a complex I mutation that uncouples proton pumping from electron transfer. |
Burman, JL; Itsara, LS; Kayser, EB; Suthammarak, W; Wang, AM; Kaeberlein, M; Sedensky, MM; Morgan, PG; Pallanck, LJ
Disease models & mechanisms 7 1165-74 2014
Mutations affecting mitochondrial complex I, a multi-subunit assembly that couples electron transfer to proton pumping, are the most frequent cause of heritable mitochondrial diseases. However, the mechanisms by which complex I dysfunction results in disease remain unclear. Here, we describe a Drosophila model of complex I deficiency caused by a homoplasmic mutation in the mitochondrial-DNA-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene. We show that ND2 mutants exhibit phenotypes that resemble symptoms of mitochondrial disease, including shortened lifespan, progressive neurodegeneration, diminished neural mitochondrial membrane potential and lower levels of neural ATP. Our biochemical studies of ND2 mutants reveal that complex I is unable to efficiently couple electron transfer to proton pumping. Thus, our study provides evidence that the ND2 subunit participates directly in the proton pumping mechanism of complex I. Together, our findings support the model that diminished respiratory chain activity, and consequent energy deficiency, are responsible for the pathogenesis of complex-I-associated neurodegeneration.
|Minoxidil may suppress androgen receptor-related functions. |
Hsu, CL; Liu, JS; Lin, AC; Yang, CH; Chung, WH; Wu, WG
Oncotarget 5 2187-97 2014
Although minoxidil has been used for more than two decades to treat androgenetic alopecia (AGA), an androgen-androgen receptor (AR) pathway-dominant disease, its precise mechanism of action remains elusive. We hypothesized that minoxidil may influence the AR or its downstream signaling. These tests revealed that minoxidil suppressed AR-related functions, decreasing AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays, reducing expression of AR targets at the protein level, and suppressing AR-positive LNCaP cell growth. Dissecting the underlying mechanisms, we found that minoxidil interfered with AR-peptide, AR-coregulator, and AR N/C-terminal interactions, as well as AR protein stability. Furthermore, a crystallographic analysis using the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) revealed direct binding of minoxidil to the AR in a minoxidil-AR-LBD co-crystal model, and surface plasmon resonance assays demonstrated that minoxidil directly bound the AR with a K(d) value of 2.6 µM. Minoxidil also suppressed AR-responsive reporter activity and decreased AR protein stability in human hair dermal papilla cells. The current findings provide evidence that minoxidil could be used to treat both cancer and age-related disease, and open a new avenue for applications of minoxidil in treating androgen-AR pathway-related diseases.
|Fatty acid binding protein-4 is expressed in the mouse placental labyrinth, yet is dispensable for placental triglyceride accumulation and fetal growth. |
Makkar, A; Mishima, T; Chang, G; Scifres, C; Sadovsky, Y
Placenta 35 802-7 2014
Fatty Acid Binding Protein-4 (FABP4) is a member of a family of FABP proteins that regulate intracellular lipid trafficking in diverse tissues. We recently showed that FABP4 regulates triglyceride accumulation in primary human trophoblasts. To assess the function of placental FABP4 in vivo, we tested the hypothesis that FABP4 is expressed in the murine placenta, and regulates placenta triglyceride accumulation.C57Bl/6 wild type or Fabp4-null mice were time-bred, and fetuses and placentas harvested at different time points during pregnancy. Placental FABP4 expression was assessed at different gestational ages, using quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western immunoblotting. FABPs expression was examined by RT-qPCR. Placental lipids were extracted using the Folch method and triglyceride levels determined using a colorimetric quantification kit.Using immunohistochemistry, we found that FABP4 was expressed in the placental labyrinthine layer, predominantly in endothelial cells in association with CD31 positive fetal capillaries. The level of placental FABP4 mRNA and protein increased from E12.5 to E16.5 and slightly decreased at E18.5. Breeding of Fabp4 heterozygous mice resulted in embryonic genotypes that followed a Mendelian distribution and exhibited normal weight and morphology, triglyceride content, and expression of other FABP family members. Exposure to hypoxia (O2 = 12%) between E12.5-E18.5 did not uncover a difference between wild type and Fabp4-null mice.FABP4 is expressed in the mouse placental labyrinth, with highest expression at E16.5. FABP4 is dispensable for feto-placental growth and placental lipid accumulation.
|Transport of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived PGE₃, PGF(3α), and TXB₃ by ABCC4. |
Tanaka, N; Yamaguchi, H; Mano, N
PloS one 9 e109270 2014
Eicosapentaenoic acid-derived prostaglandin (PG) E3, PGF(3α), and thromboxane (TX) B3 are bioactive lipid mediators which have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. To exert their effects, PGE3, PGF(3α), and TXB3 must be released to the extracellular space from cells, but the release mechanism has been unclear. We therefore investigated the contribution of ATP-binding cassette transporter C4 (ABCC4), which has been known as a prostanoids efflux transporter, to the release of PGE3, PGF(3α), and TXB3.ATP-dependent transport of PGE3, PGF(3α), and TXB3 via ABCC4 was investigated by using inside-out membrane vesicles prepared from ABCC4-overexpressing HEK293 cells. To evaluate the contribution of ABCC4 to the release of PGE3, PGF(3α), and TXB3, we measured the extracellular and intracellular levels of PGE3, PGF(3α), and TXB3 in A549 cells when we used ABCC4 inhibitors (dipyridamole, MK571, and probenecid) or ABCC4 siRNAs. The quantification of PGE3, PGF(3α), and TXB3 was performed by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.The apparent Km values for ABCC4-mediated transport were 2.9±0.1 µM for PGE3, 12.1±1.3 µM for PGF(3α), and 11.9±1.4 µM for TXB3 and the ATP-dependent accumulation of PGE3, PGF(3α), and TXB3 into vesicles was decreased by using typical substrates and inhibitors of ABCC4. ABCC4 inhibitors and ABCC4 knockdown showed the reduction of extracellular/intracellular ratio of PGE3 (40-60% of control) and PGF(3α) (60-80% of control) in A549 cells.Our results suggest that PGE3, PGF(3α), and TXB3 are substrates of ABCC4 and ABCC4 partially contributes to the release of PGE3 and PGF(3α).
|GluN2B protein deficits in the left, but not the right, hippocampus in schizophrenia. |
Geddes, AE; Huang, XF; Newell, KA
BMC psychiatry 14 274 2014
Increasing evidence indicates that alterations to the function and subunit composition of the glutamatergic NMDA receptor are associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The GluN2B protein is a structural and functional subunit of the NMDA receptor, with a growing body of evidence indicating it plays a critical role in cognitive functions mediated by the NMDA receptor. The hippocampus plays a key role in cognitive function, with studies suggesting lateralised glutamatergic dysfunction in this region may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. The present study, for the first time, investigated GluN2B protein and binding density in the left and right hippocampus of 20 schizophrenia subjects compared to 20 matched controls.The dentate gyrus of 20 schizophrenia and 20 control subjects, matched for age, post-mortem interval, and pH, was obtained from the NSW Tissue Resource Centre, Australia. Each group consisted of dentate gyrus from the left hemisphere (n = 10) and right hemisphere (n = 10). GluN2B protein density was measured via immunoblotting. GluN2B binding density was measured using the GluN2B antagonist, [3H] Ifenprodil. Analyses of covariance, covarying for demographic variables that influenced the data, were used to test for statistical significance between schizophrenia and control groups. Pearson's correlations were used to determine the association of GluN2B protein and binding density with demographic and clinical variables, including lifetime antipsychotic drug exposure.GluN2B protein levels were decreased by 43% in the left hemisphere of schizophrenia subjects compared to controls (p = 0.012). There was no difference in GluN2B protein levels in the right hemisphere of schizophrenia subjects compared to controls. There were no differences in [(3)H] Ifenprodil binding according to diagnosis or hemisphere. There were no associations between GluN2B measures and lifetime antipsychotic drug exposure.Our findings provide the first evidence of GluN2 protein abnormalities in the hippocampus in schizophrenia, highlighting the hippocampal lateralisation in this disorder. We suggest this deficit could contribute to the cognitive dysfunctions that arise in patients. These findings provide preliminary support for the development of therapeutics that target the GluN2B subunit, as a novel therapy for schizophrenia, especially the cognitive dysfunctions.
|iRFP is a sensitive marker for cell number and tumor growth in high-throughput systems. |
Hock, AK; Lee, P; Maddocks, OD; Mason, SM; Blyth, K; Vousden, KH
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 13 220-6 2014
GFP and luciferase are used extensively as markers both in vitro and in vivo although both have limitations. The utility of GFP fluorescence is restricted by high background signal and poor tissue penetrance. Luciferase throughput is limited in vitro by the requirement for cell lysis, while in vivo, luciferase readout is complicated by the need for substrate injection and the dependence on endogenous ATP. Here we show that near-infrared fluorescent protein in combination with widely available near-infrared scanners overcomes these obstacles and allows for the accurate determination of cell number in vitro and tumor growth in vivo in a high-throughput manner and at negligible per-well costs. This system represents a significant advance in tracking cell proliferation in tissue culture as well as in animals, with widespread applications in cell biology.
|c-Yes tyrosine kinase is a potent suppressor of ES cell differentiation and antagonizes the actions of its closest phylogenetic relative, c-Src. |
Zhang, X; Meyn, MA; Smithgall, TE
ACS chemical biology 9 139-46 2014
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage embryo and are characterized by self-renewal and pluripotency. Previous work has shown that Src-family tyrosine kinases display dynamic expression and activity changes during ES cell differentiation, suggesting distinct functions in the control of developmental fate. Here we used ES cells to test the hypothesis that c-Src and its closest phylogenetic relative, c-Yes, act in biological opposition despite their strong homology. Unlike c-Src, enforced expression of active c-Yes blocked ES cell differentiation to embryoid bodies by maintaining pluripotency gene expression. To explore the interplay of c-Src and c-Yes in ES cell differentiation, we engineered c-Src and c-Yes mutants that are resistant to A-419259, a potent pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitor of the Src kinase family. Previous studies have shown that A-419259 treatment blocks all Src-family kinase activity in ES cells, preventing differentiation while maintaining pluripotency. Expression of inhibitor-resistant c-Src but not c-Yes rescued the A-419259 differentiation block, resulting in a cell population with properties of both primitive ectoderm and endoderm. Remarkably, when inhibitor-resistant c-Src and c-Yes were expressed together in ES cells, c-Yes activity suppressed c-Src-mediated differentiation. These studies show that even closely related kinases such as c-Src and c-Yes have unique and opposing functions in the same cell type. Selective agonists or inhibitors of c-Src versus c-Yes activity may allow more precise pharmacological manipulation of ES cell fate and have broader applications in other biological systems that express multiple Src family members such as tumor cells.
|Altered epigenetic regulation of homeobox genes in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. |
Marcinkiewicz, KM; Gudas, LJ
Experimental cell research 320 128-43 2014
To gain insight into oral squamous cell carcinogenesis, we performed deep sequencing (RNAseq) of non-tumorigenic human OKF6-TERT1R and tumorigenic SCC-9 cells. Numerous homeobox genes are differentially expressed between OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells. Data from Oncomine, a cancer microarray database, also show that homeobox (HOX) genes are dysregulated in oral SCC patients. The activity of Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC), which causes epigenetic modifications, and retinoic acid (RA) signaling can control HOX gene transcription. HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcripts are higher in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells; using ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) we detected PRC2 protein SUZ12 and the epigenetic H3K27me3 mark on histone H3 at these genes in OKF6-TERT1R, but not in SCC-9 cells. In contrast, IRX1, IRX4, SIX2 and TSHZ3 transcripts are lower in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells. We detected SUZ12 and the H3K27me3 mark at these genes in SCC-9, but not in OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 depletion increased HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcript levels and decreased the proliferation of OKF6-TERT1R cells. Transcriptional responses to RA are attenuated in SCC-9 versus OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 and H3K27me3 levels were not altered by RA at these HOX genes in SCC-9 and OKF6-TERT1R cells. We conclude that altered activity of PRC2 is associated with dysregulation of homeobox gene expression in human SCC cells, and that this dysregulation potentially plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of oral keratinocytes.
|Silencing of S100A4, a metastasis-associated protein, in endothelial cells inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth. |
Ochiya, T; Takenaga, K; Endo, H
Angiogenesis 17 17-26 2014
Endothelial cells express S100A4, a metastasis-associated protein, but its role in angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that knockdown of S100A4 in mouse endothelial MSS31 cells by murine specific small interference RNA (mS100A4 siRNA) markedly suppressed capillary-like tube formation in vitro, in early stage after the treatment, along with down- and up-regulation of some of the pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic gene expression, respectively. Of particular note is that intra-tumor administration of the mS100A4 siRNA in a human prostate cancer xenograft significantly reduced tumor vascularity and resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth. These findings show that S100A4 in endothelial cells is involved in tube formation, and suggest its potential as a molecular target for inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, which warrants further development of endothelial S100A4-based strategies for cancer treatment.
|Functional status of the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) drives interlocked phenotypes that precipitate relapse-like behaviors in cocaine dependence. |
Anastasio, NC; Stutz, SJ; Fox, RG; Sears, RM; Emeson, RB; DiLeone, RJ; O'Neil, RT; Fink, LH; Li, D; Green, TA; Moeller, FG; Cunningham, KA
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 39 370-82 2014
Relapse vulnerability in cocaine dependence is rooted in genetic and environmental determinants, and propelled by both impulsivity and the responsivity to cocaine-linked cues ('cue reactivity'). The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 5-HT2C receptor (5-HT2CR) within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is uniquely poised to serve as a strategic nexus to mechanistically control these behaviors. The 5-HT2CR functional capacity is regulated by a number of factors including availability of active membrane receptor pools, the composition of the 5-HT2CR macromolecular protein complex, and editing of the 5-HT2CR pre-mRNA. The one-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task was used to identify impulsive action phenotypes in an outbred rat population before cocaine self-administration and assessment of cue reactivity in the form of lever presses reinforced by the cocaine-associated discrete cue complex during forced abstinence. The 1-CSRT task reliably and reproducibly identified high impulsive (HI) and low impulsive (LI) action phenotypes; HI action predicted high cue reactivity. Lower cortical 5-HT2CR membrane protein levels concomitant with higher levels of 5-HT2CR:postsynaptic density 95 complex distinguished HI rats from LI rats. The frequency of edited 5-HT2CR mRNA variants was elevated with the prediction that the protein population in HI rats favors those isoforms linked to reduced signaling capacity. Genetic loss of the mPFC 5-HT2CR induced aggregate impulsive action/cue reactivity, suggesting that depressed cortical 5-HT2CR tone confers vulnerability to these interlocked behaviors. Thus, impulsive action and cue reactivity appear to neuromechanistically overlap in rodents, with the 5-HT2CR functional status acting as a neural rheostat to regulate, in part, the intersection between these vulnerability behaviors.
|Structural basis of PP2A activation by PTPA, an ATP-dependent activation chaperone. |
Guo, F; Stanevich, V; Wlodarchak, N; Sengupta, R; Jiang, L; Satyshur, KA; Xing, Y
Cell research 24 190-203 2014
Proper activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit is central for the complex PP2A regulation and is crucial for broad aspects of cellular function. The crystal structure of PP2A bound to PP2A phosphatase activator (PTPA) and ATPγS reveals that PTPA makes broad contacts with the structural elements surrounding the PP2A active site and the adenine moiety of ATP. PTPA-binding stabilizes the protein fold of apo-PP2A required for activation, and orients ATP phosphoryl groups to bind directly to the PP2A active site. This allows ATP to modulate the metal-binding preferences of the PP2A active site and utilize the PP2A active site for ATP hydrolysis. In vitro, ATP selectively and drastically enhances binding of endogenous catalytic metal ions, which requires ATP hydrolysis and is crucial for acquisition of pSer/Thr-specific phosphatase activity. Furthermore, both PP2A- and ATP-binding are required for PTPA function in cell proliferation and survival. Our results suggest novel mechanisms of PTPA in PP2A activation with structural economy and a unique ATP-binding pocket that could potentially serve as a specific therapeutic target.
|A novel cancer therapeutic using thrombospondin 1 in dendritic cells. |
Weng, TY; Huang, SS; Yen, MC; Lin, CC; Chen, YL; Lin, CM; Chen, WC; Wang, CY; Chang, JY; Lai, MD
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 22 292-302 2014
Induction of thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) is generally assumed to suppress tumor growth through inhibiting angiogenesis; however, it is less clear how TSP-1 in dendritic cells (DCs) influences tumor progression. We investigated tumor growth and immune mechanism by downregulation of TSP-1 in dendritic cells. Administration of TSP-1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) through the skin produced anticancer therapeutic effects. Tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were increased after the administration of TSP-1 shRNA. The expression of interleukin-12 and interferon-γ in the lymph nodes was enhanced by injection of TSP-1 shRNA. Lymphocytes from the mice injected with TSP-1 shRNA selectively killed the tumor cells, and the cytotoxicity of lymphocytes was abolished by depletion of CD8(+) T cells. Injection of CD11c(+) TSP-1-knockout (TSP-1-KO) bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) delayed tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, antitumor activity induced by TSP-1-KO BMDCs was abrogated by depletion of CD8(+) T cells. In contrast, the administration of shRNAs targeting TSP-2, another TSP family member, did not extend the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Finally, TSP-1 shRNA functioned as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant to augment the therapeutic efficacy of Neu DNA vaccination. Collectively, the downregulation of TSP-1 in DCs produces an effective antitumor response that is opposite to the protumor effects by silencing of TSP-1 within tumor cells.
|Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of human ATF7 at Thr-51 and Thr-53 promotes cell-cycle progression into M phase. |
Hasegawa, H; Ishibashi, K; Kubota, S; Yamaguchi, C; Yuki, R; Nakajo, H; Eckner, R; Yamaguchi, N; Yokoyama, KK; Yamaguchi, N
PloS one 9 e116048 2014
Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and its homolog ATF7 are phosphorylated at Thr-69/Thr-71 and at Thr-51/Thr-53, respectively, by stress-activated MAPKs regulating their transcriptional functions in G1 and S phases. However, little is known about the role of ATF2 and ATF7 in G2/M phase. Here, we show that Cdk1-cyclin B1 phosphorylates ATF2 at Thr-69/Thr-71 and ATF7 at Thr-51/Thr-53 from early prophase to anaphase in the absence of any stress stimulation. Knockdown of ATF2 or ATF7 decreases the rate of cell proliferation and the number of cells in M-phase. In particular, the knockdown of ATF7 severely inhibits cell proliferation and G2/M progression. The inducible expression of a mitotically nonphosphorylatable version of ATF7 inhibits G2/M progression despite the presence of endogenous ATF7. We also show that mitotic phosphorylation of ATF7 promotes the activation of Aurora kinases, which are key enzymes for early mitotic events. These results suggest that the Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of ATF7 facilitates G2/M progression, at least in part, by enabling Aurora signaling.
|Caspase-12 mediates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte apoptosis in mice. |
Liu, H; Wang, Z; Nowicki, MJ
World journal of gastroenterology 20 18189-98 2014
To investigate the role of caspase-12 and its downstream targets in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis.The role of caspase-12 was determined by using caspase-12 knock-out ((-/-)) mice. CCl4 (300 μL/kg body weight) or vehicle (corn oil) was administered to caspase-12(+/+) or caspase-12(-/-) mice as a single intraperitoneal injection. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after the CCl4 treatment. Blood was collected to evaluate liver function by the measurement of the activity of alanine aminotransferase. Liver samples were used for the measurements of reactive oxygen species using plasma malondialdehyde as biomarker, hepatocyte apoptosis was evaluated via terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling and controlled by morphologic study, and cytochrome C release and caspase activations were measured by Western blotting.Administration of a low dose of CCl4 resulted in hepatocyte apoptosis and acute liver injury in wild-type mice. CCl4 also induced the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the liver followed by activations of caspase-12, -9 and -3 as well as release of small amounts of cytochrome C. However, in the CCl4-treated caspase-12(-/-) mice, activation of caspase-9 and -3 were significantly attenuated (P less than 0.05); no effect was seen in cytochrome C release. CCl4-induced apoptosis and liver damage was markedly reduced in caspase-12(-/-) mice compared to caspase-12(+/+) mice (P less than 0.05). The active form of caspase-8 was not detected in either caspase-12(+/+) or caspase-12(-/-) mice. There was no significant different in the formation of reactive oxygen species in the livers of caspase-12(+/+) and caspase-12(-/-) mice treated with CCl4.Caspase-12 plays a pivotal role in CCl4-induced hepatic apoptosis through the activation of the downstream effector caspase-3 directly and/or indirectly via caspase-9 activation.
|MicroRNA miR-125a-3p modulates molecular pathway of motility and migration in prostate cancer cells. |
Ninio-Many, L; Grossman, H; Levi, M; Zilber, S; Tsarfaty, I; Shomron, N; Tuvar, A; Chuderland, D; Stemmer, SM; Ben-Aharon, I; Shalgi, R
Oncoscience 1 250-61 2014
Fyn kinase is implicated in prostate cancer. We illustrate the role of miR-125a-3p in cellular pathways accounted for motility and migration of prostate cancer cells, probably through its regulation on Fyn expression and Fyn-downstream proteins. Prostate cancer PC3 cells were transiently transfected with empty miR-Vec (control) or with miR-125a-3p. Overexpression of miR-125a-3p reduced migration of PC3 cells and increased apoptosis. Live cell confocal imaging indicated that overexpression of miR-125a-3p reduced the cells' track speed and length and impaired phenotype. Fyn, FAK and paxillin, displayed reduced activity following miR-125a-3p overexpression. Accordingly, actin rearrangement and cells' protrusion formation were impaired. An inverse correlation between miR-125a-3p and Gleason score was observed in human prostate cancer tissues. Our study demonstrated that miR-125a-3p may regulate migration of prostate cancer cells.
|Wnt5A regulates ABCB1 expression in multidrug-resistant cancer cells through activation of the non-canonical PKA/β-catenin pathway. |
Hung, TH; Hsu, SC; Cheng, CY; Choo, KB; Tseng, CP; Chen, TC; Lan, YW; Huang, TT; Lai, HC; Chen, CM; Chong, KY
Oncotarget 5 12273-90 2014
Multidrug resistance in cancer cells arises from altered drug permeability of the cell. We previously reported activation of the Wnt pathway in ABCB1-overexpressed human uterus sarcoma drug-resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells through active β-catenin and associated transactivation activities, and upregulation of Wnt-targeting genes. In this study, Wnt5A was found to be significantly upregulated in MES-SA/Dx5 and MCF7/ADR2 cells, suggesting an important role for the Wnt5A signaling pathway in cancer drug resistance. Higher cAMP response elements and Tcf/Lef transcription activities were shown in the drug-resistant cancer cells. However, expression of Wnt target genes and CRE activities was downregulated in Wnt5A shRNA stably-transfected MES-SA/Dx5 cells. Cell viability of the drug-resistant cancer cells was also reduced by doxorubicin treatment and Wnt5A shRNA transfection, or by Wnt5A depletion. The in vitro data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of 24 paired breast cancer biopsies obtained pre- and post-chemotherapeutic treatment. Wnt5A, VEGF and/or ABCB1 were significantly overexpressed after treatment, consistent with clinical chemoresistance. Taken together, the Wnt5A signaling pathway was shown to contribute to regulating the drug-resistance protein ABCB1 and β-catenin-related genes in antagonizing the toxic effects of doxorubicin in the MDR cell lines and in clinical breast cancer samples.
|Host nectin-1 is required for efficient Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E development. |
Hall, JV; Sun, J; Slade, J; Kintner, J; Bambino, M; Whittimore, J; Schoborg, RV
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology 4 158 2014
Interaction of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) glycoprotein D (gD) with the host cell surface during Chlamydia trachomatis/HSV co-infection stimulates chlamydiae to become persistent. During viral entry, gD interacts with one of 4 host co-receptors: HVEM (herpes virus entry mediator), nectin-1, nectin-2 and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate. HVEM and nectin-1 are high-affinity entry receptors for both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Nectin-2 mediates HSV-2 entry but is inactive for HSV-1, while 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate facilitates HSV-1, but not HSV-2, entry. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses demonstrate that HeLa and HEC-1B cells express nectin-1 and nectin-2, but not HVEM. Because both HSV-1 and HSV-2 trigger persistence, these data suggest that nectin-1 is the most likely co-receptor involved. Co-infections with nectin-1 specific HSV-1 mutants stimulate chlamydial persistence, as evidenced by aberrant body (AB) formation and decreased production of elementary bodies (EBs). These data indicate that nectin-1 is involved in viral-induced chlamydial persistence. However, inhibition of signal transduction molecules associated with HSV attachment and entry does not rescue EB production during C. trachomatis/HSV-2 co-infection. HSV attachment also does not activate Cdc42 in HeLa cells, as would be expected with viral stimulated activation of nectin-1 signaling. Additionally, immunofluorescence assays confirm that HSV infection decreases nectin-1 expression. Together, these observations suggest that gD binding-induced loss of nectin-1 signaling negatively influences chlamydial growth. Chlamydial infection studies in nectin-1 knockdown (NKD) HeLa cell lines support this hypothesis. In NKD cells, chlamydial inclusions are smaller in size, contain ABs, and produce significantly fewer infectious EBs compared to C. trachomatis infection in control HeLa cells. Overall, the current study indicates that the actions of host molecule, nectin-1, are required for successful C. trachomatis development.
|Phosphorylation of mitochondrial polyubiquitin by PINK1 promotes Parkin mitochondrial tethering. |
Shiba-Fukushima, K; Arano, T; Matsumoto, G; Inoshita, T; Yoshida, S; Ishihama, Y; Ryu, KY; Nukina, N; Hattori, N; Imai, Y
PLoS genetics 10 e1004861 2014
The kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase Parkin participate in mitochondrial quality control. The phosphorylation of Ser65 in Parkin's ubiquitin-like (UBl) domain by PINK1 stimulates Parkin activation and translocation to damaged mitochondria, which induces mitophagy generating polyUb chain. However, Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation is insufficient for Parkin mitochondrial translocation. Here we report that Ser65 in polyUb chain is also phosphorylated by PINK1, and that phosphorylated polyUb chain on mitochondria tethers Parkin at mitochondria. The expression of Tom70MTS-4xUb SE, which mimics phospho-Ser65 polyUb chains on the mitochondria, activated Parkin E3 activity and its mitochondrial translocation. An E3-dead form of Parkin translocated to mitochondria with reduced membrane potential in the presence of Tom70(MTS)-4xUb SE, whereas non-phospho-polyUb mutant Tom70(MTS)-4xUb SA abrogated Parkin translocation. Parkin binds to the phospho-polyUb chain through its RING1-In-Between-RING (IBR) domains, but its RING0-linker is also required for mitochondrial translocation. Moreover, the expression of Tom70(MTS)-4xUb SE improved mitochondrial degeneration in PINK1-deficient, but not Parkin-deficient, Drosophila. Our study suggests that the phosphorylation of mitochondrial polyUb by PINK1 is implicated in both Parkin activation and mitochondrial translocation, predicting a chain reaction mechanism of mitochondrial phospho-polyUb production by which rapid translocation of Parkin is achieved.
|TTC5 is required to prevent apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells. |
Lynch, JT; Somerville, TD; Spencer, GJ; Huang, X; Somervaille, TC
Cell death & disease 4 e573 2013
Using a screening strategy, we identified the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif protein, Tetratricopeptide repeat domain 5 (TTC5, also known as stress responsive activator of p300 or Strap) as required for the survival of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. TTC5 is a stress-inducible transcription cofactor known to interact directly with the histone acetyltransferase EP300 to augment the TP53 response. Knockdown (KD) of TTC5 induced apoptosis of both murine and human AML cells, with concomitant loss of clonogenic and leukemia-initiating potential; KD of EP300 elicited a similar phenotype. Consistent with the physical interaction of TTC5 and EP300, the onset of apoptosis following KD of either gene was preceded by reduced expression of BCL2 and increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes. Forced expression of BCL2 blocked apoptosis and partially rescued the clonogenic potential of AML cells following TTC5 KD. KD of both genes also led to the accumulation of MYC, an acetylation target of EP300, and the form of MYC that accumulated exhibited relative hypoacetylation at K148 and K157, residues targeted by EP300. In view of the ability of excess cellular MYC to sensitize cells to apoptosis, our data suggest a model whereby TTC5 and EP300 cooperate to prevent excessive accumulation of MYC in AML cells and their sensitization to cell death. They further reveal a hitherto unappreciated role for TTC5 in leukemic hematopoiesis.
|The flow dependency of Tie2 expression in endotoxemia. |
Kurniati, Neng F, et al.
Intensive Care Med, (2013) 2013
RATIONALE: Tie2 is predominantly expressed by endothelial cells and is involved in vascular integrity control during sepsis. Changes in Tie2 expression during sepsis development may contribute to microvascular dysfunction. Understanding the kinetics and molecular basis of these changes may assist in the development of therapeutic intervention to counteract microvascular dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in Tie2 expression upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies were performed in LPS and pro-inflammatory cytokine challenged mice as well as in mice subjected to hemorrhagic shock, primary endothelial cells were used for in vitro experiments in static and flow conditions. Eight hours after LPS challenge, Tie2 mRNA loss was observed in all major organs, while loss of Tie2 protein was predominantly observed in lungs and kidneys, in the capillaries. A similar loss could be induced by secondary cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Ang2 protein administration did not affect Tie2 protein expression nor was Tie2 protein rescued in LPS-challenged Ang2-deficient mice, excluding a major role for Ang2 in Tie2 down regulation. In vitro, endothelial loss of Tie2 was observed upon lowering of shear stress, not upon LPS and TNF-α stimulation, suggesting that inflammation related haemodynamic changes play a major role in loss of Tie2 in vivo, as also hemorrhagic shock induced Tie2 mRNA loss. In vitro, this loss was partially counteracted by pre-incubation with a pharmacologically NF-кB inhibitor (BAY11-7082), an effect further substantiated in vivo by pre-treatment of mice with the NF-кB inhibitor prior to the inflammatory challenge. CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular bed specific loss of Tie2 mRNA and protein in vivo upon LPS, TNFα, IL-1β challenge, as well as in response to hemorrhagic shock, is likely an indirect effect caused by a change in endothelial shear stress. This loss of Tie2 mRNA, but not Tie2 protein, induced by TNFα exposure was shown to be controlled by NF-кB signaling. Drugs aiming at restoring vascular integrity in sepsis could focus on preventing the Tie2 loss.
|Regulation of EGFR trafficking and cell signaling by Sprouty2 and MIG6 in lung cancer cells. |
Walsh, AM; Lazzara, MJ
Journal of cell science 126 4339-48 2013
The duration and specificity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation and signaling are determinants of cellular decision processes and are tightly regulated by receptor dephosphorylation, internalization and degradation. In addition, regulatory proteins that are upregulated or activated post-transcriptionally upon receptor activation may initiate feedback loops that play crucial roles in spatiotemporal regulation of signaling. We examined the roles of Sprouty2 (SPRY2) and mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), two feedback regulators of EGFR trafficking and signaling, in lung cancer cells with or without EGFR-activating mutations. These mutations are of interest because they confer unusual cellular sensitivity to EGFR inhibition through a mechanism involving an impairment of EGFR endocytosis. We found that the endocytosis of wild-type and mutant EGFR was promoted by SPRY2 knockdown and antagonized by MIG6 knockdown. SPRY2 knockdown also significantly reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, EGFR expression, and EGFR recycling. In a cell line expressing mutant EGFR, this effect on ERK led to a marked increase in cell death response to EGFR inhibition. The effects of SPRY2 knockdown on EGFR endocytosis and recycling were primarily the result of the concomitant change in EGFR expression, but this was not true for the observed changes in ERK phosphorylation. Thus, our study demonstrates that SPRY2 and MIG6 are important regulators of wild-type and mutant EGFR trafficking and points to an EGFR expression-independent function of SPRY2 in the regulation of ERK activity that may impact cellular sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors, especially in the context of EGFR mutation.
|Alterations in the levels of vesicular trafficking proteins involved in HIV replication in the brains and CSF of patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. |
Fields, J; Dumaop, W; Adame, A; Ellis, RJ; Letendre, S; Grant, I; Masliah, E
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology 8 1197-209 2013
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral therapies. A HAND-specific biomarker indicative of neuropsychological impairment (NPI) would give insight into disease progression and aid clinicians in designing therapy. Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) proteins such as tumor susceptibility gene (TSG)-101, vacuolar protein sorting (VPS)-4 and LIP-5 are important for HIV replication and recently antiviral interferon stimulated gene (ISG)-15 was proposed as a biomarker for CNS injury. Here, we analyzed a well-characterized cohort of HIV+ cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and postmortem brain specimens for multiple vesicular trafficking proteins and a related innate immune protein, ISG-15, TSG-101, VPS-4 and LIP-5. All protein levels trended higher with increased NPI and neuropathology. ISG-15 CSF levels were increased in HIV encephalitis (HIVE) compared to normal cases, and three quarters of HIVE samples had above average CSF ISG-15 levels. VPS-4 CSF levels were increased in NPI/NPI-O compared to normal patients. VPS-4 CSF levels in HIV-associated dementia were equivalent to that of normal patients. LIP-5 CSF levels positively correlate with ISG-15 levels, and higher than average ISG-15 levels indicate elevated viral load. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses show increased expression of ISG-15, VPS-4 and LIP-5 in neuronal cell bodies and astroglial cells. ESCRT protein CSF levels analyzed in conjunction with viral load may be indicative of NPI stage, and may aid in the diagnosis and design of therapies for HIV patients. Further studies on the ESCRT protein expression during HIV infection may lead to a promising biomarker for predicting progression of NPI.
|Inhibition of mitochondrial complex III blocks neuronal differentiation and maintains embryonic stem cell pluripotency. |
Pereira, SL; Grãos, M; Rodrigues, AS; Anjo, SI; Carvalho, RA; Oliveira, PJ; Arenas, E; Ramalho-Santos, J
PloS one 8 e82095 2013
The mitochondrion is emerging as a key organelle in stem cell biology, acting as a regulator of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation. In this study we sought to understand the effect of mitochondrial complex III inhibition during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. When exposed to antimycin A, a specific complex III inhibitor, embryonic stem cells failed to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons, maintaining high Oct4 levels even when subjected to a specific differentiation protocol. Mitochondrial inhibition affected distinct populations of cells present in culture, inducing cell loss in differentiated cells, but not inducing apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells. A reduction in overall proliferation rate was observed, corresponding to a slight arrest in S phase. Moreover, antimycin A treatment induced a consistent increase in HIF-1α protein levels. The present work demonstrates that mitochondrial metabolism is critical for neuronal differentiation and emphasizes that modulation of mitochondrial functions through pharmacological approaches can be useful in the context of controlling stem cell maintenance/differentiation.
|Expression of genes encoding the calcium signalosome in cellular and transgenic models of Huntington's disease. |
Czeredys, M; Gruszczynska-Biegala, J; Schacht, T; Methner, A; Kuznicki, J
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 6 42 2013
Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine stretch in the huntingtin (HTT) protein and characterized by dysregulated calcium homeostasis. We investigated whether these disturbances are correlated with changes in the mRNA level of the genes that encode proteins involved in calcium homeostasis and signaling (i.e., the calciosome). Using custom-made TaqMan low-density arrays containing probes for 96 genes, we quantified mRNA in the striatum in YAC128 mice, a model of HD, and wildtype mice. HTT mutation caused the increased expression of some components of the calcium signalosome, including calretinin, presenilin 2, and calmyrin 1, and the increased expression of genes indirectly involved in calcium homeostasis, such as huntingtin-associated protein 1 and calcyclin-binding protein. To verify these findings in a different model, we used PC12 cells with an inducible expression of mutated full-length HTT. Using single-cell imaging with Fura-2AM, we found that store-operated Ca(2+) entry but not endoplasmic reticulum (ER) store content was changed as a result of the expression of mutant HTT. Statistically significant downregulation of the Orai calcium channel subunit 2, calmodulin, and septin 4 was detected in cells that expressed mutated HTT. Our data indicate that the dysregulation of calcium homeostasis correlates with changes in the gene expression of members of the calciosome. These changes, however, differed in the two models of HD used in this study. Our results indicate that each HD model exhibits distinct features that may only partially resemble the human disease.
|Abnormal centrosome and spindle morphology in a patient with autosomal recessive primary microcephaly type 2 due to compound heterozygous WDR62 gene mutation. |
Farag, HG; Froehler, S; Oexle, K; Ravindran, E; Schindler, D; Staab, T; Huebner, A; Kraemer, N; Chen, W; Kaindl, AM
Orphanet journal of rare diseases 8 178 2013
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare neurodevelopmental disease with severe microcephaly at birth due to a pronounced reduction in brain volume and intellectual disability. Biallelic mutations in the WD repeat-containing protein 62 gene WDR62 are the genetic cause of MCPH2. However, the exact underlying pathomechanism of MCPH2 remains to be clarified.We characterized the clinical, radiological, and cellular features that add to the human MCPH2 phenotype. Exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing in a German family with two affected daughters with primary microcephaly revealed in the index patient the compound heterozygous mutations c.1313Ggreater than A (p.R438H) / c.2864-2867delACAG (p.D955Afs*112) of WDR62, the second of which is novel. Radiological examination displayed small frontal lobes, corpus callosum hypoplasia, simplified hippocampal gyration, and cerebellar hypoplasia. We investigated the cellular phenotype in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells and compared it with that of healthy female controls. WDR62 expression in the patient's immortalized lymphocytes was deranged, and mitotic spindle defects as well as abnormal centrosomal protein localization were apparent.We propose that a disruption of centrosome integrity and/or spindle organization may play an important role in the development of microcephaly in MCPH2.
|Discovery of a diaminoquinoxaline benzenesulfonamide antagonist of HIV-1 Nef function using a yeast-based phenotypic screen. |
Trible, RP; Narute, P; Emert-Sedlak, LA; Alvarado, JJ; Atkins, K; Thomas, L; Kodama, T; Yanamala, N; Korotchenko, V; Day, BW; Thomas, G; Smithgall, TE
Retrovirology 10 135 2013
HIV-1 Nef is a viral accessory protein critical for AIDS progression. Nef lacks intrinsic catalytic activity and binds multiple host cell signaling proteins, including Hck and other Src-family tyrosine kinases. Nef binding induces constitutive Hck activation that may contribute to HIV pathogenesis by promoting viral infectivity, replication and downregulation of cell-surface MHC-I molecules. In this study, we developed a yeast-based phenotypic screen to identify small molecules that inhibit the Nef-Hck complex.Nef-Hck interaction was faithfully reconstituted in yeast cells, resulting in kinase activation and growth arrest. Yeast cells expressing the Nef-Hck complex were used to screen a library of small heterocyclic compounds for their ability to rescue growth inhibition. The screen identified a dihydrobenzo-1,4-dioxin-substituted analog of 2-quinoxalinyl-3-aminobenzene-sulfonamide (DQBS) as a potent inhibitor of Nef-dependent HIV-1 replication and MHC-I downregulation in T-cells. Docking studies predicted direct binding of DQBS to Nef which was confirmed in differential scanning fluorimetry assays with recombinant purified Nef protein. DQBS also potently inhibited the replication of HIV-1 NL4-3 chimeras expressing Nef alleles representative of all M-group HIV-1 clades.Our findings demonstrate the utility of a yeast-based growth reversion assay for the identification of small molecule Nef antagonists. Inhibitors of Nef function discovered with this assay, such as DQBS, may complement the activity of current antiretroviral therapies by enabling immune recognition of HIV-infected cells through the rescue of cell surface MHC-I.
|Decoding a signature-based model of transcription cofactor recruitment dictated by cardinal cis-regulatory elements in proximal promoter regions. |
Benner, C; Konovalov, S; Mackintosh, C; Hutt, KR; Stunnenberg, R; Garcia-Bassets, I
PLoS genetics 9 e1003906 2013
Genome-wide maps of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) reveal that most human promoters contain perpetually active cis-regulatory elements between -150 bp and +50 bp (-150/+50 bp) relative to the transcription start site (TSS). Transcription factors (TFs) recruit cofactors (chromatin remodelers, histone/protein-modifying enzymes, and scaffold proteins) to these elements in order to organize the local chromatin structure and coordinate the balance of post-translational modifications nearby, contributing to the overall regulation of transcription. However, the rules of TF-mediated cofactor recruitment to the -150/+50 bp promoter regions remain poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for a general model in which a series of cis-regulatory elements (here termed 'cardinal' motifs) prefer acting individually, rather than in fixed combinations, within the -150/+50 bp regions to recruit TFs that dictate cofactor signatures distinctive of specific promoter subsets. Subsequently, human promoters can be subclassified based on the presence of cardinal elements and their associated cofactor signatures. In this study, furthermore, we have focused on promoters containing the nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) motif as the cardinal cis-regulatory element and have identified the pervasive association of NRF1 with the cofactor lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A). This signature might be distinctive of promoters regulating nuclear-encoded mitochondrial and other particular genes in at least some cells. Together, we propose that decoding a signature-based, expanded model of control at proximal promoter regions should lead to a better understanding of coordinated regulation of gene transcription.
|Dietary fat influences the expression of contractile and metabolic genes in rat skeletal muscle. |
Mizunoya, W; Iwamoto, Y; Shirouchi, B; Sato, M; Komiya, Y; Razin, FR; Tatsumi, R; Sato, Y; Nakamura, M; Ikeuchi, Y
PloS one 8 e80152 2013
Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases. To determine whether the intake of different types of dietary fats affect the muscle fiber types that govern the metabolic and contractile properties of the skeletal muscle, we fed male Wistar rats with a 15% fat diet derived from different fat sources. Diets composed of soybean oil (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich), fish oil (n-3 PUFA-rich), or lard (low in PUFAs) were administered to the rats for 4 weeks. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were used as biomarkers to delineate the skeletal muscle fiber types. Compared with soybean oil intake, fish oil intake showed significantly lower levels of the fast-type MyHC2B and higher levels of the intermediate-type MyHC2X composition in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, which is a fast-type dominant muscle. Concomitantly, MyHC2X mRNA levels in fish oil-fed rats were significantly higher than those observed in the soybean oil-fed rats. The MyHC isoform composition in the lard-fed rats was an intermediate between that of the fish oil and soybean oil-fed rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, and porin mRNA showed significantly upregulated levels in the EDL of fish oil-fed rats compared to those observed in soybean oil-fed and lard-fed rats, implying an activation of oxidative metabolism. In contrast, no changes in the composition of MyHC isoforms was observed in the soleus muscle, which is a slow-type dominant muscle. Fatty acid composition in the serum and the muscle was significantly influenced by the type of dietary fat consumed. In conclusion, dietary fat affects the expression of genes related to the contractile and metabolic properties in the fast-type dominant skeletal muscle, where the activation of oxidative metabolism is more pronounced after fish oil intake than that after soybean oil intake.
|Mild chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induces neurovascular dysfunction, triggering peripheral beta-amyloid brain entry and aggregation. |
ElAli, A; Thériault, P; Préfontaine, P; Rivest, S
Acta neuropathologica communications 1 75 2013
The Blood-brain barrier (BBB) controls brain supply with oxygen and nutrients, and protects the brain from toxic metabolites, such as beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. The neurovascular unit (NVU) couples vascular and neuronal functions by controlling BBB parameters based on brain needs. As such, NVU/BBB dysfunction, associated to irregularities in cerebral blood flow (CBF), has been proposed to contribute in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mainly by impairing cerebral Aβ clearance. However, the spatiotemporal contribution of the NVU/BBB in the neurodegenerative cascades remains elusive.By using C57BL/6J mice subjected to right common carotid artery (rCCA) permanent ligation in order to induce mild chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, we show here that cerebral hypoperfusion induced NVU dysfunction by reducing ABCB1 protein expression in brain capillaries. ABCB1 reduction was mainly triggered by an enhanced Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3β) activation, which decreased β-catenin nuclear abundance. Moreover, cerebral hypoperfusion triggered early vascular deposition of peripherally applied human Aβ1-42 peptides, which has shifted from highly vascular to the parenchyma 6 weeks later, forming small stable Aβ deposits. Hypoperfusion induced a deregulation in glucose metabolism, as brain reperfusion, or the administration of a high dose of glucose, diminished GSK3β activation, recuperated β-catenin nuclear abundance, reestablished ABCB1 protein expression, and prevented Aβ vascular early deposition. These results demonstrate that mild chronic cerebral hypoperfusion creates a metabolically deregulated microenvironment, thus triggering the brain entry and aggregation of peripherally applied human Aβ1-42 peptides.Our study offers new insights on the initiation of the neurodegenerative cascades observed in AD, which could be valuable in developing adequate treatment strategies.
|Alternative splicing of the RAGE cytoplasmic domain regulates cell signaling and function. |
Jules, J; Maiguel, D; Hudson, BI
PloS one 8 e78267 2013
The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand receptor present on most cell types. Upregulation of RAGE is seen in a number of pathological states including, inflammatory and vascular disease, dementia, diabetes and various cancers. We previously demonstrated that alternative splicing of the RAGE gene is an important mechanism which regulates RAGE signaling through the production of soluble ligand decoy isoforms. However, no studies have identified any alternative splice variants within the intracellular region of RAGE, a region critical for RAGE signaling. Herein, we have cloned and characterized a novel splice variant of RAGE that has a truncated intracellular domain (RAGEΔICD). RAGEΔICD is prevalent in both human and mouse tissues including lung, brain, heart and kidney. Expression of RAGEΔICD in C6 glioma cells impaired RAGE-ligand induced signaling through various MAP kinase pathways including ERK1/2, p38 and SAPK/JNK. Moreover, RAGEΔICD significantly affected tumor cell properties through altering cell migration, invasion, adhesion and viability in C6 glioma cells. Furthermore, C6 glioma cells expressing RAGEΔICD exhibited drastic inhibition on tumorigenesis in soft agar assays. Taken together, these data indicate that RAGEΔICD represents a novel endogenous mechanism to regulate RAGE signaling. Significantly, RAGEΔICD could play an important role in RAGE related disease states through down regulation of RAGE signaling.
|Endothelin receptor a blockade is an ineffective treatment for adriamycin nephropathy. |
Tan, RJ; Zhou, L; Zhou, D; Lin, L; Liu, Y
PloS one 8 e79963 2013
Endothelin is a vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key role in vascular homeostasis, exerting its biologic effects via two receptors, the endothelin receptor A (ETA) and endothelin receptor B (ETB). Activation of ETA and ETB has opposing actions, in which hyperactive ETA is generally vasoconstrictive and pathologic. Selective ETA blockade has been shown to be beneficial in renal injuries such as diabetic nephropathy and can improve proteinuria. Atrasentan is a selective pharmacologic ETA blocker that preferentially inhibits ETA activation. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ETA blockade by atrasentan in ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in murine adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We found that ETA expression was unaltered during the course of adriamycin nephropathy. Whether initiated prior to injury in a prevention protocol (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or after injury onset in a therapeutic protocol (7 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg three times a week, i.p.), atrasentan did not significantly affect the initiation and progression of adriamycin-induced albuminuria (as measured by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios). Indices of glomerular damage were also not improved in atrasentan-treated groups, in either the prevention or therapeutic protocols. Atrasentan also failed to improve kidney function as determined by serum creatinine, histologic damage, and mRNA expression of numerous fibrosis-related genes such as collagen-I and TGF-β1. Therefore, we conclude that selective blockade of ETA by atrasentan has no effect on preventing or ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy.
|Antiproliferative withanolides from Datura wrightii. |
Zhang, H; Bazzill, J; Gallagher, RJ; Subramanian, C; Grogan, PT; Day, VW; Kindscher, K; Cohen, MS; Timmermann, BN
Journal of natural products 76 445-9 2013
A new withanolide, named withawrightolide (1), and four known withanolides (2-5) were isolated from the aerial parts of Datura wrightii. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated through 2D NMR and other spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the structure of withametelin L (2) was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Using MTS viability assays, withanolides 1-5 showed antiproliferative activities against human glioblastoma (U251 and U87), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (MDA-1986), and normal fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC50 values in the range between 0.56 and 5.6 μM.
|Tamm-Horsfall protein translocates to the basolateral domain of thick ascending limbs, interstitium, and circulation during recovery from acute kidney injury. |
El-Achkar, TM; McCracken, R; Liu, Y; Heitmeier, MR; Bourgeois, S; Ryerse, J; Wu, XR
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 304 F1066-75 2013
Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is a glycoprotein normally targeted to the apical membrane domain of the kidney's thick ascending limbs (TAL). We previously showed that THP of TAL confers protection to proximal tubules against acute kidney injury (AKI) via a possible cross talk between the two functionally distinct tubular segments. However, the extent, timing, specificity, and functional effects of basolateral translocation of THP during AKI remain unclear. Using an ischemia-reperfusion (IRI) model of murine AKI, we show here that, while THP expression in TAL is downregulated at the peak of injury, it is significantly upregulated 48 h after IRI. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy reveal a major redirection of THP during recovery from the apical membrane domain of TAL towards the basolateral domain, interstitium, and basal compartment of S3 segments. This corresponds with increased THP in the serum but not in the urine. The overall epithelial polarity of TAL cells does not change, as evidenced by correct apical targeting of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) and basolateral targeting of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Compared with the wild-type, THP(-/-) mice show a significantly delayed renal recovery after IRI, due possibly to reduced suppression by THP of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 during recovery. Taken together, our data suggest that THP redistribution in the TAL after AKI is a protein-specific event and its increased interstitial presence negatively regulates the evolving inflammatory signaling in neighboring proximal tubules, thereby enhancing kidney recovery. The increase of serum THP may be used as a prognostic biomarker for recovery from AKI.
|Na+ channel-dependent recruitment of Navβ4 to axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier. |
Buffington, SA; Rasband, MN
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 6191-202 2013
The axon initial segment (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier are the sites of action potential initiation and regeneration in axons. Although the basic molecular architectures of AIS and nodes, characterized by dense clusters of Na(+) and K(+) channels, are similar, firing patterns vary among cell types. Neuronal firing patterns are established by the collective activity of voltage-gated ion channels and can be modulated through interaction with auxiliary subunits. Here, we report the neuronal expression pattern and subcellular localization of Navβ4, the modulatory Na(+) channel subunit thought to underlie resurgent Na(+) current. Immunostaining of rat tissues revealed that Navβ4 is strongly enriched at the AIS of a select set of neuron types, including many characterized by high-frequency firing, and at nodes of Ranvier in the PNS and some nodes in the CNS. By introducing full-length and mutant GFP-tagged Navβ4 into cultured neurons, we determined that the AIS and nodal localization of Navβ4 depends on its direct interaction with Na(+) channel α subunits through an extracellular disulfide bond. Based on these results, we propose that differences in the specific composition of the Na(+) channel complexes enriched at the AIS and nodes contribute to the diverse physiologies observed among cell types.
|Clock and light regulation of the CREB coactivator CRTC1 in the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. |
Sakamoto, K; Norona, FE; Alzate-Correa, D; Scarberry, D; Hoyt, KR; Obrietan, K
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 9021-7 2013
The CREB/CRE transcriptional pathway has been implicated in circadian clock timing and light-evoked clock resetting. To date, much of the work on CREB in circadian physiology has focused on how changes in the phosphorylation state of CREB regulate the timing processes. However, beyond changes in phosphorylation, CREB-dependent transcription can also be regulated by the CREB coactivator CRTC (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator), also known as TORC (transducer of regulated CREB). Here we profiled both the rhythmic and light-evoked regulation of CRTC1 and CRTC2 in the murine suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the locus of the master mammalian clock. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed rhythmic expression of CRTC1 in the SCN. CRTC1 expression was detected throughout the dorsoventral extent of the SCN in the middle of the subjective day, with limited expression during early night, and late night expression levels intermediate between mid-day and early night levels. In contrast to CRTC1, robust expression of CRTC2 was detected during both the subjective day and night. During early and late subjective night, a brief light pulse induced strong nuclear accumulation of CRTC1 in the SCN. In contrast with CRTC1, photic stimulation did not affect the subcellular localization of CRTC2 in the SCN. Additionally, reporter gene profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that CRTC1 was associated with CREB in the 5' regulatory region of the period1 gene, and that overexpression of CRTC1 leads to a marked upregulation in period1 transcription. Together, these data raise the prospect that CRTC1 plays a role in fundamental aspects of SCN clock timing and entrainment.
|p53 regulates a non-apoptotic death induced by ROS. |
Montero, J; Dutta, C; van Bodegom, D; Weinstock, D; Letai, A
Cell death and differentiation 20 1465-74 2013
DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species and several chemotherapeutic agents promotes both p53 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. p53 activation is well known to regulate apoptotic cell death, whereas robust activation of PARP-1 has been shown to promote a necrotic cell death associated with energetic collapse. Here we identify a novel role for p53 in modulating PARP enzymatic activity to regulate necrotic cell death. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human colorectal and human breast cancer cell lines, loss of p53 function promotes resistance to necrotic, PARP-mediated cell death. We therefore demonstrate that p53 can regulate both necrotic and apoptotic cell death, mutations or deletions in this tumor-suppressor protein may be selected by cancer cells to provide not only their resistance to apoptosis but also to necrosis, and explain resistance to chemotherapy and radiation even when it kills via non-apoptotic mechanisms.
|The Microtubule Regulatory Protein Stathmin Is Required to Maintain the Integrity of Axonal Microtubules in Drosophila. |
Duncan, JE; Lytle, NK; Zuniga, A; Goldstein, LS
PloS one 8 e68324 2013
Axonal transport, a form of long-distance, bi-directional intracellular transport that occurs between the cell body and synaptic terminal, is critical in maintaining the function and viability of neurons. We have identified a requirement for the stathmin (stai) gene in the maintenance of axonal microtubules and regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila. The stai gene encodes a cytosolic phosphoprotein that regulates microtubule dynamics by partitioning tubulin dimers between pools of soluble tubulin and polymerized microtubules, and by directly binding to microtubules and promoting depolymerization. Analysis of stai function in Drosophila, which has a single stai gene, circumvents potential complications with studies performed in vertebrate systems in which mutant phenotypes may be compensated by genetic redundancy of other members of the stai gene family. This has allowed us to identify an essential function for stai in the maintenance of the integrity of axonal microtubules. In addition to the severe disruption in the abundance and architecture of microtubules in the axons of stai mutant Drosophila, we also observe additional neurological phenotypes associated with loss of stai function including a posterior paralysis and tail-flip phenotype in third instar larvae, aberrant accumulation of transported membranous organelles in stai deficient axons, a progressive bang-sensitive response to mechanical stimulation reminiscent of the class of Drosophila mutants used to model human epileptic seizures, and a reduced adult lifespan. Reductions in the levels of Kinesin-1, the primary anterograde motor in axonal transport, enhance these phenotypes. Collectively, our results indicate that stai has an important role in neuronal function, likely through the maintenance of microtubule integrity in the axons of nerves of the peripheral nervous system necessary to support and sustain long-distance axonal transport.
|srGAP1 regulates lamellipodial dynamics and cell migratory behavior by modulating Rac1 activity. |
Yamazaki, D; Itoh, T; Miki, H; Takenawa, T
Molecular biology of the cell 24 3393-405 2013
The distinct levels of Rac activity differentially regulate the pattern of intrinsic cell migration. However, it remains unknown how Rac activity is modulated and how the level of Rac activity controls cell migratory behavior. Here we show that Slit-Robo GAP 1 (srGAP1) is a modulator of Rac activity in locomotive cells. srGAP1 possesses a GAP activity specific to Rac1 and is recruited to lamellipodia in a Rac1-dependent manner. srGAP1 limits Rac1 activity and allows concomitant activation of Rac1 and RhoA, which are mutually inhibitory. When both GTPases are activated, the protrusive structures caused by Rac1-dependent actin reorganization are spatially restricted and periodically destabilized, causing ruffling by RhoA-induced actomyosin contractility. Depletion of srGAP1 overactivates Rac1 and inactivates RhoA, resulting in continuous spatiotemporal spreading of lamellipodia and a modal shift of intrinsic cell motility from random to directionally persistent. Thus srGAP1 is a key determinant of lamellipodial dynamics and cell migratory behavior.
|Down-Regulation of Survivin by Nemadipine-A Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis. |
Park, SH; Park, SJ; Kim, JO; Shin, JH; Kim, ES; Jo, YK; Kim, JS; Park, SJ; Jin, DH; Hwang, JJ; Lee, SJ; Jeong, SY; Lee, C; Kim, I; Cho, DH
Biomolecules & therapeutics 21 29-34 2013
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family of cytokines. TRAIL selectively induces apoptotic cell death in various tumors and cancer cells, but it has little or no toxicity in normal cells. Agonism of TRAIL receptors has been considered to be a valuable cancer-therapeutic strategy. However, more than 85% of primary tumors are resistant to TRAIL, emphasizing the importance of investigating how to overcome TRAIL resistance. In this report, we have found that nemadipine-A, a cell-permeable L-type calcium channel inhibitor, sensitizes TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to this ligand. Combination treatments using TRAIL with nemadipine-A synergistically induced both the caspase cascade and apoptotic cell death, which were blocked by a pan caspase inhibitor (zVAD) but not by autophagy or a necrosis inhibitor. We further found that nemadipine-A, either alone or in combination with TRAIL, notably reduced the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of the apoptosis protein (IAP) family of proteins. Depletion of survivin by small RNA interference (siRNA) resulted in increased cell death and caspase activation by TRAIL treatment. These results suggest that nemadipine-A potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis by down-regulation of survivin expression in TRAIL resistant cells. Thus, combination of TRAIL with nemadipine-A may serve a new therapeutic scheme for the treatment of TRAIL resistant cancer cells, suggesting that a detailed study of this combination would be useful.
|Overexpression of Heat Shock Transcription Factor 1 enhances the resistance of melanoma cells to doxorubicin and paclitaxel. |
Vydra, N; Toma, A; Glowala-Kosinska, M; Gogler-Piglowska, A; Widlak, W
BMC cancer 13 504 2013
Heat Shock Transcription Factor 1 (HSF1) is activated under stress conditions. In turn, it induces expression of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), which are well-known regulators of protein homeostasis. Elevated levels of HSF1 and HSPs were observed in many types of tumors. The aim of the present study was to determine whether HSF1 could have an effect on the survival of cancer cells treated with chemotherapeutic cytotoxic agents.We constructed mouse (B16F10) and human (1205Lu, WM793B) melanoma cells overexpressing full or mutant form of human HSF1: a constitutively active one with a deletion in regulatory domain or a dominant negative one with a deletion in the activation domain. The impact of different forms of HSF1 on the expression of HSP and ABC genes was studied by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Cell cultures were treated with increasing amounts of doxorubicin, paclitaxel, cisplatin, vinblastine or bortezomib. Cell viability was determined by MTT, and IC50 was calculated. Cellular accumulation of fluorescent dyes and side population cells were studied using flow cytometry.Cells overexpressing HSF1 and characterized by increased HSPs accumulation were more resistant to doxorubicin or paclitaxel, but not to cisplatin, vinblastine or bortezomib. This resistance correlated with the enhanced efflux of fluorescent dyes and the increased number of side population cells. The expression of constitutively active mutant HSF1, also resulting in HSPs overproduction, did not reduce the sensitivity of melanoma cells to drugs, unlike in the case of dominant negative form expression. Cells overexpressing a full or dominant negative form of HSF1, but not a constitutively active one, had higher transcription levels of ABC genes when compared to control cells.HSF1 overexpression facilitates the survival of melanoma cells treated with doxorubicin or paclitaxel. However, HSF1-mediated chemoresistance is not dependent on HSPs accumulation but on an increased potential for drug efflux by ABC transporters. Direct transcriptional activity of HSF1 is not necessary for increased expression of ABC genes, which is probably mediated by HSF1 regulatory domain.
|Analysis of the levels of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) mRNA in human ovarian tumors and the effects of chemical LSD1 inhibitors in ovarian cancer cell lines. |
Konovalov, S; Garcia-Bassets, I
Journal of ovarian research 6 75 2013
Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, also known as KDM1A and AOF2) is a chromatin-modifying activity that catalyzes the removal of methyl groups from lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins, regulating gene transcription. LSD1 is overexpressed in several cancer types, and chemical inhibition of the LSD1 activity has been proposed as a candidate cancer therapy. Here, we examine the levels of LSD1 mRNA in human ovarian tumors and the cytotoxicity of several chemical LSD1 inhibitors in a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines.We measured LSD1 mRNA levels in a cohort of n = 177 normal and heterogeneous tumor specimens by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR). Tumors were classified by FIGO stage, FIGO grade, and histological subtypes. We tested the robustness of our analyses in an independent cohort of n = 573 serous tumor specimens (source: TCGA, based on microarray). Statistical analyses were based on Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's and Mann Whitney tests. Changes in LSD1 mRNA levels were also correlated with transcriptomic alterations at genome-wide scale. Effects on cell viability (MTS/PMS assay) of six LSD1 inhibitors (pargyline, TCP, RN-1, S2101, CAS 927019-63-4, and CBB1007) were also evaluated in a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3, OVCAR3, A2780 and cisplatin-resistant A2780cis).We found moderate but consistent LSD1 mRNA overexpression in stage IIIC and high-grade ovarian tumors. LSD1 mRNA overexpression correlated with a transcriptomic signature of up-regulated genes involved in cell cycle and down-regulated genes involved in the immune/inflammatory response, a signature previously observed in aggressive tumors. In fact, some ovarian tumors showing high levels of LSD1 mRNA are associated with poor patient survival. Chemical LSD1 inhibition induced cytotoxicity in ovarian cancer lines, which roughly correlated with their reported LSD1 inhibitory potential (RN-1,S2101 greater than pargyline,TCP).Our findings may suggest a role of LSD1 in the biology of some ovarian tumors. It is of special interest to find a correlation of LSD1 mRNA overexpression with a transcriptomic signature relevant to cancer. Our findings, therefore, prompt further investigation of the role of LSD1 in ovarian cancer, as well as the study of its enzymatic inhibition in animal models for potential therapeutic purposes in the context of this disease.
|Individual Src-family tyrosine kinases direct the degradation or protection of the clock protein Timeless via differential ubiquitylation. |
O'Reilly, LP; Zhang, X; Smithgall, TE
Cellular signalling 25 860-6 2013
Timeless was originally identified in Drosophila as an essential component of circadian cycle regulation, where its function is tightly controlled at the protein level by tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent degradation. In mammals, Timeless has also been implicated in circadian rhythms as well as cell cycle control and embryonic development. Here we report that mammalian Timeless is an SH3 domain-binding protein and substrate for several members of the Src protein-tyrosine kinase family, including Fyn, Hck, c-Src and c-Yes. Co-expression of Tim with Fyn or Hck was followed by ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation in human 293T cells. While c-Src and c-Yes also promoted Tim ubiquitylation, in this case ubiquitylation correlated with Tim protein accumulation rather than degradation. Both c-Src and c-Yes selectively promoted modification of Tim through Lys63-linked polyubiquitin, which may explain the differential effects on Tim protein turnover. These data show distinct and opposing roles for individual Src-family members in the regulation of Tim protein levels, suggesting a unique mechanism for the regulation of Tim function in mammals.
|Canonical Wnt signaling inhibits osteoclastogenesis independent of osteoprotegerin. |
Albers, J; Keller, J; Baranowsky, A; Beil, FT; Catala-Lehnen, P; Schulze, J; Amling, M; Schinke, T
The Journal of cell biology 200 537-49 2013
Although Wnt signaling is considered a key regulatory pathway for bone formation, inactivation of β-catenin in osteoblasts does not affect their activity but rather causes increased osteoclastogenesis due to insufficient production of osteoprotegerin (Opg). By monitoring the expression pattern of all known genes encoding Wnt receptors in mouse tissues and bone cells we identified Frizzled 8 (Fzd8) as a candidate regulator of bone remodeling. Fzd8-deficient mice displayed osteopenia with normal bone formation and increased osteoclastogenesis, but this phenotype was not associated with impaired Wnt signaling or Opg production by osteoblasts. The deduced direct negative influence of canonical Wnt signaling on osteoclastogenesis was confirmed in vitro and through the generation of mice lacking β-catenin in the osteoclast lineage. Here, we observed increased bone resorption despite normal Opg production and a resistance to the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of Wnt3a. These results demonstrate that Fzd8 and β-catenin negatively regulate osteoclast differentiation independent of osteoblasts and that canonical Wnt signaling controls bone resorption by two different mechanisms.
|γ-Catenin at adherens junctions: mechanism and biologic implications in hepatocellular cancer after β-catenin knockdown. |
Wickline, ED; Du, Y; Stolz, DB; Kahn, M; Monga, SP
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 15 421-34 2013
β-Catenin is important in liver homeostasis as a part of Wnt signaling and adherens junctions (AJs), while its aberrant activation is observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have reported hepatocyte-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice to lack adhesive defects as γ-catenin compensated at AJ. Because γ-catenin is a desmosomal protein, we asked if its increase in KO might deregulate desmosomes. No changes in desmosomal proteins or ultrastructure other than increased plakophilin-3 were observed. To further elucidate the role and regulation of γ-catenin, we contemplate an in vitro model and show γ-catenin increase in HCC cells upon β-catenin knockdown (KD). Here, γ-catenin is unable to rescue β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) reporter activity; however, it sufficiently compensates at AJs as assessed by scratch wound assay, centrifugal assay for cell adhesion (CAFCA), and hanging drop assays. γ-Catenin increase is observed only after β-catenin protein decrease and not after blockade of its transactivation. γ-Catenin increase is associated with enhanced serine/threonine phosphorylation and abrogated by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition. In fact, several PKA-binding sites were detected in γ-catenin by in silico analysis. Intriguingly γ-catenin KD led to increased β-catenin levels and transactivation. Thus, γ-catenin compensates for β-catenin loss at AJ without affecting desmosomes but is unable to fulfill functions in Wnt signaling. γ-Catenin stabilization after β-catenin loss is brought about by PKA. Catenin-sensing mechanism may depend on absolute β-catenin levels and not its activity. Anti-β-catenin therapies for HCC affecting total β-catenin may target aberrant Wnt signaling without negatively impacting intercellular adhesion, provided mechanisms leading to γ-catenin stabilization are spared.
|Loss of Klotho contributes to kidney injury by derepression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. |
Zhou, L; Li, Y; Zhou, D; Tan, RJ; Liu, Y
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 24 771-85 2013
Aging is an independent risk factor for CKD, but the molecular mechanisms that link aging and CKD are not well understood. The antiaging protein Klotho may be an endogenous antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which promotes fibrogenesis, suggesting that loss of Klotho may contribute to CKD through increased Wnt/β-catenin activity. Here, normal adult kidneys highly expressed Klotho in the tubular epithelium, but various models of nephropathy exhibited markedly less expression of Klotho. Loss of Klotho was closely associated with increased β-catenin in the diseased kidneys, suggesting an inverse correlation between Klotho and canonical Wnt signaling. In vitro, both full-length and secreted Klotho bound to multiple Wnts, including Wnt1, Wnt4, and Wnt7a. Klotho repressed gene transcription induced by Wnt but not by active β-catenin. Furthermore, Klotho blocked Wnt-triggered activation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, as well as the expression of its target genes in tubular epithelial cells. Investigating potential mediators of Klotho loss in CKD, we found that TGF-β1 suppressed Klotho expression and concomitantly activated β-catenin; conversely, overexpression of Klotho abolished fibrogenic effects of TGF-β1. In two mouse models of CKD induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction or adriamycin, in vivo expression of secreted Klotho inhibited the activation of renal β-catenin and expression of its target genes. Secreted Klotho also suppressed myofibroblast activation, reduced matrix expression, and ameliorated renal fibrosis. Taken together, these results suggest that Klotho is an antagonist of endogenous Wnt/β-catenin activity; therefore, loss of Klotho may contribute to kidney injury by releasing the repression of pathogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
|Differential regulation of cell functions by CSD peptide subdomains. |
Reese, C; Dyer, S; Perry, B; Bonner, M; Oates, J; Hofbauer, A; Sessa, W; Bernatchez, P; Visconti, RP; Zhang, J; Hatfield, CM; Silver, RM; Hoffman, S; Tourkina, E
Respiratory research 14 90 2013
In fibrotic lung diseases, expression of caveolin-1 is decreased in fibroblasts and monocytes. The effects of this deficiency are reversed by treating cells or animals with the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSD, amino acids 82-101 of caveolin-1) which compensates for the lack of caveolin-1. Here we compare the function of CSD subdomains (Cav-A, Cav-B, Cav-C, Cav-AB, and Cav-BC) and mutated versions of CSD (F92A and T90A/T91A/F92A).Migration toward the chemokine CXCL12 and the associated expression of F-actin, CXCR4, and pSmad 2/3 were studied in monocytes from healthy donors and SSc patients. Fibrocyte differentiation was studied using PBMC from healthy donors and SSc patients. Collagen I secretion and signaling were studied in fibroblasts derived from the lung tissue of healthy subjects and SSc patients.Cav-BC and CSD at concentrations as low as 0.01 μM inhibited the hypermigration of SSc monocytes and TGFβ-activated Normal monocytes and the differentiation into fibrocytes of SSc and Normal monocytes. While CSD also inhibited the migration of poorly migrating Normal monocytes, Cav-A (and other subdomains to a lesser extent) promoted the migration of Normal monocytes while inhibiting the hypermigration of TGFβ-activated Normal monocytes. The effects of versions of CSD on migration may be mediated in part via their effects on CXCR4, F-actin, and pSmad 2/3 expression. Cav-BC was as effective as CSD in inhibiting fibroblast collagen I and ASMA expression and MEK/ERK signaling. Cav-C and Cav-AB also inhibited collagen I expression, but in many cases did not affect ASMA or MEK/ERK. Cav-A increased collagen I expression in scleroderma lung fibroblasts. Full effects on fibroblasts of versions of CSD required 5 μM peptide.Cav-BC retains most of the anti-fibrotic functions of CSD; Cav-A exhibits certain pro-fibrotic functions. Results obtained with subdomains and mutated versions of CSD further suggest that the critical functional residues in CSD depend on the cell type and readout being studied. Monocytes may be more sensitive to versions of CSD than fibroblasts and endothelial cells because the baseline level of caveolin-1 in monocytes is much lower than in these other cell types.
|Mycobacterium tuberculosis type VII secreted effector EsxH targets host ESCRT to impair trafficking. |
Mehra, A; Zahra, A; Thompson, V; Sirisaengtaksin, N; Wells, A; Porto, M; Köster, S; Penberthy, K; Kubota, Y; Dricot, A; Rogan, D; Vidal, M; Hill, DE; Bean, AJ; Philips, JA
PLoS pathogens 9 e1003734 2013
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) disrupts anti-microbial pathways of macrophages, cells that normally kill bacteria. Over 40 years ago, D'Arcy Hart showed that Mtb avoids delivery to lysosomes, but the molecular mechanisms that allow Mtb to elude lysosomal degradation are poorly understood. Specialized secretion systems are often used by bacterial pathogens to translocate effectors that target the host, and Mtb encodes type VII secretion systems (TSSSs) that enable mycobacteria to secrete proteins across their complex cell envelope; however, their cellular targets are unknown. Here, we describe a systematic strategy to identify bacterial virulence factors by looking for interactions between the Mtb secretome and host proteins using a high throughput, high stringency, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) platform. Using this approach we identified an interaction between EsxH, which is secreted by the Esx-3 TSSS, and human hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hgs/Hrs), a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). ESCRT has a well-described role in directing proteins destined for lysosomal degradation into intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), ensuring degradation of the sorted cargo upon MVB-lysosome fusion. Here, we show that ESCRT is required to deliver Mtb to the lysosome and to restrict intracellular bacterial growth. Further, EsxH, in complex with EsxG, disrupts ESCRT function and impairs phagosome maturation. Thus, we demonstrate a role for a TSSS and the host ESCRT machinery in one of the central features of tuberculosis pathogenesis.
|Tubulin acetyltransferase αTAT1 destabilizes microtubules independently of its acetylation activity. |
Kalebic, N; Martinez, C; Perlas, E; Hublitz, P; Bilbao-Cortes, D; Fiedorczuk, K; Andolfo, A; Heppenstall, PA
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1114-23 2013
Acetylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40 (K40) is a well-conserved posttranslational modification that marks long-lived microtubules but has poorly understood functional significance. Recently, αTAT1, a member of the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily, has been identified as an α-tubulin acetyltransferase in ciliated organisms. Here, we explored the function of αTAT1 with the aim of understanding the consequences of αTAT1-mediated microtubule acetylation. We demonstrate that α-tubulin is the major target of αTAT1 but that αTAT1 also acetylates itself in a regulatory mechanism that is required for effective modification of tubulin. We further show that in mammalian cells, αTAT1 promotes microtubule destabilization and accelerates microtubule dynamics. Intriguingly, this effect persists in an αTAT1 mutant with no acetyltransferase activity, suggesting that interaction of αTAT1 with microtubules, rather than acetylation per se, is the critical factor regulating microtubule stability. Our data demonstrate that αTAT1 has cellular functions that extend beyond its classical enzymatic activity as an α-tubulin acetyltransferase.
|Pain after discontinuation of morphine treatment is associated with synaptic increase of GluA4-containing AMPAR in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. |
Cabañero, D; Baker, A; Zhou, S; Hargett, GL; Irie, T; Xia, Y; Beaudry, H; Gendron, L; Melyan, Z; Carlton, SM; Morón, JA
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 38 1472-84 2013
Withdrawal from prescribed opioids results in increased pain sensitivity, which prolongs the treatment. This pain sensitivity is attributed to neuroplastic changes that converge at the spinal cord dorsal horn. We have recently reported that repeated morphine administration triggers an insertion of GluA2-lacking (Ca(2+)-permeable) α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR) in the hippocampus. This finding together with the reported involvement of AMPAR in the mechanisms underlying inflammatory pain led us to hypothesize a role for spinal AMPAR in opioid-induced pain behavior. Mice treated with escalating doses of morphine showed hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Intrathecal administration of a Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR selective blocker disrupted morphine-induced mechanical sensitivity. Analysis of the expression and phosphorylation levels of AMPAR subunits (GluA1/2/3/4) in homogenates and in postsynaptic density fractions from spinal cord dorsal horns showed an increase in GluA4 expression and phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density after morphine. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses suggested an increase in GluA4 homomers (Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR) and immunohistochemical staining localized the increase in GluA4 levels in laminae III-V. The excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) recorded in laminae III-V showed enhanced sensitivity to Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR blockers in morphine-treated mice. Furthermore, current-voltage relationships of AMPAR-mediated EPSCs showed that rectification index (an indicator of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR contribution) is increased in morphine-treated but not in saline-treated mice. These effects could be reversed by infusion of GluA4 antibody through patch pipette. This is the first direct evidence for a role of GluA4-containing AMPAR in morphine-induced pain and highlights spinal GluA4-containing AMPAR as targets to prevent the morphine-induced pain sensitivity.
|Glutamate dehydrogenase contributes to leucine sensing in the regulation of autophagy. |
Lorin, S; Tol, MJ; Bauvy, C; Strijland, A; Poüs, C; Verhoeven, AJ; Codogno, P; Meijer, AJ
Autophagy 9 850-60 2013
Amino acids, leucine in particular, are known to inhibit autophagy, at least in part by their ability to stimulate MTOR-mediated signaling. Evidence is presented showing that glutamate dehydrogenase, the central enzyme in amino acid catabolism, contributes to leucine sensing in the regulation of autophagy. The data suggest a dual mechanism by which glutamate dehydrogenase activity modulates autophagy, i.e., by activating MTORC1 and by limiting the formation of reactive oxygen species.
|Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition. |
Huang, PH; Huang, CY; Chen, MC; Lee, YT; Yue, CH; Wang, HY; Lin, H
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2013 376123 2013
The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ER α ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels, thereby suppressing ER α transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER α and increased ER α ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER α dissociation and ER α ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER α degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER α degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER α distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER α protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future.
|Lrig2-deficient mice are protected against PDGFB-induced glioma. |
Rondahl, V; Holmlund, C; Karlsson, T; Wang, B; Faraz, M; Henriksson, R; Hedman, H
PloS one 8 e73635 2013
The leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains (LRIG) proteins constitute an integral membrane protein family that has three members: LRIG1, LRIG2, and LRIG3. LRIG1 negatively regulates growth factor signaling, but little is known regarding the functions of LRIG2 and LRIG3. In oligodendroglial brain tumors, high expression of LRIG2 correlates with poor patient survival. Lrig1 and Lrig3 knockout mice are viable, but there have been no reports on Lrig2-deficient mice to date.Lrig2-deficient mice were generated by the ablation of Lrig2 exon 12 (Lrig2E12). The Lrig2E12-/- mice showed a transiently reduced growth rate and an increased spontaneous mortality rate; 20-25% of these mice died before 130 days of age, with the majority of the deaths occurring before 50 days. Ntv-a transgenic mice with different Lrig2 genotypes were transduced by intracranial injection with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-encoding replication-competent avian retrovirus (RCAS)-producing DF-1 cells. All injected Lrig2E12+/+ mice developed Lrig2 expressing oligodendroglial brain tumors of lower grade (82%) or glioblastoma-like tumors of higher grade (18%). Lrig2E12-/- mice, in contrast, only developed lower grade tumors (77%) or had no detectable tumors (23%). Lrig2E12-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) showed altered induction-kinetics of immediate-early genes Fos and Egr2 in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. However, Lrig2E12-/- MEFs showed no changes in Pdgfrα or Pdgfrβ levels or in levels of PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of Pdgfrα, Pdgfrβ, Akt, or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Overexpression of LRIG1, but not of LRIG2, downregulated PDGFRα levels in HEK-293T cells.The phenotype of Lrig2E12-/- mice showed that Lrig2 was a promoter of PDGFB-induced glioma, and Lrig2 appeared to have important molecular and developmental functions that were distinct from those of Lrig1 and Lrig3.
|Neuroprotective effects of lutein in a rat model of retinal detachment. |
Woo, TT; Li, SY; Lai, WW; Wong, D; Lo, AC
Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology = Albrecht von Graefes Archiv für klinische und experimentelle Ophthalmologie 251 41-51 2013
Retinal detachment (RD) is a leading cause of blindness, and although final surgical re-attachment rate has greatly improved, visual outcome in many macula-off detachments is disappointing, mainly because of photoreceptor cell death. We previously showed that lutein is anti-apoptotic in rodent models of ischemia/reperfusion injury. The objective of this study is to investigate lutein as a possible pharmacological adjunct to surgery.Subretinal injections of 1.4 % sodium hyaluronate were used to induce RD in Sprague-Dawley rats until their retinae were approximately 70 % detached. Daily injections of corn oil (control group) or 0.5 mg/kg lutein in corn oil (treatment group) were given intraperitoneally starting 4 h after RD induction. Animals were euthanized 3 days and 30 days after RD and their retinae were analyzed for photoreceptor apoptosis and cell survival at the outer nuclear layer (ONL) using TUNEL staining and cell counting on retinal sections. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and rhodopsin (RHO) expression were evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was done with antibodies against cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-9 to delineate lutein's mechanism of action in the apoptotic cascade. To seek a possible therapeutic time window, the same set of experiments was repeated with treatment commencing 36 h after RD.When lutein was given 4 h after RD, there were significantly fewer TUNEL-positive cells in ONL 3 days after RD when compared with the vehicle group. Cell counting showed that there were significantly more nuclei in ONL in lutein-treated retinae by day 30. Treatment groups also showed significantly reduced GFAP immunoreactivity and preserved RHO expression. At day 3 after RD, Western blotting showed reduced expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-8 in the treatment group. No difference was found for cleaved caspase-9. When lutein was given 36 h after RD similar results were observed.Our results suggest that lutein is a potent neuroprotective agent that can salvage photoreceptors in rats with RD, with a therapeutic window of at least 36 h. The use of lutein in patients with RD may serve as an adjunct to surgery to improve visual outcomes.
|Enhancement of brain-type creatine kinase activity ameliorates neuronal deficits in Huntington's disease. |
Lin, YS; Cheng, TH; Chang, CP; Chen, HM; Chern, Y
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1832 742-53 2013
Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Brain-type creatine kinase (CKB) is an enzyme involved in energy homeostasis via the phosphocreatine-creatine kinase system. Although downregulation of CKB was previously reported in brains of HD mouse models and patients, such regulation and its functional consequence in HD are not fully understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that levels of CKB found in both the soma and processes were markedly reduced in primary neurons and brains of HD mice. We show for the first time that mutant HTT (mHTT) suppressed the activity of the promoter of the CKB gene, which contributes to the lowered CKB expression in HD. Exogenous expression of wild-type CKB, but not a dominant negative CKB mutant, rescued the ATP depletion, aggregate formation, impaired proteasome activity, and shortened neurites induced by mHTT. These findings suggest that negative regulation of CKB by mHTT is a key event in the pathogenesis of HD and contributes to the neuronal dysfunction associated with HD. In addition, besides dietary supplementation with the CKB substrate, strategies aimed at increasing CKB expression might lead to the development of therapeutic treatments for HD.
|Foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival. |
Gladue, DP; O'Donnell, V; Baker-Branstetter, R; Holinka, LG; Pacheco, JM; Fernández Sainz, I; Lu, Z; Ambroggio, X; Rodriguez, L; Borca, MV
Journal of virology 87 6794-803 2013
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an Aphthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. During infection with FMDV, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. FMDV protein 2C is part of the replication complex and thought to have multiple roles during virus replication. To better understand the role of 2C in the process of virus replication, we have been using a yeast two-hybrid approach to identify host proteins that interact with 2C. We recently reported that cellular Beclin1 is a natural ligand of 2C and that it is involved in the autophagy pathway, which was shown to be important for FMDV replication. Here, we report that cellular vimentin is also a specific host binding partner for 2C. The 2C-vimentin interaction was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining to occur in FMDV-infected cells. It was shown that upon infection a vimentin structure forms around 2C and that this structure is later resolved or disappears. Interestingly, overexpression of vimentin had no effect on virus replication; however, overexpression of a truncated dominant-negative form of vimentin resulted in a significant decrease in viral yield. Acrylamide, which causes disruption of vimentin filaments, also inhibited viral yield. Alanine scanning mutagenesis was used to map the specific amino acid residues in 2C critical for vimentin binding. Using reverse genetics, we identified 2C residues that are necessary for virus growth, suggesting that the interaction between FMDV 2C and cellular vimentin is essential for virus replication.
|The soluble form of the tumor suppressor Lrig1 potently inhibits in vivo glioma growth irrespective of EGF receptor status. |
Johansson, M; Oudin, A; Tiemann, K; Bernard, A; Golebiewska, A; Keunen, O; Fack, F; Stieber, D; Wang, B; Hedman, H; Niclou, SP
Neuro-oncology 15 1200-11 2013
Deregulated growth factor signaling is a major driving force in the initiation and progression of glioblastoma. The tumor suppressor and stem cell marker Lrig1 is a negative regulator of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Here, we addressed the therapeutic potential of the soluble form of Lrig1 (sLrig1) in glioblastoma treatment and the mechanism of sLrig1-induced growth inhibition.With use of encapsulated cells, recombinant sLrig1 was locally delivered in orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts generated from freshly isolated patient tumors. Tumor growth and mouse survival were evaluated. The efficacy of sLrig1 and the affected downstream signaling was studied in vitro and in vivo in glioma cells displaying variable expression of wild-type and/or a constitutively active EGFR mutant (EGFRvIII).Continuous interstitial delivery of sLrig1 in genetically diverse patient-derived glioma xenografts led to strong tumor growth inhibition. Glioma cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo were potently inhibited by sLrig1, irrespective of EGFR expression levels. Of importance, tumor growth was also suppressed in EGFRvIII-driven glioma. sLrig1 induced cell cycle arrest without changing total receptor level or phosphorylation. Affected downstream effectors included MAP kinase but not AKT signaling. Of importance, local delivery of sLrig1 into established tumors led to a 32% survival advantage in treated mice.To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that sLrig1 is a potent inhibitor of glioblastoma growth in clinically relevant experimental glioma models and that this effect is largely independent of EGFR status. The potent anti-tumor effect of sLrig1, in combination with cell encapsulation technology for in situ delivery, holds promise for future treatment of glioblastoma.
|Autophagy modulates cell migration and β1 integrin membrane recycling. |
Tuloup-Minguez, V; Hamaï, A; Greffard, A; Nicolas, V; Codogno, P; Botti, J
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 3317-28 2013
Cell migration is dependent on a series of integrated cellular events including the membrane recycling of the extracellular matrix receptor integrins. In this paper, we investigate the role of autophagy in regulating cell migration. In a wound-healing assay, we observed that autophagy was reduced in cells at the leading edge than in cells located rearward. These differences in autophagy were correlated with the robustness of MTOR activity. The spatial difference in the accumulation of autophagic structures was not detected in rapamycin-treated cells, which had less migration capacity than untreated cells. In contrast, the knockdown of the autophagic protein ATG7 stimulated cell migration of HeLa cells. Accordingly, atg3(-/-) and atg5(-/-) MEFs have greater cell migration properties than their wild-type counterparts. Stimulation of autophagy increased the co-localization of β1 integrin-containing vesicles with LC3-stained autophagic vacuoles. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy slowed down the lysosomal degradation of internalized β1 integrins and promoted its membrane recycling. From these findings, we conclude that autophagy regulates cell migration, a central mechanism in cell development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression, by mitigating the cell surface expression of β1 integrins.
|Rap1 GTPase activation and barrier enhancement in rpe inhibits choroidal neovascularization in vivo. |
Wittchen, ES; Nishimura, E; McCloskey, M; Wang, H; Quilliam, LA; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, M; Hartnett, ME
PloS one 8 e73070 2013
Loss of barrier integrity precedes the development of pathologies such as metastasis, inflammatory disorders, and blood-retinal barrier breakdown present in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Rap1 GTPase is involved in regulating both endothelial and epithelial cell junctions; the specific role of Rap1A vs. Rap1B isoforms is less clear. Compromise of retinal pigment epithelium barrier function is a contributing factor to the development of AMD. We utilized shRNA of Rap1 isoforms in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells, along with knockout mouse models to test the role of Rap1 on promoting RPE barrier properties, with emphasis on the dynamic junctional regulation that is triggered when the adhesion between cells is challenged. In vitro, Rap1A shRNA reduced steady-state barrier integrity, whereas Rap1B shRNA affected dynamic junctional responses. In a laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model of macular degeneration, Rap1b(-/-) mice exhibited larger CNV volumes compared to wild-type or Rap1a(-/-) . In vivo, intravitreal injection of a cAMP analog (8CPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) that is a known Rap1 activator significantly reduced laser-induced CNV volume, which correlated with the inhibition of CEC transmigration across 8CPT-2'O-Me-cAMP-treated RPE monolayers in vitro. Rap1 activation by 8CPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP treatment increased recruitment of junctional proteins and F-actin to cell-cell contacts, increasing both the linearity of junctions in vitro and in cells surrounding laser-induced lesions in vivo. We conclude that in vitro, Rap1A may be important for steady state barrier integrity, while Rap1B is involved more in dynamic junctional responses such as resistance to junctional disassembly induced by EGTA and reassembly of cell junctions following disruption. Furthermore, activation of Rap1 in vivo inhibited development of choroidal neovascular lesions in a laser-injury model. Our data suggest that targeting Rap1 isoforms in vivo with 8CPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP may be a viable pharmacological means to strengthen the RPE barrier against the pathological choroidal endothelial cell invasion that occurs in macular degeneration.
|Cell-specific post-transcriptional regulation of γ-synuclein gene by micro-RNAs. |
Surgucheva, I; Gunewardena, S; Rao, HS; Surguchov, A
PloS one 8 e73786 2013
γ-Synuclein is a member of the synucleins family of small proteins, which consists of three members:α, β- and γ-synuclein. γ-Synuclein is abnormally expressed in a high percentage of advanced and metastatic tumors, but not in normal or benign tissues. Furthermore, γ-synuclein expression is strongly correlated with disease progression, and can stimulate proliferation, induce invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. γ-Synuclein transcription is regulated basically through the binding of AP-1 to specific sequences in intron 1. Here we show that γ-synuclein expression may be also regulated by micro RNAs (miRs) on post-transcriptional level. According to prediction by several methods, the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of γ-synuclein gene contains targets for miRs. Insertion of γ-synuclein 3'-UTR downstream of the reporter luciferase (LUC) gene causes a 51% reduction of LUC activity after transfection into SKBR3 and Y79 cells, confirming the presence of efficient targets for miRs in this fragment. Expression of miR-4437 and miR-4674 for which putative targets in 3'-UTR were predicted caused a 61.2% and 60.1% reduction of endogenous γ-synuclein expression confirming their role in gene expression regulation. On the other hand, in cells overexpressing γ-synuclein no significant effect of miRs on γ-synuclein expression was found suggesting that miRs exert their regulatory effect only at low or moderate, but not at high level of γ-synuclein expression. Elevated level of γ-synuclein differentially changes the level of several miRs expression, upregulating the level of some miRs and downregulating the level of others. Three miRs upregulated as a result of γ-synuclein overexpression, i.e., miR-885-3p, miR-138 and miR-497 have putative targets in 3'-UTR of the γ-synuclein gene. Some of miRs differentially regulated by γ-synuclein may modulate signaling pathways and cancer related gene expression. This study demonstrates that miRs might provide cell-specific regulation of γ-synuclein expression and set the stage to further evaluate their role in pathophysiological processes.
|Regulation of Gγ-globin gene by ATF2 and its associated proteins through the cAMP-response element. |
Liu, L; Karmakar, S; Dhar, R; Mahajan, M; Choudhury, A; Weissman, S; Pace, BS
PloS one 8 e78253 2013
The upstream Gγ-globin cAMP-response element (G-CRE) plays an important role in regulating Gγ-globin expression through binding of ATF2 and its DNA-binding partners defined in this study. ATF2 knockdown resulted in a significant reduction of γ-globin expression accompanied by decreased ATF2 binding to the G-CRE. By contrast, stable ATF2 expression in K562 cells increased γ-globin transcription which was reduced by ATF2 knockdown. Moreover, a similar effect of ATF2 on γ-globin expression was observed in primary erythroid progenitors. To understand the role of ATF2 in γ-globin expression, chromatographically purified G-CRE/ATF2-interacting proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis; major binding partners included CREB1, cJun, Brg1, and histone deacetylases among others. Immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated interaction of these proteins with ATF2 and in vivo GCRE binding in CD34(+) cells undergoing erythroid differentiation which was correlated with γ-globin expression during development. These results suggest synergism between developmental stage-specific recruitments of the ATF2 protein complex and expression of γ-globin during erythropoiesis. Microarray studies in K562 cells support ATF2 plays diverse roles in hematopoiesis and chromatin remodeling.
|Cytotoxicity of withaferin A in glioblastomas involves induction of an oxidative stress-mediated heat shock response while altering Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. |
Grogan, PT; Sleder, KD; Samadi, AK; Zhang, H; Timmermann, BN; Cohen, MS
Investigational new drugs 31 545-57 2013
Withaferin A (WA), a steroidal lactone derived from the plant Vassobia breviflora, has been reported to have anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-angiogenic properties against cancer growth. In this study, we identified several key underlying mechanisms of anticancer action of WA in glioblastoma cells. WA was found to inhibit proliferation by inducing a dose-dependent G2/M cell cycle arrest and promoting cell death through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. This was accompanied by an inhibitory shift in the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway which included diminished expression and/or phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70 S6K, and p85 S6K with increased activation of AMPKα and the tumor suppressor tuberin/TSC2. Alterations in proteins of the MAPK pathway and cell surface receptors like EGFR, Her2/ErbB2, and c-Met were also observed. WA induced an N-acetyl-L-cysteine-repressible enhancement in cellular oxidative potential/stress with subsequent induction of a heat shock stress response primarily through HSP70, HSP32, and HSP27 upregulation and HSF1 downregulation. Taken together, we suggest that WA may represent a promising chemotherapeutic candidate in glioblastoma therapy warranting further translational evaluation.
|The homeobox transcription factor Prox1 inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inducing p53-dependent senescence-like phenotype. |
Chang, TM; Hung, WC
Cancer biology & therapy 14 222-9 2013
The homeobox transcription factor Prox1 is highly expressed in adult hepatocytes and is involved in the regulation of bile acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver by interacting with other transcriptional activators or repressors. Recent studies showed that Prox1 could inhibit proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and reduced Prox1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. However, the underlying mechanism by which Prox1 attenuates HCC growth is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that Prox1 induced senescence-like phenotype of HCC cells to reduce cell proliferation. Our results indicated that the tumor suppressor p53 is a key mediator of Prox1-induced growth suppression because Prox1 only induced senescence-like phenotype in HCC cells harboring wild type p53. In addition, knockdown of p53 by shRNA reversed the effect of Prox1. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay did not demonstrate the direct binding of Prox1 to proximal promoter of human p53 gene suggesting Prox1 might not directly activate p53 transcription. We found that Prox1 suppressed Twist expression in HCC cells and subsequently relieved its inhibition on p53 gene transcription. The involvement of Twist in the regulation of p53 by Prox1 was supported by the following evidence: (1) Prox1 inhibited Twist expression and promoter activity; (2) knockdown of Twist in SK-HEP-1 cells upregulated p53 expression and (3) ectopic expression of Twist counteracted Prox1-induced p53 transcription and senescence-like phenotype. We also indentified an E-box located at p53 promoter which is required for Twist to inhibit p53 expression. Finally, our animal experiment confirmed that Prox1 suppressed HCC growth in vivo. Collectively, we conclude that Prox1 suppresses proliferation of HCC cells via inhibiting Twist to trigger p53-dependent senescence-like phenotype.
|Therapeutic effects of microRNA-582-5p and -3p on the inhibition of bladder cancer progression. |
Uchino, K; Takeshita, F; Takahashi, RU; Kosaka, N; Fujiwara, K; Naruoka, H; Sonoke, S; Yano, J; Sasaki, H; Nozawa, S; Yoshiike, M; Kitajima, K; Chikaraishi, T; Ochiya, T
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 21 610-9 2013
Many reports have indicated that the abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is associated with the progression of disease and have identified miRNAs as attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. However, the bifunctional mechanisms of miRNA guide and passenger strands in RNA interference (RNAi) therapy have not yet been clarified. Here, we show that miRNA (miR)-582-5p and -3p, which are strongly decreased in high-grade bladder cancer clinical samples, regulate tumor progression in vitro and in vivo. Significantly, the overexpression of miR-582-5p or -3p reduced the proliferation and invasion of UM-UC-3 human bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, transurethral injections of synthetic miR-582 molecule suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in an animal model of bladder cancer. Most interestingly, our study revealed that both strands of miR-582-5p and -3p suppressed the expression of the same set of target genes such as protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I beta subunit (PGGT1B), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) and DIX domain containing 1 (DIXDC1). Knockdown of these genes using small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in the inhibition of cell growth and invasiveness of UM-UC-3. These findings uncover the unique regulatory pathway involving tumor suppression by both strands of a single miRNA that is a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer.
|Pharmacological inhibition of polycomb repressive complex-2 activity induces apoptosis in human colon cancer stem cells. |
Benoit, YD; Witherspoon, MS; Laursen, KB; Guezguez, A; Beauséjour, M; Beaulieu, JF; Lipkin, SM; Gudas, LJ
Experimental cell research 319 1463-70 2013
Colorectal cancer is among the leading causes of cancer death in the USA. The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), including core components SUZ12 and EZH2, represents a key epigenetic regulator of digestive epithelial cell physiology and was previously shown to promote deleterious effects in a number of human cancers, including colon. Using colon cancer stem cells (CCSC) isolated from human primary colorectal tumors, we demonstrate that SUZ12 knockdown and treatment with DZNep, one of the most potent EZH2 inhibitors, increase apoptosis levels, marked by decreased Akt phosphorylation, in CCSCs, while embryonic stem (ES) cell survival is not affected. Moreover, DZNep treatments lead to increased PTEN expression in these highly tumorigenic cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PRC2 histone methyltransferase activity may constitute a new, epigenetic therapeutic strategy to target highly tumorigenic and metastatic colon cancer stem cells.
|PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase is necessary for lipogenic activation during HCMV infection. |
Yu, Y; Pierciey, FJ; Maguire, TG; Alwine, JC
PLoS pathogens 9 e1003266 2013
PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) is an ER-associated stress sensor protein which phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) to induce translation attenuation in response to ER stress. PERK is also a regulator of lipogenesis during adipocyte differentiation through activation of the cleavage of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), resulting in the upregulation of lipogenic enzymes. Our recent studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in human fibroblasts (HF) induces adipocyte-like lipogenesis through the activation of SREBP1. Here, we report that PERK expression is highly increased in HCMV-infected cells and is necessary for HCMV growth. Depletion of PERK, using short hairpin RNA (shRNA), resulted in attenuation of HCMV growth, inhibition of lipid synthesis and reduction of lipogenic gene expression. Examination of the cleavage of SREBP proteins showed PERK depletion inhibited the cleavage of SREBP1, but not SREBP2, in HCMV-infected cells, suggesting different cleavage regulatory mechanisms for SREBP1 and 2. Further studies showed that the depletion of SREBP1, but not SREBP2, reduced lipid synthesis in HCMV infection, suggesting that activation of SREBP1 is sufficient to induce lipogenesis in HCMV infection. The reduction of lipid synthesis by PERK depletion can be partially restored by expressing a Flag-tagged nuclear form of SREBP1a. Our studies also suggest that the induction of PERK in HCMV-infected cells stimulates SREBP1 cleavage by reducing levels of Insig1 (Insulin inducible gene 1) protein; this occurs independent of the phosphorylation of eIF2α. Introduction of an exogenous Insig1-Myc into HCMV infected cells significantly reduced HCMV growth and lipid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that the induction of PERK during HCMV infection is necessary for full activation of lipogenesis; this effect appears to be mediated by limiting the levels of Insig1 thus freeing SREBP1-SCAP complexes for SREBP1 processing.
|Brain tumor regulates neuromuscular synapse growth and endocytosis in Drosophila by suppressing mad expression. |
Shi, W; Chen, Y; Gan, G; Wang, D; Ren, J; Wang, Q; Xu, Z; Xie, W; Zhang, YQ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 12352-63 2013
The precise regulation of synaptic growth is critical for the proper formation and plasticity of functional neural circuits. Identification and characterization of factors that regulate synaptic growth and function have been under intensive investigation. Here we report that brain tumor (brat), which was identified as a translational repressor in multiple biological processes, plays a crucial role at Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that brat mutants exhibited synaptic overgrowth characterized by excess satellite boutons at NMJ terminals, whereas electron microscopy revealed increased synaptic vesicle size but reduced density at active zones compared with wild-types. Spontaneous miniature excitatory junctional potential amplitudes were larger and evoked quantal content was lower at brat mutant NMJs. In agreement with the morphological and physiological phenotypes, loss of Brat resulted in reduced FM1-43 uptake at the NMJ terminals, indicating that brat regulates synaptic endocytosis. Genetic analysis revealed that the actions of Brat at synapses are mediated through mothers against decapentaplegic (Mad), the signal transduction effector of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway. Furthermore, biochemical analyses showed upregulated levels of Mad protein but normal mRNA levels in the larval brains of brat mutants, suggesting that Brat suppresses Mad translation. Consistently, knockdown of brat by RNA interference in Drosophila S2 cells also increased Mad protein level. These results together reveal an important and previously unidentified role for Brat in synaptic development and endocytosis mediated by suppression of BMP signaling.
|Transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) knock-in ameliorates inflammation due to TGF-β1 deficiency while promoting glucose tolerance. |
Hall, BE; Wankhade, UD; Konkel, JE; Cherukuri, K; Nagineni, CN; Flanders, KC; Arany, PR; Chen, W; Rane, SG; Kulkarni, AB
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 32074-92 2013
Three homologues of TGF-β exist in mammals as follows: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. All three proteins share high homology in their amino acid sequence, yet each TGF-β isoform has unique heterologous motifs that are highly conserved during evolution. Although these TGF-β proteins share similar properties in vitro, isoform-specific properties have been suggested through in vivo studies and by the unique phenotypes for each TGF-β knock-out mouse. To test our hypothesis that each of these homologues has nonredundant functions, and to identify such isoform-specific roles, we genetically exchanged the coding sequence of the mature TGF-β1 ligand with a sequence from TGF-β3 using targeted recombination to create chimeric TGF-β1/3 knock-in mice (TGF-β1(Lβ3/Lβ3)). In the TGF-β1(Lβ3/Lβ3) mouse, localization and activation still occur through the TGF-β1 latent associated peptide, but cell signaling is triggered through the TGF-β3 ligand that binds to TGF-β receptors. Unlike TGF-β1(-/-) mice, the TGF-β1(Lβ3/Lβ3) mice show neither embryonic lethality nor signs of multifocal inflammation, demonstrating that knock-in of the TGF-β3 ligand can prevent the vasculogenesis defects and autoimmunity associated with TGF-β1 deficiency. However, the TGF-β1(Lβ3/Lβ3) mice have a shortened life span and display tooth and bone defects, indicating that the TGF-β homologues are not completely interchangeable. Remarkably, the TGF-β1(Lβ3/Lβ3) mice display an improved metabolic phenotype with reduced body weight gain and enhanced glucose tolerance by induction of beneficial changes to the white adipose tissue compartment. These findings reveal both redundant and unique nonoverlapping functional diversity in TGF-β isoform signaling that has relevance to the design of therapeutics aimed at targeting the TGF-β pathway in human disease.
|Autophagy defect is associated with low glucose-induced apoptosis in 661W photoreceptor cells. |
Balmer, D; Emery, M; Andreux, P; Auwerx, J; Ginet, V; Puyal, J; Schorderet, DF; Roduit, R
PloS one 8 e74162 2013
Glucose is an important metabolic substrate of the retina and diabetic patients have to maintain a strict normoglycemia to avoid diabetes secondary effects, including cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. Others and we recently demonstrated the potential role of hypoglycemia in diabetic retinopathy. We showed acute hypoglycemia to induce retinal cell death both in vivo during an hyperinsulinemic/hypoglycemic clamp and in vitro in 661W photoreceptor cells cultured at low glucose concentration. In the present study, we showed low glucose to induce a decrease of BCL2 and BCL-XL anti-apoptotic proteins expression, leading to an increase of free pro-apoptotic BAX. In parallel, we showed that, in retinal cells, low glucose-induced apoptosis is involved in the process of autophagosomes formation through the AMPK/RAPTOR/mTOR pathway. Moreover, the decrease of LAMP2a expression led to a defect in the autophagosome/lysosome fusion process. Specific inhibition of autophagy, either by 3-methyladenine or by down-regulation of ATG5 or ATG7 proteins expression, increased caspase 3 activation and 661W cell death. We show that low glucose modifies the delicate equilibrium between apoptosis and autophagy. Cells struggled against low nutrient condition-induced apoptosis by starting an autophagic process, which led to cell death when inhibited. We conclude that autophagy defect is associated with low glucose-induced 661W cells death that could play a role in diabetic retinopathy. These results could modify the way of addressing negative effects of hypoglycemia. Short-term modulation of autophagy could be envisioned to treat diabetic patients in order to avoid secondary complications of the disease.
|Adenovirus E4orf4 protein-induced death of p53-/- H1299 human cancer cells follows a G1 arrest of both tetraploid and diploid cells due to a failure to initiate DNA synthesis. |
Cabon, L; Sriskandarajah, N; Mui, MZ; Teodoro, JG; Blanchette, P; Branton, PE
Journal of virology 87 13168-78 2013
The adenovirus E4orf4 protein selectively kills human cancer cells independently of p53 and thus represents a potentially promising tool for the development of novel antitumor therapies. Previous studies suggested that E4orf4 induces an arrest or a delay in mitosis and that both this effect and subsequent cell death rely largely on an interaction with the B55 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. In the present report, we show that the death of human H1299 lung carcinoma cells induced by expression of E4orf4 is typified not by an accumulation of cells arrested in mitosis but rather by the presence of both tetraploid and diploid cells that are arrested in G1 because they are unable to initiate DNA synthesis. We believe that these E4orf4-expressing cells eventually die by various processes, including those resulting from mitotic catastrophe.
|Expression of NPAS3 in the human cortex and evidence of its posttranscriptional regulation by miR-17 during development, with implications for schizophrenia. |
Wong, J; Duncan, CE; Beveridge, NJ; Webster, MJ; Cairns, MJ; Weickert, CS
Schizophrenia bulletin 39 396-406 2013
NPAS3 is a developmentally important transcription factor that has been associated with psychiatric illness. Our aim is to better define the regulation of NPAS3 mRNA (messenger RNA) levels during normal human prefrontal cortical development and in schizophrenia. Utilizing postmortem tissue from 134 human brains, we assessed: 60 normal brains ranging in age from birth to adulthood, 37 chronic individuals with schizophrenia, and 37 matched controls. mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expressions were measured by microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Protein expression was measured by Western blotting. During human postnatal cortical development (neonate to adult), we found decreased NPAS3 mRNA yet increased NPAS3 protein expression, suggesting the involvement of posttranscriptional regulation. Through screening, we identified one NPAS-targeted miRNA (miR-17) that changed in a pattern consistent with the developmental regulation of NPAS3. Using luciferase reporter assays, we assessed the impact of miR-17 on NPAS3 translation and demonstrated that miR-17 alters NPAS3 biosynthesis by binding to the NPAS3 3'untranslated region (UTR). In schizophrenia prefrontal cortex, we found significant elevations in miR-17 expression. While NPAS3 mRNA was unaltered, reduced NPAS3 protein expression was detected in a subpopulation of people with schizophrenia. The reciprocal expression of NPAS3 mRNA and protein during postnatal development mediated by a schizophrenia-associated change in miR-17 suggests that there is complex control over NPAS3 synthesis in the human prefrontal cortex and that if NPAS3 is dysregulated in schizophrenia, it is not evident by large changes in NPAS3 expression. Further studies into how changes in NPAS3 or its miRNA regulator may influence the development of schizophrenia are warranted.
|Cyclin T1 and CDK9 T-loop phosphorylation are downregulated during establishment of HIV-1 latency in primary resting memory CD4+ T cells. |
Budhiraja, S; Famiglietti, M; Bosque, A; Planelles, V; Rice, AP
Journal of virology 87 1211-20 2013
P-TEFb, a cellular kinase composed of Cyclin T1 and CDK9, is essential for processive HIV-1 transcription. P-TEFb activity is dependent on phosphorylation of Thr186 in the CDK9 T loop. In resting CD4(+) T cells which are nonpermissive for HIV-1 replication, the levels of Cyclin T1 and T-loop-phosphorylated CDK9 are very low but increase significantly upon cellular activation. Little is known about how P-TEFb activity and expression are regulated in resting central memory CD4(+) T cells, one of the main reservoirs of latent HIV-1. We used an in vitro primary cell model of HIV-1 latency to show that P-TEFb availability in resting memory CD4(+) T cells is governed by the differential expression and phosphorylation of its subunits. This is in contrast to previous observations in dividing cells, where P-TEFb can be regulated by its sequestration in the 7SK RNP complex. We find that resting CD4(+) T cells, whether naïve or memory and independent of their infection status, have low levels of Cyclin T1 and T-loop-phosphorylated CDK9, which increase upon activation. We also show that the decrease in Cyclin T1 protein upon the acquisition of a memory phenotype is in part due to proteasome-mediated proteolysis and likely also to posttranscriptional downregulation by miR-150. We also found that HEXIM1 levels are very low in ex vivo- and in vitro-generated resting memory CD4(+) T cells, thus limiting the sequestration of P-TEFb in the 7SK RNP complex, indicating that this mechanism is unlikely to be a driver of viral latency in this cell type.
|Expression of human E46K-mutated α-synuclein in BAC-transgenic rats replicates early-stage Parkinson's disease features and enhances vulnerability to mitochondrial impairment. |
Cannon, JR; Geghman, KD; Tapias, V; Sew, T; Dail, MK; Li, C; Greenamyre, JT
Experimental neurology 240 44-56 2013
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, is etiologically heterogeneous, with most cases thought to arise from a combination of environmental factors and genetic predisposition; about 10% of cases are caused by single gene mutations. While neurotoxin models replicate many of the key behavioral and neurological features, they often have limited relevance to human exposures. Genetic models replicate known disease-causing mutations, but are mostly unsuccessful in reproducing major features of PD. In this study, we created a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic rat model of PD expressing the E46K mutation of α-synuclein, which is pathogenic in humans. The mutant protein was expressed at levels ~2-3-fold above endogenous α-synuclein levels. At 12 months of age, there was no overt damage to the nigrostriatal dopamine system; however, (i) alterations in striatal neurotransmitter metabolism, (ii) accumulation and aggregation of α-synuclein in nigral dopamine neurons, and (iii) evidence of oxidative stress suggest this model replicates several preclinical features of PD. Further, when these animals were exposed to rotenone, a mitochondrial toxin linked to PD, they showed heightened sensitivity, indicating that α-synuclein expression modulates the vulnerability to mitochondrial impairment. We conclude that these animals are well-suited to examination of gene-environment interactions that are relevant to PD.
|Molecular basis of the essential s phase function of the rad53 checkpoint kinase. |
Hoch, NC; Chen, ES; Buckland, R; Wang, SC; Fazio, A; Hammet, A; Pellicioli, A; Chabes, A; Tsai, MD; Heierhorst, J
Molecular and cellular biology 33 3202-13 2013
The essential yeast kinases Mec1 and Rad53, or human ATR and Chk1, are crucial for checkpoint responses to exogenous genotoxic agents, but why they are also required for DNA replication in unperturbed cells remains poorly understood. Here we report that even in the absence of DNA-damaging agents, the rad53-4AQ mutant, lacking the N-terminal Mec1 phosphorylation site cluster, is synthetic lethal with a deletion of the RAD9 DNA damage checkpoint adaptor. This phenotype is caused by an inability of rad53-4AQ to activate the downstream kinase Dun1, which then leads to reduced basal deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels, spontaneous replication fork stalling, and constitutive activation of and dependence on S phase DNA damage checkpoints. Surprisingly, the kinase-deficient rad53-K227A mutant does not share these phenotypes but is rendered inviable by additional phosphosite mutations that prevent its binding to Dun1. The results demonstrate that ultralow Rad53 catalytic activity is sufficient for normal replication of undamaged chromosomes as long as it is targeted toward activation of the effector kinase Dun1. Our findings indicate that the essential S phase function of Rad53 is comprised by the combination of its role in regulating basal dNTP levels and its compensatory kinase function if dNTP levels are perturbed.
|Phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II is independent of P-TEFb in the C. elegans germline. |
Bowman, EA; Bowman, CR; Ahn, JH; Kelly, WG
Development (Cambridge, England) 140 3703-13 2013
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) elongation in metazoans is thought to require phosphorylation of serine 2 (Ser2-P) of the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) by the P-TEFb complex, CDK-9/cyclin T. Another Ser2 kinase complex, CDK-12/cyclin K, which requires upstream CDK-9 activity has been identified in Drosophila and human cells. We show that regulation of Ser2-P in C. elegans soma is similar to other metazoan systems, but Ser2-P in the germline is independent of CDK-9, and largely requires only CDK-12. The observed differences are not due to differential tissue expression as both kinases and their cyclin partners are ubiquitously expressed. Surprisingly, loss of CDK-9 from germ cells has little effect on Ser2-P, yet CDK-9 is essential for germline development. By contrast, loss of CDK-12 and Ser2-P specifically from germ cells has little impact on germline development or function, although significant loss of co-transcriptional H3K36 trimethylation is observed. These results show a reduced requirement for Pol II Ser2-P in germline development and suggest that generating Ser2-P is not the essential role of CDK-9 in these cells. Transcriptional elongation in the C. elegans germline thus appears to be uniquely regulated, which may be a novel facet of germline identity.
|The Src substrate SKAP2 regulates actin assembly by interacting with WAVE2 and cortactin proteins. |
Shimamura, S; Sasaki, K; Tanaka, M
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 1171-83 2013
In our attempt to screen for substrates of Src family kinases in glioblastoma, Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 2 (SKAP2) was identified. Although SKAP2 has been suggested to be associated with integrin-mediated adhesion of hematopoietic cells, little is known about its molecular function and the effects in other types of cells and tumors. Here, we demonstrate that SKAP2 physically associates with actin assembly factors WAVE2 and cortactin and inhibits their interaction. Cortactin is required for the membrane localization of WAVE2, and SKAP2 suppresses actin polymerization mediated by WAVE2 and cortactin in vitro. Knockdown of SKAP2 in NIH3T3 accelerated cell migration and enhanced translocation of WAVE2 to the cell membrane, and those effects of SKAP2 depend on the binding activity of SKAP2 to WAVE2. Furthermore, reduction of SKAP2 in the glioblastoma promoted tumor invasion both in ex vivo organotypic rat brain slices and immune-deficient mouse brains. These results suggest that SKAP2 negatively regulates cell migration and tumor invasion in fibroblasts and glioblastoma cells by suppressing actin assembly induced by the WAVE2-cortactin complex, indicating that SKAP2 may be a novel candidate for the suppressor of tumor progression.
|STOP gene Phactr4 is a tumor suppressor. |
Solimini, NL; Liang, AC; Xu, C; Pavlova, NN; Xu, Q; Davoli, T; Li, MZ; Wong, KK; Elledge, SJ
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 E407-14 2013
Cancer develops through genetic and epigenetic alterations that allow unrestrained proliferation and increased survival. Using a genetic RNAi screen, we previously identified hundreds of suppressors of tumorigenesis and/or proliferation (STOP) genes that restrain normal cell proliferation. Our STOP gene set was significantly enriched for known and putative tumor suppressor genes. Here, we report a tumor-suppressive role for one STOP gene, phosphatase and actin regulator 4 (PHACTR4). Phactr4 is one of four members of the largely uncharacterized Phactr family of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-and actin-binding proteins. Our work suggests that Phactr4 restrains normal cell proliferation and transformation. Depletion of Phactr4 with multiple shRNAs leads to increased proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Phactr4 acts, in part, through an Rb-dependent pathway, because Rb phosphorylation is maintained upon growth factor withdrawal in Phactr4-depleted cells. Examination of tumor copy number analysis and sequencing revealed that PHACTR4 is significantly deleted and mutant in many tumor subtypes. Furthermore,cancer cell lines with reduced Phactr4 expression exhibit tumor suppressor hypersensitivity upon Phactr4 complementation,leading to reduced proliferation, transformation, and tumor formation. Thus, Phactr4 acts as a tumor suppressor that is deleted and mutant in several cancers.
|Directed evolution of a virus exclusively utilizing human epidermal growth factor receptor as the entry receptor. |
Dai, HS; Liu, Z; Jiang, W; Kuhn, RJ
Journal of virology 87 11231-43 2013
Rational design and directed evolution are powerful tools to generate and improve protein function; however, their uses are mostly limited to enzyme and antibody engineering. Here we describe a directed-evolution strategy, named the tandem selection and enrichment system (TSES), and its use in generating virus with exclusive specificity for a particular cellular receptor. In TSES, evolving viruses are sequentially and iteratively transferred between two different host cells, one for selection of receptor specificity and the other for enrichment of the fittest virus. By combining rational design and TSES, we generated human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific virus 1 (ESV1). ESV1 has the backbone of Sindbis virus (SINV) and displays an EGF domain engrafted onto structural protein E2 after residue Pro192, together with eight amino acid changes stabilizing the E2-EGF chimera. ESV1 uses EGFR to initiate infection and has lost the capacity to interact with all known SINV receptors. A 12.2-Å cryoelectron microscopic (cryoEM) reconstruction of ESV1 reveals that the E2-EGF fusion adopts a fixed conformation, with EGF sitting at the top of the E2 spike; The EGFR binding interface faces outward, and the EGF domain completely masks SINV receptor binding. The cryoEM structure of ESV1 explains the desirable properties of ESV1 and provides insights for its further modification. TSES expands the scope of directed evolution and can be easily extended to other targeting molecules and viral systems.
|Overexpression of meloe gene in melanomas is controlled both by specific transcription factors and hypomethylation. |
Bobinet, M; Vignard, V; Florenceau, L; Lang, F; Labarriere, N; Moreau-Aubry, A
PloS one 8 e75421 2013
The melanoma antigens MELOE-1 and MELOE-2 are encoded by a messenger, called meloe, overexpressed in melanomas compared with other tumour cell types and healthy tissues. They are both able to elicit melanoma-specific T cell responses in melanoma patients, and MELOE-1-specific CD8 T cells have been involved in melanoma immunosurveillance. With the aim to develop immunotherapies targeting this antigen, we investigated the transcriptional mechanisms leading to the preferential expression of meloe messenger in the melanocytic lineage. We defined the minimal promoter region of meloe gene and identified binding motifs for a set of transcription factors. Using mutagenesis, co-transfection experiments and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we showed that transcription factors involved in meloe promoter activity in melanomas were the melanocytic specific SOX9 and SOX10 proteins together with the activated P-CREB protein. Furthermore, we showed that meloe promoter was hypomethylated in melanomas and melanocytes, and hypermethylated in colon cancer cell lines and mesotheliomas, thus explaining the absence of P-CREB binding in these cell lines. This was a second key to explain the overerexpression of meloe messenger in the melanocytic lineage. To our knowledge, such a dual transcriptional control conferring tissue-specificity has never been described for the expression of tumour antigens.
|Inhibition of PRC2 histone methyltransferase activity increases TRAIL-mediated apoptosis sensitivity in human colon cancer cells. |
Benoit, YD; Laursen, KB; Witherspoon, MS; Lipkin, SM; Gudas, LJ
Journal of cellular physiology 228 764-72 2013
Colorectal cancer is ranked among the top leading causes of cancer death in industrialized populations. Polycomb group proteins, including Suz12 and Ezh2, are epigenetic regulatory proteins that act as transcriptional repressors of many differentiation-associated genes and are overexpressed in a large subset of colorectal cancers. Retinoic acid (RA) acts as a negative regulator of PcG actions in stem cells, but has shown limited therapeutic potential in some solid tumors, including colorectal cancer, in part because of retinoic acid receptor β silencing. Through treatment with RA, Suz12 shRNA knockdown, or Ezh2 pharmacological inhibition with 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), we increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cell lines. This increased apoptosis in human colon cancer cells after RA or DZNep treatment was associated with a ~2.5-fold increase in TNFRSF10B (DR5) transcript levels and a 42% reduction in the H3K27me3 epigenetic mark at the TNFRSF10B promoter after DZNep addition. Taken together, our findings indicate that pharmacological inhibition of Polycomb repressive complex 2 histone methyltransferase activity may constitute a new epigenetic therapeutic strategy to overcome RA non-responsiveness in a subset of colorectal tumors by increasing TRAIL-mediated apoptosis sensitivity.
|Autophagy is involved in endogenous and NVP-AUY922-induced KIT degradation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. |
Hsueh, YS; Yen, CC; Shih, NY; Chiang, NJ; Li, CF; Chen, LT
Autophagy 9 220-33 2013
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a prototype of mutant KIT oncogene-driven tumor. Prolonged tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment may result in a resistant phenotype through acquired secondary KIT mutation. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90AA1) is a chaperone protein responsible for protein maturation and stability, and KIT is a known client protein of HSP90AA1. Inhibition of HSP90AA1 has been shown to destabilize KIT protein by enhancing its degradation via the proteasome-dependent pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that NVP-AUY922 (AUY922), a new class of HSP90AA1 inhibitor, is effective in inhibiting the growth of GIST cells expressing mutant KIT protein, the imatinib-sensitive GIST882 and imatinib-resistant GIST48 cells. The growth inhibition was accompanied with a sustained reduction of both total and phosphorylated KIT proteins and the induction of apoptosis in both cell lines. Surprisingly, AUY922-induced KIT reduction could be partially reversed by pharmacological inhibition of either autophagy or proteasome degradation pathway. The blockade of autophagy alone led to the accumulation of the KIT protein, highlighting the role of autophagy in endogenous KIT turnover. The involvement of autophagy in endogenous and AUY922-induced KIT protein turnover was further confirmed by the colocalization of KIT with MAP1LC3B-, acridine orange- or SQSTM1-labeled autophagosome, and by the accumulation of KIT in GIST cells by silencing either BECN1 or ATG5 to disrupt autophagosome activity. Therefore, the results not only highlight the potential application of AUY922 for the treatment of KIT-expressing GISTs, but also provide the first evidence for the involvement of autophagy in endogenous and HSP90AA1 inhibitor-induced KIT degradation.
|RhoB modifies estrogen responses in breast cancer cells by influencing expression of the estrogen receptor. |
Médale-Giamarchi, C; Lajoie-Mazenc, I; Malissein, E; Meunier, E; Couderc, B; Bergé, Y; Filleron, T; Keller, L; Marty, C; Lacroix-Triki, M; Dalenc, F; Doisneau-Sixou, SF; Favre, G
Breast cancer research : BCR 15 R6 2013
RhoB has been reported to exert positive and negative effects on cancer pathophysiology but an understanding of its role in breast cancer remains incomplete. Analysis of data from the Oncomine database showed a positive correlation between RhoB expression and positivity for both estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR).This finding was validated by our analysis of a tissue microarray constructed from a cohort of 113 patients and then investigated in human cell models.We found that RhoB expression in tissue was strongly correlated with ERα and PR expression and inversely correlated with tumor grade, tumor size and count of mitosis. In human breast cancer cell lines, RhoB attenuation was associated with reduced expression of both ERα and PR, whereas elevation of RhoB was found to be associated with ERα overexpression. Mechanistic investigations suggested that RhoB modulates ERα expression, controlling both its protein and mRNA levels, and that RhoB modulates PR expression by accentuating the recruitment of ERα and other major co-regulators to the promoter of PR gene. A major consequence of RhoB modulation was that RhoB differentially regulated the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we documented crosstalk between RhoB and ERα, with estrogen treatment leading to RhoB activation.Taken together, our findings offer evidence that in human breast cancer RhoB acts as a positive function to promote expression of ERα and PR in a manner correlated with cell proliferation.
|Age-dependent molecular alterations in the autophagy pathway in HIVE patients and in a gp120 tg mouse model: reversal with beclin-1 gene transfer. |
Fields, J; Dumaop, W; Rockenstein, E; Mante, M; Spencer, B; Grant, I; Ellis, R; Letendre, S; Patrick, C; Adame, A; Masliah, E
Journal of neurovirology 19 89-101 2013
Aged (greater than 50 years old) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients are the fastest-growing segment of the HIV-infected population in the USA and despite antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) prevalence has increased or remained the same among this group. Autophagy is an intracellular clearance pathway for aggregated proteins and aged organelles; dysregulation of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and HAND. Here, we hypothesized that dysregulated autophagy may contribute to aging-related neuropathology in HIV-infected individuals. To explore this possibility, we surveyed autophagy marker levels in postmortem brain samples from a cohort of well-characterized less than 50 years old (young) and greater than 50 years old (aged) HIV+ and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) patients. Detailed clinical and neuropathological data showed the young and aged HIVE patients had higher viral load, increased neuroinflammation and elevated neurodegeneration; however, aged HIVE postmortem brain tissues showed the most severe neurodegenerative pathology. Interestingly, young HIVE patients displayed an increase in beclin-1, cathepsin-D and light chain (LC)3, but these autophagy markers were reduced in aged HIVE cases compared to age-matched HIV+ donors. Similar alterations in autophagy markers were observed in aged gp120 transgenic (tg) mice; beclin-1 and LC3 were decreased in aged gp120 tg mice while mTor levels were increased. Lentivirus-mediated beclin-1 gene transfer, that is known to activate autophagy pathways, increased beclin-1, LC3, and microtubule-associated protein 2 expression while reducing glial fibrillary acidic protein and Iba1 expression in aged gp120 tg mice. These data indicate differential alterations in the autophagy pathway in young versus aged HIVE patients and that autophagy reactivation may ameliorate the neurodegenerative phenotype in these patients.
|Depletion of molecular chaperones from the endoplasmic reticulum and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus associated with pathogenesis in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease. |
Numata, Y; Morimura, T; Nakamura, S; Hirano, E; Kure, S; Goto, YI; Inoue, K
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 7451-66 2013
Missense mutations in the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene cause a wide spectrum of hypomyelinating disorders, from mild spastic paraplegia type 2 to severe Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). Mutant PLP1 accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induces ER stress. However, the link between the clinical severity of PMD and the cellular response induced by mutant PLP1 remains largely unknown. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER generally leads to up-regulation of ER chaperones to alleviate ER stress. Here, we found that expression of the PLP1-A243V mutant, which causes severe disease, depletes some ER chaperones with a KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) motif, in HeLa cells, MO3.13 oligodendrocytic cells, and primary oligodendrocytes. The same PLP1 mutant also induces fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus (GA). These organelle changes are less prominent in cells with milder disease-associated PLP1 mutants. Similar changes are also observed in cells expressing another disease-causing gene that triggers ER stress, as well as in cells treated with brefeldin A, which induces ER stress and GA fragmentation by inhibiting GA to ER trafficking. We also found that mutant PLP1 disturbs localization of the KDEL receptor, which transports the chaperones with the KDEL motif from the GA to the ER. These data show that PLP1 mutants inhibit GA to ER trafficking, which reduces the supply of ER chaperones and induces GA fragmentation. We propose that depletion of ER chaperones and GA fragmentation induced by mutant misfolded proteins contribute to the pathogenesis of inherited ER stress-related diseases and affect the disease severity.
|A novel human endogenous retroviral protein inhibits cell-cell fusion. |
Sugimoto, J; Sugimoto, M; Bernstein, H; Jinno, Y; Schust, D
Scientific reports 3 1462 2013
While common in viral infections and neoplasia, spontaneous cell-cell fusion, or syncytialization, is quite restricted in healthy tissues. Such fusion is essential to human placental development, where interactions between trophoblast-specific human endogenous retroviral (HERV) envelope proteins, called syncytins, and their widely-distributed cell surface receptors are centrally involved. We have identified the first host cell-encoded protein that inhibits cell fusion in mammals. Like the syncytins, this protein, called suppressyn, is HERV-derived, placenta-specific and well-conserved over simian evolution. In vitro, suppressyn binds to the syn1 receptor and inhibits syn1-, but not syn2-mediated trophoblast syncytialization. Suppressyn knock-down promotes cell-cell fusion in trophoblast cells and cell-associated and secreted suppressyn binds to the syn1 receptor, ASCT2. Identification of the first host cell-encoded inhibitor of mammalian cell fusion may encourage improved understanding of cell fusion mechanisms, of placental morphogenesis and of diseases resulting from abnormal cell fusion.
|Hypofunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray contributes to nerve-injury-induced neuropathic pain. |
Ho, YC; Cheng, JK; Chiou, LC
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 7825-36 2013
Neuropathic pain, a chronic pain due to neuronal lesion, remains unaltered even after the injury-induced spinal afferent discharges have declined, suggesting an involvement of supraspinal dysfunction. The midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is known to be a crucial supraspinal region for initiating descending pain inhibition, but its role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. Therefore, here we examined neuroplastic changes in the vlPAG of midbrain slices isolated from neuropathic rats induced by L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL) via electrophysiological and neurochemical approaches. Significant mechanical hypersensitivity was induced in rats 2 d after SNL and lasted for greater than 14 d. Compared with the sham-operated group, vlPAG slices from neuropathic rats 3 and 10 days after SNL displayed smaller EPSCs with prolonged latency, less frequent and smaller miniature EPSCs, higher paired-pulse ratio of EPSCs, smaller AMPAR-mediated EPSCs, smaller AMPA currents, greater NMDAR-mediated EPSCs, greater NMDA currents, lower AMPAR-mediated/NMDAR-mediated ratios, and upregulation of the NR1 and NR2B subunits, but not the NR2A, GluR1, or GluR2 subunits, of glutamate receptors. There were no significant differences between day 3 and day 10 neuropathic groups. These results suggest that SNL leads to hypoglutamatergic neurotransmission in the vlPAG resulting from both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Upregulation of NMDARs might contribute to hypofunction of AMPARs via subcellular redistribution. Long-term hypoglutamatergic function in the vlPAG may lead to persistent reduction of descending pain inhibition, resulting in chronic neuropathic pain.
|RasGRF2 Rac-GEF activity couples NMDA receptor calcium flux to enhanced synaptic transmission. |
Schwechter, B; Rosenmund, C; Tolias, KF
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 14462-7 2013
Dendritic spines are the primary sites of excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain, and the morphology of these actin-rich structures correlates with synaptic function. Here we demonstrate a unique method for inducing spine enlargement and synaptic potentiation in dispersed hippocampal neurons, and use this technique to identify a coordinator of these processes; Ras-specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor 2 (RasGRF2). RasGRF2 is a dual Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that is known to be necessary for long-term potentiation in situ. Contrary to the prevailing assumption, we find RasGRF2's Rac-GEF activity to be essential for synaptic potentiation by using a molecular replacement strategy designed to dissociate Rac- from Ras-GEF activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rac1 activity itself is sufficient to rapidly modulate postsynaptic strength by using a photoactivatable derivative of this small GTPase. Because Rac1 is a major actin regulator, our results support a model where the initial phase of long-term potentiation is driven by the cytoskeleton.
|The soluble Decoy Receptor 3 is regulated by a PI3K-dependent mechanism and promotes migration and invasion in renal cell carcinoma. |
Weissinger, D; Tagscherer, KE; Macher-Göppinger, S; Haferkamp, A; Wagener, N; Roth, W
Molecular cancer 12 120 2013
Overexpression of Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), a soluble member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is a common event in several types of cancer. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), DcR3 overexpression is associated with lymph node and distant metastasis as well as a poor prognosis. However, the functional role and regulation of DcR3 expression in RCC is so far unknown.Modulation of DcR3 expression by siRNA and ectopic gene expression, respectively, was performed in ACHN and 769-P RCC cell lines. Functional effects of a modulated DcR3 expression were analyzed with regard to migration, invasion, adhesion, clonogenicity, and proliferation. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were performed to evaluate the expression of downstream mediators of DcR3. In further experiments, luciferase assays, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses were applied to study the regulation of DcR3 expression in RCC. Additionally, an ex vivo tissue slice culture technique combined with immunohistochemistry was used to study the regulation of DcR3 expression in human RCC specimens.Here, we show that DcR3 promotes adhesion, migration and invasiveness of RCC cells. The DcR3-dependent increase in cellular invasiveness is accompanied with an up-regulation of integrin alpha 4, matrixmetalloproteinase 7 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Further, we identified a signaling pathway regulating DcR3 expression in RCC. Using in vitro experiments as well as an ex vivo RCC tissue slice culture model, we demonstrate that expression of DcR3 is regulated in a PI3K/AKT-dependent manner involving the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT).Taken together, our results identify DcR3 as a key driver of tumor cell dissemination and suggest DcR3 as a promising target for rational therapy of RCC.
|The plasma membrane channel ORAI1 mediates detrimental calcium influx caused by endogenous oxidative stress. |
Henke, N; Albrecht, P; Bouchachia, I; Ryazantseva, M; Knoll, K; Lewerenz, J; Kaznacheyeva, E; Maher, P; Methner, A
Cell death & disease 4 e470 2013
The mouse hippocampal cell line HT22 is an excellent model for studying the consequences of endogenous oxidative stress. Addition of extracellular glutamate depletes the cells of glutathione (GSH) by blocking the glutamate-cystine antiporter system x(c)(-). GSH is the main antioxidant in neurons and its depletion induces a well-defined program of cell death called oxytosis, which is probably synonymous with the iron-dependent form of non-apoptotic cell death termed ferroptosis. Oxytosis is characterized by an increase of reactive oxygen species and a strong calcium influx preceding cell death. We found a significant reduction in store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in glutamate-resistant HT22 cells caused by downregulation of the Ca(2+) channel ORAI1, but not the Ca(2+) sensors STIM1 or STIM2. Pharmacological inhibition of SOCE mimicked this protection similarly to knockdown of ORAI1 by small interfering RNAs. Long-term calcium live-cell imaging after induction of the cell death program showed a specific reduction in Ca(2+)-positive cells by ORAI1 knockdown. These results suggest that dysregulated Ca(2+) entry through ORAI1 mediates the detrimental Ca(2+) entry in programmed cell death induced by GSH depletion. As this detrimental Ca(2+) influx occurs late in the course of the cell death program, it might be amenable to therapeutic intervention in diseases caused by oxidative stress.
|The HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 potently inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth. |
Garon, EB; Finn, RS; Hamidi, H; Dering, J; Pitts, S; Kamranpour, N; Desai, AJ; Hosmer, W; Ide, S; Avsar, E; Jensen, MR; Quadt, C; Liu, M; Dubinett, SM; Slamon, DJ
Molecular cancer therapeutics 12 890-900 2013
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is involved in protein folding and functions as a chaperone for numerous client proteins, many of which are important in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis. We sought to define preclinical effects of the HSP90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 and identify predictors of response. We assessed in vitro effects of NVP-AUY922 on proliferation and protein expression in NSCLC cell lines. We evaluated gene expression changes induced by NVP-AUY922 exposure. Xenograft models were evaluated for tumor control and biological effects. NVP-AUY922 potently inhibited in vitro growth in all 41 NSCLC cell lines evaluated with IC50 less than 100 nmol/L. IC100 (complete inhibition of proliferation) less than 40 nmol/L was seen in 36 of 41 lines. Consistent gene expression changes after NVP-AUY922 exposure involved a wide range of cellular functions, including consistently decreased dihydrofolate reductase after exposure. NVP-AUY922 slowed growth of A549 (KRAS-mutant) xenografts and achieved tumor stability and decreased EGF receptor (EGFR) protein expression in H1975 xenografts, a model harboring a sensitizing and a resistance mutation for EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the EGFR gene. These data will help inform the evaluation of correlative data from a recently completed phase II NSCLC trial and a planned phase IB trial of NVP-AUY922 in combination with pemetrexed in NSCLCs.
|Differential miRNA expression profiles in proliferating or differentiated keratinocytes in response to gamma irradiation. |
Joly-Tonetti, N; Viñuelas, J; Gandrillon, O; Lamartine, J
BMC genomics 14 184 2013
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of short non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, have recently emerged as potential modulators of cellular response to ionizing radiations both in vitro and in vivo in various cell types and tissues. However, in epidermal cells, the involvement of the miRNA machinery in the cellular response to ionizing radiations remains to be clarified. Indeed, understanding the mechanisms of cutaneous radiosensitivity is an important issue since skin is the most exposed organ to ionizing radiations and among the most sensitive.We settled up an expression study of miRNAs in primary human skin keratinocytes using a microfluidic system of qPCR assay, which permits to assess the expression of almost 700 annotated miRNAs. The keratinocytes were cultured to a proliferative or a differentiated state mimicking basal or suprabasal layers of human epidermis. These cells were irradiated at 10 mGy or 6 Gy and RNA was extracted 3 hours after irradiation. We found that proliferative cells irradiated at 6 Gy display a global fall of miRNA expression whereas differentiated cells exposed to the same dose display a global increase of miRNAs expression. We identified twenty miRNAs weakly but significantly modulated after 6 Gy irradiation, whereas only 2 miRNAs were modulated after low-dose irradiation in proliferating cells. To go further into the biological meaning of this miRNA response, we over-expressed some of the responding miRNA in proliferating cells: we observed a significant decrease of cell viability 72 hours after irradiation. Functional annotation of their predicted targets revealed that G-protein related pathways might be regulated by these responding miRNAs.Our results reveal that human primary keratinocytes exposed to ionizing irradiation expressed a miRNA pattern strongly related to the differentiation status of irradiated cells. We also demonstrate that some miRNAs play a role in the radiation response to ensure the short-term survival of irradiated keratinocytes.
|VCP is essential for mitochondrial quality control by PINK1/Parkin and this function is impaired by VCP mutations. |
Kim, NC; Tresse, E; Kolaitis, RM; Molliex, A; Thomas, RE; Alami, NH; Wang, B; Joshi, A; Smith, RB; Ritson, GP; Winborn, BJ; Moore, J; Lee, JY; Yao, TP; Pallanck, L; Kundu, M; Taylor, JP
Neuron 78 65-80 2013
Mutations in VCP cause multisystem degeneration impacting the nervous system, muscle, and/or bone. Patients may present with ALS, Parkinsonism, frontotemporal dementia, myopathy, Paget's disease, or a combination of these. The disease mechanism is unknown. We developed a Drosophila model of VCP mutation-dependent degeneration. The phenotype is reminiscent of PINK1 and parkin mutants, including a pronounced mitochondrial defect. Indeed, VCP interacts genetically with the PINK1/parkin pathway in vivo. Paradoxically, VCP complements PINK1 deficiency but not parkin deficiency. The basis of this paradox is resolved by mechanistic studies in vitro showing that VCP recruitment to damaged mitochondria requires Parkin-mediated ubiquitination of mitochondrial targets. VCP recruitment coincides temporally with mitochondrial fission, and VCP is required for proteasome-dependent degradation of Mitofusins in vitro and in vivo. Further, VCP and its adaptor Npl4/Ufd1 are required for clearance of damaged mitochondria via the PINK1/Parkin pathway, and this is impaired by pathogenic mutations in VCP.
|Glucocorticoid treatment of MCMV infected newborn mice attenuates CNS inflammation and limits deficits in cerebellar development. |
Kosmac, K; Bantug, GR; Pugel, EP; Cekinovic, D; Jonjic, S; Britt, WJ
PLoS pathogens 9 e1003200 2013
Infection of the developing fetus with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major cause of central nervous system disease in infants and children; however, mechanism(s) of disease associated with this intrauterine infection remain poorly understood. Utilizing a mouse model of HCMV infection of the developing CNS, we have shown that peripheral inoculation of newborn mice with murine CMV (MCMV) results in CNS infection and developmental abnormalities that recapitulate key features of the human infection. In this model, animals exhibit decreased granule neuron precursor cell (GNPC) proliferation and altered morphogenesis of the cerebellar cortex. Deficits in cerebellar cortical development are symmetric and global even though infection of the CNS results in a non-necrotizing encephalitis characterized by widely scattered foci of virus-infected cells with mononuclear cell infiltrates. These findings suggested that inflammation induced by MCMV infection could underlie deficits in CNS development. We investigated the contribution of host inflammatory responses to abnormal cerebellar development by modulating inflammatory responses in infected mice with glucocorticoids. Treatment of infected animals with glucocorticoids decreased activation of CNS mononuclear cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-β and IFNγ) in the CNS while minimally impacting CNS virus replication. Glucocorticoid treatment also limited morphogenic abnormalities and normalized the expression of developmentally regulated genes within the cerebellum. Importantly, GNPC proliferation deficits were normalized in MCMV infected mice following glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings argue that host inflammatory responses to MCMV infection contribute to deficits in CNS development in MCMV infected mice and suggest that similar mechanisms of disease could be responsible for the abnormal CNS development in human infants infected in-utero with HCMV.
|The unique expression and function of miR-424 in human placental trophoblasts. |
Mouillet, JF; Donker, RB; Mishima, T; Cronqvist, T; Chu, T; Sadovsky, Y
Biology of reproduction 89 25 2013
Placental hypoperfusion causes cellular hypoxia and is associated with fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. In response to hypoxia, the repertoire of genes expressed in placental trophoblasts changes, which influences key cellular processes such as differentiation and fusion. Diverse miRNAs were recently found to modulate the cellular response to hypoxia. Here we show that miR-424, which was previously shown to be upregulated by hypoxia in nontrophoblastic cell types, is uniquely downregulated in primary human trophoblasts by hypoxia or chemicals known to hinder cell differentiation. We also identify FGFR1 as a direct target of miR-424 in human trophoblasts. This effect is unique to miR-424 and is not seen with other members of this miRNA family that are expressed in trophoblasts, such as miR-15 and miR-16. Our findings establish a unique role for miR-424 during differentiation of human trophoblasts.
|Disease-associated mutations in CNGB3 promote cytotoxicity in photoreceptor-derived cells. |
Liu, C; Sherpa, T; Varnum, MD
Molecular vision 19 1268-81 2013
To determine if achromatopsia associated F525N and T383fsX mutations in the CNGB3 subunit of cone photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels increases susceptibility to cell death in photoreceptor-derived cells.Photoreceptor-derived 661W cells were transfected with cDNA encoding wild-type (WT) CNGA3 subunits plus WT or mutant CNGB3 subunits, and incubated with the membrane-permeable CNG channel activators 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (CPT-cGMP) or CPT-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (CPT-cAMP). Cell viability under these conditions was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release. Channel ligand sensitivity was calibrated by patch-clamp recording after expression of WT or mutant channels in Xenopus oocytes.Coexpression of CNGA3 with CNGB3 subunits containing F525N or T383fsX mutations produced channels exhibiting increased apparent affinity for CPT-cGMP compared to WT channels. Consistent with these effects, cytotoxicity in the presence of 0.1 μM CPT-cGMP was enhanced relative to WT channels, and the increase in cell death was more pronounced for the mutation with the largest gain-of-function effect on channel gating, F525N. Increased susceptibility to cell death was prevented by application of the CNG channel blocker L-cis-diltiazem. Increased cytotoxicity was also found to be dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium.These results indicate a connection between disease-associated mutations in cone CNG channel subunits, altered CNG channel-activation properties, and photoreceptor cytotoxicity. The rescue of cell viability via CNG channel block or removal of extracellular calcium suggests that cytotoxicity in this model depends on calcium entry through hyperactive CNG channels.
|Ribophorin II regulates breast tumor initiation and metastasis through the functional suppression of GSK3β. |
Takahashi, RU; Takeshita, F; Honma, K; Ono, M; Kato, K; Ochiya, T
Scientific reports 3 2474 2013
Mutant p53 (mtp53) gain of function (GOF) contributes to various aspects of tumor progression including cancer stem cell (CSC) property acquisition. A key factor of GOF is stabilization and accumulation of mtp53. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the mtp53 oncogenic activity remains unclear. Here, we show that ribophorin II (RPN2) regulates CSC properties through the stabilization of mtp53 (R280K and del126-133) in breast cancer. RPN2 stabilized mtp53 by inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) which suppresses Snail, a master regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. RPN2 knockdown promoted GSK3β-mediated suppression of heat shock proteins that are essential for mtp53 stabilization. Furthermore, our study reveals that high expression of RPN2 and concomitant accumulation of mtp53 were associated with cancer tissues in a small cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients. These findings elucidate a molecular mechanism for mtp53 stabilization and suggest that RPN2 could be a promising target for anti-CSC therapy.
|M98K-OPTN induces transferrin receptor degradation and RAB12-mediated autophagic death in retinal ganglion cells. |
Sirohi, K; Chalasani, ML; Sudhakar, C; Kumari, A; Radha, V; Swarup, G
Autophagy 9 510-27 2013
Mutations in the autophagy receptor OPTN/optineurin are associated with the pathogenesis of glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the underlying molecular basis is poorly understood. The OPTN variant, M98K has been described as a risk factor for normal tension glaucoma in some ethnic groups. Here, we examined the consequence of the M98K mutation in affecting cellular functions of OPTN. Overexpression of M98K-OPTN induced death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5 cell line), but not of other neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Enhanced levels of the autophagy marker, LC3-II, a post-translationally modified form of LC3, in M98K-OPTN-expressing cells and the inability of an LC3-binding-defective M98K variant of OPTN to induce cell death, suggested that autophagy contributes to cell death. Knockdown of Atg5 reduced M98K-induced death of RGC-5 cells, further supporting the involvement of autophagy. Overexpression of M98K-OPTN enhanced autophagosome formation and potentiated the delivery of transferrin receptor to autophagosomes for degradation resulting in reduced cellular transferrin receptor levels. Coexpression of transferrin receptor or supplementation of media with an iron donor reduced M98K-induced cell death. OPTN complexes with RAB12, a GTPase involved in vesicle trafficking, and M98K variant shows enhanced colocalization with RAB12. Knockdown of Rab12 increased transferrin receptor level and reduced M98K-induced cell death. RAB12 is present in autophagosomes and knockdown of Rab12 resulted in reduced formation of autolysosomes during starvation-induced autophagy, implicating a role for RAB12 in autophagy. These results also show that transferrin receptor degradation and autophagy play a crucial role in RGC-5 cell death induced by M98K variant of OPTN.
|An isoform of retinoid-related orphan receptor β directs differentiation of retinal amacrine and horizontal interneurons. |
Liu, H; Kim, SY; Fu, Y; Wu, X; Ng, L; Swaroop, A; Forrest, D
Nature communications 4 1813 2013
Amacrine and horizontal interneurons integrate visual information as it is relayed through the retina from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. The early steps that generate these interneuron networks remain unclear. Here we show that a distinct retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor β1 (RORβ1) isoform encoded by the retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor β gene (Rorb) is critical for both amacrine and horizontal cell differentiation in mice. A fluorescent protein cassette targeted into Rorb revealed RORβ1 as a novel marker of immature amacrine and horizontal cells and of undifferentiated, dividing progenitor cells. RORβ1-deficient mice lose expression of pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a (Ptf1a) but retain forkhead box n4 factor (Foxn4), two early-acting factors necessary for amacrine and horizontal cell generation. RORβ1 and Foxn4 synergistically induce Ptf1a expression, suggesting a central role for RORβ1 in a transcriptional hierarchy that directs this interneuron differentiation pathway. Moreover, ectopic RORβ1 expression in neonatal retina promotes amacrine cell differentiation.
|Evidence for monomeric actin function in INO80 chromatin remodeling. |
Kapoor, P; Chen, M; Winkler, DD; Luger, K; Shen, X
Nature structural & molecular biology 20 426-32 2013
Actin has well-established functions in the cytoplasm, but its roles in the nucleus remain poorly defined. Here, by studying the nuclear actin-containing yeast INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence for a role of monomeric actin in INO80 chromatin remodeling. We demonstrate that, in contrast to cytoplasmic actin, nuclear actin is present as a monomer in the INO80 complex, and its barbed end is not accessible for polymerization. We identify an actin mutation in subdomain 2 affecting in vivo nuclear functions and reducing the chromatin remodeling activity of the INO80 complex in vitro. Notably, the highly conserved subdomain 2 at the pointed end of actin contributes to the interaction of INO80 with chromatin. Our results establish an evolutionarily conserved function of nuclear actin in its monomeric form and suggest that nuclear actin can utilize a fundamentally distinct mechanism from that of cytoplasmic actin.
|Polycomb recruitment attenuates retinoic acid-induced transcription of the bivalent NR2F1 gene. |
Laursen, KB; Mongan, NP; Zhuang, Y; Ng, MM; Benoit, YD; Gudas, LJ
Nucleic acids research 41 6430-43 2013
Polycomb proteins play key roles in mediating epigenetic modifications that occur during cell differentiation. The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mediates the tri-methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3). In this study, we identify a distinguishing feature of two classes of PRC2 target genes, represented by the Nr2F1 (Coup-TF1) and the Hoxa5 gene, respectively. Both genes are transcriptionally activated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and display increased levels of the permissive H3K9/K14ac and tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 4 epigenetic marks in response to RA. However, while in response to RA the PRC2 and H3K27me3 marks are greatly decreased at the Hoxa5 promoter, these marks are initially increased at the Nr2F1 promoter. Functional depletion of the essential PRC2 protein Suz12 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology enhanced the RA-associated transcription of Nr2F1, Nr2F2, Meis1, Sox9 and BMP2, but had no effect on the Hoxa5, Hoxa1, Cyp26a1, Cyp26b1 and RARβ2 transcript levels in wild-type embryonic stem cells. We propose that PRC2 recruitment attenuates the RA-associated transcriptional activation of a subset of genes. Such a mechanism would permit the fine-tuning of transcriptional networks during differentiation.
|EGFR inhibitors exacerbate differentiation and cell cycle arrest induced by retinoic acid and vitamin D3 in acute myeloid leukemia cells. |
Lainey, E; Wolfromm, A; Sukkurwala, AQ; Micol, JB; Fenaux, P; Galluzzi, L; Kepp, O; Kroemer, G
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 2978-91 2013
By means of an unbiased, automated fluorescence microscopy-based screen, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib as potent enhancers of the differentiation of HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells exposed to suboptimal concentrations of vitamin A (all-trans retinoic acid, ATRA) or vitamin D (1α,25-hydroxycholecalciferol, VD). Erlotinib and gefitinib alone did not promote differentiation, yet stimulated the acquisition of morphological and biochemical maturation markers (including the expression of CD11b and CD14 as well as increased NADPH oxidase activity) when combined with either ATRA or VD. Moreover, the combination of erlotinib and ATRA or VD synergistically induced all the processes that are normally linked to terminal hematopoietic differentiation, namely, a delayed proliferation arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, cellular senescence, and apoptosis. Erlotinib potently inhibited the (auto)phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14, best known as p38(MAPK)) and SRC family kinases (SFKs). If combined with the administration of ATRA or VD, the inhibition of p38(MAPK) or SFKs with specific pharmacological agents mimicked the pro-differentiation activity of erlotinib. These data were obtained with 2 distinct AML cell lines (HL-60 and MOLM-13 cells) and could be confirmed on primary leukemic blasts isolated from the circulation of AML patients. Altogether, these findings point to a new regimen for the treatment of AML, in which naturally occurring pro-differentiation agents (ATRA or VD) may be combined with EGFR inhibitors.
|Grail as a molecular determinant for the functions of the tumor suppressor p53 in tumorigenesis. |
Chen, YC; Chan, JY; Chiu, YL; Liu, ST; Lozano, G; Wang, SL; Ho, CL; Huang, SM
Cell death and differentiation 20 732-43 2013
The transcription factor p53 is a multifunctional tumor suppressor that arrests the cell cycle in response to stress and modulates the DNA repair process or induces apoptosis. The cellular level and activity of p53 are tightly controlled to maintain proper functioning. This study identified a novel p53-binding glycoprotein, gene related to anergy in lymphocytes (Grail), which formed a negative feedback loop (similar to that of Mdm2). Grail physically and functionally interacted with the N-terminus of p53 to target its degradation and modulate its transactivation activity. Grail also senses and regulates cellular p53 levels, modulates a panel of p53-targeted promoters, and has a role in p53-induced apoptosis in cultured cells. Overexpression of Grail inhibited p53-induced apoptosis by increasing p53 degradation. However, cells not expressing Grail failed to undergo p53-dependent apoptosis, resulting in p21-dependent G1 arrest. Thus, Grail may provide a novel regulatory route for controlling p53 activity under stress conditions.
|Systems-level overview of host protein phosphorylation during Shigella flexneri infection revealed by phosphoproteomics. |
Schmutz, C; Ahrné, E; Kasper, CA; Tschon, T; Sorg, I; Dreier, RF; Schmidt, A; Arrieumerlou, C
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 12 2952-68 2013
The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the intestinal epithelium of humans. During infection, several injected effector proteins promote bacterial internalization, and interfere with multiple host cell responses. To obtain a systems-level overview of host signaling during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein phosphorylation by liquid chromatography-tandem MS and identified several hundred of proteins undergoing a phosphorylation change during the first hours of infection. Functional bioinformatic analysis revealed that they were mostly related to the cytoskeleton, transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle. Fuzzy c-means clustering identified six temporal profiles of phosphorylation and a functional module composed of ATM-phosphorylated proteins related to genotoxic stress. Pathway enrichment analysis defined mTOR as the most overrepresented pathway. We showed that mTOR complex 1 and 2 were required for S6 kinase and AKT activation, respectively. Comparison with a published phosphoproteome of Salmonella typhimurium-infected cells revealed a large subset of coregulated phosphoproteins. Finally, we showed that S. flexneri effector OspF affected the phosphorylation of several hundred proteins, thereby demonstrating the wide-reaching impact of a single bacterial effector on the host signaling network.
|S-Nitrosylation of parkin as a novel regulator of p53-mediated neuronal cell death in sporadic Parkinson's disease. |
Sunico, CR; Nakamura, T; Rockenstein, E; Mante, M; Adame, A; Chan, SF; Newmeyer, TF; Masliah, E; Nakanishi, N; Lipton, SA
Molecular neurodegeneration 8 29 2013
Mutations in the gene encoding parkin, a neuroprotective protein with dual functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and transcriptional repressor of p53, are linked to familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesized that oxidative posttranslational modification of parkin by environmental toxins may contribute to sporadic PD.We first demonstrated that S-nitrosylation of parkin decreased its activity as a repressor of p53 gene expression, leading to upregulation of p53. Chromatin immunoprecipitation as well as gel-shift assays showed that parkin bound to the p53 promoter, and this binding was inhibited by S-nitrosylation of parkin. Additionally, nitrosative stress induced apoptosis in cells expressing parkin, and this death was, at least in part, dependent upon p53. In primary mesencephalic cultures, pesticide-induced apoptosis was prevented by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In a mouse model of pesticide-induced PD, both S-nitrosylated (SNO-)parkin and p53 protein levels were increased, while administration of a NOS inhibitor mitigated neuronal death in these mice. Moreover, the levels of SNO-parkin and p53 were simultaneously elevated in postmortem human PD brain compared to controls.Taken together, our data indicate that S-nitrosylation of parkin, leading to p53-mediated neuronal cell death, contributes to the pathophysiology of sporadic PD.
|Postnatal refinement of auditory hair cell planar polarity deficits occurs in the absence of Vangl2. |
Copley, CO; Duncan, JS; Liu, C; Cheng, H; Deans, MR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 14001-16 2013
The distinctive planar polarity of auditory hair cells is evident in the polarized organization of the stereociliary bundle. Mutations in the core planar cell polarity gene Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) result in hair cells that fail to properly orient their stereociliary bundles along the mediolateral axis of the cochlea. The severity of this phenotype is graded along the length of the cochlea, similar to the hair cell differentiation gradient, suggesting that an active refinement process corrects planar polarity phenotypes in Vangl2 knock-out (KO) mice. Because Vangl2 gene deletions are lethal, Vangl2 conditional knock-outs (CKOs) were generated to test this hypothesis. When crossed with Pax2-Cre, Vangl2 is deleted from the inner ear, yielding planar polarity phenotypes similar to Vangl2 KOs at late embryonic stages except that Vangl2 CKO mice are viable and do not have craniorachischisis like Vangl2 KOs. Quantification of planar polarity deficits through postnatal development demonstrates the activity of a Vangl2-independent refinement process that rescues the planar polarity phenotype within 10 d of birth. In contrast, the Pax2-Cre;Vangl2 CKO has profound changes in the shape and distribution of outer pillar cell and Deiters' cell phalangeal processes that are not corrected during the period of planar polarity refinement. Auditory brainstem response analyses of adult mice show a 10-15 dB shift in auditory threshold, and distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements indicate that this mild hearing deficit is of cochlear origin. Together, these data demonstrate a Vangl2-independent refinement mechanism that actively reorients auditory stereociliary bundles and reveals an unexpected role of Vangl2 during supporting cell morphogenesis.
|The intronic long noncoding RNA ANRASSF1 recruits PRC2 to the RASSF1A promoter, reducing the expression of RASSF1A and increasing cell proliferation. |
Beckedorff, FC; Ayupe, AC; Crocci-Souza, R; Amaral, MS; Nakaya, HI; Soltys, DT; Menck, CF; Reis, EM; Verjovski-Almeida, S
PLoS genetics 9 e1003705 2013
The down-regulation of the tumor-suppressor gene RASSF1A has been shown to increase cell proliferation in several tumors. RASSF1A expression is regulated through epigenetic events involving the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2); however, the molecular mechanisms modulating the recruitment of this epigenetic modifier to the RASSF1 locus remain largely unknown. Here, we identify and characterize ANRASSF1, an endogenous unspliced long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is transcribed from the opposite strand on the RASSF1 gene locus in several cell lines and tissues and binds PRC2. ANRASSF1 is transcribed through RNA polymerase II and is 5'-capped and polyadenylated; it exhibits nuclear localization and has a shorter half-life compared with other lncRNAs that bind PRC2. ANRASSF1 endogenous expression is higher in breast and prostate tumor cell lines compared with non-tumor, and an opposite pattern is observed for RASSF1A. ANRASSF1 ectopic overexpression reduces RASSF1A abundance and increases the proliferation of HeLa cells, whereas ANRASSF1 silencing causes the opposite effects. These changes in ANRASSF1 levels do not affect the RASSF1C isoform abundance. ANRASSF1 overexpression causes a marked increase in both PRC2 occupancy and histone H3K27me3 repressive marks, specifically at the RASSF1A promoter region. No effect of ANRASSF1 overexpression was detected on PRC2 occupancy and histone H3K27me3 at the promoter regions of RASSF1C and the four other neighboring genes, including two well-characterized tumor suppressor genes. Additionally, we demonstrated that ANRASSF1 forms an RNA/DNA hybrid and recruits PRC2 to the RASSF1A promoter. Together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression of the RASSF1A tumor suppressor gene involving antisense unspliced lncRNA, in which ANRASSF1 selectively represses the expression of the RASSF1 isoform overlapping the antisense transcript in a location-specific manner. In a broader perspective, our findings suggest that other non-characterized unspliced intronic lncRNAs transcribed in the human genome might contribute to a location-specific epigenetic modulation of genes.
|High expression of prolactin receptor is associated with cell survival in cervical cancer cells. |
Lopez-Pulido, EI; Muñoz-Valle, JF; Del Toro-Arreola, S; Jave-Suárez, LF; Bueno-Topete, MR; Estrada-Chávez, C; Pereira-Suárez, AL
Cancer cell international 13 103 2013
The altered expression of prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) has been implicated in breast and other types of cancer. There are few studies that have focused on the analysis of PRL/PRLR in cervical cancer where the development of neoplastic lesions is influenced by the variation of the hormonal status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of PRL/PRLR and the effect of PRL treatment on cell proliferation and apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines.High expression of multiple PRLR forms and PRLvariants of 60-80 kDa were observed in cervical cancer cell lines compared with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes evaluated by Western blot, immunofluorecence and real time PCR. Treatment with PRL (200 ng/ml) increased cell proliferation in HeLa cells determined by the MTT assay at day 3 and after 1 day a protective effect against etoposide induced apoptosis in HeLa, SiHa and C-33A cervical cancer cell lines analyzed by the TUNEL assay.Our data suggests that PRL/PRLR signaling could act as an important survival factor for cervical cancer. The use of an effective PRL antagonist may provide a better therapeutic intervention in cervical cancer.
|Emerin organizes actin flow for nuclear movement and centrosome orientation in migrating fibroblasts. |
Chang, W; Folker, ES; Worman, HJ; Gundersen, GG
Molecular biology of the cell 24 3869-80 2013
In migrating fibroblasts, rearward movement of the nucleus orients the centrosome toward the leading edge. Nuclear movement results from coupling rearward-moving, dorsal actin cables to the nucleus by linear arrays of nesprin-2G and SUN2, termed transmembrane actin-associated nuclear (TAN) lines. A-type lamins anchor TAN lines, prompting us to test whether emerin, a nuclear membrane protein that interacts with lamins and TAN line proteins, contributes to nuclear movement. In fibroblasts depleted of emerin, nuclei moved nondirectionally or completely failed to move. Consistent with these nuclear movement defects, dorsal actin cable flow was nondirectional in cells lacking emerin. TAN lines formed normally in cells lacking emerin and were coordinated with the erratic nuclear movements, although in 20% of the cases, TAN lines slipped over immobile nuclei. Myosin II drives actin flow, and depletion of myosin IIB, but not myosin IIA, showed similar nondirectional nuclear movement and actin flow as in emerin-depleted cells. Myosin IIB specifically coimmunoprecipitated with emerin, and emerin depletion prevented myosin IIB localization near nuclei. These results show that emerin functions with myosin IIB to polarize actin flow and nuclear movement in fibroblasts, suggesting a novel function for the nuclear envelope in organizing directional actin flow and cytoplasmic polarity.
|Laminin receptor 37/67LR regulates adhesion and proliferation of normal human intestinal epithelial cells. |
Khalfaoui, T; Groulx, JF; Sabra, G; GuezGuez, A; Basora, N; Vermette, P; Beaulieu, JF
PloS one 8 e74337 2013
Interactions between the cell basal membrane domain and the basement membrane are involved in several cell functions including proliferation, migration and differentiation. Intestinal epithelial cells can interact with laminin, a major intestinal basement membrane glycoprotein, via several cell-surface laminin-binding proteins including integrin and non-integrin receptors. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (37/67LR) is one of these but its role in normal epithelial cells is still unknown. The aim of this study was to characterise the expression pattern and determine the main function of 37/67LR in the normal human small intestinal epithelium. Immunolocalization studies revealed that 37/67LR was predominantly present in the undifferentiated/proliferative region of the human intestinal crypt in both the immature and adult intestine. Using a human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell line as experimental model, we determined that 37/67LR was expressed in proliferative cells in both the cytoplasmic and membrane compartments. Small-interfering RNA-mediated reduction of 37/67LR expression led to HIEC cell-cycle reduction and loss of the ability to adhere to laminin-related peptides under conditions not altering ribosomal function. Taken together, these findings indicate that 37/67LR regulates proliferation and adhesion in normal intestinal epithelial cells independently of its known association with ribosomal function.
|Increases in two truncated TrkB isoforms in the prefrontal cortex of people with schizophrenia. |
Wong, J; Rothmond, DA; Webster, MJ; Weickert, CS
Schizophrenia bulletin 39 130-40 2013
The truncated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptors (truncated TrkB [TrkB-TK-] and sarc homology containing TrkB [TrkB-Shc]) are alternative transcripts of the full-length TrkB receptor (TrkB-TK+) that produce isoforms capable of binding to BDNF but not being able to mediate the classic neurotrophic response via tyrosine kinase signaling. We hypothesized that in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of people with schizophrenia, truncated TrkB receptors (TK- and Shc) would be altered and may contribute to deficits in BDNF function. Using a large cohort of controls and schizophrenics (n = 72/72), we measured mRNA expression of the full-length TrkB receptor, TrkB-TK+ and the truncated TrkB receptors, TrkB-TK- and TrkB-Shc, by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and protein expression by western blotting. We found highly significant increases in mRNA expression of both truncated TrkB receptor isoforms in people with schizophrenia. When we examined the full-length TrkB-TK+:truncated TrkB ratios, we observed significant decreases in schizophrenia both on the mRNA and protein level. We found a slight reduction in TrkB-TK+ mRNA and a significant reduction in TrkB-TK+ protein expression in schizophrenia, which was evident in females. No gender-specific changes were found for the truncated TrkB receptors. Diagnostic changes in TrkB-TK+ mRNA and protein may be subtle and/or gender-specific, whereas changes in TrkB-TK- and TrkB-Shc expression are robust and may generalize to both males and females with schizophrenia. Increased truncated TrkB receptors may contribute to reduced overall BDNF/tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signaling and lead to reduced neuronal plasticity in the DLPFC in schizophrenia suggesting that therapies aimed at ameliorating neurotrophin deficits may need to consider blocking excessive truncated TrkB function.
|Salarin C, a member of the salarin superfamily of marine compounds, is a potent inducer of apoptosis. |
Nathalie Ben-Califa,Ashgan Bishara,Yoel Kashman,Drorit Neumann
Investigational new drugs 30 2012
The continuous emergence of new diseases and the development of drug-resistant cancers necessitate the development of new drugs with novel mechanisms of action. The richest marine source of natural anti-cancer products has been soft-bodied organisms that lack physical defenses against their predators, and hence rely on chemical defense mechanisms using cytotoxic secondary metabolites. Bio-guided (brine shrimp test) separation of CHCl(3)-CH(3)OH (1:1) extract from the Madagascar Fascaplysinopsis sp. sponge provided several new compounds. Here we focused on the biological activity of a panel of novel natural compounds, salarins A-J. Of these, salarin C was the most potent inhibitor of proliferation, as demonstrated on the K562 leukemia cell line. Salarin C-treated K562 cells underwent apoptotic death as monitored by cell-cycle analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase 3, and caspase 9 levels. The experimental approach described herein is an essential step towards identifying the cellular pathway(s) affected by salarin C and producing potent synthetic derivatives of salarin C with potential future uses as basic research tools and/or drugs and drug leads.
|Paclitaxel effects on the proteome of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemic cells: comparison to peloruside A. |
Anja Wilmes,Ariane Chan,Pisana Rawson,T William Jordan,John Holmes Miller
Investigational new drugs 30 2012
Paclitaxel (Taxol®), a drug used to treat solid tumors of the breast, ovary and lung, stabilizes microtubules and arrests cells in G(2)/M of the cell cycle. Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE), we examined the proteomic response of a human HL-60 promyeloid leukemic cell line to paclitaxel. Our intention was to compare the effects of paclitaxel to those of a new-generation microtubule-stabilizing agent, peloruside A, investigated in an earlier study. In response to 100 nM paclitaxel treatment for 24 h, 21 identified proteins changed in abundance, with 13 increases and 8 decreases. In addition, 21 other unidentified proteins were also changed by treatment with paclitaxel. Using Western blotting, the transcription factor c-Myc was shown to be reduced in abundance by both drugs. Our results showed both differences and similarities at the single protein level between paclitaxel and peloruside A, although the same general classes of proteins: cytoskeletal, nucleic acid binding, stress, and apoptotic proteins, changed following exposure. The proteomic response to paclitaxel was more extensive than the response to an equipotent dose of peloruside A.
|Suppressed hepcidin expression correlates with hypotransferrinemia in copper-deficient rat pups but not dams. |
Margaret Broderius,Elise Mostad,Joseph R Prohaska
Genes & nutrition 7 2012
Copper deficiency leads to anemia but the mechanism is unknown. Copper deficiency also leads to hypoferremia, which may limit erythropoiesis. The hypoferremia may be due to limited function of multicopper oxidases (MCO) hephaestin in enterocytes or GPI-ceruloplasmin in macrophages of liver and spleen whose function as a ferroxidase is thought essential for iron transfer out of cells. Iron release may also be limited by ferroportin (Fpn), the iron efflux transporter. Fpn may be lower following copper deficiency because of impaired ferroxidase activity of MCO. Fpn is also dependent on the liver hormone hepcidin as Fpn is degraded when hepcidin binds to Fpn. Anemia and hypoferremia both down regulate hepcidin by separate mechanisms. Current studies confirmed and extended earlier studies with copper-deficient (CuD) rats that suggested low hepicidin resulted in augmented Fpn. However, current studies in CuD dams failed to confirm a correlation that hepcidin expression was associated with low transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) levels and also challenged the dogma that holotransferrin can explain the correlation with hepcidin. CuD dams exhibited hypoferremia, low liver TfR2, anemia in some rats, yet no depression in Hamp expression, the hepcidin gene. Normal levels of GDF-15, the putative erythroid cytokine that suppresses hepcidin, were detected in plasma of CuD and iron-deficient (FeD) dams. Importantly, FeD dams did display greatly lower Hamp expression. Normal hepcidin in these CuD dams is puzzling since these rats may need extra iron to meet needs of lactation and the impaired iron transfer noted previously.
|Aberrant expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone in pre-eclampsia induces expression of FasL in maternal macrophages and extravillous trophoblast apoptosis. |
G Petsas,U Jeschke,D U Richter,V Minas,A Hammer,S Kalantaridou,B Toth,C Tsatsanis,K Friese,A Makrigiannakis
Molecular human reproduction 18 2012
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptors are expressed in human placenta. Recently, the impaired function of this system has been associated with a number of complications of pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that CRH participates in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia through the induction of macrophage-mediated apoptosis of extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). We found that the expression of CRH was increased in the EVT of the placental bed biopsy specimens from pre-eclamptic pregnancies (1.8-fold increase; P < 0.05). In addition, significantly larger numbers of apoptotic EVT were detected in pre-eclamptic placentas compared with normal ones (P < 0.05), and only in pre-eclamptic placentas, decidual macrophages were found to be Fas ligand (FasL)-positive. In vitro studies on the effect of CRH on human macrophages suggested that CRH induced the expression of the FasL protein in human macrophages and potentiated their ability to induce the apoptosis of a Fas-expressing EVT-based hybridoma cell line in co-cultures. These findings demonstrate a possible mechanism by which the aberrant expression of CRH in pre-eclampsia may activate the FasL-positive decidual macrophages, impair the physiological turnover of EVT and eventually disturb placentation.
|Food intake adaptation to dietary fat involves PSA-dependent rewiring of the arcuate melanocortin system in mice. |
Benani, A; Hryhorczuk, C; Gouazé, A; Fioramonti, X; Brenachot, X; Guissard, C; Krezymon, A; Duparc, T; Colom, A; Nédélec, E; Rigault, C; Lemoine, A; Gascuel, J; Gerardy-Schahn, R; Valet, P; Knauf, C; Lorsignol, A; Pénicaud, L
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 11970-9 2012
Hormones such as leptin and ghrelin can rapidly rewire hypothalamic feeding circuits when injected into rodent brains. These experimental manipulations suggest that the hypothalamus might reorganize continually in adulthood to integrate the metabolic status of the whole body. In this study, we examined whether hypothalamic plasticity occurs in naive animals according to their nutritional conditions. For this purpose, we fed mice with a short-term high-fat diet (HFD) and assessed brain remodeling through its molecular and functional signature. We found that HFD for 3 d rewired the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, increasing the anorexigenic tone due to activated pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. We identified the polysialic acid molecule (PSA) as a mediator of the diet-induced rewiring of arcuate POMC. Moreover, local pharmacological inhibition and genetic disruption of the PSA signaling limits the behavioral and metabolic adaptation to HFD, as treated mice failed to normalize energy intake and showed increased body weight gain after the HFD challenge. Altogether, these findings reveal the existence of physiological hypothalamic rewiring involved in the homeostatic response to dietary fat. Furthermore, defects in the hypothalamic plasticity-driven adaptive response to HFD are obesogenic and could be involved in the development of metabolic diseases.
|Suppression of autophagy exacerbates Mefloquine-mediated cell death. |
Ji Hyun Shin,So Jung Park,Yoon Kyung Jo,Eun Sung Kim,Hee Kang,Ji-Ho Park,Eunjoo H Lee,Dong-Hyung Cho
Neuroscience letters 515 2012
Mefloquine is an effective treatment drug for malaria. However, it can cause several adverse side effects, and the precise mechanism associated with the adverse neurological effects of Mefloquine is not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Mefloquine on autophagy in neuroblastoma cells. Mefloquine treatment highly induced the formation of autophagosomes and the conversion of LC3I into LC3II. Moreover, Mefloquine-induced autophagy was efficiently suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor and by down regulation of ATG6. The autophagy was also completely blocked in ATG5 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Moreover, suppression of autophagy significantly intensified Mefloquine-mediated cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings suggest that suppression of autophagy may exacerbate Mefloquine toxicity in neuroblastoma cells.
|Effects of dimethyl fumarate on neuroprotection and immunomodulation. |
Albrecht, P; Bouchachia, I; Goebels, N; Henke, N; Hofstetter, HH; Issberner, A; Kovacs, Z; Lewerenz, J; Lisak, D; Maher, P; Mausberg, AK; Quasthoff, K; Zimmermann, C; Hartung, HP; Methner, A
Journal of neuroinflammation 9 163 2012
Neuronal degeneration in multiple sclerosis has been linked to oxidative stress. Dimethyl fumarate is a promising novel oral therapeutic option shown to reduce disease activity and progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. These effects are presumed to originate from a combination of immunomodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. We aimed to clarify whether neuroprotective concentrations of dimethyl fumarate have immunomodulatory effects.We determined time- and concentration-dependent effects of dimethyl fumarate and its metabolite monomethyl fumarate on viability in a model of endogenous neuronal oxidative stress and clarified the mechanism of action by quantitating cellular glutathione content and recycling, nuclear translocation of transcription factors, and the expression of antioxidant genes. We compared this with changes in the cytokine profiles released by stimulated splenocytes measured by ELISPOT technology and analyzed the interactions between neuronal and immune cells and neuronal function and viability in cell death assays and multi-electrode arrays. Our observations show that dimethyl fumarate causes short-lived oxidative stress, which leads to increased levels and nuclear localization of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and a subsequent increase in glutathione synthesis and recycling in neuronal cells. Concentrations that were cytoprotective in neuronal cells had no negative effects on viability of splenocytes but suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines in cultures from C57BL/6 and SJL mice and had no effects on neuronal activity in multi-electrode arrays.These results suggest that immunomodulatory concentrations of dimethyl fumarate can reduce oxidative stress without altering neuronal network activity.
|Chronic ketamine administration modulates midbrain dopamine system in mice. |
Tan, S; Lam, WP; Wai, MS; Yu, WH; Yew, DT
PloS one 7 e43947 2012
Ketamine is an anesthetic and a popular abusive drug. As an anesthetic, effects of ketamine on glutamate and GABA transmission have been well documented but little is known about its long-term effects on the dopamine system. In the present study, the effects of ketamine on dopamine were studied in vitro and in vivo. In pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells and NGF differentiated-PC 12 cells, ketamine decreased the cell viability while increasing dopamine (DA) concentrations in a dose-related manner. However, ketamine did not affect the expression of genes involved in DA synthesis. In the long-term (3 months) ketamine treated mice, significant increases of DA contents were found in the midbrain. Increased DA concentrations were further supported by up-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis. Activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons could be related to ketamine modulated cortical-subcortical glutamate connections. Using western blotting, significant increases in BDNF protein levels were found in the midbrain, suggesting that perhaps BDNF pathways in the cortical-subcortical connections might contribute to the long-term ketamine induced TH upregulation. These data suggest that long-term ketamine abuse caused a delayed and persistent upregulation of subcortical DA systems, which may contribute to the altered mental status in ketamine abusers.
|Type I IFN receptor and the B cell antigen receptor regulate TLR7 responses via distinct molecular mechanisms. |
Poovassery, JS; Bishop, GA
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 189 1757-64 2012
Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) signals to B cells are critically involved in the innate immune response to microbes, as well as pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, but the molecular mechanisms that normally regulate these responses are incompletely understood. We previously reported that repeated stimulation through TLR7 induces a state of hyporesponsiveness (TLR tolerance) in both human and mouse B cells, characterized by marked inhibition of particular signaling pathways. BCR signals prevent and overcome TLR7 tolerance. Because optimal responses to TLR7 in B cells require type I IFN, we investigated whether BCR-mediated effects on TLR7 tolerance are mediated by type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) signals. Surprisingly, although BCR-mediated reversal of TLR7 tolerance was IFNAR independent, IFNAR signals alone also blocked TLR7 tolerance, despite enhancing TLR7 expression. Both BCR and IFNAR signals restored the phosphorylation of the transcriptional regulator c-Jun, but only BCR signals blocked the tolerance-mediated inhibition of JNK. Both BCR and IFNAR-mediated regulation was dependent on activation of the PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway, indicating a central role for this axis in integrating TLR7, BCR, and IFNAR signals in B cells. These new findings reveal distinct and overlapping signaling mechanisms used by BCR and IFNAR in the regulation of TLR7 tolerance and activation.
|Sertindole, a Potent Antagonist at Dopamine D2 Receptors, Induces Autophagy by Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells. |
Ji Hyun Shin,So Jung Park,Eun Sung Kim,Yoon Kyung Jo,Jungwoo Hong,Dong-Hyung Cho
Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 35 2012
Autophagy is associated with cell survival and cell death. Autophagy is implicated in the pathophysiology of various human diseases. In order to identify autophagy regulatory molecules, we screened a chemical drug library in SH-SY5Y cells and selected Sertindole as a potent autophagy inducer. Sertindole was developed as an antipsychotic drug for Schizophrenia. Sertindole treatment highly induced the formation of autophagosomes as well as LC3 conversion. Subsequently, Sertindole-induced autophagy was efficiently suppressed by down regulation of ATG5. Sertindole also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which contributes to autophagy-associated cell death in neuroblastoma cells. ROS scavengers such as N-acetylcysteine and Trolox suppressed not only ROS generation but also autophagy activation by Sertindole. These results suggest Sertindole induces autophagy and autophagy-associated cell death by ROS production in neuroblastoma cells.
|Human interferon-alpha increases the cytotoxic effect of CD56(+)cord blood-derived cytokine-induced killer cells on human B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. |
Ludovic Durrieu,Joëlle Gregoire-Gauthier,Mame Massar Dieng,François Fontaine,Françoise le Deist,Elie Haddad
Cytotherapy 14 2012
Background aims. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells may represent a promising immunotherapy for the treatment of children with relapsing B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, we investigated the possibility of combining adoptive immunotherapy with CIK cells and human interferon-alpha (hIFN-α) in order to potentiate the cytotoxicity of CIK cells against B-ALL. Methods. Cord blood- derived CIK (CB-CIK) cells were differentiated, stimulated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or hIFN-α, and tested for cytotoxic activity. We tested the anti-leukemic and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) effects of CB-CIK cells in a human xenograft NOD/SCID/γc(-) (NSG) mouse model. Results. Bulk CB-CIK cells showed very moderate cytotoxic activity while the subpopulation of CD56(+) CB-CIK cells showed significant cytotoxic activity against B-ALL cells. hIFN-α significantly augmented the cytotoxicity of CD56(+)CB-CIK cells in vitro and induced signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) phosphorylation. In addition, CD56(+)CB-CIK cells could delay mouse mortality significantly in vivo, and this effect was enhanced significantly by hIFN-α (P = 0.022). Furthermore, unlike CB mononuclear cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), CD56(+)CB-CIK cells, alone or stimulated with hIFN-α, caused either no GvHD or mild GvHD, respectively, when injected into sublethally irradiated NSG mice. Conclusions. CD56(+)CB-CIK cells are effective cytotoxic agents against human B-ALL cell lines in vitro and possess anti-leukemic activity that is potentiated by hIFN-α in an NSG mouse model in vivo. These pre-clinical data support the testing of this immunotherapeutic approach in the clinic for the treatment of B-ALL.
|Down-regulated Expression of ATG5 in Colorectal Cancer. |
Dong-Hyung Cho,Yoon Kyung Jo,Seung Cheol Kim,In Ja Park,Jin Cheon Kim
Anticancer research 32 2012
The role of autophagy in tumor development is paradoxical. Although some genetic evidence has indicated that autophagy has as a tumor suppressor function, it also provides some advantages to tumors under metabolic stress conditions. Autophagy is regulated by several autophagy-related gene (ATG) proteins. In mammals, 16 different ATG genes have been identified. To investigate the clinicopathological role of ATG5 in colorectal cancer, we firstly investigated its expression in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. Expression analysis revealed ATG5 to be strongly down-regulated in colorectal cancer (38/40 patients). Interestingly, immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer tissues indicated that increased ATG5 expression is associated with lymphovascular invasion (p=0.035). The findings in our limited clinical cohort indicate that ATG5 could be a potential prognostic or diagnostic biomarker.
|Hepcidin protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in a mouse model of obstructive jaundice. |
Ying-Hsien Huang,Ya-Ling Yang,Mao-Meng Tiao,Ho-Chang Kuo,Li-Tung Huang,Jiin-Haur Chuang
Peptides 35 2012
Obstructive jaundice (OJ) increases the risk of liver injury and sepsis, leading to increased mortality. Cholestatic liver injury is associated with a downregulation of hepcidin expression levels. In fact, hepcidin has an important antimicrobial effect, especially against Escherichia coli. It is unknown whether supplementing recombinant hepcidin is effective in alleviating cholestasis-induced liver injury and mortality in mice with superimposed sepsis. A mouse model of cholestasis was developed using extrahepatic bile duct ligation for 3 days. In addition, sepsis due to E. coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was induced in the model. The serum levels of total bilirubin, AST, ALT, and LDH and the mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in the liver were significantly higher in the OJ mice receiving LPS than in the sham-operated mice receiving LPS. Compared to the OJ mice receiving LPS, the hepcidin-pretreated OJ mice receiving LPS showed a significant decrease in the above mentioned parameters, as well as a reversal in the downregulation of LC3B-II and upregulation of cleaved caspase-3; this, in turn, led to significantly decreased lethality in 24h. In conclusion, these results indicate that hepcidin pretreatment significantly reduced hepatic proinflammatory cytokine expression and liver injury, leading to reduced early lethality in OJ mice receiving LPS. Enhanced autophagy and reduced apoptosis may account for the protective effects of hepcidin.
|Dopamine pathology in schizophrenia: analysis of total and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra. |
Perez-Costas, E; Melendez-Ferro, M; Rice, MW; Conley, RR; Roberts, RC
Frontiers in psychiatry 3 31 2012
Despite the importance of dopamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia, very few studies have addressed anomalies in the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the production of dopamine, and a possible contributor to the anomalies in the dopaminergic neurotransmission observed in schizophrenia.In this study, we had three objectives: (1) Compare TH expression (mRNA and protein) in the SN/VTA of schizophrenia and control postmortem samples. (2) Assess the effect of antipsychotic medications on the expression of TH in the SN/VTA. (3) Examine possible regional differences in TH expression anomalies within the SN/VTA.To achieve these objectives three independent studies were conducted: (1) A pilot study to compare TH mRNA and TH protein levels in the SN/VTA of postmortem samples from schizophrenia and controls. (2) A chronic treatment study was performed in rodents to assess the effect of antipsychotic medications in TH protein levels in the SN/VTA. (3) A second postmortem study was performed to assess TH and phosphorylated TH protein levels in two types of samples: schizophrenia and control samples containing the entire rostro-caudal extent of the SN/VTA, and schizophrenia and control samples containing only mid-caudal regions of the SN/VTA.Our studies showed impairment in the dopaminergic system in schizophrenia that could be mainly (or exclusively) located in the rostral region of the SN/VTA. Our studies also showed that TH protein levels were significantly abnormal in schizophrenia, while mRNA expression levels were not affected, indicating that TH pathology in this region may occur posttranscriptionally. Lastly, our antipsychotic animal treatment study showed that TH protein levels were not significantly affected by antipsychotic treatment, indicating that these anomalies are an intrinsic pathology rather than a treatment effect.
|A duplication CNV that conveys traits reciprocal to metabolic syndrome and protects against diet-induced obesity in mice and men. |
Lacaria, M; Saha, P; Potocki, L; Bi, W; Yan, J; Girirajan, S; Burns, B; Elsea, S; Walz, K; Chan, L; Lupski, JR; Gu, W
PLoS genetics 8 e1002713 2012
The functional contribution of CNV to human biology and disease pathophysiology has undergone limited exploration. Recent observations in humans indicate a tentative link between CNV and weight regulation. Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS), manifesting obesity and hypercholesterolemia, results from a deletion CNV at 17p11.2, but is sometimes due to haploinsufficiency of a single gene, RAI1. The reciprocal duplication in 17p11.2 causes Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS). We previously constructed mouse strains with a deletion, Df(11)17, or duplication, Dp(11)17, of the mouse genomic interval syntenic to the SMS/PTLS region. We demonstrate that Dp(11)17 is obesity-opposing; it conveys a highly penetrant, strain-independent phenotype of reduced weight, leaner body composition, lower TC/LDL, and increased insulin sensitivity that is not due to alteration in food intake or activity level. When fed with a high-fat diet, Dp(11)17/+ mice display much less weight gain and metabolic change than WT mice, demonstrating that the Dp(11)17 CNV protects against metabolic syndrome. Reciprocally, Df(11)17/+ mice with the deletion CNV have increased weight, higher fat content, decreased HDL, and reduced insulin sensitivity, manifesting a bona fide metabolic syndrome. These observations in the deficiency animal model are supported by human data from 76 SMS subjects. Further, studies on knockout/transgenic mice showed that the metabolic consequences of Dp(11)17 and Df(11)17 CNVs are not only due to dosage alterations of Rai1, the predominant dosage-sensitive gene for SMS and likely also PTLS. Our experiments in chromosome-engineered mouse CNV models for human genomic disorders demonstrate that a CNV can be causative for weight/metabolic phenotypes. Furthermore, we explored the biology underlying the contribution of CNV to the physiology of weight control and energy metabolism. The high penetrance, strain independence, and resistance to dietary influences associated with the CNVs in this study are features distinct from most SNP-associated metabolic traits and further highlight the potential importance of CNV in the etiology of both obesity and MetS as well as in the protection from these traits.
|Magnolol Protects against MPTP/MPP(+)-Induced Toxicity via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress in In Vivo and In Vitro Models of Parkinson's Disease. |
Muroyama, A; Fujita, A; Lv, C; Kobayashi, S; Fukuyama, Y; Mitsumoto, Y
Parkinson's disease 2012 985157 2012
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of magnolol in preventing 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-) induced neurodegeneration in mice and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-(MPP(+)-) induced cytotoxicity to human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to examine the possible mechanisms. Magnolol (30 mg/kg) was orally administered to C57BL/6N mice once a day for 4 or 5 days either before or after MPTP treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that MPTP injections substantially decreased protein levels of dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the striatum. Both treatments with magnolol significantly attenuated MPTP-induced decrease in DAT and TH protein levels in the striatum. However, these treatments did not affect MPTP-induced increase in GFAP levels. Moreover, oral administration of magnolol almost completely prevented MPTP-induced lipid peroxidation in the striatum. In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, magnolol significantly attenuated MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity and the production of reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that magnolol has protective effects via an antioxidative mechanism in both in vivo and in vitro models of Parkinson's disease.
|Identification and functional characterization of pVHL-dependent cell surface proteins in renal cell carcinoma. |
Boysen, G; Bausch-Fluck, D; Thoma, CR; Nowicka, AM; Stiehl, DP; Cima, I; Luu, VD; von Teichman, A; Hermanns, T; Sulser, T; Ingold-Heppner, B; Fankhauser, N; Wenger, RH; Krek, W; Schraml, P; Wollscheid, B; Moch, H
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 14 535-46 2012
The identification of cell surface accessible biomarkers enabling diagnosis, disease monitoring, and treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is as challenging as the biology and progression of RCC is unpredictable. A hallmark of most RCC is the loss-of-function of the von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL) protein by mutation of its gene (VHL). Using the cell surface capturing (CSC) technology, we screened and identified cell surface N-glycoproteins in pVHL-negative and positive 786-O cells. One hundred six cell surface N-glycoproteins were identified. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-based quantification of the CSC screen revealed 23 N-glycoproteins whose abundance seemed to change in a pVHL-dependent manner. Targeted validation experiments using transcriptional profiling of primary RCC samples revealed that nine glycoproteins, including CD10 and AXL, could be directly linked to pVHL-mediated transcriptional regulation. Subsequent human tumor tissue analysis of these cell surface candidate markers showed a correlation between epithelial AXL expression and aggressive tumor phenotype, indicating that pVHL-dependent regulation of glycoproteins may influence the biologic behavior of RCC. Functional characterization of the metalloprotease CD10 in cell invasion assays demonstrated a diminished penetrating behavior of pVHL-negative 786-O cells on treatment with the CD10-specific inhibitor thiorphan. Our proteomic surfaceome screening approach in combination with transcriptional profiling and functional validation suggests pVHL-dependent cell surface glycoproteins as potential diagnostic markers for therapeutic targeting and RCC patient monitoring.
|Increases in mitochondrial DNA content and 4977-bp deletion upon ATM/Chk2 checkpoint activation in HeLa cells. |
Niu, R; Yoshida, M; Ling, F
PloS one 7 e40572 2012
Activation of the Mec1/Rad53 damage checkpoint pathway influences mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and point mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects of this conserved checkpoint pathway on mitochondrial genomes in human cells remain largely unknown. Here, we report that knockdown of the human DNA helicase RRM3 enhances phosphorylation of the cell cycle arrest kinase Chk2, indicating activation of the checkpoint via the ATM/Chk2 pathway, and increases mtDNA content independently of TFAM, a regulator of mtDNA copy number. Cell-cycle arrest did not have a consistent effect on mtDNA level: knockdown of cell cycle regulators PLK1 (polo-like kinase), MCM2, or MCM3 gave rise, respectively, to decreased, increased, or almost unchanged mtDNA levels. Therefore, we concluded that the mtDNA content increase upon RRM3 knockdown is not a response to delay of cell cycle progression. Also, we observed that RRM3 knockdown increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); two ROS scavengers, N-acetyl cysteine and vitamin C, suppressed the mtDNA content increase. On the other hand, in RRM3 knockdown cells, we detected an increase in the frequency of the common 4977-bp mtDNA deletion, a major mtDNA deletion that can be induced by abnormal ROS generation, and is associated with a decline in mitochondrial genome integrity, aging, and various mtDNA-related disorders in humans. These results suggest that increase of the mitochondrial genome by TFAM-independent mtDNA replication is connected, via oxidative stress, with the ATM/Chk2 checkpoint activation in response to DNA damage, and is accompanied by generation of the common 4977-bp deletion.
|Glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and protein isoform alterations in the orbitofrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. |
Sinclair, D; Webster, MJ; Fullerton, JM; Weickert, CS
BMC psychiatry 12 84 2012
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may play a role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, in which hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities are observed and stress has been implicated. A critical component of the HPA axis which mediates cellular stress responses in the OFC, and has been implicated in psychiatric illness, is the glucocorticoid receptor (GR).In the lateral OFC, we employed quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting to investigate GR mRNA and protein expression in 34 bipolar disorder cases, 35 schizophrenia cases and 35 controls. Genotype data for eleven GR gene (NR3C1) polymorphisms was also used to explore possible effects of NR3C1 sequence variation on GR mRNA and protein expression in the lateral OFC.We found no diagnostic differences in pan GR, GR-1C or GR-1F mRNA expression. However, the GR-1B mRNA transcript variant was decreased (14.3%) in bipolar disorder cases relative to controls (p less than 0.05), while GR-1H mRNA was decreased (22.0%) in schizophrenia cases relative to controls (p less than 0.005). By western blotting, there were significant increases in abundance of a truncated GRα isoform, putative GRα-D1, in bipolar disorder (56.1%, p less than 0.005) and schizophrenia (31.5% p less than 0.05). Using genotype data for eleven NR3C1 polymorphisms, we found no evidence of effects of NR3C1 genotype on GR mRNA or GRα protein expression in the OFC.These findings reveal selective abnormalities of GR mRNA expression in the lateral OFC in psychiatric illness, which are more specific and may be less influenced by NR3C1 genotype than those of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reported previously. Our results suggest that the GRα-D1 protein isoform may be up-regulated widely across the frontal cortex in psychiatric illness.
|Tetraspanin is required for generation of reactive oxygen species by the dual oxidase system in Caenorhabditis elegans. |
Moribe, H; Konakawa, R; Koga, D; Ushiki, T; Nakamura, K; Mekada, E
PLoS genetics 8 e1002957 2012
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic but essential molecules responsible for host defense and cellular signaling. Conserved NADPH oxidase (NOX) family enzymes direct the regulated production of ROS. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generated by dual oxidases (DUOXs), a member of the NOX family, is crucial for innate mucosal immunity. In addition, H(2)O(2) is required for cellular signaling mediated by protein modifications, such as the thyroid hormone biosynthetic pathway in mammals. In contrast to other NOX isozymes, the regulatory mechanisms of DUOX activity are less understood. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we demonstrate that the tetraspanin protein is required for induction of the DUOX signaling pathway in conjunction with the dual oxidase maturation factor (DUOXA). In the current study, we show that genetic mutation of DUOX (bli-3), DUOXA (doxa-1), and peroxidase (mlt-7) in C. elegans causes the same defects as a tetraspanin tsp-15 mutant, represented by exoskeletal deficiencies due to the failure of tyrosine cross-linking of collagen. The deficiency in the tsp-15 mutant was restored by co-expression of bli-3 and doxa-1, indicating the involvement of tsp-15 in the generation of ROS. H(2)O(2) generation by BLI-3 was completely dependent on TSP-15 when reconstituted in mammalian cells. We also demonstrated that TSP-15, BLI-3, and DOXA-1 form complexes in vitro and in vivo. Cell-fusion-based analysis suggested that association with TSP-15 at the cell surface is crucial for BLI-3 activation to release H(2)O(2). This study provides the first evidence for an essential role of tetraspanin in ROS generation.
|Mdm2 RING mutation enhances p53 transcriptional activity and p53-p300 interaction. |
Clegg, HV; Itahana, Y; Itahana, K; Ramalingam, S; Zhang, Y
PloS one 7 e38212 2012
The p53 transcription factor and tumor suppressor is regulated primarily by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which ubiquitinates p53 to target it for proteasomal degradation. Aside from its ubiquitin ligase function, Mdm2 has been believed to be capable of suppressing p53's transcriptional activity by binding with and masking the transactivation domain of p53. The ability of Mdm2 to restrain p53 activity by binding alone, without ubiquitination, was challenged by a 2007 study using a knockin mouse harboring a single cysteine-to-alanine point mutation (C462A) in Mdm2's RING domain. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts with this mutation, which abrogates Mdm2's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity without affecting its ability to bind with p53, were unable to suppress p53 activity. In this study, we utilized the Mdm2(C462A) mouse model to characterize in further detail the role of Mdm2's RING domain in the control of p53. Here, we show in vivo that the Mdm2(C462A) protein not only fails to suppress p53, but compared to the complete absence of Mdm2, Mdm2(C462A) actually enhances p53 transcriptional activity toward p53 target genes p21/CDKN1A, MDM2, BAX, NOXA, and 14-3-3σ. In addition, we found that Mdm2(C462A) facilitates the interaction between p53 and the acetyltransferase CBP/p300, and it fails to heterodimerize with its homolog and sister regulator of p53, Mdmx, suggesting that a fully intact RING domain is required for Mdm2's inhibition of the p300-p53 interaction and for its interaction with Mdmx. These findings help us to better understand the complex regulation of the Mdm2-p53 pathway and have important implications for chemotherapeutic agents targeting Mdm2, as they suggest that inhibition of Mdm2's E3 ubiquitin ligase activity may be sufficient for increasing p53 activity in vivo, without the need to block Mdm2-p53 binding.
|Expression of Calcium Transport Proteins in the Extraembryonic Membranes of a Viviparous Snake, virginia striatula. |
Santiago P Fregoso,James R Stewart,Tom W Ecay
Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution 318 2012
Yolk is the primary source of calcium for embryonic growth and development for most squamates, irrespective of mode of parity. The calcified eggshell is a secondary source for embryonic calcium in all oviparous eggs, but this structure is lost in viviparous lineages. Virginia striatula is a viviparous snake in which embryos obtain calcium from both yolk and placental transport of uterine calcium secretions. The developmental pattern of embryonic calcium acquisition in V. striatula is similar to that for oviparous snakes. Calbindin-D(28K) is a marker for epithelial calcium transport activity and plasma membrane Ca(2+) -ATPase (PMCA) provides the energy to catalyze the final step in calcium transport. Expression of calbindin-D(28K) and PMCA was measured by immunoblotting in yolk sac splanchnopleure and chorioallantois of a developmental series of V. striatula to test the hypothesis that these proteins mediate calcium transport to embryos. In addition, we compared the expression of calbindin-D(28K) in extraembryonic membranes of V. striatula throughout development to a previously published expression pattern in an oviparous snake to test the hypothesis that the ontogeny of calcium transport function is independent of reproductive mode. Expression of calbindin-D(28K) increased in yolk sac splanchnopleure and chorioallantois coincident with calcium mobilization from yolk and uterine sources and with embryonic growth. The amount of PMCA in the chorioallantois did not change through development suggesting its expression is not rate limiting for calcium transport. The pattern of expression of calbindin-D(28K) and PMCA confirms our initial hypothesis that these proteins mediate embryonic calcium uptake. In addition, the developmental pattern of calbindin-D(28K) expression in V. striatula is similar to that of an oviparous snake, which suggests that calcium transport mechanisms and their regulation are independent of reproductive mode. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 318:250-256, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|Insight into the neuroproteomics effects of the food-contaminant non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls. |
Laura Brunelli,Marta Llansola,Vicente Felipo,Roberta Campagna,Luisa Airoldi,Massimiliano De Paola,Roberto Fanelli,Alessandro Mariani,Marco Mazzoletti,Roberta Pastorelli
Journal of proteomics 75 2012
Recent studies showed that food-contaminant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) congeners (PCB52, PCB138, PCB180) have neurotoxic potential, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal damage are not entirely known. The aim of this study was to assess whether in-vitro exposure to NDL-PCBs may alter the proteome profile of primary cerebellar neurons in order to expand our knowledge on NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity. Comparison of proteome from unexposed and exposed rat cerebellar neurons was performed using state-of-the-art label-free semi-quantitative mass-spectrometry method. We observed significant changes in the abundance of several proteins, that fall into two main classes: (i) novel targets for both PCB138 and 180, mediating the dysregulation of CREB pathways and ubiquitin-proteasome system; (ii) different congeners-specific targets (alpha-actinin-1 for PCB138; microtubule-associated-protein-2 for PCB180) that might lead to similar deleterious consequences on neurons cytoskeleton organization. Interference of the PCB congeners with synaptic formation was supported by the increased expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins quantified by western blot and immunocytochemistry. Expression alteration of synaptic markers was confirmed in the cerebellum of rats developmentally exposed to these congeners, suggesting an adaptive response to neurodevelopmental toxicity on brain structures. As such, our work is expected to lead to new insights into the mechanisms of NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity.
|Selective deletion of forebrain glycogen synthase kinase 3β reveals a central role in serotonin-sensitive anxiety and social behaviour. |
Latapy, C; Rioux, V; Guitton, MJ; Beaulieu, JM
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences 367 2460-74 2012
Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is thought to underlie mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, depression, autism and schizophrenia. Independent studies have indicated that 5-HT or drugs acting on 5-HT neurotransmission regulate the serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Furthermore, GSK3β inhibition rescues behavioural abnormalities in 5-HT-deficient mice with a loss-of-function mutation equivalent to the human variant (R441H) of tryptophan hydroxylase 2. In an effort to define neuroanatomical correlates of GSK3β activity in the regulation of behaviour, we generated CamKIIcre-floxGSK3β mice in which the gsk3b gene is postnatally inactivated in forebrain pyramidal neurons. Behavioural characterization showed that suppression of GSK3β in these brain areas has anxiolytic and pro-social effects. However, while a global reduction of GSK2β expression reduced responsiveness to amphetamine and increased resilience to social defeat, these behavioural effects were not found in CamKIIcre-floxGSK3β mice. These findings demonstrate a dissociation of behavioural effects related to GSK3 inhibition, with forebrain GSK3β being involved in the regulation of anxiety and sociability while social preference, resilience and responsiveness to psychostimulants would involve a function of this kinase in subcortical areas such as the hippocampus and striatum.
|Caveolin-1 deficiency leads to increased susceptibility to cell death and fibrosis in white adipose tissue: characterization of a lipodystrophic model. |
Martin, S; Fernandez-Rojo, MA; Stanley, AC; Bastiani, M; Okano, S; Nixon, SJ; Thomas, G; Stow, JL; Parton, RG
PloS one 7 e46242 2012
Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an important regulator of adipose tissue homeostasis. In the present study we examined the impact of CAV1 deficiency on the properties of mouse adipose tissue both in vivo and in explant cultures during conditions of metabolic stress. In CAV1(-/-) mice fasting caused loss of adipose tissue mass despite a lack of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation. In addition, fasting resulted in increased macrophage infiltration, enhanced deposition of collagen, and a reduction in the level of the lipid droplet protein perilipin A (PLIN1a). Explant cultures of CAV1(-/-) adipose tissue also showed a loss of PLIN1a during culture, enhanced secretion of IL-6, increased release of lactate dehydrogenase, and demonstrated increased susceptibility to cell death upon collagenase treatment. Attenuated PKA-mediated signaling to HSL, loss of PLIN1a and increased secretion of IL-6 were also observed in adipose tissue explants of CAV1(+/+) mice with diet-induced obesity. Together these results suggest that while alterations in adipocyte lipid droplet biology support adipose tissue metabolism in the absence of PKA-mediated pro-lipolytic signaling in CAV1(-/-) mice, the tissue is intrinsically unstable resulting in increased susceptibility to cell death, which we suggest underlies the development of fibrosis and inflammation during periods of metabolic stress.
|Spi-1, Fli-1 and Fli-3 (miR-17-92) oncogenes contribute to a single oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation in friend erythroleukemia. |
Kayali, S; Giraud, G; Morlé, F; Guyot, B
PloS one 7 e46799 2012
Clonal erythroleukemia developing in susceptible mice infected by Friend virus complex are associated with highly recurrent proviral insertions at one of three loci called Spi-1, Fli-1 or Fli-3, leading to deregulated expression of oncogenic Spi-1 or Fli-1 transcription factors or miR-17-92 miRNA cluster, respectively. Deregulated expression of each of these three oncogenes has been independently shown to contribute to cell proliferation of erythroleukemic clones. Previous studies showed a close relationship between Spi-1 and Fli-1, which belong to the same ETS family, Spi-1 activating fli-1 gene, and both Spi-1 and Fli-1 activating multiple common target genes involved in ribosome biogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that Spi-1 and Fli-1 are also involved in direct miR-17-92 transcriptional activation through their binding to a conserved ETS binding site in its promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that physiological re-expression of exogenous miR-17 and miR-20a are able to partially rescue the proliferation loss induced by Fli-1 knock-down and identified HBP1 as a target of these miRNA in erythroleukemic cells. These results establish that three of the most recurrently activated oncogenes in Friend erythroleukemia are actually involved in a same oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation. The putative contribution of a similar ETS-miR-17-92 network module in other normal or pathological proliferative contexts is discussed.
|Recruitment of histone deacetylase 3 to the interferon-A gene promoters attenuates interferon expression. |
Génin, P; Lin, R; Hiscott, J; Civas, A
PloS one 7 e38336 2012
Induction of Type I Interferon (IFN) genes constitutes an essential step leading to innate immune responses during virus infection. Sendai virus (SeV) infection of B lymphoid Namalwa cells transiently induces the transcriptional expression of multiple IFN-A genes. Although transcriptional activation of IFN-A genes has been extensively studied, the mechanism responsible for the attenuation of their expression remains to be determined.In this study, we demonstrate that virus infection of Namalwa cells induces transient recruitment of HDAC3 (histone deacetylase 3) to IFN-A promoters. Analysis of chromatin-protein association by Chip-QPCR demonstrated that recruitment of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3 and IRF7, as well as TBP correlated with enhanced histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation, whereas recruitment of HDAC3 correlated with inhibition of histone H3K9/K14 acetylation, removal of IRF7 and TATA-binding protein (TBP) from IFN-A promoters and inhibition of virus-induced IFN-A gene transcription. Additionally, HDAC3 overexpression reduced, and HDAC3 depletion by siRNA enhanced IFN-A gene expression. Furthermore, activation of IRF7 enhanced histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and IFN-A gene expression, whereas activation of both IRF7 and IRF3 led to recruitment of HDAC3 to the IFN-A gene promoters, resulting in impaired histone H3K9 acetylation and attenuation of IFN-A gene transcription.Altogether these data indicate that reversal of histone H3K9/K14 acetylation by HDAC3 is required for attenuation of IFN-A gene transcription during viral infection.
|The intercellular synchronization of Ca2+ oscillations evaluates Cx36-dependent coupling. |
Bavamian, S; Pontes, H; Cancela, J; Charollais, A; Startchik, S; Van de Ville, D; Meda, P
PloS one 7 e41535 2012
Connexin36 (Cx36) plays an important role in insulin secretion by controlling the intercellular synchronization of Ca(2+) transients induced during stimulation. The lack of drugs acting on Cx36 channels is a major limitation in further unraveling the molecular mechanism underlying this effect. To screen for such drugs, we have developed an assay allowing for a semi-automatic, fluorimetric quantification of Ca(2+) transients in large populations of MIN6 cells. Here, we show that (1) compared to control cells, MIN6 cells with reduced Cx36 expression or function showed decreased synchrony of glucose-induced Ca(2+) oscillations; (2) glibenclamide, a sulphonylurea which promotes Cx36 junctions and coupling, increased the number of synchronous MIN6 cells, whereas quinine, an antimalarial drug which inhibits Cx36-dependent coupling, decreased this proportion; (3) several drugs were identified that altered the intercellular Ca(2+) synchronization, cell coupling and distribution of Cx36; (4) some of them also affected insulin content. The data indicate that the intercellular synchronization of Ca(2+) oscillations provides a reliable and non-invasive measurement of Cx36-dependent coupling, which is useful to identify novel drugs affecting the function of β-cells, neurons, and neuron-related cells that express Cx36.
|Carnitine sensitizes TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death through the up-regulation of Bax. |
So Jung Park,Seong Ho Park,Joo-Oh Kim,Jung Ho Kim,Jung Jin Hwang,Dong-Hoon Jin,Seong-Yun Jeong,Seung Jin Lee,Jin Cheon Kim,Inki Kim,Dong-Hyung Cho
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 428 2012
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family with apoptosis-inducing activity. Given that TRAIL selectively induces cell death in various tumors but has little or no toxicity to normal cells, TRAIL agonists have been considered as promising anti-cancer therapeutic agents. However, the resistance of many primary tumors and cancer cells to TRAIL poses a challenge. In our present study, we found that carnitine, a metabolite that transfers long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria for beta-oxidation and modulates protein kinase C activity, sensitizes TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to TRAIL. Combination of carnitine and TRAIL was found to synergistically induce apoptotic cell death through caspase activation, which was blocked by a pan caspase inhibitor, but not by an inhibitor of autophagy or an inhibitor of necrosis. The combination of carnitine and TRAIL reversed the resistance to TRAIL in lung cancer cells, colon carcinoma cells, and breast carcinoma cells. We further demonstrate that carnitine, either alone or in combination with TRAIL, enhances the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). The down-regulation of Bax expression by small interfering RNA reduced caspase activation when cells were treated with TRAIL, and experiments with cells from Bax knockout mice confirmed this result. Taken together, our current results suggest that carnitine can reverse the resistance of cancer cells to TRAIL by up-regulating Bax expression. Thus, a combined delivery of carnitine and TRAIL may represent a new therapeutic strategy to treat TRAIL-resistant cancer cells.
|A role for ubiquitinylation and the cytosolic proteasome in turnover of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). |
Kieran J Clarke,Alison E Adams,Lars H Manzke,Terry W Pearson,Christoph H Borchers,Richard K Porter
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1817 2012
In this study we show that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and thymus mitochondria can be ubiquitinylated and degraded by the cytosolic proteasome. Using a ubiquitin conjugating system, we show that UCP1 can be ubiquitinylated in vitro. We demonstrate that UCP1 is ubiquitinylated in vivo using isolated mitochondria from brown adipose tissue, thymus and whole brown adipocytes. Using an in vitro ubiquitin conjugating-proteasome degradation system, we show that the cytosolic proteasome can degrade UCP1 at a rate commensurate with the half-life of UCP1 (i.e. 30-72h in brown adipocytes and ~3h, in thymocytes). In addition, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic proteasome is required for UCP1 degradation from mitochondria that the process is inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and that dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential inhibits degradation of UCP1. There also appears to be a greater amount of ubiquitinylated UCP1 associated with BAT mitochondria from cold-acclimated animals. We have also identified (using immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry) ubiquitinylated proteins with molecular masses greater than 32kDa, as being UCP1. We conclude that there is a role for ubiquitinylation and the cytosolic proteasome in turnover of mitochondrial UCP1. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).
|Breast cancer cell targeting by prenylation inhibitors elucidated in living animals with a bioluminescence reporter. |
Chinault, SL; Prior, JL; Kaltenbronn, KM; Penly, A; Weilbaecher, KN; Piwnica-Worms, D; Blumer, KJ
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 18 4136-44 2012
Inhibitors of protein prenylation, including prenyltransferase inhibitors and aminobisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid, are being investigated intensively as therapeutics in cancer and other diseases. Determining whether prenylation inhibitors directly or indirectly target tumor and/or host cells is key to understanding therapeutic mechanisms.To determine which cell types can be targeted directly by distinct classes of prenylation inhibitors in vivo, we describe herein the development and implementation of a sensitive and pharmacologically specific bioluminescence-based imaging reporter that is inducible by prenylation inhibitors.In mouse xenograft models of breast cancer, using reporter-bearing mammary fat pad- or bone-localized tumor cells, we show that a prenyltransferase inhibitor robustly induces reporter activity in vivo. In contrast, zoledronic acid, a bone-associated aminobisphosphonate that exerts adjuvant chemotherapeutic activity in patients with breast cancer, fails to induce reporter activity in tumor cells of either model.Although a prenyltransferase inhibitor can directly target breast cancer cells in vivo, zoledronic acid and related aminobisphosphonates are likely to exert antitumor activity indirectly by targeting host cells. Accordingly, these findings shift attention toward the goal of determining which host cell types are targeted directly by aminobisphosphonates to exert adjuvant chemotherapeutic activity.
|Experience-dependent brain plasticity after stroke: effect of ibuprofen and poststroke delay. |
Jan A Jablonka,Malgorzata Kossut,Otto W Witte,Monika Liguz-Lecznar
The European journal of neuroscience 36 2012
Despite indications that brain plasticity may be enhanced after stroke, we have described impairment of experience-dependent plasticity in rat cerebral cortex neighboring the stroke-induced lesion. Photothrombotic stroke was centered behind the barrel cortex in one cerebral hemisphere of rats. Plasticity of cortical representation of one row of vibrissae was induced by sensory deprivation of all surrounding whiskers for 1 month, and visualized with [(14) C]-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. In control rats deprivation resulted in an enlargement of functional cortical representation of the spared row of vibrissae. After a focal stroke neighbouring the barrel cortex, no plasticity of the spared row representation was found. Investigation of plastic changes with deprivation initiated 1 week and 1 month after stroke have shown that later poststroke onset of deprivation resulted in a partial recovery of cortical plasticity in the barrel field. Western blot analysis of proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression revealed its strong upregulation in the barrel cortex 24 h after stroke. When chronic treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg) accompanied deprivation, plasticity was restored. Ibuprofen applied before the ischemia also prevented the poststroke upregulation of COX-2. The results strongly suggest that poststroke impairment of experience-dependent cortical plasticity is caused by stroke-induced inflammatory reactions that subside with poststroke delay and can be at least partially ameliorated by pharmacological treatment.
|Estradiol partially recapitulates murine pituitary cell cycle response to pregnancy. |
Toledano, Y; Zonis, S; Ren, SG; Wawrowsky, K; Chesnokova, V; Melmed, S
Endocrinology 153 5011-22 2012
Because pregnancy and estrogens both induce pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia, we assessed the expression of pituitary cell cycle regulators in two models of murine pituitary hyperplasia. Female mice were assessed during nonpregnancy, pregnancy, day of delivery, and postpartum. We also implanted estradiol (E(2)) pellets in female mice and studied them for 2.5 months. Pituitary weight in female mice increased 2-fold after E(2) administration and 1.4-fold at day of delivery, compared with placebo-treated or nonpregnant females. Pituitary proliferation, as assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and/or Ki-67 staining, increased dramatically during both mid-late pregnancy and E(2) administration, and lactotroph hyperplasia was also observed. Pregnancy induced pituitary cell cycle proliferative and inhibitory responses at the G(1)/S checkpoint. Differential cell cycle regulator expression included cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), and cyclin D1. Pituitary cell cycle responses to E(2) administration partially recapitulated those effects observed at mid-late pregnancy, coincident with elevated circulating mouse E(2), including increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, p15(INK4b), and p21(Cip1). Nuclear localization of pituitary p21(Cip1) was demonstrated at mid-late pregnancy but not during E(2) administration, suggesting a cell cycle inhibitory role for p21(Cip1) in pregnancy, yet a possible proproliferative role during E(2) administration. Most observed cell cycle protein alterations were reversed postpartum. Murine pituitary meets the demand for prolactin during lactation associated with induction of both cell proliferative and inhibitory pathways, mediated, at least partially, by estradiol.
|High mitochondrial DNA copy number and bioenergetic function are associated with tumor invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. |
Lin, CS; Lee, HT; Lee, SY; Shen, YA; Wang, LS; Chen, YJ; Wei, YH
International journal of molecular sciences 13 11228-46 2012
We previously reported a gradual increase of relative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number during the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Because mitochondria are the intracellular organelles responsible for ATP production, we investigated the associations among mtDNA copy number, mitochondrial bioenergetic function, tumor invasion and the expression levels of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in a series of seven ESCC cell lines, including 48T, 81T, 146T, TE1, TE2, TE6 and TE9. Among them, TE1 had the highest relative mtDNA copy number of 240.7%. The mRNA of mtDNA-encoded ND1 gene (2.80), succinate-supported oxygen consumption rate (11.21 nmol/min/10(6) cells), ATP content (10.7 fmol/cell), and the protein level of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were the highest and the lactate concentration in the culture medium (3.34 mM) was the lowest in TE1. These findings indicate that TE1 exhibited the highest bioenergetic function of mitochondria. Furthermore, TE1 showed the highest trans-well migration activity of 223.0 cells/field, the highest vimentin but the lowest E-cadherin protein expression levels, which suggest that TE1 had the highest invasion capability. We then conducted a knockdown study using pLKO.1-based lentiviral particles to infect TE1 cells to suppress the expression of TFAM. Molecular analyses of the parental TE1, control TE1-NT and TFAM knockdown TE1-sh-TFAM(97) cells were performed. Interestingly, as compared to the control TE1-NT, TE1-sh-TFAM(97) exhibited lower levels of the relative mtDNA copy number (p = 0.001), mRNA of mtDNA-encoded ND1 gene (p = 0.050), succinate-supported oxygen consumption rate (p = 0.065), and ATP content (p = 0.007), but had a higher lactate concentration in the culture medium (p = 0.010) and higher protein level of lactate dehydrogenase. A decline in mitochondrial bioenergetic function was observed in TE1-sh-TFAM(97). Significantly, compared to the control TE1-NT, TE1-sh-TFAM(97) had a lower trans-well migration activity (p less than 0.001), a higher E-cadherin level but a lower vimentin protein level, which indicates a decrease of invasiveness. Taken together, we suggest that high relative mtDNA copy number and bioenergetic function of mitochondria may confer an advantage for tumor invasion of ESCC.
|Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra. |
Purves-Tyson, TD; Handelsman, DJ; Double, KL; Owens, SJ; Bustamante, S; Weickert, CS
BMC neuroscience 13 95 2012
Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR) or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER). How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s) and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase). We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and monoamine oxygenase (MAO) A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels.We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT) increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy.We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.
|Methamphetamine reduces human influenza a virus replication. |
Yun-Hsiang Chen,Kuang-Lun Wu,Chia-Hsiang Chen
PloS one 7 2012
Methamphetamine (meth) is a highly addictive psychostimulant that is among the most widely abused illicit drugs, with an estimated over 35 million users in the world. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic meth abuse is a major factor for increased risk of infections with human immunodeficiency virus and possibly other pathogens, due to its immunosuppressive property. Influenza A virus infections frequently cause epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases among human populations. However, little is known about whether meth has the ability to enhance influenza A virus replication, thus increasing severity of influenza illness in meth abusers. Herein, we investigated the effects of meth on influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells were exposed to meth and infected with human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus. The viral progenies were titrated by plaque assays, and the expression of viral proteins and cellular proteins involved in interferon responses was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We report the first evidence that meth significantly reduces, rather than increases, virus propagation and the susceptibility to influenza infection in the human lung epithelial cell line, consistent with a decrease in viral protein synthesis. These effects were apparently not caused by meth's effects on enhancing virus-induced interferon responses in the host cells, reducing viral biological activities, or reducing cell viability. Our results suggest that meth might not be a great risk factor for influenza A virus infection among meth abusers. Although the underlying mechanism responsible for the action of meth on attenuating virus replication requires further investigation, these findings prompt the study to examine whether other structurally similar compounds could be used as anti-influenza agents.
|Loss of neuronal potassium/chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3) is responsible for the degenerative phenotype in a conditional mouse model of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. |
Shekarabi, M; Moldrich, RX; Rasheed, S; Salin-Cantegrel, A; Laganière, J; Rochefort, D; Hince, P; Huot, K; Gaudet, R; Kurniawan, N; Sotocinal, SG; Ritchie, J; Dion, PA; Mogil, JS; Richards, LJ; Rouleau, GA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 3865-76 2012
Disruption of the potassium/chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3), encoded by the SLC12A6 gene, causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC), a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder affecting both the peripheral nervous system and CNS. However, the precise role of KCC3 in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in the nervous system and the pathogenic mechanisms leading to HMSN/ACC remain unclear. We established two Slc12a6 Cre/LoxP transgenic mouse lines expressing C-terminal truncated KCC3 in either a neuron-specific or ubiquitous fashion. Our results suggest that neuronal KCC3 expression is crucial for axon volume control. We also demonstrate that the neuropathic features of HMSN/ACC are predominantly due to a neuronal KCC3 deficit, while the auditory impairment is due to loss of non-neuronal KCC3 expression. Furthermore, we demonstrate that KCC3 plays an essential role in inflammatory pain pathways. Finally, we observed hypoplasia of the corpus callosum in both mouse mutants and a marked decrease in axonal tracts serving the auditory cortex in only the general deletion mutant. Together, these results establish KCC3 as an important player in both central and peripheral nervous system maintenance.
|N-(1-Pyrenyl) maleimide inhibits telomerase activity in a cell free system and induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells. |
Pei-Rong Huang,Yuan-Ming Yeh,Chia-Chu Pao,Chi-Yuan Chen,Tzu-Chien V Wang
Molecular biology reports 39 2012
Telomerase activity is repressed in normal human somatic cells, but is activated in most cancers, suggesting that telomerase may be an important target for cancer therapy. Agents that interact selectively with telomerase are anticipated to exert specific action on cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated maleimide derivatives for their potency and selectivity of telomerase inhibition. Among the several N-substituted derivatives of maleimide tested, N-(1-Pyrenyl) maleimide was shown to exert the greatest inhibition of telomerase in a cell free system, with an IC50 value of 0.25 μM. Importantly, we demonstrated that N-(1-pyrenyl) maleimide induces apoptosis in Jurkat T cells and displays the greatest differential cytotoxicity against hematopoietic cancer cells. These results suggest that N-(1-pyrenyl) maleimide is an attractive maleimide to be tested and developed as anti-cancer drug.
|When cytokinin, a plant hormone, meets the adenosine A2A receptor: a novel neuroprotectant and lead for treating neurodegenerative disorders? |
Lee, YC; Yang, YC; Huang, CL; Kuo, TY; Lin, JH; Yang, DM; Huang, NK
PloS one 7 e38865 2012
It is well known that cytokinins are a class of phytohormones that promote cell division in plant roots and shoots. However, their targets, biological functions, and implications in mammalian systems have rarely been examined. In this study, we show that one cytokinin, zeatin riboside, can prevent pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells from serum deprivation-induced apoptosis by acting on the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)-R), which was blocked by an A(2A)-R antagonist and a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, demonstrating the functional ability of zeatin riboside by mediating through A(2A)-R signaling event. Since the A(2A)-R was implicated as a therapeutic target in treating Huntington's disease (HD), a cellular model of HD was applied by transfecting mutant huntingtin in PC12 cells. By using filter retardation assay and confocal microscopy we found that zeatin riboside reversed mutant huntingtin (Htt)-induced protein aggregations and proteasome deactivation through A(2A)-R signaling. PKA inhibitor blocked zeatin riboside-induced suppression of mutant Htt aggregations. In addition, PKA activated proteasome activity and reduced mutant Htt protein aggregations. However, a proteasome inhibitor blocked both zeatin riboside-and PKA activator-mediated suppression of mutant Htt aggregations, confirming mediation of the A(2A)-R/PKA/proteasome pathway. Taken together, zeatin riboside might have therapeutic potential as a novel neuroprotectant and a lead for treating neurodegenerative disorders.
|Sarcosin (Krp1) in skeletal muscle differentiation: gene expression profiling and knockdown experiments. |
du Puy, L; Beqqali, A; van Tol, HT; Monshouwer-Kloots, J; Passier, R; Haagsman, HP; Roelen, BA
The International journal of developmental biology 56 301-9 2012
SARCOSIN, also named Krp1, has been identified as a protein exclusively expressed in striated muscle tissue. Here we report on the role of SARCOSIN in skeletal muscle development and differentiation. We demonstrate, by means of whole-mount in situ hybridization, that Sarcosin mRNA is expressed in the myotome part of the mature somites in mouse embryos from embryonic day 9.5 onwards. Sarcosin is not expressed in the developing heart at these embryonic stages, and in adult tissues the mRNA expression levels are five times lower in the heart than in skeletal muscle. SARCOSIN protein partially co-localizes with the M-band protein myomesin and between and below laterally fusing myofibrils in adult skeletal muscle tissue. RNA interference mediated knock-down of SARCOSIN in the C2C12 myoblast cell line appeared to be stimulatory in the early phase of differentiation, but inhibitory at a later phase of differentiation.
|The trifunctional protein mediates thyroid hormone receptor-dependent stimulation of mitochondria metabolism. |
E Sandra Chocron,Naomi L Sayre,Deborah Holstein,Nuttawut Saelim,Jamal A Ibdah,Lily Q Dong,Xuguang Zhu,Sheue-Yann Cheng,James D Lechleiter
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) 26 2012
We previously demonstrated that the thyroid hormone, T(3), acutely stimulates mitochondrial metabolism in a thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-dependent manner. T(3) has also recently been shown to stimulate mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here we report that TR-dependent stimulation of metabolism is mediated by the mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP), the enzyme responsible for long-chain FAO. Stimulation of FAO was significant in cells that expressed a nonnuclear amino terminus shortened TR isoform (sTR(43)) but not in adult fibroblasts cultured from mice deficient in both TRα and TRβ isoforms (TRα(-/-)β(-/-)). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in MTP (MTP(-/-)) did not support T(3)-stimulated FAO. Inhibition of fatty-acid trafficking into mitochondria using the AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)-phenyl)]-3-pyridin-4-yl-pyrrazolo[1,5-a]-pyrimidine (compound C) or the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 inhibitor etomoxir prevented T(3)-stimulated FAO. However, T(3) treatment could increase FAO when AMP-activated protein kinase was maximally activated, indicating an alternate mechanism of T(3)-stimulated FAO exists, even when trafficking is presumably high. MTPα protein levels and higher molecular weight complexes of MTP subunits were increased by T(3) treatment. We suggest that T(3)-induced increases in mitochondrial metabolism are at least in part mediated by a T(3)-shortened TR isoform-dependent stabilization of the MTP complex, which appears to lower MTP subunit turnover.
|The C. elegans H3K27 demethylase UTX-1 is essential for normal development, independent of its enzymatic activity. |
Vandamme, J; Lettier, G; Sidoli, S; Di Schiavi, E; Nørregaard Jensen, O; Salcini, AE
PLoS genetics 8 e1002647 2012
Epigenetic modifications influence gene expression and provide a unique mechanism for fine-tuning cellular differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. Here we report on the biological functions of UTX-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans homologue of mammalian UTX, a histone demethylase specific for H3K27me2/3. We demonstrate that utx-1 is an essential gene that is required for correct embryonic and postembryonic development. Consistent with its homology to UTX, UTX-1 regulates global levels of H3K27me2/3 in C. elegans. Surprisingly, we found that the catalytic activity is not required for the developmental function of this protein. Biochemical analysis identified UTX-1 as a component of a complex that includes SET-16(MLL), and genetic analysis indicates that the defects associated with loss of UTX-1 are likely mediated by compromised SET-16/UTX-1 complex activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that UTX-1 is required for many aspects of nematode development; but, unexpectedly, this function is independent of its enzymatic activity.
|Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) enhances 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigrostriatal damage via deacetylating forkhead box O3a (Foxo3a) and activating Bim protein. |
Liu, L; Arun, A; Ellis, L; Peritore, C; Donmez, G
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 32307-11 2012
Sirtuins are NAD-dependent protein deacetylases that were shown to have beneficial effects against age-related diseases. SIRT2 is a strong deacetylase that is highly expressed in brain. It has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin that replicates most of the clinical features of Parkinson disease (PD) and produces a reliable and reproducible lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and neurodegeneration after its systemic administration. Chronic administration of MPTP induces lesion via apoptosis. We show here that SIRT2 deacetylates Foxo3a, increases RNA and protein levels of Bim, and as a result, enhances apoptosis in the MPTP model of PD. We also show that neurodegeneration induced by chronic MPTP regimen is prevented by genetic deletion of SIRT2 in mouse. Deletion of SIRT2 leads to the reduction of apoptosis due to an increase in acetylation of Foxo3a and a decrease in Bim levels. We demonstrate that SIRT2 deacetylates Foxo3a, activates Bim, and induces apoptosis only in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-treated cells. Therefore, designing SIRT2 inhibitors might be helpful to develop effective treatments for PD.
|Cyclin-dependent kinase suppression by WEE1 kinase protects the genome through control of replication initiation and nucleotide consumption. |
Beck, H; Nähse-Kumpf, V; Larsen, MS; O'Hanlon, KA; Patzke, S; Holmberg, C; Mejlvang, J; Groth, A; Nielsen, O; Syljuåsen, RG; Sørensen, CS
Molecular and cellular biology 32 4226-36 2012
Activation of oncogenes or inhibition of WEE1 kinase deregulates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity and leads to replication stress; however, the underlying mechanism is not understood. We now show that elevation of CDK activity by inhibition of WEE1 kinase rapidly increases initiation of replication. This leads to nucleotide shortage and reduces replication fork speed, which is followed by SLX4/MUS81-mediated DNA double-strand breakage. Fork speed is normalized and DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is suppressed when CDT1, a key factor for replication initiation, is depleted. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides counteracts the effects of unscheduled CDK activity on fork speed and DNA DSB formation. Finally, we show that WEE1 regulates the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S-phase checkpoint, consistent with its role in control of replication initiation. In conclusion, these results suggest that deregulated CDK activity, such as that occurring following inhibition of WEE1 kinase or activation of oncogenes, induces replication stress and loss of genomic integrity through increased firing of replication origins and subsequent nucleotide shortage.
|Molecular and functional interaction between protocadherin-γC5 and GABAA receptors. |
Li, Y; Xiao, H; Chiou, TT; Jin, H; Bonhomme, B; Miralles, CP; Pinal, N; Ali, R; Chen, WV; Maniatis, T; De Blas, AL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 11780-97 2012
We have found that the γ2 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor (γ2-GABA(A)R) specifically interacts with protocadherin-γC5 (Pcdh-γC5) in the rat brain. The interaction occurs between the large intracellular loop of the γ2-GABA(A)R and the cytoplasmic domain of Pcdh-γC5. In brain extracts, Pcdh-γC5 coimmunoprecipitates with GABA(A)Rs. In cotransfected HEK293 cells, Pcdh-γC5 promotes the transfer of γ2-GABA(A)R to the cell surface. We have previously shown that, in cultured hippocampal neurons, endogenous Pcdh-γC5 forms clusters, some of which associate with GABAergic synapses. Overexpression of Pcdh-γC5 in hippocampal neurons increases the density of γ2-GABA(A)R clusters but has no significant effect on the number of GABAergic contacts that these neurons receive, indicating that Pcdh-γC5 is not synaptogenic. Deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of Pcdh-γC5 enhanced its surface expression but decreased the association with both γ2-GABA(A)R clusters and presynaptic GABAergic contacts. Cultured hippocampal neurons from the Pcdh-γ triple C-type isoform knock-out (TCKO) mouse (Pcdhg(tcko/tcko)) showed plenty of GABAergic synaptic contacts, although their density was reduced compared with sister cultures from wild-type and heterozygous mice. Knocking down Pcdh-γC5 expression with shRNA decreased γ2-GABA(A)R cluster density and GABAergic innervation. The results indicate that, although Pcdh-γC5 is not essential for GABAergic synapse formation or GABA(A)R clustering, (1) Pcdh-γC5 regulates the surface expression of GABA(A)Rs via cis-cytoplasmic interaction with γ2-GABA(A)R, and (2) Pcdh-γC5 plays a role in the stabilization and maintenance of some GABAergic synapses.
|β3 integrin is dispensable for conditioned fear and Hebbian forms of plasticity in the hippocampus. |
A B McGeachie,A E Skrzypiec,L A Cingolani,M Letellier,R Pawlak,Y Goda
The European journal of neuroscience 36 2012
Integrins play key roles in the developing and mature nervous system, from promoting neuronal process outgrowth to facilitating synaptic plasticity. Recently, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, β3 integrin (ITGβ3) was shown to stabilise synaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and to be required for homeostatic scaling of AMPARs elicited by chronic activity suppression. To probe the physiological function for ITGβ3-dependent processes in the brain, we examined whether the loss of ITGβ3 affected fear-related behaviours in mice. ITGβ3-knockout (KO) mice showed normal conditioned fear responses that were similar to those of control wild-type mice. However, anxiety-like behaviour appeared substantially compromised and could be reversed to control levels by lentivirus-mediated re-expression of ITGβ3 bilaterally in the ventral hippocampus. In hippocampal slices, the loss of ITGβ3 activity did not compromise Hebbian forms of plasticity - neither acute pharmacological disruption of ITGβ3 ligand interactions nor genetic deletion of ITGβ3 altered long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). Moreover, we did not detect any changes in short-term synaptic plasticity upon loss of ITGβ3 activity. In contrast, acutely disrupting ITGβ1-ligand interactions or genetic deletion of ITGβ1 selectively interfered with LTP stabilisation whereas LTD remained unaltered. These findings indicate a lack of requirement for ITGβ3 in the two robust forms of hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity, LTP and LTD, and suggest differential roles for ITGβ1 and ITGβ3 in supporting hippocampal circuit functions.
|Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein engages but does not abrogate the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint. |
Yu, Y; Munger, K
Virology 432 120-6 2012
The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis by censoring kinetochore-microtubule interactions. It is frequently rendered dysfunctional during carcinogenesis causing chromosome missegregation and genomic instability. There are conflicting reports whether the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein drives chromosomal instability by abolishing the SAC. Here we report that degradation of mitotic cyclins is impaired in cells with HPV16 E7 expression. RNAi-mediated depletion of Mad2 or BubR1 indicated the involvement of the SAC, suggesting that HPV16 E7 expression causes sustained SAC engagement. Mutational analyses revealed that HPV16 E7 sequences that are necessary for retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein binding as well as sequences previously implicated in binding the nuclear and mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein and in delocalizing dynein from the mitotic spindle contribute to SAC engagement. Importantly, however, HPV16 E7 does not markedly compromise the SAC response to microtubule poisons.
|The angiogenesis inhibitor vasostatin is regulated by neutrophil elastase-dependent cleavage of calreticulin in AML patients. |
Mans, S; Banz, Y; Mueller, BU; Pabst, T
Blood 120 2690-9 2012
The calcium-binding protein calreticulin (CRT) regulates protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is induced in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells with activation of the unfolded protein response. Intracellular CRT translocation to the cell surface induces immunogenic cell death, suggesting a role in tumor suppression. In this study, we investigated CRT regulation in the serum of patients with AML. We found that CRT is not only exposed by exocytosis on the outer cell membrane after treatment with anthracyclin but also ultimately released to the serum in vitro and in AML patients during induction therapy. Leukemic cells of 113 AML patients showed increased levels of cell-surface CRT (P less than .0001) and N-terminus serum CRT (P less than .0001) compared with normal myeloid cells. Neutrophil elastase was identified to cleave an N-terminus CRT peptide, which was characterized as vasostatin and blocked ATRA-triggered differentiation. Levels of serum vasostatin in patients with AML inversely correlated with bone marrow vascularization, suggesting a role in antiangiogenesis. Finally, patients with increased vasostatin levels had longer relapse-free survival (P = .04) and specifically benefited from autologous transplantation (P = .006). Our data indicate that vasostatin is released from cell-surface CRT and impairs differentiation of myeloid cells and vascularization of the bone marrow microenvironment.
|Caveolin-1 orchestrates the balance between glucose and lipid-dependent energy metabolism: implications for liver regeneration. |
Manuel Alejandro Fernández-Rojo,Christina Restall,Charles Ferguson,Nick Martel,Sally Martin,Marta Bosch,Adam Kassan,Gary M Leong,Sheree D Martin,Sean L McGee,George E O Muscat,Robin L Anderson,Carlos Enrich,Albert Pol,Robert G Parton,Manuel Alejandro Fernández-Rojo,Manuel Alejandro Fern
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 55 2012
Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a structural protein of caveolae involved in lipid homeostasis and endocytosis. Using newly generated pure Balb/C CAV1 null ((Balb/C)CAV1-/-) mice, CAV1-/- mice from Jackson Laboratories ((JAX)CAV1-/-), and CAV1-/- mice developed in the Kurzchalia Laboratory ((K)CAV1-/-), we show that under physiological conditions CAV1 expression in mouse tissues is necessary to guarantee an efficient progression of liver regeneration and mouse survival after partial hepatectomy. Absence of CAV1 in mouse tissues is compensated by the development of a carbohydrate-dependent anabolic adaptation. These results were supported by extracellular flux analysis of cellular glycolytic metabolism in CAV1-knockdown AML12 hepatocytes, suggesting cell autonomous effects of CAV1 loss in hepatic glycolysis. Unlike in (K)CAV1-/- livers, in (JAX)CAV1-/- livers CAV1 deficiency is compensated by activation of anabolic metabolism (pentose phosphate pathway and lipogenesis) allowing liver regeneration. Administration of 2-deoxy-glucose in (JAX)CAV1-/- mice indicated that liver regeneration in (JAX)CAV1-/- mice is strictly dependent on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, with the exception of regenerating (JAX)CAV1-/- livers, expression of CAV1 in mice is required for efficient hepatic lipid storage during fasting, liver regeneration, and diet-induced steatosis in the three CAV1-/- mouse strains. Furthermore, under these conditions CAV1 accumulates in the lipid droplet fraction in wildtype mouse hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that lack of CAV1 alters hepatocyte energy metabolism homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions.
|The HPV E6 oncoprotein targets histone methyltransferases for modulating specific gene transcription. |
Hsu, CH; Peng, KL; Jhang, HC; Lin, CH; Wu, SY; Chiang, CM; Lee, SC; Yu, WC; Juan, LJ
Oncogene 31 2335-49 2012
Expression of viral proteins causes important epigenetic changes leading to abnormal cell growth. Whether viral proteins directly target histone methyltransferases (HMTs), a key family enzyme for epigenetic regulation, and modulate their enzymatic activities remains elusive. Here we show that the E6 proteins of both low-risk and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) interact with three coactivator HMTs, CARM1, PRMT1 and SET7, and downregulate their enzymatic activities in vitro and in HPV-transformed HeLa cells. Furthermore, these three HMTs are required for E6 to attenuate p53 transactivation function. Mechanistically, E6 hampers CARM1- and PRMT1-catalyzed histone methylation at p53-responsive promoters, and suppresses the binding of p53 to chromatinized DNA independently of E6-mediated p53 degradation. p53 pre-methylated at lysine-372 (p53K372 mono-methylation) by SET7 protects p53 from E6-induced degradation. Consistently, E6 downregulates p53K372 mono-methylation and thus reduces p53 protein stability. As a result of the E6-mediated inhibition of HMT activity, expression of p53 downstream genes is suppressed. Together, our results not only reveal a clever approach for the virus to interfere with p53 function, but also demonstrate the modulation of HMT activity as a novel mechanism of epigenetic regulation by a viral oncoprotein.
|Motoneuron programmed cell death in response to proBDNF. |
Taylor, AR; Gifondorwa, DJ; Robinson, MB; Strupe, JL; Prevette, D; Johnson, JE; Hempstead, B; Oppenheim, RW; Milligan, CE
Developmental neurobiology 72 699-712 2012
Motoneurons (MN) as well as most neuronal populations undergo a temporally and spatially specific period of programmed cell death (PCD). Several factors have been considered to regulate the survival of MNs during this period, including availability of muscle-derived trophic support and activity. The possibility that target-derived factors may also negatively regulate MN survival has been considered, but not pursued. Neurotrophin precursors, through their interaction with p75(NTR) and sortilin receptors have been shown to induce cell death during development and following injury in the CNS. In this study, we find that muscle cells produce and secrete proBDNF. ProBDNF through its interaction with p75(NTR) and sortilin, promotes a caspase-dependent death of MNs in culture. We also provide data to suggest that proBDNF regulates MN PCD during development in vivo.
|Targeted impairment of innate antiviral responses in the liver of chronic hepatitis C patients. |
Loubna Jouan,Laurent Chatel-Chaix,Pierre Melançon,Ian-Gaël Rodrigue-Gervais,Valerie-Ann Raymond,Subajini Selliah,Marc Bilodeau,Nathalie Grandvaux,Daniel Lamarre
Journal of hepatology 56 2012
Innate sensing of viral infection activates a global defense response including type I interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression. We previously reported that HCV NS3/4A protease, an essential protein in viral polyprotein processing, can abrogate antiviral signaling pathways and effectors' response when ectopically expressed in human hepatocytes by cleaving antiviral adaptor CARDIF. However, whether HCV mediates evasion of innate immunity in patients with chronic infection remains unclear.
|Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue. |
Chen, CC; Lin, WC; Kong, MS; Shi, HN; Walker, WA; Lin, CY; Huang, CT; Lin, YC; Jung, SM; Lin, TY
The British journal of nutrition 107 1623-34 2012
Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50·3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465·5 (SEM 1290·4) v. 4950·9 (SEM 1689·3) mm³, Pless than 0·001). Inoculation with La reduced the severity of colonic carcinogenesis caused by CT-26 cells, such as level of colonic involvement and structural abnormality of epithelial/crypt damage. Moreover, La enhanced apoptosis of CT-26 cells both in dorsal-flank tumour and segmental orthotopic colon cancer, and the mean counts of apoptotic body were higher in mice pre-inoculated with La (Pless than 0·05) compared with untreated mice. La pre-inoculation down-regulated the CXCR4 mRNA expressions in the colon, MLN and extra-intestinal tissue, compared with untreated mice (Pless than 0·05). In addition, La pre-inoculation reduced the mean fluorescence index of MHC class I (H-2Dd, -Kd and -Ld) in flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that probiotics La may play a role in attenuating tumour growth during CT-26 cell carcinogenesis. The down-regulated expression of CXCR4 mRNA and MHC class I, as well as increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue, indicated that La may be associated with modulating the cellular response triggered by colon carcinogenesis.
|Involvement of the RNA-binding protein ARE/poly(U)-binding factor 1 (AUF1) in the cytotoxic effects of proinflammatory cytokines on pancreatic beta cells. |
Roggli, E; Gattesco, S; Pautz, A; Regazzi, R
Diabetologia 55 1699-708 2012
Chronic exposure of pancreatic beta cells to proinflammatory cytokines leads to impaired insulin secretion and apoptosis. ARE/poly(U)-binding factor 1 (AUF1) belongs to a protein family that controls mRNA stability and translation by associating with adenosine- and uridine-rich regions of target messengers. We investigated the involvement of AUF1 in cytokine-induced beta cell dysfunction.Production and subcellular distribution of AUF1 isoforms were analysed by western blotting. To test for their role in the control of beta cell functions, each isoform was overproduced individually in insulin-secreting cells. The contribution to cytokine-mediated beta cell dysfunction was evaluated by preventing the production of AUF1 isoforms by RNA interference. The effect of AUF1 on the production of potential targets was assessed by western blotting.MIN6 cells and human pancreatic islets were found to produce four AUF1 isoforms (p42greater than p45greater than p37greater than p40). AUF1 isoforms were mainly localised in the nucleus but were partially translocated to the cytoplasm upon exposure of beta cells to cytokines and activation of the ERK pathway. Overproduction of AUF1 did not affect glucose-induced insulin secretion but promoted apoptosis. This effect was associated with a decrease in the production of the anti-apoptotic proteins, B cell leukaemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and myeloid cell leukaemia sequence 1 (MCL1). Silencing of AUF1 isoforms restored the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins, attenuated the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) pathway, and protected the beta cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis.Our findings point to a contribution of AUF1 to the deleterious effects of cytokines on beta cell functions and suggest a role for this RNA-binding protein in the early phases of type 1 diabetes.
|Hematopoietic CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) competent cells are protective for the cognitive impairments and amyloid pathology in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. |
Naert, G; Rivest, S
Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 18 297-313 2012
Monocytes emigrate from bone marrow, can infiltrate into brain, differentiate into microglia and clear amyloid β (Aβ) from the brain of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that these mechanisms specifically require CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression in bone marrow cells (BMCs). Disease progression was exacerbated in APP(Swe)/PS1 mice (transgenic mice expressing a chimeric amyloid precursor protein [APPSwe] and human presenilin 1 [PS1]) harboring CCR2-deficient BMCs. Indeed, transplantation of CCR2-deficient BMCs enhanced the mnesic deficit and increased the amount of soluble Aβ and expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β receptors. By contrast, transplantation of wild-type bone marrow stem cells restored memory capacities and diminished soluble Aβ accumulation in APP(Swe)/PS1 and APP(Swe)/PS1/CCR2⁻/⁻ mice. Finally, gene therapy using a lentivirus-expressing CCR2 transgene in BMCs prevented cognitive decline in this mouse model of AD. Injection of CCR2 lentiviruses restored CCR2 expression and functions in monocytes. The presence of these cells in the brain of non-irradiated APP(Swe)/PS1/CCR2⁻/⁻ mice supports the concept that they can be used as gene vehicles for AD. Decreased CCR2 expression in bone marrow-derived microglia may therefore play a major role in the etiology of this neurodegenerative disease.
|Inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevents cell cycle progression in lung cancer. |
Rehman, J; Zhang, HJ; Toth, PT; Zhang, Y; Marsboom, G; Hong, Z; Salgia, R; Husain, AN; Wietholt, C; Archer, SL
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 26 2175-86 2012
Mitochondria exist in dynamic networks that undergo fusion and fission. Mitochondrial fusion and fission are mediated by several GTPases in the outer mitochondrial membrane, notably mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2), which promotes fusion, and dynamin-related protein (Drp-1), which promotes fission. We report that human lung cancer cell lines exhibit an imbalance of Drp-1/Mfn-2 expression, which promotes a state of mitochondrial fission. Lung tumor tissue samples from patients demonstrated a similar increase in Drp-1 and decrease in Mfn-2 when compared to adjacent healthy lung. Complementary approaches to restore mitochondrial network formation in lung cancer cells by overexpression of Mfn-2, Drp-1 inhibition, or Drp-1 knockdown resulted in a marked reduction of cancer cell proliferation and an increase in spontaneous apoptosis. The number of cancer cells in S phase decreased from 32.4 ± 0.6 to 6.4 ± 0.3% with Drp-1 inhibition (Pless than 0.001). In a xenotransplantation model, Mfn-2 gene therapy or Drp-1 inhibition could regress tumor growth. The tumor volume decreased from 205.6 ± 59 to 70.6 ± 15 mm(3) (Pless than 0.05) with Mfn-2 overexpression and from 186.0 ± 19 to 87.0 ± 6 mm(3) (Pless than 0.01) with therapeutic Drp-1 inhibition. Impaired fusion and enhanced fission contribute fundamentally to the proliferation/apoptosis imbalance in cancer and constitute promising novel therapeutic targets.
|Nitric oxide and voluntary exercise together promote quadriceps hypertrophy and increase vascular density in female 18-mo-old mice. |
Leiter, JR; Upadhaya, R; Anderson, JE
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 302 C1306-15 2012
Age-related sarcopenia reduces the size, strength, and function of muscle, and the diameter of muscle fibers. It also disrupts the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, dislocating nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS-1) and reducing sarcolemmal integrity. This study of quadriceps muscle in 18-mo-old mice showed that NO-donor treatment with isosorbide dinitrate (I) for 6 wk, in combination with voluntary exercise for 3 wk, increased muscle mass by 25% and stimulated cell proliferation. The resulting fiber hypertrophy was accompanied by a lower ratio of protein:DNA, consistent with myogenic-cell hyperplasia. Treatment enhanced the ratio of NOS-1:β-dystroglycan in correlation with fiber diameter, improved sarcolemmal integrity, and increased vascular density after an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor protein at 3 wk. Results demonstrate that age-related muscle refractoriness to exercise can be overcome with NO-donor treatment. Since activation of muscle stem cells and vascular perfusion are limiting factors in the maintenance, regeneration, and growth of aged muscle, results suggest the feasibility of using NO-donor drugs to combat atrophy and muscle ischemia. Improved function and quality of life from the NO-amplified effects of exercise may be useful in aging and other conditions such as disuse, insulin resistance, or microgravity.
|Spliceosome protein (SRp) regulation of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms and glucocorticoid response in human trabecular meshwork cells. |
Jain, A; Wordinger, RJ; Yorio, T; Clark, AF
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 53 857-66 2012
Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness, with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as a major causative risk factor. Glucocorticoid (GC) therapy causes morphologic and biochemical changes in the trabecular meshwork (TM), an ocular tissue involved in regulating IOP, which can lead to the development of glaucoma in susceptible individuals (steroid responders). Steroid responders comprise 40% of the general population and are at higher risk of developing glaucoma. In addition, a majority of glaucoma patients are steroid responders. Differential distribution of various isoforms of GC receptor (GR) may be responsible for this heterogeneity in the steroid response. The alternatively spliced GRβ isoform acts as dominant negative regulator of classical GRα transcriptional activity. mRNA splicing is mediated by spliceosomes, which include serine-arginine rich proteins (SRps). The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific SRps regulate levels of these isoforms and thereby GC response in TM cells.Quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were used to determine the differential expression of different SRps (SRp20, 30c, and 40) in human normal and glaucomatous TM cell strains. Bioinformatics was used to find putative binding sites for SRp20 and SRp40 on exon 9 of the GR gene. A peptide modulator of splicing (bombesin) and SRp expression vectors were used to modulate SRp levels and determine their effects on GRα/GRβ ratios as well as dexamethasone (DEX) responsiveness via GRE- luciferase reporter activity, fibronectin, and myocilin induction in TM cells.SRp20, SRp30c, and SRp40 regulate GR splicing and the GC response in TM cells. Modulation of SRp levels altered the GRβ/α ratio that correlated with DEX responsiveness. Bombesin decreased SRp20; increased SRp30c, SRp40 levels, and GRβ/α ratio, and suppressed DEX response in TM cells.Relative levels of SRp20, SRp30c, and SRp40 in TM cells control differential expression of the two alternatively spliced isoforms of the GR and thereby regulate GC responsiveness. Different levels and/or activities of these SRps may account for differential GC sensitivity among the normal and glaucoma populations.
|Supervillin couples myosin-dependent contractility to podosomes and enables their turnover. |
Bhuwania, R; Cornfine, S; Fang, Z; Krüger, M; Luna, EJ; Linder, S
Journal of cell science 125 2300-14 2012
Podosomes are actin-rich adhesion and invasion structures. Especially in macrophages, podosomes exist in two subpopulations, large precursors at the cell periphery and smaller podosomes (successors) in the cell interior. To date, the mechanisms that differentially regulate these subpopulations are largely unknown. Here, we show that the membrane-associated protein supervillin localizes preferentially to successor podosomes and becomes enriched at precursors immediately before their dissolution. Consistently, podosome numbers are inversely correlated with supervillin protein levels. Using deletion constructs, we find that the myosin II regulatory N-terminus of supervillin [SV(1-174)] is crucial for these effects. Phosphorylated myosin light chain (pMLC) localizes at supervillin-positive podosomes, and time-lapse analyses show that enrichment of GFP-supervillin at podosomes coincides with their coupling to contractile myosin-IIA-positive cables. We also show that supervillin binds only to activated myosin IIA, and a dysregulated N-terminal construct [SV(1-830)] enhances pMLC levels at podosomes. Thus, preferential recruitment of supervillin to podosome subpopulations might both require and induce actomyosin contractility. Using siRNA and pharmacological inhibition, we demonstrate that supervillin and myosin IIA cooperate to regulate podosome lifetime, podosomal matrix degradation and cell polarization. In sum, we show here that podosome subpopulations differ in their molecular composition and identify supervillin, in cooperation with myosin IIA, as a crucial factor in the regulation of podosome turnover and function.
|Expression of interleukin-8 receptor CXCR2 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in astrocytic tumors. |
Korkolopoulou, P; Levidou, G; El-Habr, EA; Adamopoulos, C; Samaras, V; Zisakis, A; Kavantzas, N; Boviatsis, E; Fragkou, P; Papavassiliou, AG; Patsouris, E; Piperi, C
Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.) 18 379-88 2012
The aim was to expand recently published information regarding the significance of the interleukin (IL)-8/p-STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway in astrocytomas, focusing on the IL-8 receptor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), and the STAT-3 inhibitor SOCS-3 (suppressors of cytokine signaling). A total of 91 paraffin-embedded human astrocytoma tissues (grades II-IV) were investigated for the association of SOCS-3 and CXCR2 expression with clinicopathologic and morphometric microvascular characteristics, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), IL-8 and p-STAT-3 expression and patient survival. Peripheral IL-8 secretion levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT). SOCS-3, p-STAT-3 and CXCR2 protein levels were also quantified by Western immunoblotting in six cases, and the protein levels of SOCS-3 and CXCR2 were correlated with the immunohistochemical expression of the respective proteins. All CXCR2-positive cases by Western immunoblotting displayed increased peripheral IL-8 secretion levels. Treatment of primary glioblastoma cell cultures with exogenous IL-8 enhanced proliferation, and this effect was inhibited by treatment with a neutralizing anti-CXCR2 antibody. SOCS-3 and CXCR2 were expressed by neoplastic astrocytes in 92.4% and 48.78% of cases, respectively, with their levels increasing with histological grade and extent of necrosis. VEGF expression and microvessel density, CXCR2 and IL-8 levels were interrelated. SOCS-3 and p-STAT-3 were co-expressed in 85.7% of cases, although they were not interrelated. In univariate survival analysis, increased SOCS-3 expression and the presence of CXCR2 adversely affected survival, whereas in multivariate analysis, only CXCR2 remained significant. The prognostic significance of CXCR2 was validated in an independent set of 63 patients. Our data implicate IL-8/CXCR2 signaling pathway in the progression and regulation of angiogenesis in astrocytomas and provide a rationale for CXCR2 therapeutic exploitation in these tumors.
|NR2A and NR2B subunits differentially mediate MAP kinase signaling and mitochondrial morphology following excitotoxic insult. |
Anthony M Choo,Donna M Geddes-Klein,Adam Hockenberry,David Scarsella,Mahlet N Mesfin,Pallab Singh,Tapan P Patel,David F Meaney
Neurochemistry international 60 2012
NMDA receptors are essential for neurotransmission and key mediators of synaptic signaling, but they can also trigger deleterious degenerative processes that lead to cell death. Growing evidence suggests that selective blockade of the heterogeneous subunits that comprise the NMDA receptor may enable better control of pharmacotherapies for treating neurological diseases and injuries. We investigated the relationship between NMDAR activation, MAPK signaling, and mitochondrial shape following an excitotoxic insult. NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDARs differentially mediated acute changes in cytosolic calcium, alterations in mitochondrial morphology, and phosphorylation of the MAPKs ERK and JNK. Activation of NR2A-containing NMDARs was associated with JNK phosphorylation that was neuroprotective in neuronal cultures subjected to excitotoxicity. In contrast, activation of NR2B-containing NMDARs triggered calcium accumulation in mitochondria that was strongly associated with mitochondrial swelling and neuronal cell death. Indeed, while blockade of NR2B-containing receptors was neuroprotective, this protection was lost when NR2A-initiated JNK phosphorylation was inhibited. Given the modest selectivity of the NR2A inhibitor, NVP-AAM077, the results highlight the significance of the relative, rather than absolute, activation of these two NMDA subtypes in modulating cell death pathways. Therefore, the balance between concurrent activation of NR2B-containing and NR2A-containing NMDARs dictates neuronal fate following excitotoxicity.
|Human cytomegalovirus infection induces adipocyte-like lipogenesis through activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1. |
Yu, Y; Maguire, TG; Alwine, JC
Journal of virology 86 2942-9 2012
Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are essential transcriptional factors that control expression of lipogenic genes and adipocyte differentiation. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been shown to require the induction of lipogenesis. Here we show that the induction of lipogenesis and expression of key lipogenic enzymes in human fibroblasts occurs by 24 h post-HCMV infection. This activation correlates with increased cleavage of the SREBP1 precursors to form the mature active transcription factors that enter the nucleus to transcriptionally activate lipogenic genes. SREBP1 cleavage is normally inhibited by increased sterol levels; however, our data show that this level of control is overridden in infected cells to allow constitutive activation of lipogenesis. This process requires viral protein synthesis, since UV-irradiated HCMV cannot activate SREBP cleavage. The cleavage of SREBP1 requires it to be in complex with SREBP cleavage activation protein (SCAP). Depleting SCAP using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) showed that SREBP1 cleavage and the induction of lipogenic genes and lipid synthesis are all inhibited in HCMV-infected cells. As a result, production of infectious virions is reduced in SCAP-depleted cells. Thus, the SCAP-mediated mechanism for SREBP cleavage is utilized by HCMV during infection. Our studies suggest that HCMV induces adipocyte-like lipogenesis and overrides normal sterol feedback controls in order to maintain high levels of constitutive lipid synthesis during infection.
|The C terminus of the large tegument protein pUL36 contains multiple capsid binding sites that function differently during assembly and cell entry of herpes simplex virus. |
Julia Schipke,Anja Pohlmann,Randi Diestel,Anne Binz,Kathrin Rudolph,Claus-Henning Nagel,Rudolf Bauerfeind,Beate Sodeik
Journal of virology 86 2012
The largest tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), pUL36, is a multivalent cross-linker between the viral capsids and the tegument and associated membrane proteins during assembly that upon subsequent cell entry releases the incoming capsids from the outer tegument and viral envelope. Here we show that pUL36 was recruited to cytosolic progeny capsids that later colocalized with membrane proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) and the trans-Golgi network. During cell entry, pUL36 dissociated from viral membrane proteins but remained associated with cytosolic capsids until arrival at the nucleus. HSV1 UL36 mutants lacking C-terminal portions of increasing size expressed truncated pUL36 but could not form plaques. Cytosolic capsids of mutants lacking the C-terminal 735 of the 3,164 amino acid residues accumulated in the cytosol but did not recruit pUL36 or associate with membranes. In contrast, pUL36 lacking only the 167 C-terminal residues bound to cytosolic capsids and subsequently colocalized with viral and host membrane proteins. Progeny virions fused with neighboring cells, but incoming capsids did not retain pUL36, nor could they target the nucleus or initiate HSV1 gene expression. Our data suggest that residues 2430 to 2893 of HSV1 pUL36, containing one binding site for the capsid protein pUL25, are sufficient to recruit pUL36 onto cytosolic capsids during assembly for secondary envelopment, whereas the 167 residues of the very C terminus with the second pUL25 binding site are crucial to maintain pUL36 on incoming capsids during cell entry. Capsids lacking pUL36 are targeted neither to membranes for virus assembly nor to nuclear pores for genome uncoating.
|Bone marrow transplantation enhances trafficking of host-derived myelomonocytic cells that rescue intestinal mucosa after whole body radiation. |
Hui-Ju Ch'ang,Li-Mei Lin,Pu-Yuan Chang,Chi-Wen Luo,Ya-Hui Chang,Chuan-Kai Chou,Helen H Chen
Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 104 2012
Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells were demonstrated within intestines after radiation damage and were reported to be responsible for intestine repair. However, there was a discrepancy between intestine epithelial clonogenic regeneration, and mouse survival after BM transplantation (BMT) and radiation. The contribution of BM to acute intestine repair after radiation needed further investigation.
|Characterization of the C. elegans erlin homologue. |
Hoegg, MB; Robbins, SM; McGhee, JD
BMC cell biology 13 2 2012
Erlins are highly conserved proteins associated with lipid rafts within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Biochemical studies in mammalian cell lines have shown that erlins are required for ER associated protein degradation (ERAD) of activated inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), implying that erlin proteins might negatively regulate IP3R signalling. In humans, loss of erlin function appears to cause progressive intellectual disability, motor dysfunction and joint contractures. However, it is unknown if defects in IP3R ERAD are the underlying cause of this disease phenotype, whether ERAD of activated IP3Rs is the only function of erlin proteins, and what role ERAD plays in regulating IP3R-dependent processes in the context of an intact animal or embryo. In this study, we characterize the erlin homologue of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and examine erlin function in vivo. We specifically set out to test whether C. elegans erlin modulates IP3R-dependent processes, such as egg laying, embryonic development and defecation rates. We also explore the possibility that erlin might play a more general role in the ERAD pathway of C. elegans.We first show that the C. elegans erlin homologue, ERL-1, is highly similar to mammalian erlins with respect to amino acid sequence, domain structure, biochemical properties and subcellular location. ERL-1 is present throughout the C. elegans embryo; in adult worms, ERL-1 appears restricted to the germline. The expression pattern of ERL-1 thus only partially overlaps with that of ITR-1, eliminating the possibility of ERL-1 being a ubiquitous and necessary regulator of ITR-1. We show that loss of ERL-1 does not affect overall phenotype, or alter brood size, embryonic development or defecation cycle length in either wild type or sensitized itr-1 mutant animals. Moreover we show that ERL-1 deficient worms respond normally to ER stress conditions, suggesting that ERL-1 is not an essential component of the general ERAD pathway.Although loss of erlin function apparently causes a strong phenotype in humans, no such effect is seen in C. elegans. C. elegans erlin does not appear to be a ubiquitous major modulator of IP3 receptor activity nor does erlin appear to play a major role in ERAD.
|Germ cell development in the scleractinian coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). |
Shikina, S; Chen, CJ; Liou, JY; Shao, ZF; Chung, YJ; Lee, YH; Chang, CF
PloS one 7 e41569 2012
Sexual reproduction of scleractinian coral is among the most important means of establishing coral populations. However, thus far, little is known about the mechanisms underlying coral gametogenesis. To better understand coral germ cell development, we performed a histological analysis of gametogenesis in Euphyllia ancora and characterized the coral homolog of the Drosophila germline marker gene vasa. The histological analysis revealed that E. ancora gametogenesis occurs in the mesenterial mesoglea between the mesenterial filaments and the retractor muscle bands. The development of germ cells takes approximately one year in females and half a year in males. Staining of tissue sections with an antibody against E. ancora Vasa (Eavas) revealed anti-Eavas immunoreactivity in the oogonia, early oocyte, and developing oocyte, but only faint or undetectable reactivity in developing oocytes that were greater than 150 µm in diameters. In males, Eavas could be detected in the spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes but was only faintly detectable in the secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperms. Furthermore, a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blotting analysis of unfertilized mature eggs proved the presence of Eavas transcripts and proteins, suggesting that Eavas may be a maternal factor. Vasa may represent a germ cell marker for corals, and would allow us to distinguish germ cells from somatic cells in coral bodies that have no distinct organs.
|A physiological increase of insulin in the olfactory bulb decreases detection of a learned aversive odor and abolishes food odor-induced sniffing behavior in rats. |
Aimé, P; Hegoburu, C; Jaillard, T; Degletagne, C; Garcia, S; Messaoudi, B; Thevenet, M; Lorsignol, A; Duchamp, C; Mouly, AM; Julliard, AK
PloS one 7 e51227 2012
Insulin is involved in multiple regulatory mechanisms, including body weight and food intake, and plays a critical role in metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. An increasing body of evidence indicates that insulin is also involved in the modulation of olfactory function. The olfactory bulb (OB) contains the highest level of insulin and insulin receptors (IRs) in the brain. However, a role for insulin in odor detection and sniffing behavior remains to be elucidated. Using a behavioral paradigm based on conditioned olfactory aversion (COA) to isoamyl-acetate odor, we demonstrated that an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 14 mU insulin acutely decreased olfactory detection of fasted rats to the level observed in satiated animals. In addition, whereas fasted animals demonstrated an increase in respiratory frequency upon food odor detection, this effect was absent in fasted animals receiving a 14 mU insulin ICV injection as well as in satiated animals. In parallel, we showed that the OB and plasma insulin levels were increased in satiated rats compared to fasted rats, and that a 14 mU insulin ICV injection elevated the OB insulin level of fasted rats to that of satiated rats. We further quantified insulin receptors (IRs) distribution and showed that IRs are preferentially expressed in the caudal and lateral parts of the main OB, with the highest labeling found in the mitral cells, the main OB projection neurons. Together, these data suggest that insulin acts on the OB network to modulate olfactory processing and demonstrate that olfactory function is under the control of signals involved in energy homeostasis regulation and feeding behaviors.
|PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of the Parkin ubiquitin-like domain primes mitochondrial translocation of Parkin and regulates mitophagy. |
Shiba-Fukushima, K; Imai, Y; Yoshida, S; Ishihama, Y; Kanao, T; Sato, S; Hattori, N
Scientific reports 2 1002 2012
Parkinson's disease genes PINK1 and parkin encode kinase and ubiquitin ligase, respectively. The gene products PINK1 and Parkin are implicated in mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy. Upon the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), cytosolic Parkin is recruited to the mitochondria by PINK1 through an uncharacterised mechanism - an initial step triggering sequential events in mitophagy. This study reports that Ser65 in the ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl) of Parkin is phosphorylated in a PINK1-dependent manner upon depolarisation of ΔΨm. The introduction of mutations at Ser65 suggests that phosphorylation of Ser65 is required not only for the efficient translocation of Parkin, but also for the degradation of mitochondrial proteins in mitophagy. Phosphorylation analysis of Parkin pathogenic mutants also suggests Ser65 phosphorylation is not sufficient for Parkin translocation. Our study partly uncovers the molecular mechanism underlying the PINK1-dependent mitochondrial translocation and activation of Parkin as an initial step of mitophagy.
|Identification of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease genetic determinant that regulates HHIP. |
Zhou, X; Baron, RM; Hardin, M; Cho, MH; Zielinski, J; Hawrylkiewicz, I; Sliwinski, P; Hersh, CP; Mancini, JD; Lu, K; Thibault, D; Donahue, AL; Klanderman, BJ; Rosner, B; Raby, BA; Lu, Q; Geldart, AM; Layne, MD; Perrella, MA; Weiss, ST; Choi, AM; Silverman, EK
Human molecular genetics 21 1325-35 2012
Multiple intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) on chromosome 4q31 have been strongly associated with pulmonary function levels and moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, whether the effects of variants in this region are related to HHIP or another gene has not been proven. We confirmed genetic association of SNPs in the 4q31 COPD genome-wide association study (GWAS) region in a Polish cohort containing severe COPD cases and healthy smoking controls (P = 0.001 to 0.002). We found that HHIP expression at both mRNA and protein levels is reduced in COPD lung tissues. We identified a genomic region located ∼85 kb upstream of HHIP which contains a subset of associated SNPs, interacts with the HHIP promoter through a chromatin loop and functions as an HHIP enhancer. The COPD risk haplotype of two SNPs within this enhancer region (rs6537296A and rs1542725C) was associated with statistically significant reductions in HHIP promoter activity. Moreover, rs1542725 demonstrates differential binding to the transcription factor Sp3; the COPD-associated allele exhibits increased Sp3 binding, which is consistent with Sp3's usual function as a transcriptional repressor. Thus, increased Sp3 binding at a functional SNP within the chromosome 4q31 COPD GWAS locus leads to reduced HHIP expression and increased susceptibility to COPD through distal transcriptional regulation. Together, our findings reveal one mechanism through which SNPs upstream of the HHIP gene modulate the expression of HHIP and functionally implicate reduced HHIP gene expression in the pathogenesis of COPD.
|Vascular Klotho deficiency potentiates the development of human artery calcification and mediates resistance to fibroblast growth factor 23. |
Lim, K; Lu, TS; Molostvov, G; Lee, C; Lam, FT; Zehnder, D; Hsiao, LL
Circulation 125 2243-55 2012
Klotho is known to function as a cofactor for the phosphatonin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 at the kidney. FGF-23 levels rise in chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite progression of accelerated vascular calcification. There are currently conflicting data on whether FGF-23 may exhibit direct vasculoprotective effects in CKD.In this study, we describe for the first time endogenous Klotho expression in human arteries and human aortic smooth muscle cells. We show that CKD is a state of vascular Klotho deficiency promoted by chronic circulating stress factors, including proinflammatory, uremic, and disordered metabolic conditions. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that Klotho knockdown potentiated the development of accelerated calcification through a Runx2 and myocardin-serum response factor-dependent pathway. Klotho knockdown studies further revealed that vascular cells are a Klotho-dependent target tissue for FGF-23. FGF-23 mediated cellular activation of p-ERK, p-AKT, and cellular proliferative effects, which were abrogated following Klotho knockdown. We next showed that vascular Klotho deficiency driven by procalcific stressors could be restored by vitamin D receptor activators, in vitro and further confirmed using human arterial organ cultures from CKD patients, in vivo. Furthermore, restoration of suppressed Klotho expression by vitamin D receptor activators conferred human aortic smooth muscle cells responsive to FGF-23 signaling and unmasked potential anticalcific effects.Chronic metabolic stress factors found in CKD promote vascular Klotho deficiency. Mechanistic studies revealed a bifunctional role for local vascular Klotho, first, as an endogenous inhibitor of vascular calcification and, second, as a cofactor required for vascular FGF-23 signaling. Furthermore, vitamin D receptor activators can restore Klotho expression and unmask FGF-23 anticalcific effects.
|ATM substrate Chk2-interacting Zn2+ finger (ASCIZ) Is a bi-functional transcriptional activator and feedback sensor in the regulation of dynein light chain (DYNLL1) expression. |
Jurado, S; Conlan, LA; Baker, EK; Ng, JL; Tenis, N; Hoch, NC; Gleeson, K; Smeets, M; Izon, D; Heierhorst, J
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 3156-64 2012
The highly conserved DYNLL1 (LC8) protein was originally discovered as a light chain of the dynein motor complex, but is increasingly emerging as a sequence-specific regulator of protein dimerization with hundreds of targets and wide-ranging cellular functions. Despite its important roles, DYNLL1's own regulation remains poorly understood. Here we identify ASCIZ (ATMIN/ZNF822), an essential Zn(2+) finger protein with dual roles in the DNA base damage response and as a developmental transcription factor, as a conserved regulator of Dynll1 gene expression. DYNLL1 levels are reduced by ∼10-fold in the absence of ASCIZ in human, mouse and chicken cells. ASCIZ binds directly to the Dynll1 promoter and regulates its activity in a Zn(2+) finger-dependent manner. DYNLL1 protein in turn interacts with ten binding sites in the ASCIZ transcription activation domain, and high DYNLL1 levels inhibit the transcriptional activity of ASCIZ. In addition, DYNLL1 was also required for DNA damage-induced ASCIZ focus formation. The dual ability of ASCIZ to activate Dynll1 gene expression and to sense free DYNLL1 protein levels enables a simple dynamic feedback loop to adjust DYNLL1 levels to cellular needs. The ASCIZ-DYNLL1 feedback loop represents a novel mechanism for auto-regulation of gene expression, where the gene product directly inhibits the transcriptional activator while bound at its own promoter.
|Anti-apoptotic MCL-1 localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and couples mitochondrial fusion to respiration. |
Perciavalle, RM; Stewart, DP; Koss, B; Lynch, J; Milasta, S; Bathina, M; Temirov, J; Cleland, MM; Pelletier, S; Schuetz, JD; Youle, RJ; Green, DR; Opferman, JT
Nature cell biology 14 575-83 2012
MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages, is also among the most highly amplified genes in cancer. Although MCL-1 is known to oppose cell death, precisely how it functions to promote survival of normal and malignant cells is poorly understood. Here, we report that different forms of MCL-1 reside in distinct mitochondrial locations and exhibit separable functions. On the outer mitochondrial membrane, an MCL-1 isoform acts like other anti-apoptotic BCL-2 molecules to antagonize apoptosis, whereas an amino-terminally truncated isoform of MCL-1 that is imported into the mitochondrial matrix is necessary to facilitate normal mitochondrial fusion, ATP production, membrane potential, respiration, cristae ultrastructure and maintenance of oligomeric ATP synthase. Our results provide insight into how the surprisingly diverse salutary functions of MCL-1 may control the survival of both normal and cancer cells.
|Micromanaging Iron Homeostasis: hypoxia-inducible micro-RNA-210 suppresses iron homeostasis-related proteins. |
Yoshioka, Y; Kosaka, N; Ochiya, T; Kato, T
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 34110-9 2012
Iron is fundamental for sustaining life for living organisms, and the iron metabolism is finely regulated at different levels. In cancer cells, deregulation of the iron metabolism induces oxidative stress and drives tumor progression and metastasis; however, the molecular mechanisms of iron homeostasis are not fully understood. Here we found that iron deficiency as well as hypoxia promoted microRNA-210 (miR-210) expression. A central mediator of miR-210 transcriptional activation is the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and the hypoxia-response element in the miR-210 promoter is confirmed experimentally. This is in agreement with the data from in vivo studies that have demonstrated the presence of miR-210-expressing cells at the chronic hypoxic regions of xenografted tumors. Furthermore we found two essential molecules for iron homeostasis, iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein (ISCU) and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR), are a direct target of miR-210. Transfection of miR-210 decreases the uptake of transferrin by inhibiting the expression of TfR. In addition, inhibition of miR-210 by anti-miR-210 up-regulates ISCU expression. These findings suggest that miR-210 works as an iron sensor and is involved in the maintenance of iron homeostasis by sustaining the TfR expression level to stimulate cell proliferation and promote cell survival in the hypoxic region within tumors.
|Subnuclear cyclin D3 compartments and the coordinated regulation of proliferation and immunoglobulin variable gene repression. |
Powers, SE; Mandal, M; Matsuda, S; Miletic, AV; Cato, MH; Tanaka, A; Rickert, RC; Koyasu, S; Clark, MR
The Journal of experimental medicine 209 2199-213 2012
Ubiquitously expressed D-type cyclins are required for hematopoiesis but are dispensable in other cell lineages. Furthermore, within different hematopoietic progenitor populations the D-type cyclins play nonredundant roles. The basis of this lineage and developmental specificity is unknown. In pro-B cells we demonstrate four distinct nuclear D-type cyclin compartments, including one cyclin D3 fraction associated with CDK4 and another phosphoinositide 3-kinase-regulated fraction not required for proliferation. A third fraction of cyclin D3 was associated with the nuclear matrix and repression of greater than 200 genes including the variable (V) gene segments Igkv1-117, Iglv1, and Igh-VJ558. Consistent with different subnuclear compartments and functions, distinct domains of cyclin D3 mediated proliferation and Igk V gene segment repression. None of the cyclin D3 nuclear compartments overlapped with cyclin D2, which was distributed, unbound to CDK4, throughout the nucleus. Furthermore, compartmentalization of the cyclins appeared to be lineage restricted because in fibroblasts, cyclin D2 and cyclin D3 occupied a single nuclear compartment and neither bound CDK4 efficiently. These data suggest that subnuclear compartmentalization enables cyclin D3 to drive cell cycle progression and repress V gene accessibility, thereby ensuring coordination of proliferation with immunoglobulin recombination.
|Age-related changes in synaptic markers and monocyte subsets link the cognitive decline of APP(Swe)/PS1 mice. |
Naert, G; Rivest, S
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 6 51 2012
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive memory decline and numerous pathological abnormalities, including amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain and synaptic dysfunction. Here we wanted to study whether these brain changes were associated with alteration in the population of monocyte subsets since accumulating evidence supports the concept that the innate immune system plays a role in the etiology of this disease. We then determined the immune profile together with expression of genes encoding synaptic proteins and neurotrophins in APP(Swe)/PS1 mice and their age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates. We found that the progressive cognitive decline and the dramatic decrease in the expression of numerous synaptic markers and neurotrophins correlated with a major defect in the subset of circulating inflammatory monocytes. Indeed the number of CX(3)CR1(low)Ly6-C(high)CCR2(+)Gr1(+) monocytes remained essentially similar between 5 weeks and 6 months of age in APP(Swe)/PS1 mice, while these cells significantly increased in 6-month-old WT littermates. Of great interest is that the onset of cognitive decline was closely associated with the accumulation of soluble Aβ, disruption of synaptic activity, alteration in the BDNF system, and a defective production in the subset of CX(3)CR1(low)Ly6-C(high)CCR2(+)Gr1(+) monocytes. However, these memory impairments can be prevented or restored by boosting the monocytic production, using a short treatment of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). In conclusion, low CCR2(+) monocyte production by the hematopoietic system may be a direct biomarker of the cognitive decline in a context of AD.
|Securin enhances the anti-cancer effects of 6-methoxy-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxy-benzoyl)-1H-indole (BPR0L075) in human colorectal cancer cells. |
Tseng, HH; Chuah, QY; Yang, PM; Chen, CT; Chao, JC; Lin, MD; Chiu, SJ
PloS one 7 e36006 2012
BPR0L075 [6-methoxy-3-(3',4',5'-trimethoxy-benzoyl)-1H-indole] is a novel anti-microtubule drug with anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo. Securin is required for genome stability, and is expressed abundantly in most cancer cells, promoting cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. In this study, we found that BPR0L075 efficiently induced cell death of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells that have higher expression levels of securin. The cytotoxicity of BPR0L075 was attenuated in isogenic securin-null HCT116 cells. BPR0L075 induced DNA damage response, G(2)/M arrest, and activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint in HCT116 cells. Interestingly, BPR0L075 induced phosphorylation of securin. BPR0L075 withdrawal resulted in degradation of securin, mitotic exit, and mitotic catastrophe, which were attenuated in securin-null cells. Inhibition of cdc2 decreased securin phosphorylation, G(2)/M arrest and cell death induced by BPR0L075. Moreover, BPR0L075 caused cell death through a caspase-independent mechanism and activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings provided evidence for the first time that BPR0L075 treatment is beneficial for the treatment of human colorectal tumors with higher levels of securin. Thus, we suggest that the expression levels of securin may be a predictive factor for application in anti-cancer therapy with BPR0L075 in human cancer cells.
|Overexpression of chemokine ligand 7 is associated with the progression of canine transmissible venereal tumor. |
Chiang, HC; Wang, YS; Chou, CH; Liao, AT; Chu, RM; Lin, CS
BMC veterinary research 8 216 2012
Chemokines play multiple roles in the development and progression in a variety of tumors. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 (CXCL7) has been found associated with pro-inflammatory responses, but its role in cancer growth remains unclear. Our previous study showed that R phase tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) produced large amounts of interleukin (IL)-6 which antagonized transforming growth factor (TGF)-β derived from CTVT to diminish the immune-suppressive microenvironment. Now we intend to determine the expression pattern of CXCL7 and the role of IL-6/TGF-β in CXCL7 induction during spontaneous progressive (P) and regressive (R) phases in canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT).We have demonstrated that CXCL7 expressed at high level in P phase and down-regulated in R phase by western blot and real-time PCR. This suggested that CXCL7 expression was negatively correlated with the tumor growth. Co-culturing TILs with CTVT cells was found to reduce CXCL7 expression, while adding IL-6 blocking antibody reversed it. Moreover, in P phase CTVT, while IL-1β and TGF-β had no obvious effect on CXCL7 expression, IL-6 was found significantly to reduce CXCL7 expression in a dose-dependent manner. The mRNA expression results of CXCL7 receptor, CXCR2, further confirmed the effects of IL-6 concentration on the CXCL7 expression.CXCL7 overexpression might be associated with the progressive growth of CTVT. The results shown here also suggest the role of CXCL7 in cancer development and the potential as the anti-cancer therapeutic target.
|Proteomic analysis of purified Newcastle disease virus particles. |
Ren, X; Xue, C; Kong, Q; Zhang, C; Bi, Y; Cao, Y
Proteome science 10 32 2012
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an enveloped RNA virus, bearing severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Previous virion proteomic studies have shown that enveloped viruses carry multiple host cellular proteins both internally and externally during their life cycle. To address whether it also occurred during NDV infection, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of highly purified NDV La Sota strain particles.In addition to five viral structural proteins, we detected thirty cellular proteins associated with purified NDV La Sota particles. The identified cellular proteins comprised several functional categories, including cytoskeleton proteins, annexins, molecular chaperones, chromatin modifying proteins, enzymes-binding proteins, calcium-binding proteins and signal transduction-associated proteins. Among these, three host proteins have not been previously reported in virions of other virus families, including two signal transduction-associated proteins (syntenin and Ras small GTPase) and one tumor-associated protein (tumor protein D52). The presence of five selected cellular proteins (i.e., β-actin, tubulin, annexin A2, heat shock protein Hsp90 and ezrin) associated with the purified NDV particles was validated by Western blot or immunogold labeling assays.The current study presented the first standard proteomic profile of NDV. The results demonstrated the incorporation of cellular proteins in NDV particles, which provides valuable information for elucidating viral infection and pathogenesis.
|Calpain induces N-terminal truncation of β-catenin in normal murine liver development: diagnostic implications in hepatoblastomas. |
Lade, A; Ranganathan, S; Luo, J; Monga, SP
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 22789-98 2012
Hepatic competence, specification, and liver bud expansion during development depend on precise temporal modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Also, loss- and gain-of-function studies have revealed pleiotropic roles of β-catenin in proliferation and hepatocyte and biliary epithelial cell differentiation, but precise mechanisms remain unknown. Here we utilize livers from different stages of murine development to determine β-catenin signaling and downstream targets. Although during early liver development full-length β-catenin is the predominant form, at late stages, where full-length β-catenin localizes to developing biliary epithelial cells only, a 75-kDa truncated β-catenin species is the principal form localizing at the membrane and in the nucleus of differentiating hepatocytes. The truncated species lacks 95 N-terminal amino acids and is transcriptionally active. Our evidence points to proteolytic cleavage of β-catenin by calpain as the mechanism of truncation in cell-free and cell-based assays. Intraperitoneal injection of a short term calpain inhibitor to timed pregnant female mice abrogated β-catenin truncation in the embryonic livers. RNA-seq revealed a unique set of targets transcribed in cells expressing truncated versus full-length β-catenin, consistent with different functionalities. A further investigation using N- and C-terminal-specific β-catenin antibodies on human hepatoblastomas revealed a correlation between full-length versus truncated β-catenin and differentiation status, with embryonal hepatoblastomas expressing full-length β-catenin and fetal hepatoblastomas expressing β-catenin lacking its N terminus. Thus we conclude that calpain-mediated cleavage of β-catenin plays a role in regulating hepatoblast differentiation in mouse and human liver, and the presence of the β-catenin N terminus correlates with differentiation status in hepatoblastomas.
|Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells through Cdk5 Overactivation. |
Chen, MC; Huang, CY; Hsu, SL; Lin, E; Ku, CT; Lin, H; Chen, CM
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 2012 580736 2012
Retinoic acid (RA) has been believed to be an anticancer drug for a long history. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA actions on cancer cells remain diverse. In this study, the dose-dependent inhibition of RA on DU145 cell proliferation was identified. Interestingly, RA treatment triggered p35 cleavage (p25 formation) and Cdk5 overactivation, and all could be blocked by Calpain inhibitor, Calpeptin (CP). Subsequently, RA-triggered DU145 apoptosis detected by sub-G1 phase accumulation and Annexin V staining could also be blocked by CP treatment. Furthermore, RA-triggered caspase 3 activation and following Cdk5 over-activation were destroyed by treatments of both CP and Cdk5 knockdown. In conclusion, we report a new mechanism in which RA could cause apoptosis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through p35 cleavage and Cdk5 over-activation. This finding may contribute to constructing a clearer image of RA function and bring RA as a valuable chemoprevention agent for prostate cancer patients.
|SLC7 amino acid transporters of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and their role in fat body TOR signaling and reproduction. |
Carpenter, VK; Drake, LL; Aguirre, SE; Price, DP; Rodriguez, SD; Hansen, IA
Journal of insect physiology 58 513-22 2012
An important function of the fat body in adult female mosquitoes is the conversion of blood meal derived amino acids (AA) into massive amounts of yolk protein precursors. A highly efficient transport mechanism for AAs across the plasma membrane of the fat body trophocytes is essential in order to deliver building blocks for the rapid synthesis of large amounts of these proteins. This mechanism consists in part of AA transporter proteins from the solute carrier family. These transporters have dual function; they function as transporters and participate in the nutrient signal transduction pathway that is activated in the fat body after a blood meal. In this study we focused on the solute carrier 7 family (SLC7), a family of AA transporters present in all metazoans that includes members with strong substrate specificity for cationic AAs.We identified 11 putative SLC7 transporters in the genome sequence of Aedes aegypti. Phylogenetic analysis puts five of these in the cationic AA transporter subfamily (CAT) and six in the heterodimeric AA transporter (HAT) subfamily. All 11 A. aegypti SLC7 genes are expressed in adult females. Expression profiles are dynamic after a blood meal. We knocked down six fat body-expressed SLC7 transporters using RNAi and found that these 'knockdowns' reduced AA-induced TOR signaling. We also determined the effect these knockdowns had on the number of eggs deposited following a blood meal.Our analysis stresses the importance of SLC7 transporters in TOR signaling pathway and mosquito reproduction.
|Disrupted Homer scaffolds mediate abnormal mGluR5 function in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. |
Ronesi, JA; Collins, KA; Hays, SA; Tsai, NP; Guo, W; Birnbaum, SG; Hu, JH; Worley, PF; Gibson, JR; Huber, KM
Nature neuroscience 15 431-40, S1 2012
Enhanced metabotropic glutamate receptor subunit 5 (mGluR5) function is causally associated with the pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome, a leading inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism. Here we provide evidence that altered mGluR5-Homer scaffolds contribute to mGluR5 dysfunction and phenotypes in the fragile X syndrome mouse model, Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1(-/y)). In Fmr1(-/y) mice, mGluR5 was less associated with long Homer isoforms but more associated with the short Homer1a. Genetic deletion of Homer1a restored mGluR5-long Homer scaffolds and corrected several phenotypes in Fmr1(-/y) mice, including altered mGluR5 signaling, neocortical circuit dysfunction and behavior. Acute, peptide-mediated disruption of mGluR5-Homer scaffolds in wild-type mice mimicked many Fmr1(-/y) phenotypes. In contrast, Homer1a deletion did not rescue altered mGluR-dependent long-term synaptic depression or translational control of target mRNAs of fragile X mental retardation protein, the gene product of Fmr1. Our findings reveal new functions for mGluR5-Homer interactions in the brain and delineate distinct mechanisms of mGluR5 dysfunction in a mouse model of cognitive dysfunction and autism.
|Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease CMT4A: GDAP1 increases cellular glutathione and the mitochondrial membrane potential. |
Noack, R; Frede, S; Albrecht, P; Henke, N; Pfeiffer, A; Knoll, K; Dehmel, T; Meyer Zu Hörste, G; Stettner, M; Kieseier, BC; Summer, H; Golz, S; Kochanski, A; Wiedau-Pazos, M; Arnold, S; Lewerenz, J; Methner, A
Human molecular genetics 21 150-62 2012
Mutations in GDAP1 lead to recessively or dominantly inherited peripheral neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, CMT), indicating that GDAP1 is essential for the viability of cells in the peripheral nervous system. GDAP1 contains domains characteristic of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), is located in the outer mitochondrial membrane and induces fragmentation of mitochondria. We found GDAP1 upregulated in neuronal HT22 cells selected for resistance against oxidative stress. GDAP1 over-expression protected against oxidative stress caused by depletion of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GHS) and against effectors of GHS depletion that affect the mitochondrial membrane integrity like truncated BH3-interacting domain death agonist and 12/15-lipoxygenase. Gdap1 knockdown, in contrast, increased the susceptibility of motor neuron-like NSC34 cells against GHS depletion. Over-expression of wild-type GDAP1, but not of GDAP1 with recessively inherited mutations that cause disease and reduce fission activity, increased the total cellular GHS content and the mitochondrial membrane potential up to a level where it apparently limits mitochondrial respiration, leading to reduced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and superoxide production. Fibroblasts from autosomal-recessive CMT4A patients had reduced GDAP1 levels, reduced GHS concentration and a reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Thus, our results suggest that the potential GST GDAP1 is implicated in the control of the cellular GHS content and mitochondrial activity, suggesting an involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of CMT4A.
|Sonic hedgehog signaling mediates epithelial-mesenchymal communication and promotes renal fibrosis. |
Ding, H; Zhou, D; Hao, S; Zhou, L; He, W; Nie, J; Hou, FF; Liu, Y
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 23 801-13 2012
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is a developmental signal cascade that plays an essential role in regulating embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigated the potential role of Shh signaling in renal interstitial fibrogenesis. Ureteral obstruction induced Shh, predominantly in the renal tubular epithelium of the fibrotic kidneys. Using Gli1(lacZ) knock-in mice, we identified renal interstitial fibroblasts as Shh-responding cells. In cultured renal fibroblasts, recombinant Shh protein activated Gli1 and induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin, fibronectin, and collagen I expression, suggesting that Shh signaling promotes myofibroblast activation and matrix production. Blockade of Shh signaling with cyclopamine abolished the Shh-mediated induction of Gli1, Snail1, α-SMA, fibronectin, and collagen I. In vivo, the kidneys of Gli1-deficient mice were protected against the development of interstitial fibrosis after obstructive injury. In wild-type mice, cyclopamine did not affect renal Shh expression but did inhibit induction of Gli1, Snail1, and α-SMA. In addition, cyclopamine reduced matrix expression and mitigated fibrotic lesions. These results suggest that tubule-derived Shh mediates epithelial-mesenchymal communication by targeting interstitial fibroblasts after kidney injury. We conclude that Shh/Gli1 signaling plays a critical role in promoting fibroblast activation, production of extracellular matrix, and development of renal interstitial fibrosis.
|Genome-wide analysis of GLD-1-mediated mRNA regulation suggests a role in mRNA storage. |
Scheckel, C; Gaidatzis, D; Wright, JE; Ciosk, R
PLoS genetics 8 e1002742 2012
Translational repression is often accompanied by mRNA degradation. In contrast, many mRNAs in germ cells and neurons are "stored" in the cytoplasm in a repressed but stable form. Unlike repression, the stabilization of these mRNAs is surprisingly little understood. A key player in Caenorhabditis elegans germ cell development is the STAR domain protein GLD-1. By genome-wide analysis of mRNA regulation in the germ line, we observed that GLD-1 has a widespread role in repressing translation but, importantly, also in stabilizing a sub-population of its mRNA targets. Additionally, these mRNAs appear to be stabilized by the DDX6-like RNA helicase CGH-1, which is a conserved component of germ granules and processing bodies. Because many GLD-1 and CGH-1 stabilized mRNAs encode factors important for the oocyte-to-embryo transition (OET), our findings suggest that the regulation by GLD-1 and CGH-1 serves two purposes. Firstly, GLD-1-dependent repression prevents precocious translation of OET-promoting mRNAs. Secondly, GLD-1- and CGH-1-dependent stabilization ensures that these mRNAs are sufficiently abundant for robust translation when activated during OET. In the absence of this protective mechanism, the accumulation of OET-promoting mRNAs, and consequently the oocyte-to-embryo transition, might be compromised.
|The level and distribution of the GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 receptor subunits in the rat's inferior colliculus. |
Jamal, L; Khan, AN; Butt, S; Patel, CR; Zhang, H
Frontiers in neural circuits 6 92 2012
The type B γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(B) receptor) is an important neurotransmitter receptor in the midbrain auditory structure, the inferior colliculus (IC). A functional GABA(B) receptor is a heterodimer consisting of two subunits, GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2. Western blotting and immunohistochemical experiments were conducted to examine the expression of the two subunits over the IC including its central nucleus, dorsal cortex, and external cortex (ICc, ICd, and ICx). Results revealed that the two subunits existed in both cell bodies and the neuropil throughout the IC. The two subunits had similar regional distributions over the IC. The combined level of cell body and neuropil labeling was higher in the ICd than the other two subdivisions. Labeling in the ICc and ICx was stronger in the dorsal than the ventral regions. In spite of regional differences, no defined boundaries were formed between different areas. For both subunits, the regional distribution of immunoreactivity in the neuropil was parallel to that of combined immunoreactivity in the neuropil and cell bodies. The density of labeled cell bodies tended to be higher but sizes of cell bodies tended to be smaller in the ICd than in the other subdivisions. No systematic regional changes were found in the level of cell body immunoreactivity, except that GABA(B)R2-immunoreactive cell bodies in the ICd had slightly higher optic density (OD) than in other regions. Elongated cell bodies existed throughout the IC. Many labeled cell bodies along the outline of the IC were oriented in parallel to the outline. No strong tendency of orientation was found in labeled cell bodies in ICc. Regional distributions of the subunits in ICc correlated well with inputs to this subdivision. Our finding regarding the contrast in the level of neuropil immunoreactivity among different subdivisions is consistent with the fact that the GABA(B) receptor has different pre- and postsynaptic functions in different IC regions.
|Dataset integration identifies transcriptional regulation of microRNA genes by PPARγ in differentiating mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. |
John, E; Wienecke-Baldacchino, A; Liivrand, M; Heinäniemi, M; Carlberg, C; Sinkkonen, L
Nucleic acids research 40 4446-60 2012
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a key transcription factor in mammalian adipogenesis. Genome-wide approaches have identified thousands of PPARγ binding sites in mouse adipocytes and PPARγ upregulates hundreds of protein-coding genes during adipogenesis. However, no microRNA (miRNA) genes have been identified as primary PPARγ-targets. By integration of four separate datasets of genome-wide PPARγ binding sites in 3T3-L1 adipocytes we identified 98 miRNA clusters with PPARγ binding within 50 kb from miRNA transcription start sites. Nineteen mature miRNAs were upregulated ≥2-fold during adipogenesis and for six of these miRNA loci the PPARγ binding sites were confirmed by at least three datasets. The upregulation of five miRNA genes miR-103-1 (host gene Pank3), miR-148b (Copz1), miR-182/96/183, miR-205 and miR-378 (Ppargc1b) followed that of Pparg. The PPARγ-dependence of four of these miRNA loci was demonstrated by PPARγ knock-down and the loci of miR-103-1 (Pank3), miR-205 and miR-378 (Ppargc1b) were also responsive to the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis validated in silico predicted PPARγ binding sites at all three loci and H3K27 acetylation was analyzed to confirm the activity of these enhancers. In conclusion, we identified 22 putative PPARγ target miRNA genes, showed the PPARγ dependence of four of these genes and demonstrated three as direct PPARγ target genes in mouse adipogenesis.
|The effects of transforming growth factor-β2 on the expression of follistatin and activin A in normal and glaucomatous human trabecular meshwork cells and tissues. |
Fitzgerald, AM; Benz, C; Clark, AF; Wordinger, RJ
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 53 7358-69 2012
To compare follistatin (FST) and activin (Act) expression in normal and glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and tissues and determine if exogenous TGF-β2 regulates the expression of FST and Act in TM cells.Total RNA was isolated from TM cell strains, and mRNA expression for FST 317/344 isoforms and Act was determined via RT-PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Western immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry determined FST and Act A protein levels in normal TM (NTM) and glaucomatous TM (GTM) cells. Cells were treated with recombinant human TGF-β2 protein at 0 to 10 ng/mL for 0 to 72 hours. qPCR, Western immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and ELISA immunoassay were utilized to determine changes in FST and Act A mRNA and protein levels. In addition, NTM and GTM tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry for expression of FST, FST 315, FST 288, and Act A.Both FST mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in GTM cells. FST mRNA transcripts FST 317/344 were also significantly elevated in GTM cells. Immunohistochemistry showed FST levels were significantly elevated in GTM tissues. Exogenous TGF-β2 significantly induced FST mRNA and protein expression. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Act A protein levels were significantly higher in NTM tissues compared to GTM tissues.FST is elevated in GTM cells and tissues. FST is known to be an inhibitor of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which, coupled with the ability of TGF-β2 to upregulate FST levels, may indicate a possible role of FST in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. These results suggest that additional endogenous molecules in human TM may regulate TGF-β2 signaling via inhibition of BMP family members.
|Investigating the kinetic mechanism of inhibition of elongation factor 2 kinase by NH125: evidence of a common in vitro artifact. |
Devkota, AK; Tavares, CD; Warthaka, M; Abramczyk, O; Marshall, KD; Kaoud, TS; Gorgulu, K; Ozpolat, B; Dalby, KN
Biochemistry 51 2100-12 2012
Evidence that elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) has potential as a target for anticancer therapy and possibly for the treatment of depression is emerging. Here the steady-state kinetic mechanism of eEF-2K is presented using a peptide substrate and is shown to conform to an ordered sequential mechanism with ATP binding first. Substrate inhibition by the peptide was observed and revealed to be competitive with ATP, explaining the observed ordered mechanism. Several small molecules are reported to inhibit eEF-2K activity with the most notable being the histidine kinase inhibitor NH125, which has been used in a number of studies to characterize eEF-2K activity in cells. While NH125 was previously reported to inhibit eEF-2K in vitro with an IC(50) of 60 nM, its mechanism of action was not established. Using the same kinetic assay, the ability of an authentic sample of NH125 to inhibit eEF-2K was assessed over a range of substrate and inhibitor concentrations. A typical dose-response curve for the inhibition of eEF-2K by NH125 is best fit to an IC(50) of 18 ± 0.25 μM and a Hill coefficient of 3.7 ± 0.14, suggesting that NH125 is a weak inhibitor of eEF-2K under the experimental conditions of a standard in vitro kinase assay. To test the possibility that NH125 is a potent inhibitor of eEF2 phosphorylation, we assessed its ability to inhibit the phosphorylation of eEF2. Under standard kinase assay conditions, NH125 exhibits a similar weak ability to inhibit the phosphorylation of eEF2 by eEF-2K. Notably, the activity of NH125 is severely abrogated by the addition of 0.1% Triton to the kinase assay through a process that can be reversed upon dilution. These studies suggest that NH125 is a nonspecific colloidal aggregator in vitro, a notion further supported by the observation that NH125 inhibits other protein kinases, such as ERK2 and TRPM7 in a manner similar to that of eEF-2K. As NH125 is reported to inhibit eEF-2K in a cellular environment, its ability to inhibit eEF2 phosphorylation was assessed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, A549 lung cancer, and HEK-293T cell lines using a Western blot approach. No sign of a decrease in the level of eEF2 phosphorylation was observed up to 12 h following addition of NH125 to the media. Furthermore, contrary to the previously reported literatures, NH125 induced the phosphorylation of eEF-2.
|Comparison of phenotypes between different vangl2 mutants demonstrates dominant effects of the Looptail mutation during hair cell development. |
Yin, H; Copley, CO; Goodrich, LV; Deans, MR
PloS one 7 e31988 2012
Experiments utilizing the Looptail mutant mouse, which harbors a missense mutation in the vangl2 gene, have been essential for studies of planar polarity and linking the function of the core planar cell polarity proteins to other developmental signals. Originally described as having dominant phenotypic traits, the molecular interactions underlying the Looptail mutant phenotype are unclear because Vangl2 protein levels are significantly reduced or absent from mutant tissues. Here we introduce a vangl2 knockout mouse and directly compare the severity of the knockout and Looptail mutant phenotypes by intercrossing the two lines and assaying the planar polarity of inner ear hair cells. Overall the vangl2 knockout phenotype is milder than the phenotype of compound mutants carrying both the Looptail and vangl2 knockout alleles. In compound mutants a greater number of hair cells are affected and changes in the orientation of individual hair cells are greater when quantified. We further demonstrate in a heterologous cell system that the protein encoded by the Looptail mutation (Vangl2(S464N)) disrupts delivery of Vangl1 and Vangl2 proteins to the cell surface as a result of oligomer formation between Vangl1 and Vangl2(S464N), or Vangl2 and Vangl2(S464N), coupled to the intracellular retention of Vangl2(S464N). As a result, Vangl1 protein is missing from the apical cell surface of vestibular hair cells in Looptail mutants, but is retained at the apical cell surface of hair cells in vangl2 knockouts. Similarly the distribution of Prickle-like2, a putative Vangl2 interacting protein, is differentially affected in the two mutant lines. In summary, we provide evidence for a direct physical interaction between Vangl1 and Vangl2 through a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches and propose that this interaction underlies the dominant phenotypic traits associated with the Looptail mutation.
|Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibition suppresses cell growth and enhances radiation sensitivity in medulloblastoma cells. |
Harris, PS; Venkataraman, S; Alimova, I; Birks, DK; Donson, AM; Knipstein, J; Dubuc, A; Taylor, MD; Handler, MH; Foreman, NK; Vibhakar, R
BMC cancer 12 80 2012
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children and remains a therapeutic challenge due to its significant therapy-related morbidity. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is highly expressed in many cancers and regulates critical steps in mitotic progression. Recent studies suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors is a promising approach to tumor therapy.We examined the expression of PLK1 mRNA in medulloblastoma tumor samples using microarray analysis. The impact of PLK1 on cell proliferation was evaluated by depleting expression with RNA interference (RNAi) or by inhibiting function with the small molecule inhibitor BI 2536. Colony formation studies were performed to examine the impact of BI 2536 on medulloblastoma cell radiosensitivity. In addition, the impact of depleting PLK1 mRNA on tumor-initiating cells was evaluated using tumor sphere assays.Analysis of gene expression in two independent cohorts revealed that PLK1 mRNA is overexpressed in some, but not all, medulloblastoma patient samples when compared to normal cerebellum. Inhibition of PLK1 by RNAi significantly decreased medulloblastoma cell proliferation and clonogenic potential and increased cell apoptosis. Similarly, a low nanomolar concentration of BI 2536, a small molecule inhibitor of PLK1, potently inhibited cell growth, strongly suppressed the colony-forming ability, and increased cellular apoptosis of medulloblastoma cells. Furthermore, BI 2536 pretreatment sensitized medulloblastoma cells to ionizing radiation. Inhibition of PLK1 impaired tumor sphere formation of medulloblastoma cells and decreased the expression of SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) mRNA in tumor spheres indicating a possible role in targeting tumor initiating cells.Our data suggest that targeting PLK1 with small molecule inhibitors, in combination with radiation therapy, is a novel strategy in the treatment of medulloblastoma that warrants further investigation.
|The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP pathway regulates FoxO and alters dopaminergic neuron survival in Drosophila. |
Kanao, T; Sawada, T; Davies, SA; Ichinose, H; Hasegawa, K; Takahashi, R; Hattori, N; Imai, Y
PloS one 7 e30958 2012
Activation of the forkhead box transcription factor FoxO is suggested to be involved in dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease (PD), in which a PD gene product LRRK2 activates FoxO through phosphorylation. In the current study that combines Drosophila genetics and biochemical analysis, we show that cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent kinase II (cGKII) also phosphorylates FoxO at the same residue as LRRK2, and Drosophila orthologues of cGKII and LRRK2, DG2/For and dLRRK, respectively, enhance the neurotoxic activity of FoxO in an additive manner. Biochemical assays using mammalian cGKII and FoxO1 reveal that cGKII enhances the transcriptional activity of FoxO1 through phosphorylation of the FoxO1 S319 site in the same manner as LRRK2. A Drosophila FoxO mutant resistant to phosphorylation by DG2 and dLRRK (dFoxO S259A corresponding to human FoxO1 S319A) suppressed the neurotoxicity and improved motor dysfunction caused by co-expression of FoxO and DG2. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) also increased FoxO's activity, whereas the administration of a NOS inhibitor L-NAME suppressed the loss of DA neurons in aged flies co-expressing FoxO and DG2. These results strongly suggest that the NO-FoxO axis contributes to DA neurodegeneration in LRRK2-linked PD.
|STAT1 mediates oroxylin a inhibition of iNOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in microglial BV-2 cells. |
Liu, PW; Chen, MF; Tsai, AP; Lee, TJ
PloS one 7 e50363 2012
Microglia-mediated inflammation is implicated in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Oroxylin A, a flavonoid isolated from Scutellariae baicalensis, has been shown to ameliorate microglia activation-mediated neurodegeneration in vivo. The molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of oroxylin A on microglia activation, however, remains unknown. In the present study, effects of oroxylin A co-treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/ml) on LPS-induced activation of cultured microglial BV-2 cells were examined. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined by Greiss method. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 was assessed using real-time RT-PCR or Western blot analysis. Furthermore, activation of the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) was examined by Western blot analysis and transcription factor DNA-binding activity assay. Our results indicated that oroxylin A (10-100 µM) in a concentration-dependent manner inhibited LPS-induced NO production via blocking iNOS expression at both mRNA and protein levels without affecting the degradation rate of iNOS mRNA. Moreover, oroxylin A significantly attenuated LPS-induced late expression (20 hours after LPS challenge) of IL-1β and IL-6. Furthermore, oroxylin A significantly suppressed LPS-induced JAK2-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation without affecting LPS-induced NFκB-p65 nuclear translocation or NFκB-p65 DNA-binding activity. This is consistent with the finding that AG490, a specific JAK2 inhibitor, significantly inhibited LPS-induced STAT1 phosphorylation with almost completely diminished iNOS expression. These results suggest that oroxylin A, via suppressing STAT1 phosphorylation, inhibits LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes in BV-2 microglial cells.
|Glucocorticoid receptor 1B and 1C mRNA transcript alterations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and their possible regulation by GR gene variants. |
Sinclair, D; Fullerton, JM; Webster, MJ; Shannon Weickert, C
PloS one 7 e31720 2012
Abnormal patterns of HPA axis activation, under basal conditions and in response to stress, are found in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA and protein expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in psychiatric illness have also been reported, but the cause of these abnormalities is not known. We quantified expression of GR mRNA transcript variants which employ different 5' promoters, in 35 schizophrenia cases, 31 bipolar disorder cases and 34 controls. We also explored whether sequence variation within the NR3C1 (GR) gene is related to GR mRNA variant expression. Total GR mRNA was decreased in the DLPFC in schizophrenia cases relative to controls (15.1%, pless than 0.0005) and also relative to bipolar disorder cases (8.9%, pless than 0.05). GR-1B mRNA was decreased in schizophrenia cases relative to controls (20.2%, pless than 0.05), while GR-1C mRNA was decreased in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder cases relative to controls (16.1% and 17.2% respectively, both pless than 0.005). A dose-dependent effect of rs10052957 genotype on GR-1B mRNA expression was observed, where CC homozygotes displayed 18.4% lower expression than TC heterozygotes (pless than 0.05), and 31.8% lower expression than TT homozygotes (pless than 0.005). Similarly, a relationship between rs6190 (R23K) genotype and GR-1C expression was seen, with 24.8% lower expression in GG homozygotes than GA heterozygotes (pless than 0.01). We also observed an effect of rs41423247 (Bcl1) SNP on expression of 67 kDa GRα isoform, the most abundant GRα isoform in the DLPFC. These findings suggest possible roles for the GR-1B and GR-1C promoter regions in mediating GR gene expression changes in psychotic illness, and highlight the potential importance of sequence variation within the NR3C1 gene in modulating GR mRNA expression in the DLPFC.
|Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial shape and bioenergetics and plays a role in oxidative stress. |
Henke, N; Albrecht, P; Pfeiffer, A; Toutzaris, D; Zanger, K; Methner, A
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 42042-52 2012
Calcium ions are involved in a plethora of cellular functions including cell death and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry over the plasma membrane is activated by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores and is mediated by the sensor STIM1 and the channel ORAI1. We compared cell death susceptibility to oxidative stress in STIM1 knock-out and ORAI1 knockdown mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in knock-out cells with reconstituted wild type and dominant active STIM1. We show that STIM1 and ORAI1 deficiency renders cells more susceptible to oxidative stress, which can be rescued by STIM1 and ORAI1 overexpression. STIM1 knock-out mitochondria are tubular, have a higher Ca(2+) concentration, and are metabolically more active, resulting in constitutive oxidative stress causing increased nuclear translocation of the antioxidant transcription factor NRF2 triggered by increased phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α and the protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase PERK. This leads to increased transcription of antioxidant genes and a high basal glutathione in STIM1 knock-out cells, which is, however, more rapidly expended upon additional stress, resulting in increased release and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor with subsequent cell death. Our data suggest that store-operated Ca(2+) entry and STIM1 are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial shape and bioenergetics and play a role in oxidative stress.
|Smooth muscle α actin is specifically required for the maintenance of lactation. |
Weymouth, N; Shi, Z; Rockey, DC
Developmental biology 363 1-14 2012
Smooth muscle α-actin (Acta2) is one of six highly conserved mammalian actin isoforms that appear to exhibit functional redundancy. Nonetheless, we have postulated a specific functional role for the smooth muscle specific isoform. Here, we show that Acta2 deficient mice have a remarkable mammary phenotype such that dams lacking Acta2 are unable to nurse their offspring effectively. The phenotype was rescued in cross fostering experiments with wild type mice, excluding a developmental defect in Acta2 null pups. The mechanism for the underlying phenotype is due to myoepithelial dysfunction postpartum resulting in precocious involution. Further, we demonstrate a specific defect in myoepithelial cell contractility in Acta2 null mammary glands, despite normal expression of cytoplasmic actins. We conclude that Acta2 specifically mediates myoepithelial cell contraction during lactation and that this actin isoform therefore exhibits functional specificity.
|Competitive interactions of cancer cells and normal cells via secretory microRNAs. |
Kosaka, N; Iguchi, H; Yoshioka, Y; Hagiwara, K; Takeshita, F; Ochiya, T
The Journal of biological chemistry 287 1397-405 2012
Normal epithelial cells regulate the secretion of autocrine and paracrine factors that prevent aberrant growth of neighboring cells, leading to healthy development and normal metabolism. One reason for tumor initiation is considered to be a failure of this homeostatic cell competitive system. Here we identify tumor-suppressive microRNAs (miRNAs) secreted by normal cells as anti-proliferative signal entities. Culture supernatant of normal epithelial prostate PNT-2 cells attenuated proliferation of PC-3M-luc cells, prostate cancer cells. Global analysis of miRNA expression signature revealed that a variety of tumor-suppressive miRNAs are released from PNT-2 cells. Of these miRNAs, secretory miR-143 could induce growth inhibition exclusively in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that secretory tumor-suppressive miRNAs can act as a death signal in a cell competitive process. This study provides a novel insight into a tumor initiation mechanism.
|Yin Yang 1 plays an essential role in breast cancer and negatively regulates p27. |
Wan, M; Huang, W; Kute, TE; Miller, LD; Zhang, Q; Hatcher, H; Wang, J; Stovall, DB; Russell, GB; Cao, PD; Deng, Z; Wang, W; Zhang, Q; Lei, M; Torti, SV; Akman, SA; Sui, G
The American journal of pathology 180 2120-33 2012
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is highly expressed in various types of cancers and regulates tumorigenesis through multiple pathways. In the present study, we evaluated YY1 expression levels in breast cancer cell lines, a breast cancer TMA, and two gene arrays. We observed that, compared with normal samples, YY1 is generally overexpressed in breast cancer cells and tissues. In functional studies, depletion of YY1 inhibited the clonogenicity, migration, invasion, and tumor formation of breast cancer cells, but did not affect the clonogenicity of nontumorigenic cells. Conversely, ectopically expressed YY1 enhanced the migration and invasion of nontumorigenic MCF-10A breast cells. In both a monolayer culture condition and a three-dimensional Matrigel system, silenced YY1 expression changed the architecture of breast cancer MCF-7 cells to that resembling MCF-10A cells, whereas ectopically expressed YY1 in MCF-10A cells had the opposite effect. Furthermore, we detected an inverse correlation between YY1 and p27 expression in both breast cancer cells and xenograft tumors with manipulated YY1 expression. Counteracting the changes in p27 expression attenuated the effects of YY1 alterations on these cells. In addition, YY1 promoted p27 ubiquitination and physically interacted with p27. In conclusion, our data suggest that YY1 is an oncogene and identify p27 as a new target of YY1.
|Depleting components of the THO complex causes increased telomere length by reducing the expression of the telomere-associated protein Rif1p. |
Yu, TY; Wang, CY; Lin, JJ
PloS one 7 e33498 2012
Telomere length is regulated mostly by proteins directly associated with telomeres. However, genome-wide analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants has revealed that deletion of Hpr1p, a component of the THO complex, also affects telomere length. The THO complex comprises four protein subunits, namely, Tho2p, Hpr1p, Mft1p, and Thp2p. These subunits interplay between transcription elongation and co-transcriptional assembly of export-competent mRNPs. Here we found that the deletion of tho2 or hpr1 caused telomere lengthening by ∼50-100 bps, whereas that of mft1 or thp2 did not affect telomere length. Since the THO complex functions in transcription elongation, we analyzed the expression of telomere-associated proteins in mutants depleted of complex components. We found that both the mRNA and protein levels of RIF1 were decreased in tho2 and hpr1 cells. RIF1 encodes a 1917-amino acid polypeptide that is involved in regulating telomere length and the formation of telomeric heterochromatin. Hpr1p and Tho2p appeared to affect telomeres through Rif1p, as increased Rif1p levels suppressed the telomere lengthening in tho2 and hpr1 cells. Moreover, yeast cells carrying rif1 tho2 or rif1 hpr1 double mutations showed telomere lengths and telomere silencing effects similar to those observed in the rif1 mutant. Thus, we conclude that mutations of components of the THO complex affect telomere functions by reducing the expression of a telomere-associated protein, Rif1p.
|CDNF protects the nigrostriatal dopamine system and promotes recovery after MPTP treatment in mice. |
Airavaara, M; Harvey, BK; Voutilainen, MH; Shen, H; Chou, J; Lindholm, P; Lindahl, M; Tuominen, RK; Saarma, M; Hoffer, B; Wang, Y
Cell transplantation 21 1213-23 2012
Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) is a recently discovered protein, which belongs to the evolutionarily conserved CDNF/MANF family of neurotrophic factors. The degeneration of dopamine neurons following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment is well characterized, and efficacy in this model is considered a standard criterion for development of parkinsonian therapies. MPTP is a neurotoxin, which produces parkinsonian symptoms in humans and in C57/Bl6 mice. To date, there are no reports about the effects of CDNF on dopamine neuron survival or function in the MPTP rodent model, a critical gap. Therefore, we studied whether CDNF has neuroprotective and neurorestorative properties for the nigrostriatal dopamine system after MPTP injections in C57/Bl6 mice. We found that bilateral striatal CDNF injections, given 20 h before MPTP, improved horizontal and vertical motor behavior. CDNF pretreatment increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the striatum and in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr), as well as the number of TH-positive cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Posttreatment with CDNF, given 1 week after MPTP injections, increased horizontal and vertical motor behavior of mice, as well as dopamine fiber densities in the striatum and the number of TH-positive cells in SNpc. CDNF did not alter any of the analyzed dopaminergic biomarkers or locomotor behavior in MPTP-untreated animals. We conclude that striatal CDNF administration is both neuroprotective and neurorestorative for the TH-positive cells in the nigrostriatal dopamine system in the MPTP model, which supports the development of CDNF-based treatment for Parkinson's disease.
|A study of the spatial protein organization of the postsynaptic density isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum. |
Yun-Hong, Y; Chih-Fan, C; Chia-Wei, C; Yen-Chung, C
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 10 M110.007138 2011
Postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein supramolecule lying underneath the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses and has been implicated to play important roles in synaptic structure and function in mammalian central nervous system. Here, PSDs were isolated from two distinct regions of porcine brain, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses indicated that cerebral and cerebellar PSDs consisted of a similar set of proteins with noticeable differences in the abundance of various proteins between these samples. Subsequently, protein localization in these PSDs was analyzed by using the Nano-Depth-Tagging method. This method involved the use of three synthetic reagents, as agarose beads whose surface was covalently linked with a fluorescent, photoactivable, and cleavable chemical crosslinker by spacers of varied lengths. After its application was verified by using a synthetic complex consisting of four layers of different proteins, the Nano-Depth-Tagging method was used here to yield information concerning the depth distribution of various proteins in the PSD. The results indicated that in both cerebral and cerebellar PSDs, glutamate receptors, actin, and actin binding proteins resided in the peripheral regions within ∼ 10 nm deep from the surface and that scaffold proteins, tubulin subunits, microtubule-binding proteins, and membrane cytoskeleton proteins found in mammalian erythrocytes resided in the interiors deeper than 10 nm from the surface in the PSD. Finally, by using the immunoabsorption method, binding partner proteins of two proteins residing in the interiors, PSD-95 and α-tubulin, and those of two proteins residing in the peripheral regions, elongation factor-1α and calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α subunit, of cerebral and cerebellar PSDs were identified. Overall, the results indicate a striking similarity in protein organization between the PSDs isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum. A model of the molecular structure of the PSD has also been proposed here.
|Overweight worsens apoptosis, neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier damage after hypoxic ischemia in neonatal brain through JNK hyperactivation. |
Tu, YF; Tsai, YS; Wang, LW; Wu, HC; Huang, CC; Ho, CJ
Journal of neuroinflammation 8 40 2011
Apoptosis, neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage affect the susceptibility of the developing brain to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insults. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important mediator of insulin resistance in obesity. We hypothesized that neonatal overweight aggravates HI brain damage through JNK hyperactivation-mediated upregulation of neuronal apoptosis, neuroinflammation and BBB leakage in rat pups.Overweight (OF) pups were established by reducing the litter size to 6, and control (NF) pups by keeping the litter size at 12 from postnatal (P) day 1 before HI on P7. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were used to determine the TUNEL-(+) cells and BBB damage, cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and phospho-JNK and phospho-BimEL levels. Immunofluorescence was performed to determine the cellular distribution of phospho-JNK.Compared with NF pups, OF pups had a significantly heavier body-weight and greater fat deposition on P7. Compared with the NF-HI group, the OF-HI group showed significant increases of TUNEL-(+) cells, cleaved levels of caspase-3 and PARP, and ED1-(+) activated microglia and BBB damage in the cortex 24 hours post-HI. Immunofluorescence of the OF-HI pups showed that activated-caspase 3 expression was found mainly in NeuN-(+) neurons and RECA1-(+) vascular endothelial cells 24 hours post-HI. The OF-HI group also had prolonged escape latency in the Morris water maze test and greater brain-volume loss compared with the NF-HI group when assessed at adulthood. Phospho-JNK and phospho-BimEL levels were higher in OF-HI pups than in NF-HI pups immediately post-HI. JNK activation in OF-HI pups was mainly expressed in neurons, microglia and vascular endothelial cells. Inhibiting JNK activity by AS601245 caused more attenuation of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP, a greater reduction of microglial activation and BBB damage post-HI, and significantly reduced brain damage in OF-HI than in NF-HI pups.Neonatal overweight increased HI-induced neuronal apoptosis, microglial activation and BBB damage, and aggravated HI brain damage in rat pups through JNK hyperactivation.
|Hexosamines stimulate apoptosis by altering SIRT1 action and levels in rodent pancreatic β-cells. |
Lafontaine-Lacasse, M; Doré, G; Picard, F
The Journal of endocrinology 208 41-9 2011
The activity and levels of SIRT1, which promotes cell survival in several models, are linked to glucose concentrations and cellular energy metabolism. The present study aimed to determine whether impaired Sirt1 activity is involved in the induction of apoptosis by the nutrient-sensing hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). Pancreatic Nit-1, Rin-m5F, and Min6 β-cells were acutely treated at different doses and times with glucosamine, which enters and stimulates the HBP. Sirt1 levels were genetically modulated by retroviral infection. Expression levels, cellular localization, and activity of apoptosis-related markers were determined by qPCR, immunoblotting, and co-immunoprecipitation. Glucosamine treatment dose- and time dependently induced cell apoptosis in all cell lines studied. HBP stimulation time dependently modified SIRT1 protein levels, notably in the cytoplasm. This was concomitant with increased E2F1 binding to the c-myc promoter. In both NIT-1 and min6 β-cells, genetic knockdown of Sirt1 expression resulted in higher susceptibility to HBP-stimulated apoptosis, whereas overexpression of Sirt1 had the opposite impact. These findings indicate that reduction of SIRT1 levels by hexosamines contributes to β-cell apoptosis. Methods to increase SIRT1 levels or activity could thus prevent the decrease in β-cell mass, notably that observed in type 2 diabetes.
|Phosphorylation of AMPA receptors is required for sensory deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. |
Goel, A; Xu, LW; Snyder, KP; Song, L; Goenaga-Vazquez, Y; Megill, A; Takamiya, K; Huganir, RL; Lee, HK
PloS one 6 e18264 2011
Sensory experience, and the lack thereof, can alter the function of excitatory synapses in the primary sensory cortices. Recent evidence suggests that changes in sensory experience can regulate the synaptic level of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a process have not been determined. We found that binocular visual deprivation, which is a well-established in vivo model to produce multiplicative synaptic scaling in visual cortex of juvenile rodents, is accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPAR GluR1 (or GluA1) subunit at the serine 845 (S845) site and the appearance of CP-AMPARs at synapses. To address the role of GluR1-S845 in visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity, we used mice lacking key phosphorylation sites on the GluR1 subunit. We found that mice specifically lacking the GluR1-S845 site (GluR1-S845A mutants), which is a substrate of cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), show abnormal basal excitatory synaptic transmission and lack visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We also found evidence that increasing GluR1-S845 phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to produce normal multiplicative synaptic scaling. Our study provides concrete evidence that a GluR1 dependent mechanism, especially S845 phosphorylation, is a necessary pre-requisite step for in vivo homeostatic synaptic plasticity.
|Sex-specific neuroendocrine and behavioral phenotypes in hypomorphic Type II Neuregulin 1 rats. |
Taylor, SB; Markham, JA; Taylor, AR; Kanaskie, BZ; Koenig, JI
Behavioural brain research 224 223-32 2011
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is an important growth factor involved in the development and plasticity of the central nervous system. Since its identification as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, several transgenic mouse models have been employed to elucidate the role NRG1 may play in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. Unfortunately very few studies have included females, despite the fact that some work suggests that the consequences of disrupted NRG1 expression may be sex-specific. Here, we used Nrg1 hypomorphic (Nrg1(Tn)) Fischer rats to demonstrate sex-specific changes in neuroendocrine and behavioral phenotypes as a consequence of reduced Type II NRG1 expression. We have previously shown that male Nrg1(Tn) rats have increased basal corticosterone levels, and fail to habituate to an open field despite normal overall levels of locomotor activity. The current studies show that, in contrast, female Nrg1(Tn) rats exhibit enhanced suppression of corticosterone levels following an acute stress, reduced locomotor activity, and enhanced habituation to novel environments. Furthermore, we also show that female, but not male, Nrg1(Tn) rats have impaired prepulse inhibition. Finally, we provide evidence that sex-specific changes are not likely attributable to major disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as measures of pubertal onset, estrous cyclicity, and reproductive capacity were unaltered in female Nrg1(Tn) rats. Our results provide further support for both the involvement of NRG1 in the control of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and the sex-specific nature of this relationship.
|Disruption of the neuregulin 1 gene in the rat alters HPA axis activity and behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. |
Taylor, SB; Taylor, AR; Markham, JA; Geurts, AM; Kanaskie, BZ; Koenig, JI
Physiology & behavior 104 205-14 2011
Exposure to stress can result in an increased risk for psychiatric disorders, especially among genetically predisposed individuals. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and is also associated with psychotic bipolar disorder. In the rat, the neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus show strong expression of Nrg1 mRNA. In patients with schizophrenia, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' region of NRG1 interacts with psychosocial stress to affect reactivity to expressed emotion. However, there is virtually no information on the role of NRG1 in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, and whether the protein is expressed in the paraventricular nucleus is unknown. The present studies utilize a unique line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)) generated by gene trapping with the Sleeping Beauty transposon. We first established that the Nrg1(Tn) rats displayed reduced expression of both the mRNA and protein corresponding to the Type II NRG1 isoform. After confirming, using wild type animals, that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the neurocircuitry involved in regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to environmental stimuli, the Nrg1(Tn) rats were then used to test the hypothesis that altered expression of Type II NRG1 disrupts stress regulation and reactivity. In support of this hypothesis, Nrg1(Tn) rats have disrupted basal and acute stress recovery corticosterone secretion, differential changes in expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the pituitary, paraventricular nucleus and hippocampus, and a failure to habituate to an open field. Together, these findings point to NRG1 as a potential novel regulator of neuroendocrine responses to stress as well as behavioral reactivity.
|Reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 density in major depression determined by [(11)C]ABP688 PET and postmortem study. |
Deschwanden, A; Karolewicz, B; Feyissa, AM; Treyer, V; Ametamey, SM; Johayem, A; Burger, C; Auberson, YP; Sovago, J; Stockmeier, CA; Buck, A; Hasler, G
The American journal of psychiatry 168 727-34 2011
Clinical and preclinical evidence suggests a hyperactive glutamatergic system in clinical depression. Recently, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been proposed as an attractive target for novel therapeutic approaches to depression. The goal of this study was to compare mGluR5 binding (in a positron emission tomography [PET] study) and mGluR5 protein expression (in a postmortem study) between individuals with major depressive disorder and psychiatrically healthy comparison subjects.Images of mGluR5 receptor binding were acquired using PET with [(11)C]ABP688, which binds to an allosteric site with high specificity, in 11 unmedicated individuals with major depression and 11 matched healthy comparison subjects. The amount of mGluR5 protein was investigated using Western blot in postmortem brain samples of 15 depressed individuals and 15 matched comparison subjects.The PET study revealed lower levels of regional mGluR5 binding in the prefrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, the insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus in the depression group relative to the comparison group. Severity of depression was negatively correlated with mGluR5 binding in the hippocampus. The postmortem study showed lower levels of mGluR5 protein expression in the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10) in the depression group relative to the comparison group, while prefrontal mGluR1 protein expression did not differ between groups.The lower levels of mGluR5 binding observed in the depression group are consonant with the lower levels of protein expression in brain tissue in the postmortem depression group. Thus, both studies suggest that basal or compensatory changes in excitatory neurotransmission play roles in the pathophysiology of major depression.
|Two transcription factors can direct three photoreceptor outcomes from rod precursor cells in mouse retinal development. |
Ng, L; Lu, A; Swaroop, A; Sharlin, DS; Swaroop, A; Forrest, D
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 11118-25 2011
The typical mammalian visual system is based upon three photoreceptor types: rods for dim light vision and two types of cones (M and S) for color vision in daylight. However, the process that generates photoreceptor diversity and the cell type in which diversity arises remain unclear. Mice deleted for thyroid hormone receptor β2 (TRβ2) and neural retina leucine zipper factor (NRL) lack M cones and rods, respectively, but gain S cones. We therefore tested the hypothesis that NRL and TRβ2 direct a common precursor to a rod, M cone, or S cone outcome using Nrl(b2/b2) "knock-in" mice that express TRβ2 instead of NRL from the endogenous Nrl gene. Nrl(b2/b2) mice lacked rods and produced excess M cones in contrast to the excess S cones in Nrl(-/-) mice. Notably, the presence of both factors yielded rods in Nrl(+/b2) mice. The results demonstrate innate plasticity in postmitotic rod precursors that allows these cells to form three functional photoreceptor types in response to NRL or TRβ2. We also detected precursor cells in normal embryonic retina that transiently coexpressed Nrl and TRβ2, suggesting that some precursors may originate in a plastic state. The plasticity of the precursors revealed in Nrl(b2/b2) mice suggests that a two-step transcriptional switch can direct three photoreceptor fates: first, rod versus cone identity dictated by NRL, and second, if NRL fails to act, M versus S cone identity dictated by TRβ2.
|The motility of a human parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is regulated by a novel lysine methyltransferase. |
Heaslip, AT; Nishi, M; Stein, B; Hu, K
PLoS pathogens 7 e1002201 2011
Protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa are a large group of obligate intracellular parasites. Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum, cause diseases by reiterating their lytic cycle, comprising host cell invasion, parasite replication, and parasite egress. The successful completion of the lytic cycle requires that the parasite senses changes in its environment and switches between the non-motile (for intracellular replication) and motile (for invasion and egress) states appropriately. Although the signaling pathway that regulates the motile state switch is critical to the pathogenesis of the diseases caused by these parasites, it is not well understood. Here we report a previously unknown mechanism of regulating the motility activation in Toxoplasma, mediated by a protein lysine methyltransferase, AKMT (for Apical complex lysine (K) methyltransferase). AKMT depletion greatly inhibits activation of motility, compromises parasite invasion and egress, and thus severely impairs the lytic cycle. Interestingly, AKMT redistributes from the apical complex to the parasite body rapidly in the presence of egress-stimulating signals that increase [Ca²⁺] in the parasite cytoplasm, suggesting that AKMT regulation of parasite motility might be accomplished by the precise temporal control of its localization in response to environmental changes.
|Mi-2/NuRD complex function is required for normal S phase progression and assembly of pericentric heterochromatin. |
Sims, JK; Wade, PA
Molecular biology of the cell 22 3094-102 2011
During chromosome duplication, it is essential to replicate not only the DNA sequence, but also the complex nucleoprotein structures of chromatin. Pericentric heterochromatin is critical for silencing repetitive elements and plays an essential structural role during mitosis. However, relatively little is understood about its assembly and maintenance during replication. The Mi2/NuRD chromatin remodeling complex tightly associates with actively replicating pericentric heterochromatin, suggesting a role in its assembly. Here we demonstrate that depletion of the catalytic ATPase subunit CHD4/Mi-2β in cells with a dampened DNA damage response results in a slow-growth phenotype characterized by delayed progression through S phase. Furthermore, we observe defects in pericentric heterochromatin maintenance and assembly. Our data suggest that chromatin assembly defects are sensed by an ATM-dependent intra-S phase chromatin quality checkpoint, resulting in a temporal block to the transition from early to late S phase. These findings implicate Mi-2β in the maintenance of chromatin structure and proper cell cycle progression.
|NLRP7, a nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein, is required for normal cytokine secretion and co-localizes with Golgi and the microtubule-organizing center. |
Messaed, C; Akoury, E; Djuric, U; Zeng, J; Saleh, M; Gilbert, L; Seoud, M; Qureshi, S; Slim, R
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 43313-23 2011
A hydatidiform mole (HM) is a human pregnancy with hyperproliferative placenta and abnormal embryonic development. Mutations in NLRP7, a member of the nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor family of proteins with roles in inflammation and apoptosis, are responsible for recurrent HMs. However, little is known about the functional role of NLRP7. Here, we demonstrate that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with NLRP7 mutations and rare variants secrete low levels of IL-1β and TNF in response to LPS. We show that the cells from patients, carrying mutations or rare variants, have variable levels of increased intracellular pro-IL-1β indicating that normal NLRP7 down-regulates pro-IL-1β synthesis in response to LPS. Using transient transfections, we confirm the role of normal NLRP7 in inhibiting pro-IL-1β and demonstrate that this inhibitory function is abolished by protein-truncating mutations after the Pyrin domain. Within peripheral blood mononuclear cells, NLRP7 co-localizes with the Golgi and the microtubule-organizing center and is associated with microtubules. This suggests that NLRP7 mutations may affect cytokine secretion by interfering, directly or indirectly, with their trafficking. We propose that the impaired cytokine trafficking and secretion caused by NLRP7 defects makes the patients tolerant to the growth of these earlier arrested conceptions with no fetal vessels and that the retention of these conceptions until the end of the first trimester contribute to the molar phenotype. Our data will impact our understanding of postmolar choriocarcinomas, the only allograft non-self tumors that are able to invade maternal tissues.
|Visible light may directly induce nuclear DNA damage triggering the death pathway in RGC-5 cells. |
Li, GY; Fan, B; Ma, TH
Molecular vision 17 3279-89 2011
Visible light has been previously demonstrated to induce retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-5 cell death through the mitochondrial pathway. The present study was designed to determine whether visible light might also directly trigger the death pathway by damaging nuclear DNA.RGC-5 cells were exposed to various intensities and durations of visible light exposure. Cell viability and death were monitored with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and propidium iodide staining. Nuclear DNA damage caused by light was determined with the plasmid assay, genome DNA assay, and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. The subsequent activation of nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was measured with western blot, and PARP-1's role in the death pathway was assessed by using specific inhibitors. Poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) inhibitors were used to show their influence on light-induced cell death. Calcium influx was examined with the fura-2 assay and calcium channel blocker.We found that visible light induced RGC-5 cell death in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. After the light intensity was increased to 2,600 lx, activation of the death pathway in RGC-5 cells was clearly observed by detecting double-strand DNA breaks and nuclear DNA damage in vitro. Nuclear enzyme PARP-1 was promptly activated after exposure to 2,600 lx of light for 2 days, and specific inhibitors of PARP-1 had significant neuroprotective effects. The poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitor tannic acid and AIF inhibitor N-phenylmaleimide partially protected RGC-5 cells from light injury. A massive calcium influx was detected after 2 days of light exposure, and a calcium channel blocker partially protected cells against light injury.These results suggest that visible light exposure may directly cause nuclear DNA damage, which consequently activates PARP-1. In addition, RGC-5 cells damaged by 2,600 lx of light exposure can be used as an appropriate cell death model for screening neuroprotective drugs, since this treatment induced remarkable cell death within 2 days. Moreover, these results show that 2,600 lx of light exposure provides a more apparent activation of the death pathway than 1,000 lx of light exposure, which was used in a previous study.
|The microtubule lattice and plus-end association of Drosophila Mini spindles is spatially regulated to fine-tune microtubule dynamics. |
Currie, JD; Stewman, S; Schimizzi, G; Slep, KC; Ma, A; Rogers, SL
Molecular biology of the cell 22 4343-61 2011
Individual microtubules (MTs) exhibit dynamic instability, a behavior in which they cycle between phases of growth and shrinkage while the total amount of MT polymer remains constant. Dynamic instability is promoted by the conserved XMAP215/Dis1 family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). In this study, we conducted an in vivo structure-function analysis of the Drosophila homologue Mini spindles (Msps). Msps exhibits EB1-dependent and spatially regulated MT localization, targeting to microtubule plus ends in the cell interior and decorating the lattice of growing and shrinking microtubules in the cell periphery. RNA interference rescue experiments revealed that the NH(2)-terminal four TOG domains of Msps function as paired units and were sufficient to promote microtubule dynamics and EB1 comet formation. We also identified TOG5 and novel inter-TOG linker motifs that are required for targeting Msps to the microtubule lattice. These novel microtubule contact sites are necessary for the interplay between the conserved TOG domains and inter-TOG MT binding that underlies the ability of Msps to promote MT dynamic instability.
|Novel nucleotide and amino acid covariation between the 5'UTR and the NS2/NS3 proteins of hepatitis C virus: bioinformatic and functional analyses. |
Sun, HY; Ou, NY; Wang, SW; Liu, WC; Cheng, TF; Shr, SJ; Sun, KT; Chang, TT; Young, KC
PloS one 6 e25530 2011
Molecular covariation of highly polymorphic viruses is thought to have crucial effects on viral replication and fitness. This study employs association rule data mining of hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequences to search for specific evolutionary covariation and then tests functional relevance on HCV replication. Data mining is performed between nucleotides in the untranslated regions 5' and 3'UTR, and the amino acid residues in the non-structural proteins NS2, NS3 and NS5B. Results indicate covariance of the 243(rd) nucleotide of the 5'UTR with the 14(th), 41(st), 76(th), 110(th), 211(th) and 212(th) residues of NS2 and with the 71(st), 175(th) and 621(st) residues of NS3. Real-time experiments using an HCV subgenomic system to quantify viral replication confirm replication regulation for each covariant pair between 5'UTR₂₄₃ and NS2-41, -76, -110, -211, and NS3-71, -175. The HCV subgenomic system with/without the NS2 region shows that regulatory effects vanish without NS2, so replicative modulation mediated by HCV 5'UTR₂₄₃ depends on NS2. Strong binding of the NS2 variants to HCV RNA correlates with reduced HCV replication whereas weak binding correlates with restoration of HCV replication efficiency, as determined by RNA-protein immunoprecipitation assay band intensity. The dominant haplotype 5'UTR₂₄₃-NS2-41-76-110-211-NS3-71-175 differs according to the HCV genotype: G-Ile-Ile-Ile-Gly-Ile-Met for genotype 1b and A-Leu-Val-Leu-Ser-Val-Leu for genotypes 1a, 2a and 2b. In conclusion, 5'UTR₂₄₃ co-varies with specific NS2/3 protein amino acid residues, which may have significant structural and functional consequences for HCV replication. This unreported mechanism involving HCV replication possibly can be exploited in the development of advanced anti-HCV medication.
|The transcription factors Snail and Slug activate the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in breast cancer. |
Dhasarathy, A; Phadke, D; Mav, D; Shah, RR; Wade, PA
PloS one 6 e26514 2011
The transcriptional repressors Snail and Slug are situated at the core of several signaling pathways proposed to mediate epithelial to mesenchymal transition or EMT, which has been implicated in tumor metastasis. EMT involves an alteration from an organized, epithelial cell structure to a mesenchymal, invasive and migratory phenotype. In order to obtain a global view of the impact of Snail and Slug expression, we performed a microarray experiment using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, which does not express detectable levels of Snail or Slug. MCF-7 cells were infected with Snail, Slug or control adenovirus, and RNA samples isolated at various time points were analyzed across all transcripts. Our analyses indicated that Snail and Slug regulate many genes in common, but also have distinct sets of gene targets. Gene set enrichment analyses indicated that Snail and Slug directed the transcriptome of MCF-7 cells from a luminal towards a more complex pattern that includes many features of the claudin-low breast cancer signature. Of particular interest, genes involved in the TGF-beta signaling pathway are upregulated, while genes responsible for a differentiated morphology are downregulated following Snail or Slug expression. Further we noticed increased histone acetylation at the promoter region of the transforming growth factor beta-receptor II (TGFBR2) gene following Snail or Slug expression. Inhibition of the TGF-beta signaling pathway using selective small-molecule inhibitors following Snail or Slug addition resulted in decreased cell migration with no impact on the repression of cell junction molecules by Snail and Slug. We propose that there are two regulatory modules embedded within EMT: one that involves repression of cell junction molecules, and the other involving cell migration via TGF-beta and/or other pathways.
|Quantitative and integrative proteome analysis of peripheral nerve myelin identifies novel myelin proteins and candidate neuropathy loci. |
Patzig, J; Jahn, O; Tenzer, S; Wichert, SP; de Monasterio-Schrader, P; Rosfa, S; Kuharev, J; Yan, K; Bormuth, I; Bremer, J; Aguzzi, A; Orfaniotou, F; Hesse, D; Schwab, MH; Möbius, W; Nave, KA; Werner, HB
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 16369-86 2011
Peripheral nerve myelin facilitates rapid impulse conduction and normal motor and sensory functions. Many aspects of myelin biogenesis, glia-axonal interactions, and nerve homeostasis are poorly understood at the molecular level. We therefore hypothesized that only a fraction of all relevant myelin proteins has been identified so far. Combining gel-based and gel-free proteomic approaches, we identified 545 proteins in purified mouse sciatic nerve myelin, including 36 previously known myelin constituents. By mass spectrometric quantification, the predominant P0, periaxin, and myelin basic protein constitute 21, 16, and 8% of the total myelin protein, respectively, suggesting that their relative abundance was previously misestimated due to technical limitations regarding protein separation and visualization. Focusing on tetraspan-transmembrane proteins, we validated novel myelin constituents using immuno-based methods. Bioinformatic comparison with mRNA-abundance profiles allowed the categorization in functional groups coregulated during myelin biogenesis and maturation. By differential myelin proteome analysis, we found that the abundance of septin 9, the protein affected in hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy, is strongly increased in a novel mouse model of demyelinating neuropathy caused by the loss of prion protein. Finally, the systematic comparison of our compendium with the positions of human disease loci allowed us to identify several candidate genes for hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. These results illustrate how the integration of unbiased proteome, transcriptome, and genome data can contribute to a molecular dissection of the biogenesis, cell biology, metabolism, and pathology of myelin.
|Multiple means to the same end: the genetic basis of acquired stress resistance in yeast. |
Berry, DB; Guan, Q; Hose, J; Haroon, S; Gebbia, M; Heisler, LE; Nislow, C; Giaever, G; Gasch, AP
PLoS genetics 7 e1002353 2011
In nature, stressful environments often occur in combination or close succession, and thus the ability to prepare for impending stress likely provides a significant fitness advantage. Organisms exposed to a mild dose of stress can become tolerant to what would otherwise be a lethal dose of subsequent stress; however, the mechanism of this acquired stress tolerance is poorly understood. To explore this, we exposed the yeast gene-deletion libraries, which interrogate all essential and non-essential genes, to successive stress treatments and identified genes necessary for acquiring subsequent stress resistance. Cells were exposed to one of three different mild stress pretreatments (salt, DTT, or heat shock) and then challenged with a severe dose of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Surprisingly, there was little overlap in the genes required for acquisition of H(2)O(2) tolerance after different mild-stress pretreatments, revealing distinct mechanisms of surviving H(2)O(2) in each case. Integrative network analysis of these results with respect to protein-protein interactions, synthetic-genetic interactions, and functional annotations identified many processes not previously linked to H(2)O(2) tolerance. We tested and present several models that explain the lack of overlap in genes required for H(2)O(2) tolerance after each of the three pretreatments. Together, this work shows that acquired tolerance to the same severe stress occurs by different mechanisms depending on prior cellular experiences, underscoring the context-dependent nature of stress tolerance.
|Expression of caveolin in trabecular meshwork cells and its possible implication in pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma. |
Surgucheva, I; Surguchov, A
Molecular vision 17 2878-88 2011
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), which is the most common form of glaucoma, has been associated with a heterogeneous genetic component. A genome-wide association study has identified a common sequence variant at 7q31 (rs4236601 [A]) near the caveolin genes in patients with POAG. Caveolins are a family of integral membrane proteins which participate in many cellular processes, including vesicular transport, cholesterol homeostasis, signal transduction, cell adhesion and migration. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression and regulation of caveolin 1 (CAV-1) and caveolin 2 (CAV-2) in normal and glaucoma trabecular meshwork (TM) cells.CAV-1 and CAV-2 protein expression was quantified by immunoblot analysis using lysates isolated from primary and immortalized TM cells or TM tissue dissected from normal and POAG eyes. The localization of caveolins in TM cells was assessed by immunofluorescent microscopy. CAV-1 and CAV-2 protein expression was also investigated in TM cells at various time points after subjecting the cells to known glaucomatous insults like dexamethasone (DEX) and tumor growth factor beta2 (TGF-β2) treatment. Phosphorylation of CAV-1 at tyrosine 14 in normal and glaucoma TM cell lines was evaluated using a specific monoclonal antibody (Ab). The 5' upstream region of the CAV-1 gene was amplified and the sequence variant rs4236601 (A/G polymorphic site) and several putative transcription factor-binding sites were modified by in vitro mutagenesis. The effect of nucleotide sequence modifications in the CAV-1 upstream region on gene expression was assayed in a luciferase-based system in TM and non-TM cells.CAV-1 and CAV-2 are expressed in TM cells, with localization to the cytoplasm and perinuclear region. DEX increased CAV-1 expression in immortalized glaucoma TM cells by 2.8±0.1 (n=3) fold at 24 h and 2.5±0.1 (n=3) fold at 48 h, compared to 1.3±0.06 (n=3) fold at 24 and 48 h in immortalized normal TM cells. Phosphorylation of CAV-1 at Tyr14 was reduced by 3.2±0.15 (n=3) fold in glaucomatous TM cells when compared to normal TM cells. In POAG and normal TM tissue, CAV-1 expression was found to be uniform. CAV-2, on the other hand, was variable in independent normal and glaucoma TM tissue. Substitution of a G for an A at base pair -2,388 upstream of the start codon of CAV-1, corresponding to the minor allele rs4236601 [A], increased transcriptional activity in TM and non-TM cells when compared to the native sequence. Deletion analysis of putative transcription factor binding sites in the CAV-1 promoter region caused cell-specific effects on gene expression.CAV-1 and CAV-2 are expressed in normal and glaucoma tissue and TM cell lines. Phosphorylation of Tyr14 in CAV-1 and transcriptional regulation of CAV-1 expression may have a role in glaucomatous alterations in TM cells.
|Cerebellum proteomics addressing the cognitive deficit of rats perinatally exposed to the food-relevant polychlorinated biphenyl 138. |
Campagna, R; Brunelli, L; Airoldi, L; Fanelli, R; Hakansson, H; Heimeier, RA; De Boever, P; Boix, J; Llansola, M; Felipo, V; Pastorelli, R
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 123 170-9 2011
Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with cognitive deficits in humans and laboratory animals by mechanisms that remain unknown. Recently, it has been shown that developmental exposure to 2,2',3,4,4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB138), a food-relevant PCB congener, decreases the learning ability of young rats. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of perinatal exposure to PCB138 on the brain proteome profile in young rats in order to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying PCB138 neurotoxicity. Comparison of the cerebellum proteome from 3-month-old unexposed and PCB138-exposed male offspring was performed using state-of-the-art label-free semiquantitative mass spectrometry method. Biological pathways associated with Ca(2+) homeostasis and androgen receptor signaling pathways were primarily disrupted. These perturbations may contribute toward a premature ageing-like proteome profile of the cerebellum that is triggered by PCB138 exposure in males. Our proteomic data provide insights into the phenomena that may be contributing to the PCB138 neurotoxicity effects observed in laboratory rodents and correlate with PCB exposure and decreased cognitive functions in humans. As such, this study highlights the importance of PCB138 as a risk factor in developmental neurotoxicity in laboratory rodents and humans.
|Expression and function of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 7 during liver regeneration. |
Tsai, SM; Wang, WP
Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology 27 641-52 2011
Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are involved in the process of liver injury repair. Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) is impaired in transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative FGFR2b in hepatocytes. Although FGF7, a ligand specifically bound to FGFR2b, is expressed by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in fibrotic livers, the expressions and functions of FGF7 and FGFR2b after PH remain unexplored. Therefore, this study sought to examine the potential role of FGF7 signaling during liver regeneration.We examined the expression of FGF7 and FGFR2b in normal and regenerating livers. Effects of FGF7 on hepatocytes were examined in vitro using primary hepatocyte culture with FGF7 recombinant protein and in vivo by hydrodynamic-based gene transfer method.We found that FGF7 expression was increased according to the activation status of HSCs after PH. The receptor, FGFR2b, was also increased in hepatocytes during liver regeneration. In vitro treatment with FGF7 protein activated ERK1/2 and promoted proliferation of hepatocytes isolated from regenerating livers. In vivo overexpression of exogenous FGF7 could notably promote hepatic proliferation and activate MAPKs after PH.This study suggests a role for activated HSC-expressed FGF7 in stimulating FGF signaling pathways in hepatocytes and regulating liver regeneration.
|SET8 is degraded via PCNA-coupled CRL4(CDT2) ubiquitylation in S phase and after UV irradiation. |
Jørgensen, S; Eskildsen, M; Fugger, K; Hansen, L; Larsen, MS; Kousholt, AN; Syljuåsen, RG; Trelle, MB; Jensen, ON; Helin, K; Sørensen, CS
The Journal of cell biology 192 43-54 2011
The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by multiple ubiquitin-mediated events, such as the timely destruction of cyclins and replication licensing factors. The histone H4 methyltransferase SET8 (Pr-Set7) is required for chromosome compaction in mitosis and for maintenance of genome integrity. In this study, we show that SET8 is targeted for degradation during S phase by the CRL4(CDT2) ubiquitin ligase in a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-dependent manner. SET8 degradation requires a conserved degron responsible for its interaction with PCNA and recruitment to chromatin where ubiquitylation occurs. Efficient degradation of SET8 at the onset of S phase is required for the regulation of chromatin compaction status and cell cycle progression. Moreover, the turnover of SET8 is accelerated after ultraviolet irradiation dependent on the CRL4(CDT2) ubiquitin ligase and PCNA. Removal of SET8 supports the modulation of chromatin structure after DNA damage. These results demonstrate a novel regulatory mechanism, linking for the first time the ubiquitin-proteasome system with rapid degradation of a histone methyltransferase to control cell proliferation.
|Transcriptional activation of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78 by HCMV IE1-72 protein. |
Shi-Chen Ou, D; Lee, SB; Chu, CS; Chang, LH; Chung, BC; Juan, LJ
Cell research 21 642-53 2011
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a key regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, facilitates cancer cell growth and viral replication. The mechanism leading to grp78 gene activation during viral infection is largely unknown. In this study, we show that the immediate-early 1 (IE1-72) protein of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is essential for HCMV-mediated GRP78 activation. IE1-72 upregulated grp78 gene expression depending on the ATP-binding site, the zinc-finger domain and the putative leucine-zipper motif of IE1-72, as well as the ER stress response elements (ERSEs) on the grp78 promoter. The purified IE1-72 protein bound to the CCAAT box within ERSE in vitro, whereas deletion mutants of IE1-72 deficient in grp78 promoter stimulation failed to do so. Moreover, IE1-72 binding to the grp78 promoter in infected cells accompanied the recruitment of TATA box-binding protein-associated factor 1 (TAF1), a histone acetyltransferase, and the increased level of acetylated histone H4, an indicator of active-state chromatin. These results provide evidence that HCMV IE1-72 activates grp78 gene expression through direct promoter binding and modulation of the local chromatin structure, indicating an active viral mechanism of cellular chaperone induction for viral growth.
|MyD88-adaptor protein acts as a preventive mechanism for memory deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. |
Michaud, JP; Richard, KL; Rivest, S
Molecular neurodegeneration 6 5 2011
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder associated with brain innate immune activation mainly mediated by microglia. These cells are known to be activated in the brain of AD patients and to produce inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic molecules in response to Amyloid beta (Aβ). Activation of microglia can also promote Aβ clearance via Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is the adaptor molecule for most of these innate immune receptors, transducing the intracellular signal from TLRs to nucleus.Here, we report that more than 50% reduction in MyD88 expression in a mouse model of AD accelerated spatial learning and memory deficits. Brain of APPswe/PS1-MyD88+/- mice was characterized by a delay in accumulation of Aβ plaques and increased soluble levels of Aβ oligomers. Furthermore, inflammatory monocyte subset and brain IL-1β gene expression were significantly reduced in APPswe/PS1 mice with impaired MyD88 signaling.These data indicate that activation of MyD88 intracellular signaling pathway, likely by TLRs, acts as a natural innate immune mechanism to restrict disease progression of APPswe/PS1 mice.
|Beta- and gamma-cytoplasmic actins are required for meiosis in mouse oocytes. |
Brockmann, C; Huarte, J; Dugina, V; Challet, L; Rey, E; Conne, B; Swetloff, A; Nef, S; Chaponnier, C; Vassalli, JD
Biology of reproduction 85 1025-39 2011
In mammals, female meiosis consists of two asymmetric cell divisions, which generate a large haploid oocyte and two small polar bodies. Asymmetric partitioning of the cytoplasm results from migration of the meiotic spindle toward the cortex and requires actin filaments. However, the subcellular localization and the role of the existing two cytoplasmic actin (CYA) isoforms, beta and gamma, have not been characterized. We show that beta- and gamma-CYA are differentially distributed in the maturing oocyte from late metaphase I as well as in preimplantation embryos. Gamma-CYA is preferentially enriched in oocyte cortices and is absent from all cell-cell contact areas from metaphase II until the blastocyst stage. Beta-CYA is enriched in contractile structures, at cytokinesis, at cell-cell contacts, and around the forming blastocoel. Alteration of beta- or gamma-CYA function by isoform-specific antibody microinjection suggests that gamma-CYA holds a major and specific role in the establishment and/or maintenance of asymmetry in meiosis I and in the maintenance of overall cortical integrity. In contrast, beta- and gamma-CYA, together, appear to participate in the formation and the cortical anchorage of the second meiotic spindle in waiting for fertilization. Finally, differences in gamma-CYA expression are amongst the earliest markers of cell fate determination in development.
|Perifosine and CCI 779 co-operate to induce cell death and decrease proliferation in PTEN-intact and PTEN-deficient PDGF-driven murine glioblastoma. |
Pitter, KL; Galbán, CJ; Galbán, S; Tehrani, OS; Saeed-Tehrani, O; Li, F; Charles, N; Bradbury, MS; Becher, OJ; Chenevert, TL; Rehemtulla, A; Ross, BD; Holland, EC; Hambardzumyan, D
PloS one 6 e14545 2011
Platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) activity is deregulated in human GBM due to amplification and rearrangement of the PDGFR-alpha gene locus or overexpression of the PDGF ligand, resulting in the activation of downstream kinases such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Aberrant PDGFR signaling is observed in approximately 25-30% of human GBMs, which are frequently molecularly classified as the proneural subclass. It would be valuable to understand how PDGFR driven GBMs respond to Akt and mTOR inhibition.Using genetically engineered PTEN-intact and PTEN-deficient PDGF-driven mouse models of GBM that closely mimic the histology and genetics of the human PDGF subgroup, we investigated the effect of inhibiting Akt and mTOR alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo. We used perifosine and CCI-779 to inhibit Akt and mTOR, respectively. Here, we show in vitro data demonstrating that the most effective inhibition of Akt and mTOR activity in both PTEN-intact and PTEN-null primary glioma cell cultures is obtained when using both inhibitors in combination. We next investigated if the effects we observed in culture could be duplicated in vivo by treating mice with gliomas for 5 days. The in vivo treatments with the combination of CCI-779 and perifosine resulted in decreased Akt and mTOR signaling, which correlated to decreased proliferation and increased cell death independent of PTEN status, as monitored by immunoblot analysis, histology and MRI.These findings underline the importance of simultaneously targeting Akt and mTOR to achieve significant down-regulation of the PI3K pathway and support the rationale for testing the perifosine and CCI-779 combination in the human PDGF-subgroup of GBM.
|Nitric oxide donors improve prednisone effects on muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse diaphragm. |
Mizunoya, W; Upadhaya, R; Burczynski, FJ; Wang, G; Anderson, JE
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 300 C1065-77 2011
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), palliative glucocorticoid therapy can produce myopathy or calcification. Since increased nitric oxide synthase activity in dystrophic mice promotes regeneration, the outcome of two nitric oxide (NO) donor drugs, MyoNovin (M) and isosorbide dinitrate (I), on the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drug prednisone (P) in alleviating progression of dystrophy was tested. Dystrophic mdx mice were treated (18 days) as controls or with an NO donor ± P. Fiber permeability and DNA synthesis were labeled by Evans blue dye (EBD) and bromodeoxyuridine uptake, respectively. P decreased body weight gain, M increased quadriceps mass, and I increased heart mass. P increased fiber permeability (%EBD+ fibers) and calcification in diaphragm. Treatment with NO donors + P (M+P, I+P) reduced %EBD+ fibers and calcification vs. P alone. %EBD+ fibers in M+P diaphragm did not differ from control. NO donor treatment reduced proliferation and the population of c-met+ cells and accelerated fiber regeneration. Concurrent with P, NO donor treatment suppressed two important detrimental effects of P in mice, possibly by accelerating regeneration, rebalancing satellite cell quiescence and activation in dystrophy, and/or increasing perfusion. Results suggest that NO donors could improve current therapy for DMD.
|Expression and localization of mitochondrial ferritin mRNA in Alzheimer's disease cerebral cortex. |
Wang, L; Yang, H; Zhao, S; Sato, H; Konishi, Y; Beach, TG; Abdelalim, EM; Bisem, NJ; Tooyama, I
PloS one 6 e22325 2011
Mitochondrial ferritin (MtF) has been identified as a novel ferritin encoded by an intron-lacking gene with specific mitochondrial localization located on chromosome 5q23.1. MtF has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Friedreich ataxia and restless leg syndrome. However, little information is available about MtF in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, therefore, we investigated the expression and localization of MtF messenger RNA (mRNA) in the cerebral cortex of AD and control cases using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as in situ hybridization histochemistry. We also examined protein expression using western-blot assay. In addition, we used in vitro methods to further explore the effect of oxidative stress and β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) on MtF expression. To do this we examined MtF mRNA and protein expression changes in the human neuroblastoma cell line, IMR-32, after treatment with Aβ, H2O2, or both. The neuroprotective effect of MtF on oxidative stress induced by H(2)O(2) was measured by MTT assay. The in situ hybridization studies revealed that MtF mRNA was detected mainly in neurons to a lesser degree in glial cells in the cerebral cortex. The staining intensity and the number of positive cells were increased in the cerebral cortex of AD patients. Real-time PCR and western-blot confirmed that MtF expression levels in the cerebral cortex were significantly higher in AD cases than that in control cases at both the mRNA and the protein level. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that the expression of both MtF mRNA and protein were increased by treatment with H2O2 or a combination of Aβ and H2O2, but not with Aβ alone. Finally, MtF expression showed a significant neuroprotective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress (pless than 0.05). The present study suggests that MtF is involved in the pathology of AD and may play a neuroprotective role against oxidative stress.
|Mitochondrial proteomic approach reveals galectin-7 as a novel BCL-2 binding protein in human cells. |
Villeneuve, C; Baricault, L; Canelle, L; Barboule, N; Racca, C; Monsarrat, B; Magnaldo, T; Larminat, F
Molecular biology of the cell 22 999-1013 2011
Although the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2 has been extensively studied, its mode of action remains incompletely understood. Deciphering the network of Bcl-2 interacting factors is necessary to better understand the key function of Bcl-2 in apoptosis initiation. To identify novel Bcl-2 mitochondrial partners, we have combined a Bcl-2 immunocapture with a mass spectrometry analysis using highly pure mitochondrial fractions isolated from human cancer cells. We identified at high confidence 127 potential Bcl-2-interacting proteins. Gene ontology mining reveals enrichment for mitochondrial proteins, endoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins, and cytoskeleton-associated proteins. Importantly, we report the identification of galectin-7 (Gal7), a member of a family of β-galactoside-binding lectins that was already known to exhibit a pro-apoptotic function, as a new mitochondrial Bcl-2 interacting partner. Our data further show that endogenous Bcl-2 coimmunoprecipitates with Gal7 and that recombinant Gal7 directly interacts with recombinant Bcl-2. A fraction of Gal7 is constitutively localized at mitochondria in a Bcl-2-dependent manner and sensitizes the mitochondria to the apoptotic signal. In addition, we show that the Bcl-2/Gal7 interaction is abolished following genotoxic stress. Taken together, our findings suggest that the binding of Gal7 to Bcl-2 may constitute a new target for enhancing the intrinsic apoptosis pathway.
|OX40 complexes with phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B (PKB) to augment TCR-dependent PKB signaling. |
So, T; Choi, H; Croft, M
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 3547-55 2011
T lymphocyte activation requires signal 1 from the TCR and signal 2 from costimulatory receptors. For long-lasting immunity, growth and survival signals imparted through the Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway in activated or effector T cells are important, and these can be strongly influenced by signaling from OX40 (CD134), a member of the TNFR superfamily. In the absence of OX40, T cells do not expand efficiently to Ag, and memory formation is impaired. How most costimulatory receptors integrate their signals with those from Ag through the TCR is not clear, including whether OX40 directly recruits PKB or molecules that regulate PKB. We show that OX40 after ligation by OX40L assembled a signaling complex that contained the adapter TNFR-associated factor 2 as well as PKB and its upstream activator phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Recruitment of PKB and PI3K were dependent on TNFR-associated factor 2 and on translocation of OX40 into detergent-insoluble membrane lipid microdomains but independent of TCR engagement. However, OX40 only resulted in strong phosphorylation and functional activation of the PI3K-PKB pathway when Ag was recognized. Therefore, OX40 primarily functions to augment PKB signaling in T cells by enhancing the amount of PI3K and PKB available to the TCR. This highlights a quantitative role of this TNFR family second signal to supplement signal 1.
|The Krüppel-like factor 15 as a molecular link between myogenic factors and a chromosome 4q transcriptional enhancer implicated in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. |
Dmitriev, P; Petrov, A; Ansseau, E; Stankevicins, L; Charron, S; Kim, E; Bos, TJ; Robert, T; Turki, A; Coppée, F; Belayew, A; Lazar, V; Carnac, G; Laoudj, D; Lipinski, M; Vassetzky, YS
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 44620-31 2011
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), a dominant hereditary disease with a prevalence of 7 per 100,000 individuals, is associated with a partial deletion in the subtelomeric D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4q. The D4Z4 repeat contains a strong transcriptional enhancer that activates promoters of several FSHD-related genes. We report here that the enhancer within the D4Z4 repeat binds the Krüppel-like factor KLF15. KLF15 was found to be up-regulated during myogenic differentiation induced by serum starvation or by overexpression of the myogenic differentiation factor MYOD. When overexpressed, KLF15 activated the D4Z4 enhancer and led to overexpression of DUX4c (Double homeobox 4, centromeric) and FRG2 (FSHD region gene 2) genes, whereas its silencing caused inactivation of the D4Z4 enhancer. In immortalized human myoblasts, the D4Z4 enhancer was activated by the myogenic factor MYOD, an effect that was abolished upon KLF15 silencing or when the KLF15-binding sites within the D4Z4 enhancer were mutated, indicating that the myogenesis-related activation of the D4Z4 enhancer was mediated by KLF15. KLF15 and several myogenesis-related factors were found to be expressed at higher levels in myoblasts, myotubes, and muscle biopsies from FSHD patients than in healthy controls. We propose that KLF15 serves as a molecular link between myogenic factors and the activity of the D4Z4 enhancer, and it thus contributes to the overexpression of the DUX4c and FRG2 genes during normal myogenic differentiation and in FSHD.
|Intracellular trafficking of the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) regulated by novel function of X11-like. |
Saito, Y; Akiyama, M; Araki, Y; Sumioka, A; Shiono, M; Taru, H; Nakaya, T; Yamamoto, T; Suzuki, T
PloS one 6 e22108 2011
Amyloid β (Aβ), a causative peptide of Alzheimer's disease, is generated by intracellular metabolism of amyloid β-protein precursor (APP). In general, mature APP (mAPP, N- and O-glycosylated form) is subject to successive cleavages by α- or β-, and γ-secretases in the late protein secretory pathway and/or at plasma membrane, while immature APP (imAPP, N-glycosylated form) locates in the early secretory pathway such as endoplasmic reticulum or cis-Golgi, in which imAPP is not subject to metabolic cleavages. X11-like (X11L) is a neural adaptor protein composed of a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) and two C-terminal PDZ domains. X11L suppresses amyloidogenic cleavage of mAPP by direct binding of X11L through its PTB domain, thereby generation of Aβ lowers. X11L expresses another function in the regulation of intracellular APP trafficking.In order to analyze novel function of X11L in intracellular trafficking of APP, we performed a functional dissection of X11L. Using cells expressing various domain-deleted X11L mutants, intracellular APP trafficking was examined along with analysis of APP metabolism including maturation (O-glycosylation), processing and localization of APP.X11L accumulates imAPP into the early secretory pathway by mediation of its C-terminal PDZ domains, without being bound to imAPP directly. With this novel function, X11L suppresses overall APP metabolism and results in further suppression of Aβ generation. Interestingly some of the accumulated imAPP in the early secretory pathway are likely to appear on plasma membrane by unidentified mechanism. Trafficking of imAPP to plasma membrane is observed in other X11 family proteins, X11 and X11L2, but not in other APP-binding partners such as FE65 and JIP1. It is herein clear that respective functional domains of X11L regulate APP metabolism at multiple steps in intracellular protein secretory pathways.
|Rab5 and class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase Vps34 are involved in hepatitis C virus NS4B-induced autophagy. |
Su, WC; Chao, TC; Huang, YL; Weng, SC; Jeng, KS; Lai, MM
Journal of virology 85 10561-71 2011
Autophagy has been shown to facilitate replication or production of hepatitis C virus (HCV); nevertheless, how HCV induces autophagy remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that HCV nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) alone can induce autophagy signaling; amino acid residues 1 to 190 of NS4B are sufficient for this induction. Further studies showed that the phosphorylation levels of S6K and 4E-BP1 were not altered, suggesting that the mTOR/S6 kinase pathway and mTOR/4E-BP1 pathway did not contribute to NS4B- or HCV-induced autophagy. Inhibition of Rab5 function by silencing Rab5 or overexpressing dominant-negative Rab5 mutant (S34N) resulted in significant reduction of NS4B- or HCV-induced autophagic vesicle formation. Moreover, the autophagy induction was impaired by inhibition of class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) Vps34 function. Finally, the coimmunoprecipitation assay indicated that NS4B formed a complex with Rab5 and Vps34, supporting the notion that Rab5 and Vps34 are involved in NS4B-induced autophagy. Taken together, these results not only reveal a novel role of NS4B in autophagy but also offer a clue to the mechanism of HCV-induced autophagy.
|Na+/K+-ATPase α1 identified as an abundant protein in the blood-labyrinth barrier that plays an essential role in the barrier integrity. |
Yang, Y; Dai, M; Wilson, TM; Omelchenko, I; Klimek, JE; Wilmarth, PA; David, LL; Nuttall, AL; Gillespie, PG; Shi, X
PloS one 6 e16547 2011
The endothelial-blood/tissue barrier is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The ear harbors a unique endothelial-blood/tissue barrier which we term "blood-labyrinth-barrier". This barrier is critical for maintaining inner ear homeostasis. Disruption of the blood-labyrinth-barrier is closely associated with a number of hearing disorders. Many proteins of the blood-brain-barrier and blood-retinal-barrier have been identified, leading to significant advances in understanding their tissue specific functions. In contrast, capillaries in the ear are small in volume and anatomically complex. This presents a challenge for protein analysis studies, which has resulted in limited knowledge of the molecular and functional components of the blood-labyrinth-barrier. In this study, we developed a novel method for isolation of the stria vascularis capillary from CBA/CaJ mouse cochlea and provided the first database of protein components in the blood-labyrinth barrier as well as evidence that the interaction of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1 (ATP1A1) with protein kinase C eta (PKCη) and occludin is one of the mechanisms of loud sound-induced vascular permeability increase.Using a mass-spectrometry, shotgun-proteomics approach combined with a novel "sandwich-dissociation" method, more than 600 proteins from isolated stria vascularis capillaries were identified from adult CBA/CaJ mouse cochlea. The ion transporter ATP1A1 was the most abundant protein in the blood-labyrinth barrier. Pharmacological inhibition of ATP1A1 activity resulted in hyperphosphorylation of tight junction proteins such as occludin which increased the blood-labyrinth-barrier permeability. PKCη directly interacted with ATP1A1 and was an essential mediator of ATP1A1-initiated occludin phosphorylation. Moreover, this identified signaling pathway was involved in the breakdown of the blood-labyrinth-barrier resulting from loud sound trauma.The results presented here provide a novel method for capillary isolation from the inner ear and the first database on protein components in the blood-labyrinth-barrier. Additionally, we found that ATP1A1 interaction with PKCη and occludin was involved in the integrity of the blood-labyrinth-barrier.
|Gene expression changes in GABA(A) receptors and cognition following chronic ketamine administration in mice. |
Tan, S; Rudd, JA; Yew, DT
PloS one 6 e21328 2011
Ketamine is a well-known anesthetic agent and a drug of abuse. Despite its widespread use and abuse, little is known about its long-term effects on the central nervous system. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of long-term (1- and 3-month) ketamine administration on learning and memory and associated gene expression levels in the brain. The Morris water maze was used to assess spatial memory and gene expression changes were assayed using Affymetrix Genechips; a focus on the expression of GABA(A) receptors that mediate a tonic inhibition in the brain, was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Compared with saline controls, there was a decline in learning and memory performance in the ketamine-treated mice. Genechip results showed that 110 genes were up-regulated and 136 genes were down-regulated. An ontology analysis revealed the most significant effects of ketamine were on GABA(A) receptors. In particular, there was a significant up-regulation of both mRNA and protein levels of the alpha 5 subunit (Gabra5) of the GABA(A) receptors in the prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, chronic exposure to ketamine impairs working memory in mice, which may be explained at least partly by up-regulation of Gabra5 subunits in the prefrontal cortex.
|SWI/SNF and Asf1 independently promote derepression of the DNA damage response genes under conditions of replication stress. |
Minard, LV; Lin, LJ; Schultz, MC
PloS one 6 e21633 2011
The histone chaperone Asf1 and the chromatin remodeler SWI/SNF have been separately implicated in derepression of the DNA damage response (DDR) genes in yeast cells treated with genotoxins that cause replication interference. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we have tested if derepression of the DDR genes in budding yeast involves functional interplay between Asf1 and SWI/SNF. We find that Asf1 and SWI/SNF are both recruited to DDR genes under replication stress triggered by hydroxyurea, and have detected a soluble complex that contains Asf1 and the Snf2 subunit of SWI/SNF. SWI/SNF recruitment to DDR genes however does not require Asf1, and deletion of Snf2 does not affect Asf1 occupancy of DDR gene promoters. A checkpoint engagement defect is sufficient to explain the synthetic effect of deletion of ASF1 and SNF2 on derepression of the DDR genes in hydroxyurea-treated cells. Collectively, our results show that the DDR genes fall into a class in which Asf1 and SWI/SNF independently control transcriptional induction.
|Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) promotes tumor cell death by inducing macrophage membrane tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). |
Ho, TC; Chen, SL; Shih, SC; Chang, SJ; Yang, SL; Hsieh, JW; Cheng, HC; Chen, LJ; Tsao, YP
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 35943-54 2011
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is an intrinsic anti-angiogenic factor and a potential anti-tumor agent. The tumoricidal mechanism of PEDF, however, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report that PEDF induces the apoptosis of TC-1 and SK-Hep-1 tumor cells when they are cocultured with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). This macrophage-mediated tumor killing is prevented by blockage of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) following treatment with the soluble TRAIL receptor. PEDF also increases the amount of membrane-bound TRAIL on cultured mouse BMDMs and on macrophages surrounding subcutaneous tumors. PEDF-induced tumor killing and TRAIL induction are abrogated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonists or small interfering RNAs targeting PPARγ. PEDF also induces PPARγ in BMDMs. Furthermore, the activity of the TRAIL promoter in human macrophages is increased by PEDF stimulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA pull-down assays confirmed that endogenous PPARγ binds to a functional PPAR-response element (PPRE) in the TRAIL promoter, and mutation of this PPRE abolishes the binding of the PPARγ-RXRα heterodimer. Also, PPARγ-dependent transactivation and PPARγ-RXRα binding to this PPRE are prevented by PPARγ antagonists. Our results provide a novel mechanism for the tumoricidal activity of PEDF, which involves tumor cell killing via PPARγ-mediated TRAIL induction in macrophages.
|Migration and homeostasis of naive T cells depends on coronin 1-mediated prosurvival signals and not on coronin 1-dependent filamentous actin modulation. |
Mueller, P; Liu, X; Pieters, J
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 186 4039-50 2011
Coronins are WD repeat-containing proteins highly conserved in the eukaryotic kingdom implicated in the regulation of F-actin. Mammalian coronin 1, one of the most conserved isoforms expressed in leukocytes, regulates survival of T cells, which has been suggested to be due to its role in preventing F-actin-induced apoptosis. In this study, we come to a different conclusion. We show that coronin 1 does not modulate F-actin and that induction of F-actin failed to induce apoptosis. Instead, coronin 1 was required for providing prosurvival signals, in the absence of which T cells rapidly underwent apoptosis. These results argue against a role for coronin 1 in F-actin-mediated T cell apoptosis and establish coronin 1 as an essential regulator of the balance between prosurvival and proapoptotic signals in naive T cells.
|An unexpected role for the clock protein timeless in developmental apoptosis. |
O'Reilly, LP; Watkins, SC; Smithgall, TE
PloS one 6 e17157 2011
Programmed cell death is critical not only in adult tissue homeostasis but for embryogenesis as well. One of the earliest steps in development, formation of the proamniotic cavity, involves coordinated apoptosis of embryonic cells. Recent work from our group demonstrated that c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase activity triggers differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells to primitive ectoderm-like cells. In this report, we identified Timeless (Tim), the mammalian ortholog of a Drosophila circadian rhythm protein, as a binding partner and substrate for c-Src and probed its role in the differentiation of mES cells.To determine whether Tim is involved in ES cell differentiation, Tim protein levels were stably suppressed using shRNA. Tim-defective ES cell lines were then tested for embryoid body (EB) formation, which models early mammalian development. Remarkably, confocal microscopy revealed that EBs formed from the Tim-knockdown ES cells failed to cavitate. Cells retained within the centers of the failed cavities strongly expressed the pluripotency marker Oct4, suggesting that further development is arrested without Tim. Immunoblots revealed reduced basal Caspase activity in the Tim-defective EBs compared to wild-type controls. Furthermore, EBs formed from Tim-knockdown cells demonstrated resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, consistent with a link between Tim and programmed cell death during cavitation.Our data demonstrate a novel function for the clock protein Tim during a key stage of early development. Specifically, EBs formed from ES cells lacking Tim showed reduced caspase activity and failed to cavitate. As a consequence, further development was halted, and the cells present in the failed cavity remained pluripotent. These findings reveal a new function for Tim in the coordination of ES cell differentiation, and raise the intriguing possibility that circadian rhythms and early development may be intimately linked.
|The significance of Her2 on androgen receptor protein stability in the transition of androgen requirement in prostate cancer cells. |
Hsu, FN; Yang, MS; Lin, E; Tseng, CF; Lin, H
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 300 E902-8 2011
Androgen ablation therapy is the most common strategy for suppressing prostate cancer progression; however, tumor cells eventually escape androgen dependence and progress to an androgen-independent phase. The androgen receptor (AR) plays a pivotal role in this transition. To address this transition mystery in prostate cancer, we established an androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line (LNCaPdcc), by long-term screening of LNCaP cells in androgen-deprived conditions, to investigate changes of molecular mechanisms before and after androgen withdrawal. We found that LNCaPdcc cells displayed a neuroendocrine morphology, less aggressive growth, and lower expression levels of cell cycle-related factors, although the cell cycle distribution was similar to parental LNCaP cells. Notably, higher protein expression of AR, phospho-Ser(81)-AR, and PSA in LNCaPdcc cells were observed. The nuclear distribution and protein stability of AR increased in LNCaPdcc cells. In addition, cell proliferation results exhibited the biphasic nature of the androgen (R1881) effect in two cell lines. On the other hand, LNCaPdcc cells expressed higher levels of Her2, phospho-Tyr(1221/1222)-Her2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 proteins than parental LNCaP cells. These two cell lines exhibited distinct responses to Her2 activation (by heregulin treatment) on Her2 phosphorylation and Her2 inhibition (by AG825 or Herceptin treatments) on proliferation. In addition, the Her2 inhibitor more effectively caused AR degradation and diminished AR Ser(81) phosphorylation in LNCaPdcc cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Her2 plays an important role in the support of AR protein stability in the transition of androgen requirement in prostate cancer cells. We hope these findings will provide novel insight into the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
|The in vivo role of the RP-Mdm2-p53 pathway in signaling oncogenic stress induced by pRb inactivation and Ras overexpression. |
Pan, W; Issaq, S; Zhang, Y
PloS one 6 e21625 2011
The Mdm2-p53 tumor suppression pathway plays a vital role in regulating cellular homeostasis by integrating a variety of stressors and eliciting effects on cell growth and proliferation. Recent studies have demonstrated an in vivo signaling pathway mediated by ribosomal protein (RP)-Mdm2 interaction that responds to ribosome biogenesis stress and evokes a protective p53 reaction. It has been shown that mice harboring a Cys-to-Phe mutation in the zinc finger of Mdm2 that specifically disrupts RP L11-Mdm2 binding are prone to accelerated lymphomagenesis in an oncogenic c-Myc driven mouse model of Burkitt's lymphoma. Because most oncogenes when upregulated simultaneously promote both cellular growth and proliferation, it therefore stands to reason that the RP-Mdm2-p53 pathway might also be essential in response to oncogenes other than c-Myc. Using genetically engineered mice, we now show that disruption of the RP-Mdm2-p53 pathway by an Mdm2(C305F) mutation does not accelerate prostatic tumorigenesis induced by inactivation of the pRb family proteins (pRb/p107/p130). In contrast, loss of p19Arf greatly accelerates the progression of prostate cancer induced by inhibition of pRb family proteins. Moreover, using ectopically expressed oncogenic H-Ras we demonstrate that p53 response remains intact in the Mdm2(C305F) mutant MEF cells. Thus, unlike the p19Arf-Mdm2-p53 pathway, which is considered a general oncogenic response pathway, the RP-Mdm2-p53 pathway appears to specifically suppress tumorigenesis induced by oncogenic c-Myc.
|The SKP1-Cul1-F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 4 (SCF-FbxL4) ubiquitin ligase regulates lysine demethylase 4A (KDM4A)/Jumonji domain-containing 2A (JMJD2A) protein. |
Van Rechem, C; Black, JC; Abbas, T; Allen, A; Rinehart, CA; Yuan, GC; Dutta, A; Whetstine, JR
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 30462-70 2011
Chromatin-modifying enzymes play a fundamental role in regulating chromatin structure so that DNA replication is spatially and temporally coordinated. For example, the lysine demethylase 4A/Jumonji domain-containing 2A (KDM4A/JMJD2A) is tightly regulated during the cell cycle. Overexpression of JMJD2A leads to altered replication timing and faster S phase progression. In this study, we demonstrate that degradation of JMJD2A is regulated by the proteasome. JMJD2A turnover is coordinated through the SKP1-Cul1-F-box ubiquitin ligase complex that contains cullin 1 and the F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 4 (FbxL4). This complex interacted with JMJD2A. Ubiquitin overexpression restored turnover and blocked the JMJD2A-dependent faster S phase progression in a cullin 1-dependent manner. Furthermore, increased ubiquitin levels decreased JMJD2A occupancy and BrdU incorporation at target sites. This study highlights a finely tuned mechanism for regulating histone demethylase levels and emphasizes the need to tightly regulate chromatin modifiers so that the cell cycle occurs properly.
|Immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM) proteins influence the localization of guanylate-binding protein 2 (GBP2) by modulating macroautophagy. |
Traver, MK; Henry, SC; Cantillana, V; Oliver, T; Hunn, JP; Howard, JC; Beer, S; Pfeffer, K; Coers, J; Taylor, GA
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 30471-80 2011
The immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) are a family of proteins induced by interferon-γ that play a crucial role in innate resistance to intracellular pathogens. The M subfamily of IRG proteins (IRGM) plays a profound role in this context, in part because of the ability of its members to regulate the localization and expression of other IRG proteins. We present here evidence that IRGM proteins affect the localization of the guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), a second family of interferon-induced GTP-binding proteins that also function in innate immunity. Absence of Irgm1 or Irgm3 led to accumulation of Gbp2 in intracellular compartments that were positive for both the macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy) marker LC3 and the autophagic adapter molecule p62/Sqstm1. Gbp2 was similarly relocalized in cells in which autophagy was impaired because of the absence of Atg5. Both in Atg5- and IRGM-deficient cells, the IRG protein Irga6 relocalized to the same compartments as Gbp2, raising the possibility of a common regulatory mechanism. However, other data indicated that Irga6, but not Gbp2, was ubiquitinated in IRGM-deficient cells. Similarly, coimmunoprecipitation studies indicated that although Irgm3 did interact directly with Irgb6, it did not interact with Gbp2. Collectively, these data suggest that IRGM proteins indirectly modulate the localization of GBPs through a distinct mechanism from that through which they regulate IRG protein localization. Further, these results suggest that a core function of IRGM proteins is to regulate autophagic flux, which influences the localization of GBPs and possibly other factors that instruct cell-autonomous immune resistance.
|Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 6 (NHE6/SLC9A6) is involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of transferrin. |
Xinhan, L; Matsushita, M; Numaza, M; Taguchi, A; Mitsui, K; Kanazawa, H
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 301 C1431-44 2011
In mammalian cells, nine conserved isoforms of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) are known to be important for pH regulation of the cytoplasm and organellar lumens. NHE1-5 are localized to the plasma membrane, whereas NHE6-9 are localized to distinct organelles. NHE6 is localized predominantly in endosomal compartments but is also found in the plasma membrane. To investigate the role of NHE6 in endocytosis, we established NHE6-knockdown HeLa cells and analyzed the effect of this knockdown on endocytotic events. The expression level of NHE6 in knockdown cells was decreased to ∼15% of the level seen in control cells. Uptake of transferrin was also decreased. No effect was found on the endocytosis of epidermal growth factor or on the cholera toxin B subunit. Moreover, in the NHE6-knockdown cells, transferrin uptake was found to be affected in the early stages of endocytosis. Microscopic analysis revealed that, at 2 min after the onset of endocytosis, colocalization of NHE6, clathrin, and transferrin was observed, which suggests that NHE6 was localized to endocytotic, clathrin-coated vesicles. In addition, in knockdown cells, transferrin-positive endosomes were acidified, but no effect was found on cytoplasmic pH. In cells overexpressing wild-type NHE6, increased transferrin uptake was observed, but no such increase was seen in cells overexpressing mutant NHE6 deficient in ion transport. The luminal pH in transferrin-positive endosomes was alkalized in cells overexpressing wild-type NHE6 but normal in cells overexpressing mutant NHE6. These observations suggest that NHE6 regulates clathrin-dependent endocytosis of transferrin via pH regulation.
|Abnormal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and protein isoform expression in the prefrontal cortex in psychiatric illness. |
Sinclair, D; Tsai, SY; Woon, HG; Weickert, CS
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 36 2698-709 2011
Stress has been implicated in the onset and illness course of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The effects of stress in these disorders may be mediated by abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and its corticosteroid receptors. We investigated mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and protein expression of multiple GRα isoforms, in the prefrontal cortex of 37 schizophrenia cases and 37 matched controls. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, and luciferase assays were employed. In multiple regression analysis, schizophrenia diagnosis was a significant predictor of total GR mRNA expression (pless than 0.05), which was decreased (11.4%) in schizophrenia cases relative to controls. No significant effect of diagnosis on MR mRNA was detected. At the protein level, no significant predictors of total GRα protein or the full-length GRα isoform were identified. However, schizophrenia diagnosis was a strong predictor (pless than 0.0005) of the abundance of a truncated ≈ 50 kDa GRα protein isoform, putative GRα-D1, which was increased in schizophrenia cases (80.4%) relative to controls. This finding was replicated in a second cohort of 35 schizophrenia cases, 34 bipolar disorder cases, and 35 controls, in which both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder diagnoses were significant predictors of putative GRα-D1 abundance (pless than 0.05 and p=0.005, respectively). Full-length GRα was increased in bipolar disorder relative to schizophrenia cases. Luciferase assays demonstrated that the GRα-D1 isoform can activate transcription at glucocorticoid response elements. These findings confirm total GR mRNA reductions in schizophrenia and provide the first evidence of GR protein isoform abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
|Drosophila FMRP regulates microtubule network formation and axonal transport of mitochondria. |
Yao, A; Jin, S; Li, X; Liu, Z; Ma, X; Tang, J; Zhang, YQ
Human molecular genetics 20 51-63 2011
Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP. The RNA-binding FMRP represses translation of the microtubule (MT)-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) during synaptogenesis in the brain of the neonatal mouse. However, the effect of FMRP on MTs remains unclear. Mounting evidence shows that the structure and the function of FMRP are well conserved across species from Drosophila to human. From a genetic screen, we identified spastin as a dominant suppressor of rough eye caused by dfmr1 over-expression. spastin encodes an MT-severing protein, and its mutations cause neurodegenerative hereditary spastic paraplegia. Epistatic and biochemical analyses revealed that dfmr1 acts upstream of or in parallel with spastin in multiple processes, including synapse development, locomotive behaviour and MT network formation. Immunostaining showed that both loss- and gain-of-function mutations of dfmr1 result in an apparently altered MT network. Western analysis revealed that the levels of α-tubulin and acetylated MTs remained normal in dfmr1 mutants, but increased significantly when dfmr1 was over-expressed. To examine the consequence of the aberrant MTs in dfmr1 mutants, we analysed the MT-dependent mitochondrial transport and found that the number of mitochondria and the flux of mitochondrial transport are negatively regulated by dfmr1. These results demonstrate that dFMRP plays a crucial role in controlling MT formation and mitochondrial transport. Thus, defective MTs and abnormal mitochondrial transport might account for, at least partially, the pathogenesis of fragile X mental retardation.
|Control of bone formation by the serpentine receptor Frizzled-9. |
Albers, J; Schulze, J; Beil, FT; Gebauer, M; Baranowsky, A; Keller, J; Marshall, RP; Wintges, K; Friedrich, FW; Priemel, M; Schilling, AF; Rueger, JM; Cornils, K; Fehse, B; Streichert, T; Sauter, G; Jakob, F; Insogna, KL; Pober, B; Knobeloch, KP; Francke, U; Amling, M; Schinke, T
The Journal of cell biology 192 1057-72 2011
Although Wnt signaling in osteoblasts is of critical importance for the regulation of bone remodeling, it is not yet known which specific Wnt receptors of the Frizzled family are functionally relevant in this process. In this paper, we show that Fzd9 is induced upon osteoblast differentiation and that Fzd9(-/-) mice display low bone mass caused by impaired bone formation. Our analysis of Fzd9(-/-) primary osteoblasts demonstrated defects in matrix mineralization in spite of normal expression of established differentiation markers. In contrast, we observed a reduced expression of chemokines and interferon-regulated genes in Fzd9(-/-) osteoblasts. We also identified the ubiquitin-like modifier Isg15 as one potential downstream mediator of Fzd9 in these cells. Importantly, our molecular analysis further revealed that canonical Wnt signaling is not impaired in the absence of Fzd9, thus explaining the absence of a bone resorption phenotype. Collectively, our results reveal a previously unknown function of Fzd9 in osteoblasts, a finding that may have therapeutic implications for bone loss disorders.
|Connexin 43 connexon to gap junction transition is regulated by zonula occludens-1. |
Rhett, JM; Jourdan, J; Gourdie, RG
Molecular biology of the cell 22 1516-28 2011
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a gap junction (GJ) protein widely expressed in mammalian tissues that mediates cell-to-cell coupling. Intercellular channels comprising GJ aggregates form from docking of paired connexons, with one each contributed by apposing cells. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) binds the carboxy terminus of Cx43, and we have previously shown that inhibition of the Cx43/ZO-1 interaction increases GJ size by 48 h. Here we demonstrated that increases in GJ aggregation occur within 2 h (∼Cx43 half-life) following disruption of Cx43/ZO-1. Immunoprecipitation and Duolink protein-protein interaction assays indicated that inhibition targets ZO-1 binding with Cx43 in GJs as well as connexons in an adjacent domain that we term the "perinexus." Consistent with GJ size increases being matched by decreases in connexons, inhibition of Cx43/ZO-1 reduced the extent of perinexal interaction, increased the proportion of connexons docked in GJs relative to undocked connexons in the plasma membrane, and increased GJ intercellular communication while concomitantly decreasing hemichannel-mediated membrane permeance in contacting, but not noncontacting, cells. ZO-1 small interfering RNA and overexpression experiments verified that loss and gain of ZO-1 function govern the transition of connexons into GJs. It is concluded that ZO-1 regulates the rate of undocked connexon aggregation into GJs, enabling dynamic partitioning of Cx43 channel function between junctional and proximal nonjunctional domains of plasma membrane.
|The type II poly(A)-binding protein PABP-2 genetically interacts with the let-7 miRNA and elicits heterochronic phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans. |
Hurschler, BA; Harris, DT; Grosshans, H
Nucleic acids research 39 5647-57 2011
The type II poly(A)-binding protein PABP2/PABPN1 functions in general mRNA metabolism by promoting poly(A) tail formation in mammals and flies. It also participates in poly(A) tail shortening of specific mRNAs in flies, and snoRNA biogenesis in yeast. We have identified Caenorhabditis elegans pabp-2 as a genetic interaction partner of the let-7 miRNA, a widely conserved regulator of animal stem cell fates. Depletion of PABP-2 by RNAi suppresses loss of let-7 activity, and, in let-7 wild-type animals, leads to precocious differentiation of seam cells. This is not due to an effect on let-7 biogenesis and activity, which remain unaltered. Rather, PABP-2 levels are developmentally regulated in a let-7-dependent manner. Moreover, using RNAi PABP-2 can be depleted by greater than 80% without significantly impairing larval viability, mRNA levels or global translation. Thus, it unexpectedly appears that the bulk of PABP-2 is dispensable for general mRNA metabolism in the larva and may instead have more restricted, developmental functions. This observation may be relevant to our understanding of why the phenotypes associated with human PABP2 mutation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) seem to selectively affect only muscle cells.
|Ubiquitination regulates the assembly of VLDL in HepG2 cells and is the committing step of the apoB-100 ERAD pathway. |
Fisher, EA; Khanna, NA; McLeod, RS
Journal of lipid research 52 1170-80 2011
Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is degraded by endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) when lipid availability limits assembly of VLDLs. The ubiquitin ligase gp78 and the AAA-ATPase p97 have been implicated in the proteasomal degradation of apoB-100. To study the relationship between ERAD and VLDL assembly, we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to reduce gp78 expression in HepG2 cells. Reduction of gp78 decreased apoB-100 ubiquitination and cytosolic apoB-ubiquitin conjugates. Radiolabeling studies revealed that gp78 knockdown increased secretion of newly synthesized apoB-100 and, unexpectedly, enhanced VLDL assembly, as the shift in apoB-100 density in gp78-reduced cells was accompanied by increased triacylglycerol (TG) secretion. To explore the mechanisms by which gp78 reduction might enhance VLDL assembly, we compared the effects of gp78 knockdown with those of U0126, a mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase1/2 inhibitor that enhances apoB-100 secretion in HepG2 cells. U0126 treatment increased secretion of both apoB100 and TG and decreased the ubiquitination and cellular accumu-lation of apoB-100. Furthermore, p97 knockdown caused apoB-100 to accumulate in the cell, but if gp78 was concomitantly reduced or assembly was enhanced by U0126 treatment, cellular apoB-100 returned toward baseline. This indicates that ubiquitination commits apoB-100 to p97-mediated retrotranslocation during ERAD. Thus, decreasing ubiquitination of apoB-100 enhances VLDL assembly, whereas improving apoB-100 lipidation decreases its ubiquitination, suggesting that ubiquitination has a regulatory role in VLDL assembly.
|The androgen-regulated Calcium-Activated Nucleotidase 1 (CANT1) is commonly overexpressed in prostate cancer and is tumor-biologically relevant in vitro. |
Gerhardt, J; Steinbrech, C; Büchi, O; Behnke, S; Bohnert, A; Fritzsche, F; Liewen, H; Stenner, F; Wild, P; Hermanns, T; Müntener, M; Dietel, M; Jung, K; Stephan, C; Kristiansen, G
The American journal of pathology 178 1847-60 2011
Previously, we identified the calcium-activated nucleotidase 1 (CANT1) transcript as up-regulated in prostate cancer. Now, we studied CANT1 protein expression in a large cohort of nearly 1000 prostatic tissue samples including normal tissue, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), primary carcinomas, metastases, and castrate-resistant carcinomas, and further investigated its functional relevance. CANT1 displayed predominantly a Golgi-type immunoreactivity with additional and variable cytoplasmic staining. In comparison to normal tissues, the staining intensity was significantly increased in PIN lesions and cancer. In cancer, high CANT1 levels were associated with a better prognosis, and castrate-resistant carcinomas commonly showed lower CANT1 levels than primary carcinomas. The functional role of CANT1 was investigated using RNA interference in two prostate cancer cell lines with abundant endogenous CANT1 protein. On CANT1 knockdown, a significantly diminished cell number and DNA synthesis rate, a cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase, and a strong decrease of cell transmigration rate and wound healing capacity of CANT1 knockdown cells was found. However, on forced CANT1 overexpression, cell proliferation and migration remained unchanged. In summary, CANT1 is commonly overexpressed in the vast majority of primary prostate carcinomas and in the precursor lesion PIN and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker. Moreover, this is the first study to demonstrate a functional involvement of CANT1 in tumor biology.
|Histone deacetylase 9 activates gamma-globin gene expression in primary erythroid cells. |
Muralidhar, SA; Ramakrishnan, V; Kalra, IS; Li, W; Pace, BS
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 2343-53 2011
Strategies to induce fetal hemoglobin (HbF) synthesis for the treatment of β-hemoglobinopathies probably involve protein modifications by histone deacetylases (HDACs) that mediate γ-globin gene regulation. However, the role of individual HDACs in globin gene expression is not very well understood; thus, the focus of our study was to identify HDACs involved in γ-globin activation. K562 erythroleukemia cells treated with the HbF inducers hemin, trichostatin A, and sodium butyrate had significantly reduced mRNA levels of HDAC9 and its splice variant histone deacetylase-related protein. Subsequently, HDAC9 gene knockdown produced dose-dependent γ-globin gene silencing over an 80-320 nm range. Enforced expression with the pTarget-HDAC9 vector produced a dose-dependent 2.5-fold increase in γ-globin mRNA (p less than 0.05). Furthermore, ChIP assays showed HDAC9 binding in vivo in the upstream Gγ-globin gene promoter region. To determine the physiological relevance of these findings, human primary erythroid progenitors were treated with HDAC9 siRNA; we observed 40 and 60% γ-globin gene silencing in day 11 (early) and day 28 (late) progenitors. Moreover, enforced HDAC9 expression increased γ-globin mRNA levels by 2.5-fold with a simultaneous 7-fold increase in HbF. Collectively, these data support a positive role for HDAC9 in γ-globin gene regulation.
|Dopamine D2 receptor activity modulates Akt signaling and alters GABAergic neuron development and motor behavior in zebrafish larvae. |
Souza, BR; Romano-Silva, MA; Tropepe, V
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 5512-25 2011
An imbalance in dopamine-mediated neurotransmission is a hallmark physiological feature of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent evidence demonstrates that dopamine D(2) receptors, which are the main target of a