|Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue. |
Chen, CC; Lin, WC; Kong, MS; Shi, HN; Walker, WA; Lin, CY; Huang, CT; Lin, YC; Jung, SM; Lin, TY
The British journal of nutrition
Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50·3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465·5 (SEM 1290·4) v. 4950·9 (SEM 1689·3) mm³, Pless than 0·001). Inoculation with La reduced the severity of colonic carcinogenesis caused by CT-26 cells, such as level of colonic involvement and structural abnormality of epithelial/crypt damage. Moreover, La enhanced apoptosis of CT-26 cells both in dorsal-flank tumour and segmental orthotopic colon cancer, and the mean counts of apoptotic body were higher in mice pre-inoculated with La (Pless than 0·05) compared with untreated mice. La pre-inoculation down-regulated the CXCR4 mRNA expressions in the colon, MLN and extra-intestinal tissue, compared with untreated mice (Pless than 0·05). In addition, La pre-inoculation reduced the mean fluorescence index of MHC class I (H-2Dd, -Kd and -Ld) in flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that probiotics La may play a role in attenuating tumour growth during CT-26 cell carcinogenesis. The down-regulated expression of CXCR4 mRNA and MHC class I, as well as increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue, indicated that La may be associated with modulating the cellular response triggered by colon carcinogenesis.
|Autophagy is involved in traumatic brain injury-induced cell death and contributes to functional outcome deficits in mice. |
C-L Luo,B-X Li,Q-Q Li,X-P Chen,Y-X Sun,H-J Bao,D-K Dai,Y-W Shen,H-F Xu,H Ni,L Wan,Z-H Qin,L-Y Tao,Z-Q Zhao
Previous data demonstrate that traumatic brain injury (TBI) activates autophagy, and increases microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) immunostaining mainly in neurons. However, the role of autophagy in traumatic brain damage remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the autophagic mechanisms participating in traumatic brain injury. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and bafliomycin A1 (BFA) were administered with a single i.c.v. injection before TBI. We first examined the protein levels of Beclin-1 and LC3 II, which have been found to promote autophagy previously. Immunoblotting analysis showed that 3-MA pretreatment reduced post-TBI Beclin-1 and LC3-II levels, and maintained p62/SQSTM1 (p62) levels. In addition, double immunolabeling showed that the increased punctate LC3-II dots colocalizing with Propidium Iodide (PI)-stained nuclei at 24 h after injury, were partially inhibited by 3-MA pretreatment. Furthermore, inhibition of autophagy could reduce TBI-induced cell injury assessed with i.p. injection of PI and lesion volume, and attenuate behavioral outcome evaluated by motor test and Morris water maze. The neuroprotective effects were associated with an inhibition on TBI-induced up-regulation of LC3, Beclin-1, cathepsin B, caspase-3 and the Beclin-1/Bcl-2 ratio. Taken together, these data imply that the autophagy pathway is involved in the pathophysiologic responses after TBI, and inhibition of this pathway may help attenuate traumatic damage and functional outcome deficits.