Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 144 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Neurovascular crosstalk between interneurons and capillaries is required for vision. |
Usui, Y; Westenskow, PD; Kurihara, T; Aguilar, E; Sakimoto, S; Paris, LP; Wittgrove, C; Feitelberg, D; Friedlander, MS; Moreno, SK; Dorrell, MI; Friedlander, M
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 2335-46 2015
Functional interactions between neurons, vasculature, and glia within neurovascular units are critical for maintenance of the retina and other CNS tissues. For example, the architecture of the neurosensory retina is a highly organized structure with alternating layers of neurons and blood vessels that match the metabolic demand of neuronal activity with an appropriate supply of oxygen within perfused blood. Here, using murine genetic models and cell ablation strategies, we have demonstrated that a subset of retinal interneurons, the amacrine and horizontal cells, form neurovascular units with capillaries in 2 of the 3 retinal vascular plexuses. Moreover, we determined that these cells are required for generating and maintaining the intraretinal vasculature through precise regulation of hypoxia-inducible and proangiogenic factors, and that amacrine and horizontal cell dysfunction induces alterations to the intraretinal vasculature and substantial visual deficits. These findings demonstrate that specific retinal interneurons and the intraretinal vasculature are highly interdependent, and loss of either or both elicits profound effects on photoreceptor survival and function.
|Neurite Mistargeting and Inverse Order of Intraretinal Vascular Plexus Formation Precede Subretinal Vascularization in Vldlr Mutant Mice. |
Johnson, V; Xiang, M; Chen, Z; Junge, HJ
PloS one 10 e0132013 2015
In the retina blood vessels are required to support a high metabolic rate, however, uncontrolled vascular growth can lead to impaired vision and blindness. Subretinal vascularization (SRV), one type of pathological vessel growth, occurs in retinal angiomatous proliferation and proliferative macular telangiectasia. In these diseases SRV originates from blood vessels within the retina. We use mice with a targeted disruption in the Vldl-receptor (Vldlr) gene as a model to study SRV with retinal origin. We find that Vldlr mRNA is strongly expressed in the neuroretina, and we observe both vascular and neuronal phenotypes in Vldlr-/- mice. Unexpectedly, horizontal cell (HC) neurites are mistargeted prior to SRV in this model, and the majority of vascular lesions are associated with mistargeted neurites. In Foxn4-/- mice, which lack HCs and display reduced amacrine cell (AC) numbers, we find severe defects in intraretinal capillary development. However, SRV is not suppressed in Foxn4-/-;Vldlr-/- mice, which reveals that mistargeted HC neurites are not required for vascular lesion formation. In the absence of VLDLR, the intraretinal capillary plexuses form in an inverse order compared to normal development, and subsequent to this early defect, vascular proliferation is increased. We conclude that SRV in the Vldlr-/- model is associated with mistargeted neurites and that SRV is preceded by altered retinal vascular development.
|Kruppel-Like Factor 4 Regulates Granule Cell Pax6 Expression and Cell Proliferation in Early Cerebellar Development. |
Zhang, P; Ha, T; Larouche, M; Swanson, D; Goldowitz, D
PloS one 10 e0134390 2015
Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a transcription factor that regulates many important cellular processes in stem cell biology, cancer, and development. We used histological and molecular methods to study the expression of Klf4 in embryonic development of the normal and Klf4 knockout cerebellum. We find that Klf4 is expressed strongly in early granule cell progenitor development but tails-off considerably by the end of embryonic development. Klf4 is also co-expressed with Pax6 in these cells. In the Klf4-null mouse, which is perinatal lethal, Klf4 positively regulates Pax6 expression and regulates the proliferation of neuronal progenitors in the rhombic lip, external granular layer and the neuroepithelium. This paper is the first to describe a role for Klf4 in the cerebellum and provides insight into this gene's function in neuronal development.
|Localization of reelin signaling pathway components in murine midbrain and striatum. |
Sharaf, A; Rahhal, B; Spittau, B; Roussa, E
Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015
We investigated the distribution patterns of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and of crucial Reelin signaling components in murine midbrain and striatum. The cellular distribution of the Reelin receptors VLDLr and ApoER2, the intracellular downstream mediator Dab1, and the alternative Reelin receptor APP were analyzed at embryonic day 16, at postnatal stage 15 (P15), and in 3-month-old mice. Reelin was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in midbrain mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons of newborns. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+) neurons exhibited Reelin intracellularly at E16 and extracellularly at P15 and 3 months. ApoER2 and VLDLr were expressed in mDA neurons at E16 and P15 and in oligodendrocytes at 3 months, whereas Dab1 and APP immunoreactivity was observed in mDA at all stages analyzed. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+)/GAD67(+) inhibitory neurons expressed VLDLr, ApoER2, and Dab1 at P15, but only Dab1 at E16 and 3 months. APP was always expressed in mouse striatum in which it colocalized with Calbindin D-28k. Our data underline the importance of Reelin signalling during embryonic development and early postnatal maturation of the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system, and suggest that the striatum and not the midbrain is the primary source of Reelin for midbrain neurons. The loss of ApoER2 and VLDLr expression in the mature midbrain and striatum implies that Reelin functions are restricted to migratory events and early postnatal maturation and are dispensable for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons.
|Somatic CRISPR/Cas9-mediated tumour suppressor disruption enables versatile brain tumour modelling. |
Zuckermann, M; Hovestadt, V; Knobbe-Thomsen, CB; Zapatka, M; Northcott, PA; Schramm, K; Belic, J; Jones, DT; Tschida, B; Moriarity, B; Largaespada, D; Roussel, MF; Korshunov, A; Reifenberger, G; Pfister, SM; Lichter, P; Kawauchi, D; Gronych, J
Nature communications 6 7391 2015
In vivo functional investigation of oncogenes using somatic gene transfer has been successfully exploited to validate their role in tumorigenesis. For tumour suppressor genes this has proven more challenging due to technical aspects. To provide a flexible and effective method for investigating somatic loss-of-function alterations and their influence on tumorigenesis, we have established CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene disruption, allowing for in vivo targeting of TSGs. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach by deleting single (Ptch1) or multiple genes (Trp53, Pten, Nf1) in the mouse brain, resulting in the development of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma, respectively. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) we characterized the medulloblastoma-driving Ptch1 deletions in detail and show that no off-targets were detected in these tumours. This method provides a fast and convenient system for validating the emerging wealth of novel candidate tumour suppressor genes and the generation of faithful animal models of human cancer.
|Unique features of the human brainstem and cerebellum. |
Frontiers in human neuroscience 8 202 2014
The cerebral cortex is greatly expanded in the human brain. There is a parallel expansion of the cerebellum, which is interconnected with the cerebral cortex. We have asked if there are accompanying changes in the organization of pre-cerebellar brainstem structures. We have examined the cytoarchitectonic and neurochemical organization of the human medulla and pons. We studied human cases from the Witelson Normal Brain Collection, analyzing Nissl sections and sections processed for immunohistochemistry for multiple markers including the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein, and the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase. We have also compared the neurochemical organization of the human brainstem to that of several other species including the chimpanzee, macaque and squirrel monkey, cat, and rodent, again using Nissl staining and immunohistochemistry. We found that there are major differences in the human brainstem, ranging from relatively subtle differences in the neurochemical organization of structures found in each of the species studied to the emergence of altogether new structures in the human brainstem. Two aspects of human cortical organization, individual differences and left-right asymmetry, are also seen in the brainstem (principal nucleus of the inferior olive) and the cerebellum (the dentate nucleus). We suggest that uniquely human motor and cognitive abilities derive from changes at all levels of the central nervous system, including the cerebellum and brainstem, and not just the cerebral cortex.
|Intravenous AAV9 efficiently transduces myenteric neurons in neonate and juvenile mice. |
Gombash, SE; Cowley, CJ; Fitzgerald, JA; Hall, JC; Mueller, C; Christofi, FL; Foust, KD
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 7 81 2014
Gene therapies for neurological diseases with autonomic or gastrointestinal involvement may require global gene expression. Gastrointestinal complications are often associated with Parkinson's disease and autism. Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's brains, are routinely identified in the neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) following colon biopsies from patients. The ENS is the intrinsic nervous system of the gut, and is responsible for coordinating the secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. ENS dysfunction can cause severe patient discomfort, malnourishment, or even death as in intestinal pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie syndrome). Importantly, ENS transduction following systemic vector administration has not been thoroughly evaluated. Here we show that systemic injection of AAV9 into neonate or juvenile mice results in transduction of 25-57% of ENS myenteric neurons. Transgene expression was prominent in choline acetyltransferase positive cells, but not within vasoactive intestinal peptide or neuronal nitric oxide synthase cells, suggesting a bias for cells involved in excitatory signaling. AAV9 transduction in enteric glia is very low compared to CNS astrocytes. Enteric glial transduction was enhanced by using a glial specific promoter. Furthermore, we show that AAV8 results in comparable transduction in neonatal mice to AAV9 though AAV1, 5, and 6 are less efficient. These data demonstrate that systemic AAV9 has high affinity for peripheral neural tissue and is useful for future therapeutic development and basic studies of the ENS.
|Mouse model reveals the role of RERE in cerebellar foliation and the migration and maturation of Purkinje cells. |
Kim, BJ; Scott, DA
PloS one 9 e87518 2014
Nuclear receptors and their coregulators play a critical role in brain development by regulating the spatiotemporal expression of their target genes. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats gene (Rere) encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator previously known as Atrophin 2. In the developing cerebellum, RERE is expressed in the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer and the granule cell layer but not in granule cell precursors. To study RERE's role in cerebellar development, we used RERE-deficient embryos bearing a null allele (om) and a hypomorphic allele (eyes3) of Rere (Rere(om/eyes3)). In contrast to wild-type embryos, formation of the principal fissures in these RERE-deficient embryos was delayed and the proliferative activity of granule cell precursors (GCPs) was reduced at E18.5. This reduction in proliferation was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of sonic hedgehog (SHH), which is secreted from Purkinje cells and is required for normal GCP proliferation. The maturation and migration of Purkinje cells in Rere(om/eyes3) embryos was also delayed with decreased numbers of post-migratory Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. During the postnatal period, RERE depletion caused incomplete division of lobules I/II and III due to truncated development of the precentral fissure in the cerebellar vermis, abnormal development of lobule crus I and lobule crus II in the cerebellar hemispheres due to attenuation of the intercrural fissure, and decreased levels of Purkinje cell dendritic branching. We conclude that RERE-deficiency leads to delayed development of the principal fissures and delayed maturation and migration of Purkinje cells during prenatal cerebellar development and abnormal cerebellar foliation and Purkinje cell maturation during postnatal cerebellar development.
|Diversity among principal and GABAergic neurons of the anterior olfactory nucleus. |
Kay, RB; Brunjes, PC
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 111 2014
Understanding the cellular components of neural circuits is an essential step in discerning regional function. The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) is reciprocally connected to both the ipsi- and contralateral olfactory bulb (OB) and piriform cortex (PC), and, as a result, can broadly influence the central processing of odor information. While both the AON and PC are simple cortical structures, the regions differ in many ways including their general organization, internal wiring and synaptic connections with other brain areas. The present work used targeted whole-cell patch clamping to investigate the morphological and electrophysiological properties of the AON's two main neuronal populations: excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Retrograde fluorescent tracers placed into either the OB or PC identified projection neurons. Two classes were observed with different physiological signatures and locations (superficial and deep pyramidal neurons), suggesting the AON contains independent efferent channels. Transgenic mice in which GABA-containing cells expressed green fluorescent protein were used to assess inhibitory neurons. These cells were further identified as containing one or more of seven molecular markers including three calcium-binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin) or four neuropeptides (somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin). The proportion of GABAergic cells containing these markers varied across subregions reinforcing notions that the AON has local functional subunits. At least five classes of inhibitory cells were observed: fast-spiking multipolar, regular-spiking multipolar, superficial neurogliaform, deep neurogliaform, and horizontal neurons. While some of these cell types are similar to those reported in the PC and other cortical regions, the AON also has unique populations. These studies provide the first examination of the cellular components of this simple cortical system.
|Detailed expression pattern of aldolase C (Aldoc) in the cerebellum, retina and other areas of the CNS studied in Aldoc-Venus knock-in mice. |
Fujita, H; Aoki, H; Ajioka, I; Yamazaki, M; Abe, M; Oh-Nishi, A; Sakimura, K; Sugihara, I
PloS one 9 e86679 2014
Aldolase C (Aldoc, also known as "zebrin II"), a brain type isozyme of a glycolysis enzyme, is expressed heterogeneously in subpopulations of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) that are arranged longitudinally in a complex striped pattern in the cerebellar cortex, a pattern which is closely related to the topography of input and output axonal projections. Here, we generated knock-in Aldoc-Venus mice in which Aldoc expression is visualized by expression of a fluorescent protein, Venus. Since there was no obvious phenotypes in general brain morphology and in the striped pattern of the cerebellum in mutants, we made detailed observation of Aldoc expression pattern in the nervous system by using Venus expression in Aldoc-Venus heterozygotes. High levels of Venus expression were observed in cerebellar PCs, cartwheel cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, sensory epithelium of the inner ear and in all major types of retinal cells, while moderate levels of Venus expression were observed in astrocytes and satellite cells in the dorsal root ganglion. The striped arrangement of PCs that express Venus to different degrees was carefully traced with serial section alignment analysis and mapped on the unfolded scheme of the entire cerebellar cortex to re-identify all individual Aldoc stripes. A longitudinally striped boundary of Aldoc expression was first identified in the mouse flocculus, and was correlated with the climbing fiber projection pattern and expression of another compartmental marker molecule, heat shock protein 25 (HSP25). As in the rat, the cerebellar nuclei were divided into the rostrodorsal negative and the caudoventral positive portions by distinct projections of Aldoc-positive and negative PC axons in the mouse. Identification of the cerebellar Aldoc stripes in this study, as indicated in sample coronal and horizontal sections as well as in sample surface photos of whole-mount preparations, can be referred to in future experiments.
|Spontaneous hair cell regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea in vivo. |
Cox, BC; Chai, R; Lenoir, A; Liu, Z; Zhang, L; Nguyen, DH; Chalasani, K; Steigelman, KA; Fang, J; Rubel, EW; Cheng, AG; Zuo, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 816-29 2014
Loss of cochlear hair cells in mammals is currently believed to be permanent, resulting in hearing impairment that affects more than 10% of the population. Here, we developed two genetic strategies to ablate neonatal mouse cochlear hair cells in vivo. Both Pou4f3(DTR/+) and Atoh1-CreER™; ROSA26(DTA/+) alleles allowed selective and inducible hair cell ablation. After hair cell loss was induced at birth, we observed spontaneous regeneration of hair cells. Fate-mapping experiments demonstrated that neighboring supporting cells acquired a hair cell fate, which increased in a basal to apical gradient, averaging over 120 regenerated hair cells per cochlea. The normally mitotically quiescent supporting cells proliferated after hair cell ablation. Concurrent fate mapping and labeling with mitotic tracers showed that regenerated hair cells were derived by both mitotic regeneration and direct transdifferentiation. Over time, regenerated hair cells followed a similar pattern of maturation to normal hair cell development, including the expression of prestin, a terminal differentiation marker of outer hair cells, although many new hair cells eventually died. Hair cell regeneration did not occur when ablation was induced at one week of age. Our findings demonstrate that the neonatal mouse cochlea is capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration after damage in vivo. Thus, future studies on the neonatal cochlea might shed light on the competence of supporting cells to regenerate hair cells and on the factors that promote the survival of newly regenerated hair cells.
|Homeostatic regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in aging rats: long-term effects of early exercise. |
Merkley, CM; Jian, C; Mosa, A; Tan, YF; Wojtowicz, JM
Frontiers in neuroscience 8 174 2014
Adult neurogenesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological factors. The majority of studies to date have examined short-term consequences of enhancing or blocking neurogenesis but long-term changes remain less well understood. Current evidence for age-related declines in neurogenesis warrant further investigation into these long-term changes. In this report we address the hypothesis that early life experience, such as a period of voluntary running in juvenile rats, can alter properties of adult neurogenesis for the remainder of the animal's life. The results indicate that the number of proliferating and differentiating neuronal precursors is not altered in runners beyond the initial weeks post-running, suggesting homeostatic regulation of these processes. However, the rate of neuronal maturation and survival during a 4 week period after cell division was enhanced up to 11 months of age (the end of the study period). This study is the first to show that a transient period of physical activity at a young age promotes changes in neurogenesis that persist over the long-term, which is important for our understanding of the modulation of neurogenesis by exercise with age. Functional integration of adult-born neurons within the hippocampus that resist homeostatic regulation with aging, rather than the absolute number of adult-born neurons, may be an essential feature of adult neurogenesis that promotes the maintenance of neural plasticity in old age.
|Vitamin E dietary supplementation improves neurological symptoms and decreases c-Abl/p73 activation in Niemann-Pick C mice. |
Marín, T; Contreras, P; Castro, JF; Chamorro, D; Balboa, E; Bosch-Morató, M; Muñoz, FJ; Alvarez, AR; Zanlungo, S
Nutrients 6 3000-17 2014
Niemann-Pick C (NPC) disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol in lysosomes. We have previously reported that oxidative stress is the main upstream stimulus activating the proapoptotic c-Abl/p73 pathway in NPC neurons. We have also observed accumulation of vitamin E in NPC lysosomes, which could lead to a potential decrease of its bioavailability. Our aim was to determine if dietary vitamin E supplementation could improve NPC disease in mice. NPC mice received an alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH) supplemented diet and neurological symptoms, survival, Purkinje cell loss, α-TOH and nitrotyrosine levels, astrogliosis, and the c-Abl/p73 pathway functions were evaluated. In addition, the effect of α-TOH on the c-Abl/p73 pathway was evaluated in an in vitro NPC neuron model. The α-TOH rich diet delayed loss of weight, improved coordination and locomotor function and increased the survival of NPC mice. We found increased Purkinje neurons and α-TOH levels and reduced astrogliosis, nitrotyrosine and phosphorylated p73 in cerebellum. A decrease of c-Abl/p73 activation was also observed in the in vitro NPC neurons treated with α-TOH. In conclusion, our results show that vitamin E can delay neurodegeneration in NPC mice and suggest that its supplementation in the diet could be useful for the treatment of NPC patients.
|In vivo generation of immature inner hair cells in neonatal mouse cochleae by ectopic Atoh1 expression. |
Liu, Z; Fang, J; Dearman, J; Zhang, L; Zuo, J
PloS one 9 e89377 2014
Regeneration of auditory hair cells (HCs) is a promising approach to restore hearing. Recent studies have demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem cells/embryonic stem cells or supporting cells (SCs) adjacent to HCs can be converted to adopt the HC fate. However, little is known about whether new HCs are characteristic of outer or inner HCs. Here, we showed in vivo conversion of 2 subtypes of SCs, inner border cells (IBs) and inner phalangeal cells (IPhs), to the inner HC (IHC) fate. This was achieved by ectopically activating Atoh1, a transcription factor necessary for HC fate, in IBs/IPhs at birth. Atoh1+ IBs/IPhs first turned on Pou4f3, another HC transcription factor, before expressing 8 HC markers. The conversion rate gradually increased from ∼ 2.4% at 1 week of age to ∼ 17.8% in adult. Interestingly, new HCs exhibited IHC characteristics such as straight line-shaped stereociliary bundles, expression of Fgf8 and otoferlin, and presence of larger outward currents than those of outer HCs. However, new HCs lacked the terminal differentiation IHC marker vGlut3, exhibited reduced density of presynaptic Cbtp2 puncta that had little postsynaptic GluR2 specialization, and displayed immature IHC outward currents. Our results demonstrate that the conversion rate of IBs/IPhs in vivo by Atoh1 ectopic expression into the IHC fate was higher and faster and the conversion was more complete than that of the 2 other SC subtypes underneath the outer HCs; however, these new IHCs are arrested before terminal differentiation. Thus, IBs/IPhs are good candidates to regenerate IHCs in vivo.
|Axonal localization of Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 is critical for subcellular locality of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 release affecting proper development of postnatal mouse cerebellum. |
Sadakata, T; Kakegawa, W; Shinoda, Y; Hosono, M; Katoh-Semba, R; Sekine, Y; Sato, Y; Saruta, C; Ishizaki, Y; Yuzaki, M; Kojima, M; Furuichi, T
PloS one 9 e99524 2014
Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) is a protein that is essential for enhanced release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from cerebellar granule cells. We previously identified dex3, a rare alternative splice variant of CAPS2, which is overrepresented in patients with autism and is missing an exon 3 critical for axonal localization. We recently reported that a mouse model CAPS2Δex3/Δex3 expressing dex3 showed autistic-like behavioral phenotypes including impaired social interaction and cognition and increased anxiety in an unfamiliar environment. Here, we verified impairment in axonal, but not somato-dendritic, localization of dex3 protein in cerebellar granule cells and demonstrated cellular and physiological phenotypes in postnatal cerebellum of CAPS2Δex3/Δex3 mice. Interestingly, both BDNF and NT-3 were markedly reduced in axons of cerebellar granule cells, resulting in a significant decrease in their release. As a result, dex3 mice showed developmental deficits in dendritic arborization of Purkinje cells, vermian lobulation and fissurization, and granule cell precursor proliferation. Paired-pulse facilitation at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses was also impaired. Together, our results indicate that CAPS2 plays an important role in subcellular locality (axonal vs. somato-dendritic) of enhanced BDNF and NT-3 release, which is indispensable for proper development of postnatal cerebellum.
|Parcellation of cerebellins 1, 2, and 4 among different subpopulations of dorsal horn neurons in mouse spinal cord. |
Cagle, MC; Honig, MG
The Journal of comparative neurology 522 479-97 2014
The cerebellins (Cblns) are a family of secreted proteins that are widely expressed throughout the nervous system, but whose functions have been studied only in the cerebellum and striatum. Two members of the family, Cbln1 and Cbln2, bind to neurexins on presynaptic terminals and to GluRδs postsynaptically, forming trans-synaptic triads that promote synapse formation. Cbln1 has a higher binding affinity for GluRδs and exhibits greater synaptogenic activity than Cbln2. In contrast, Cbln4 does not form such triads and its function is unknown. The different properties of the three Cblns suggest that each plays a distinct role in synapse formation. To begin to elucidate Cbln function in other neuronal systems, we used in situ hybridization to examine Cbln expression in the mouse spinal cord. We find that neurons expressing Cblns 1, 2, and 4 tend to occupy different laminar positions within the dorsal spinal cord, and that Cbln expression is limited almost exclusively to excitatory neurons. Combined in situ hybridization and immunofluorescent staining shows that Cblns 1, 2, and 4 are expressed by largely distinct neuronal subpopulations, defined in part by sensory input, although there is some overlap and some individual neurons coexpress two Cblns. Our results suggest that differences in connectivity between subpopulations of dorsal spinal cord neurons may be influenced by which Cbln each subpopulation contains. Competitive interactions between axon terminals may determine the number of synapses each forms in any given region, and thereby contribute to the development of precise patterns of connectivity in the dorsal gray matter.
|Auditory hair cell-specific deletion of p27Kip1 in postnatal mice promotes cell-autonomous generation of new hair cells and normal hearing. |
Walters, BJ; Liu, Z; Crabtree, M; Coak, E; Cox, BC; Zuo, J
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 15751-63 2014
Hearing in mammals relies upon the transduction of sound by hair cells (HCs) in the organ of Corti within the cochlea of the inner ear. Sensorineural hearing loss is a widespread and permanent disability due largely to a lack of HC regeneration in mammals. Recent studies suggest that targeting the retinoblastoma (Rb)/E2F pathway can elicit proliferation of auditory HCs. However, previous attempts to induce HC proliferation in this manner have resulted in abnormal cochlear morphology, HC death, and hearing loss. Here we show that cochlear HCs readily proliferate and survive following neonatal, HC-specific, conditional knock-out of p27(Kip1) (p27CKO), a tumor suppressor upstream of Rb. Indeed, HC-specific p27CKO results in proliferation of these cells without the upregulation of the supporting cell or progenitor cell proteins, Prox1 or Sox2, suggesting that they remain HCs. Furthermore, p27CKO leads to a significant addition of postnatally derived HCs that express characteristic synaptic and stereociliary markers and survive to adulthood, although a portion of the newly derived inner HCs exhibit cytocauds and lack VGlut3 expression. Despite this, p27CKO mice exhibit normal hearing as measured by evoked auditory brainstem responses, which suggests that the newly generated HCs may contribute to, or at least do not greatly detract from, function. These results show that p27(Kip1) actively maintains HC quiescence in postnatal mice, and suggest that inhibition of p27(Kip1) in residual HCs represents a potential strategy for cell-autonomous auditory HC regeneration.
|Immunofluorescent visualization of mouse interneuron subtypes. |
Molgaard, S; Ulrichsen, M; Boggild, S; Holm, ML; Vaegter, C; Nyengaard, J; Glerup, S
F1000Research 3 242 2014
The activity of excitatory neurons is controlled by a highly diverse population of inhibitory interneurons. These cells show a high level of physiological, morphological and neurochemical heterogeneity, and play highly specific roles in neuronal circuits. In the mammalian hippocampus, these are divided into 21 different subtypes of GABAergic interneurons based on their expression of different markers, morphology and their electrophysiological properties. Ideally, all can be marked using an antibody directed against the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, but parvalbumin, calbindin, somatostatin, and calretinin are also commonly used as markers to narrow down the specific interneuron subtype. Here, we describe a journey to find the necessary immunological reagents for studying GABAergic interneurons of the mouse hippocampus. Based on web searches there are several hundreds of different antibodies on the market directed against these four markers. Searches in the literature databases allowed us to narrow it down to a subset of antibodies most commonly used in publications. However, in our hands the most cited ones did not work for immunofluorescence stainings of formaldehyde fixed tissue sections and cultured hippocampal neurons, and we had to immunostain our way through thirteen different commercial antibodies before finally finding a suitable antibody for each of the four markers. The antibodies were evaluated based on signal-to-noise ratios as well as if positive cells were found in layers of the hippocampus where they have previously been described. Additionally, the antibodies were also tested on sections from mouse spinal cord with similar criteria for specificity of the antibodies. Using the antibodies with a high rating on pAbmAbs, an antibody review database, stainings with high signal-to-noise ratios and location of the immunostained cells in accordance with the literature could be obtained, making these antibodies suitable choices for studying the GABAergic system.
|Neuropeptide Y receptors Y1 and Y2 are present in neurons and glial cells in rat retinal cells in culture. |
Santos-Carvalho, A; Aveleira, CA; Elvas, F; Ambrósio, AF; Cavadas, C
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 429-43 2013
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant peptides in the central nervous system (CNS), including the retina. This peptide activates various different G-coupled receptors (NPY Y(1), Y(2), Y(4), and Y(5)) that are also present in the retina. However, the localization of NPY receptors in the several types of retinal cells is not completely known. In this study, we have looked at the distribution of NPY Y(1) and Y(2) receptors in rat retinal cells to reveal new perspectives on the role of NPY receptors in retina physiology.Rat retinal neural cell cultures were prepared from newborn Wistar rats (P3-P5) and pure rat Müller cell culture was obtained after treatment of these cells with ascorbic acid. The presence of NPY Y(1) and Y(2) in retinal cell types was studied by immunocytochemistry.We show that NPY Y(1) and Y(2) receptors are present on every cell type of rat retinal cell cultures. Neurons, as photoreceptors, bipolar, horizontal, amacrine, and ganglion cells, express these two types of NPY receptors. NPY Y(1) and Y(2) receptors are also located in macroglial cells (Müller cells and astrocytes) and microglial cells.We have clarified the presence of the NPY Y(1) and Y(2) receptors in all different cell types that constitute the retina, which we believe will help open new perspectives for studying the physiology and the potential pathophysiologic function of NPY and its receptors in the retina.
|Silencing mutant ataxin-3 rescues motor deficits and neuropathology in Machado-Joseph disease transgenic mice. |
Nóbrega, Clévio, et al.
PLoS ONE, 8: e52396 (2013) 2013
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) or spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is an autosomal dominantly-inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by the over-repetition of a CAG codon in the MJD1 gene. This expansion translates into a polyglutamine tract that confers a toxic gain-of-function to the mutant protein--ataxin-3, leading to neurodegeneration in specific brain regions, with particular severity in the cerebellum. No treatment able to modify the disease progression is available. However, gene silencing by RNA interference has shown promising results. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether lentiviral-mediated allele-specific silencing of the mutant ataxin-3 gene, after disease onset, would rescue the motor behavior deficits and neuropathological features in a severely impaired transgenic mouse model of MJD. For this purpose, we injected lentiviral vectors encoding allele-specific silencing-sequences (shAtx3) into the cerebellum of diseased transgenic mice expressing the targeted C-variant of mutant ataxin-3 present in 70% of MJD patients. This variation permits to discriminate between the wild-type and mutant forms, maintaining the normal function of the wild-type allele and silencing only the mutant form. Quantitative analysis of rotarod performance, footprint and activity patterns revealed significant and robust alleviation of gait, balance (average 3-fold increase of rotarod test time), locomotor and exploratory activity impairments in shAtx3-injected mice, as compared to control ones injected with shGFP. An important improvement of neuropathology was also observed, regarding the number of intranuclear inclusions, calbindin and DARPP-32 immunoreactivity, fluorojade B and Golgi staining and molecular and granular layers thickness. These data demonstrate for the first time the efficacy of gene silencing in blocking the MJD-associated motor-behavior and neuropathological abnormalities after the onset of the disease, supporting the use of this strategy for therapy of MJD.
|Unique features of extracellular matrix in the mouse medial nucleus of trapezoid body - Implications for physiological functions. |
Blosa, M, et al.
Neuroscience, 228: 215-34 (2013) 2013
The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) is a vital structure of sound localization circuits in the auditory brainstem. Each principal cell of MNTB is contacted by a very large presynaptic glutamatergic terminal, the calyx of Held. The MNTB principal cells themselves are surrounded by extracellular matrix components forming prominent perineuronal nets (PNs). Throughout the CNS, PNs, which form lattice-like structures around the somata and proximal dendrites, are associated with distinct types of neurons. PNs are highly enriched in hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans therefore providing a charged surface structure surrounding the cell body and proximal neurites of these neurons. The localization and composition of PNs have lead investigators to a number of hypotheses about their functions including: creating a specific extracellular ionic milieu around these neurons, stabilizing synapses, and influencing the outgrowth of axons. However, presently the precise functions of PNs are still quite unclear primarily due to the lack of an ideal experimental model system that is highly enriched in PNs and in which the synaptic transmission properties can be precisely measured. The MNTB principal cells could offer such a model, since they have been extensively characterized electrophysiologically. However, extracellular matrix (ECM) in these neurons has not yet been precisely detailed. The present study gives a detailed examination of the ECM organization and structural differences in PNs of the mouse MNTB. The different PN components and their distribution pattern are scrutinized throughout the MNTB. The data are complemented by electron microscopic investigations of the unique ultrastructural localization of PN-components and their interrelation with distinct pre- and postsynaptic MNTB cell structures. Therefore, we believe this work identifies the MNTB as an ideal system for studying PN function.
|Neurogenic effects of β-amyloid in the choroid plexus epithelial cells in Alzheimer's disease. |
Bolos, Marta, et al.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci., (2013) 2013
β-amyloid (Aβ) can promote neurogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, by inducing neural progenitor cells to differentiate into neurons. The choroid plexus in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is burdened with amyloid deposits and hosts neuronal progenitor cells. However, neurogenesis in this brain tissue is not firmly established. To investigate this issue further, we examined the effect of Aβ on the neuronal differentiation of choroid plexus epithelial cells in several experimental models of AD. Here we show that Aβ regulates neurogenesis in vitro in cultured choroid plexus epithelial cells as well as in vivo in the choroid plexus of APP/Ps1 mice. Treatment with oligomeric Aβ increased proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells in cultured choroid plexus epithelial cells, but decreased survival of newly born neurons. These Aβ-induced neurogenic effects were also observed in choroid plexus of APP/PS1 mice, and detected also in autopsy tissue from AD patients. Analysis of signaling pathways revealed that pre-treating the choroid plexus epithelial cells with specific inhibitors of TyrK or MAPK diminished Aβ-induced neuronal proliferation. Taken together, our results support a role of Aβ in proliferation and differentiation in the choroid plexus epithelial cells in Alzheimer's disease.
|Glial scaffold required for cerebellar granule cell migration is dependent on dystroglycan function as a receptor for basement membrane proteins. |
Nguyen, H; Ostendorf, AP; Satz, JS; Westra, S; Ross-Barta, SE; Campbell, KP; Moore, SA
Acta neuropathologica communications 1 58 2013
Cobblestone lissencephaly is a severe neuronal migration disorder associated with congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) such as Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease, and Fukuyama-type CMD. In these severe forms of dystroglycanopathy, the muscular dystrophy and other tissue pathology is caused by mutations in genes involved in O-linked glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. While cerebellar dysplasia is a common feature of dystroglycanopathy, its pathogenesis has not been thoroughly investigated.Here we evaluate the role of dystroglycan during cerebellar development. Brain-selective deletion of dystroglycan does not affect overall cerebellar growth, yet causes malformations associated with glia limitans disruptions and granule cell heterotopia that recapitulate phenotypes found in dystroglycanopathy patients. Cerebellar pathology in these mice is not evident until birth even though dystroglycan is lost during the second week of embryogenesis. The severity and spatial distribution of glia limitans disruption, Bergmann glia disorganization, and heterotopia exacerbate during postnatal development. Astrogliosis becomes prominent at these same sites by the time cerebellar development is complete. Interestingly, there is spatial heterogeneity in the glia limitans and granule neuron migration defects that spares the tips of lobules IV-V and VI.The full spectrum of developmental pathology is caused by loss of dystroglycan from Bergmann glia, as neither granule cell- nor Purkinje cell-specific deletion of dystroglycan results in similar pathology. These data illustrate the importance of dystroglycan function in radial/Bergmann glia, not neurons, for normal cerebellar histogenesis. The spatial heterogeneity of pathology suggests that the dependence on dystroglycan is not uniform.
|Loss of aPKCλ in differentiated neurons disrupts the polarity complex but does not induce obvious neuronal loss or disorientation in mouse brains. |
Yamanaka, T; Tosaki, A; Kurosawa, M; Akimoto, K; Hirose, T; Ohno, S; Hattori, N; Nukina, N
PloS one 8 e84036 2013
Cell polarity plays a critical role in neuronal differentiation during development of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies have established the significance of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) and its interacting partners, which include PAR-3, PAR-6 and Lgl, in regulating cell polarization during neuronal differentiation. However, their roles in neuronal maintenance after CNS development remain unclear. Here we performed conditional deletion of aPKCλ, a major aPKC isoform in the brain, in differentiated neurons of mice by camk2a-cre or synapsinI-cre mediated gene targeting. We found significant reduction of aPKCλ and total aPKCs in the adult mouse brains. The aPKCλ deletion also reduced PAR-6β, possibly by its destabilization, whereas expression of other related proteins such as PAR-3 and Lgl-1 was unaffected. Biochemical analyses suggested that a significant fraction of aPKCλ formed a protein complex with PAR-6β and Lgl-1 in the brain lysates, which was disrupted by the aPKCλ deletion. Notably, the aPKCλ deletion mice did not show apparent cell loss/degeneration in the brain. In addition, neuronal orientation/distribution seemed to be unaffected. Thus, despite the polarity complex disruption, neuronal deletion of aPKCλ does not induce obvious cell loss or disorientation in mouse brains after cell differentiation.
|TrkB signaling directs the incorporation of newly generated periglomerular cells in the adult olfactory bulb. |
Bergami, M; Vignoli, B; Motori, E; Pifferi, S; Zuccaro, E; Menini, A; Canossa, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 11464-78 2013
In the adult rodent brain, the olfactory bulb (OB) is continuously supplied with new neurons which survival critically depends on their successful integration into pre-existing networks. Yet, the extracellular signals that determine the selection which neurons will be ultimately incorporated into these circuits are largely unknown. Here, we show that immature neurons express the catalytic form of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor TrkB [full-length TrkB (TrkB-FL)] only after their arrival in the OB, at the time when integration commences. To unravel the role of TrkB signaling in newborn neurons, we conditionally ablated TrkB-FL in mice via Cre expression in adult neural stem and progenitor cells. TrkB-deficient neurons displayed a marked impairment in dendritic arborization and spine growth. By selectively manipulating the signaling pathways initiated by TrkB in vivo, we identified the transducers Shc/PI3K to be required for dendritic growth, whereas the activation of phospholipase C-γ was found to be responsible for spine formation. Furthermore, long-term genetic fate mapping revealed that TrkB deletion severely compromised the survival of new dopaminergic neurons, leading to a substantial reduction in the overall number of adult-generated periglomerular cells (PGCs), but not of granule cells (GCs). Surprisingly, this loss of dopaminergic PGCs was mirrored by a corresponding increase in the number of calretinin+ PGCs, suggesting that distinct subsets of adult-born PGCs may respond differentially to common extracellular signals. Thus, our results identify TrkB signaling to be essential for balancing the incorporation of defined classes of adult-born PGCs and not GCs, reflecting their different mode of integration in the OB.
|Endothelial VEGF sculpts cortical cytoarchitecture. |
Li, S; Haigh, K; Haigh, JJ; Vasudevan, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 14809-15 2013
Current models of brain development support the view that VEGF, a signaling protein secreted by neuronal cells, regulates angiogenesis and neuronal development. Here we demonstrate an autonomous and pivotal role for endothelial cell-derived VEGF that has far-reaching consequences for mouse brain development. Selective deletion of Vegf from endothelial cells resulted in impaired angiogenesis and marked perturbation of cortical cytoarchitecture. Abnormal cell clusters or heterotopias were detected in the marginal zone, and disorganization of cortical cells induced several malformations, including aberrant cortical lamination. Critical events during brain development-neuronal proliferation, differentiation, and migration were significantly affected. In addition, axonal tracts in the telencephalon were severely defective in the absence of endothelial VEGF. The unique roles of endothelial VEGF cannot be compensated by neuronal VEGF and underscores the high functional significance of endothelial VEGF for cerebral cortex development and from disease perspectives.
|Age-dependent regional changes in the rostral migratory stream. |
Mobley, AS; Bryant, AK; Richard, MB; Brann, JH; Firestein, SJ; Greer, CA
Neurobiology of aging 34 1873-81 2013
Throughout life the subventricular zone (SVZ) is a source of new olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons. From the SVZ, neuroblasts migrate tangentially through the rostral migratory stream (RMS), a restricted route approximately 5 mm long in mice, reaching the OB within 10-14 days. Within the OB, neuroblasts migrate radially to the granule and glomerular layers where they differentiate into granule and periglomerular (PG) cells and integrate into existing synaptic circuits. SVZ neurogenesis decreases with age, and might be a factor in age-related olfactory deficits. However, the effect of aging on the RMS and on the differentiation of interneuron subpopulations remains poorly understood. Here, we examine RMS cytoarchitecture, neuroblast proliferation and clearance from the RMS, and PG cell subpopulations at 6, 12, 18, and 23 months of age. We find that aging affects the area occupied by newly generated cells within the RMS and regional proliferation, and the clearance of neuroblasts from the RMS and PG cell subpopulations and distribution remain stable.
|The age-regulating protein klotho is vital to sustain retinal function. |
Reish, NJ; Maltare, A; McKeown, AS; Laszczyk, AM; Kraft, TW; Gross, AK; King, GD
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 54 6675-85 2013
To determine whether the age-regulating protein klotho was expressed in the retina and determine whether the absence of klotho affected retinal function.Immunohistochemistry and qPCR of klotho knockout and wild-type mice were used to detect klotho expression in retina. Immunohistochemistry was used to probe for differences in expression of proteins important in synaptic function, retinal structure, and ionic flux. Electroretinography (ERG) was conducted on animals across lifespan to determine whether decreased klotho expression affects retinal function.Klotho mRNA and protein were detected in the wild-type mouse retina, with protein present in all nuclear layers. Over the short lifespan of the knockout mouse (∼8 weeks), no overt photoreceptor cell loss was observed, however, function was progressively impaired. At 3 weeks of age neither protein expression levels (synaptophysin and glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD67]) nor retinal function were distinguishable from wild-type controls. However, by 7 weeks of age expression of synaptophysin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily member 1 (TRPM1) decreased while GAD67, post synaptic density 95 (PSD95), and wheat germ agglutinin staining, representative of glycoprotein sialic acid residues, were increased relative to wild-type mice. Accompanying these changes, profound functional deficits were observed as both ERG a-wave and b-wave amplitudes compared with wild-type controls.Klotho is expressed in the retina and is important for healthy retinal function. Although the mechanisms for the observed abnormalities are not known, they are consistent with the accelerating aging phenotype seen in other tissues.
|Neuroprotective effect of ginseng against alteration of calcium binding proteins immunoreactivity in the mice hippocampus after radiofrequency exposure. |
Maskey, D; Lee, JK; Kim, HR; Kim, HG
BioMed research international 2013 812641 2013
Calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) such as calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin are able to bind Ca(2+) with high affinity. Changes in Ca(2+) concentrations via CaBPs can disturb Ca(2+) homeostasis. Brain damage can be induced by the prolonged electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure with loss of interacellular Ca(2+) balance. The present study investigated the radioprotective effect of ginseng in regard to CaBPs immunoreactivity (IR) in the hippocampus through immunohistochemistry after one-month exposure at 1.6 SAR value by comparing sham control with exposed and ginseng-treated exposed groups separately. Loss of dendritic arborization was noted with the CaBPs in the Cornu Ammonis areas as well as a decrease of staining intensity of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus after exposure while no loss was observed in the ginseng-treated group. A significant difference in the relative mean density was noted between control and exposed groups but was nonsignificant in the ginseng-treated group. Decrease in CaBP IR with changes in the neuronal staining as observed in the exposed group would affect the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit by alteration of the Ca(2+) concentration which could be prevented by ginseng. Hence, ginseng could contribute as a radioprotective agent against EMF exposure, contributing to the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis by preventing impairment of intracellular Ca(2+) levels in the hippocampus.
|Calcium entry and α-synuclein inclusions elevate dendritic mitochondrial oxidant stress in dopaminergic neurons. |
Dryanovski, DI; Guzman, JN; Xie, Z; Galteri, DJ; Volpicelli-Daley, LA; Lee, VM; Miller, RJ; Schumacker, PT; Surmeier, DJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 10154-64 2013
The core motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are attributable to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Mitochondrial oxidant stress is widely viewed a major factor in PD pathogenesis. Previous work has shown that activity-dependent calcium entry through L-type channels elevates perinuclear mitochondrial oxidant stress in SNc dopaminergic neurons, providing a potential basis for their selective vulnerability. What is less clear is whether this physiological stress is present in dendrites and if Lewy bodies, the major neuropathological lesion found in PD brains, exacerbate it. To pursue these questions, mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons derived from C57BL/6 transgenic mice were studied in primary cultures, allowing for visualization of soma and dendrites simultaneously. Many of the key features of in vivo adult dopaminergic neurons were recapitulated in vitro. Activity-dependent calcium entry through L-type channels increased mitochondrial oxidant stress in dendrites. This stress progressively increased with distance from the soma. Examination of SNc dopaminergic neurons ex vivo in brain slices verified this pattern. Moreover, the formation of intracellular α-synuclein Lewy-body-like aggregates increased mitochondrial oxidant stress in perinuclear and dendritic compartments. This stress appeared to be extramitochondrial in origin, because scavengers of cytosolic reactive oxygen species or inhibition of NADPH oxidase attenuated it. These results show that physiological and proteostatic stress can be additive in the soma and dendrites of vulnerable dopaminergic neurons, providing new insight into the factors underlying PD pathogenesis.
|Common partner Smad-independent canonical bone morphogenetic protein signaling in the specification process of the anterior rhombic lip during cerebellum development. |
Tong, KK; Kwan, KM
Molecular and cellular biology 33 1925-37 2013
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is critical for cerebellum development. However, the details of receptor regulated-Smad (R-Smad) and common partner Smad (Co-Smad, or Smad4) involvement are unclear. Here, we report that cerebellum-specific double conditional inactivation of Smad1 and Smad5 (Smad1/5) results in cerebellar hypoplasia, reduced granule cell numbers, and disorganized Purkinje neuron migration during embryonic development. However, single conditional inactivation of either Smad1 or Smad5 did not result in cerebellar abnormalities. Surprisingly, conditional inactivation of Smad4, which is considered to be the central mediator of canonical BMP-Smad signaling, resulted only in very mild cerebellar defects. Conditional inactivation of Smad1/5 led to developmental defects in the anterior rhombic lip (ARL), as shown by reduced cell proliferation and loss of Pax6 and Atoh1 expression. These defects subsequently caused the loss of the nuclear transitory zone and a region of the deep cerebellar nuclei. The normal maturation of the remaining granule cell precursors in the external granular layer (EGL) suggests Smad1/5 signaling is required for the specification process in ARL but not for the subsequent EGL development. Our results demonstrate functional redundancy for Smad1 and Smad5 but functional discrepancy between Smad1/5 and Smad4 during cerebellum development.
|Distinct expression and localization of diacylglycerol kinase isozymes in rat retina. |
Hozumi, Y; Matsui, H; Sakane, F; Watanabe, M; Goto, K
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 61 462-76 2013
Recent studies have revealed that phosphoinositide (PI) signaling molecules are expressed in mammalian retinas, suggesting their importance in its signal transduction. We previously showed that diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) isozymes are expressed in distinct patterns in rat retina at the mRNA level. However, little is known about the nature and morphological aspects of DGKs in the retina. For this study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to investigate in the retina the expression and localization of DGK isozymes at the protein level. Here, we show that both DGKβ and DGKι localize in the outer plexiform layer, within which photoreceptor cells make contact with bipolar and horizontal cells. These isozymes exhibit distinct subcellular localization patterns: DGKι localizes to the synaptic area of bipolar cells in a punctate manner, whereas DGKβ distributes diffusely in the subsynaptic and dendritic regions of bipolar and horizontal cells. However, punctate labeling for DGKε is evident in the outer limiting membrane. DGKζ and DGKα localize predominantly to the nucleus of ganglion cells. These findings show distinct expression and localization of DGK isozymes in the retina, suggesting a different role of each isozyme.
|Directed differentiation of forebrain GABA interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells. |
Liu, Y; Liu, H; Sauvey, C; Yao, L; Zarnowska, ED; Zhang, SC
Nature protocols 8 1670-9 2013
Forebrain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons have crucial roles in high-order brain function via modulating network activities and plasticity, and they are implicated in many psychiatric disorders. Availability of enriched functional human forebrain GABA interneurons, especially those from people affected by GABA interneuron deficit disease, will be instrumental to the investigation of disease pathogenesis and development of therapeutics. We describe a protocol for directed differentiation of forebrain GABA interneurons from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in a chemically defined system. In this protocol, human PSCs are first induced to primitive neuroepithelial cells over 10 d, and then patterned to NKX2.1-expressing medial ganglionic eminence progenitors by simple treatment with sonic hedgehog or its agonist purmorphamine over the next 2 weeks. These progenitors generate a nearly pure population of forebrain GABA interneurons by the sixth week. This simple and efficient protocol does not require transgenic modification or cell sorting, and it has been replicated with multiple human ESC and iPSC lines.
|Expression of E-cadherin in pig kidney. |
Lee, SY; Han, SM; Kim, JE; Chung, KY; Han, KH
Journal of veterinary science 14 381-6 2013
E-cadherin is a cell adhesion molecule that plays an important role in maintaining renal epithelial polarity and integrity. The purpose of this study was to determine the exact cellular localization of E-cadherin in pig kidney. Kidney tissues from pigs were processed for light and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry, and immunoblot analysis. E-cadhedrin bands of the same size were detected by immunoblot of samples from rat and pig kidneys. In pig kidney, strong E-cadherin expression was observed in the basolateral plasma membrane of the tubular epithelial cells. E-cadherin immunolabeling was not detected in glomeruli or blood vessels of pig kidney. Double-labeling results demonstrated that E-cadherin was expressed in the calbindin D28k-positive distal convoluted tubule and H(+)-ATPase- positive collecting duct, but not in the aquaporin 1-positive, N-cadherin-positive proximal tubule. In contrast to rat, E-cadherin immunoreactivity was not expressed at detectable levels in the Tamm-Horsfall protein-positive thick ascending limb of pig kidney. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that E-cadherin was localized in both the lateral membranes and basal infoldings of the collecting duct. These results suggest that E-cadherin may be a critical adhesion molecule in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct cells of pig kidney.
|Hippocampal calbindin-1 immunoreactivity correlate of recognition memory performance in aged mice. |
Virawudh Soontornniyomkij,Victoria B Risbrough,Jared W Young,Benchawanna Soontornniyomkij,Dilip V Jeste,Cristian L Achim
Neuroscience letters 516 2012
Aging-related dysregulation of neuronal calcium metabolism, which not only involves the control of calcium fluxes but also the cytosolic calcium buffering system such as calbindin-1 (Calb1), may disturb synaptic plasticity and thereby memory functioning. Calb1 expression has been shown to affect hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning and to play a neuroprotective role in animal models of ischemic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders. We hypothesize that memory performance in aged mice correlates with neuronal Calb1 protein expression in the hippocampal formation. We studied a set of 18 aged and 22 young male C57BL/6N mice, in which the aged group performed poorer than the young in single-trial novel object recognition testing (two-tailed p=0.005, U test). Apparent decreases in the Calb1 immunoreactivity (measured by quantitative immunohistochemistry) in aged mice compared to that in young mice were not statistically significant either in the hippocampal CA1 subfield or dentate gyrus. In the aged mouse group, levels of Calb1 immunoreactivity both in the CA1 subfield and dentate gyrus correlated directly with the measure of recognition memory performance (Spearman rank correlation r(s)=0.47 and 0.48, two-tailed p=0.047 and 0.044, respectively). Our results suggest that hippocampal Calb1 expression affects memory performance in aged mice probably via its role in maintaining neuronal calcium homeostasis. Alternatively, our finding of lower Calb1 immunoreactivity with poorer memory performance in aged mice might be attributed to saturation of Calb1 protein by higher levels of intracellular calcium, due to aging-related dysregulation of neuronal calcium fluxes.
|GABAB-mediated rescue of altered excitatory-inhibitory balance, gamma synchrony and behavioral deficits following constitutive NMDAR-hypofunction. |
Gandal, MJ; Sisti, J; Klook, K; Ortinski, PI; Leitman, V; Liang, Y; Thieu, T; Anderson, R; Pierce, RC; Jonak, G; Gur, RE; Carlson, G; Siegel, SJ
Translational psychiatry 2 e142 2012
Reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) signaling has been associated with schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. NMDAR-hypofunction is thought to contribute to social, cognitive and gamma (30-80 Hz) oscillatory abnormalities, phenotypes common to these disorders. However, circuit-level mechanisms underlying such deficits remain unclear. This study investigated the relationship between gamma synchrony, excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) signaling, and behavioral phenotypes in NMDA-NR1(neo-/-) mice, which have constitutively reduced expression of the obligate NR1 subunit to model disrupted developmental NMDAR function. Constitutive NMDAR-hypofunction caused a loss of E/I balance, with an increase in intrinsic pyramidal cell excitability and a selective disruption of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Disrupted E/I coupling was associated with deficits in auditory-evoked gamma signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Gamma-band abnormalities predicted deficits in spatial working memory and social preference, linking cellular changes in E/I signaling to target behaviors. The GABA(B)-receptor agonist baclofen improved E/I balance, gamma-SNR and broadly reversed behavioral deficits. These data demonstrate a clinically relevant, highly translatable neural-activity-based biomarker for preclinical screening and therapeutic development across a broad range of disorders that share common endophenotypes and disrupted NMDA-receptor signaling.
|Morphine decreases enteric neuron excitability via inhibition of sodium channels. |
Smith, TH; Grider, JR; Dewey, WL; Akbarali, HI
PloS one 7 e45251 2012
Gastrointestinal peristalsis is significantly dependent on the enteric nervous system. Constipation due to reduced peristalsis is a major side-effect of morphine, which limits the chronic usefulness of this excellent pain reliever in man. The ionic basis for the inhibition of enteric neuron excitability by morphine is not well characterized as previous studies have mainly utilized microelectrode recordings from whole mount myenteric plexus preparations in guinea pigs. Here we have developed a Swiss-Webster mouse myenteric neuron culture and examined their electrophysiological properties by patch-clamp techniques and determined the mechanism for morphine-induced decrease in neuronal excitability. Isolated neurons in culture were confirmed by immunostaining with pan-neuronal marker, β-III tubulin and two populations were identified by calbindin and calretinin staining. Distinct neuronal populations were further identified based on the presence and absence of an afterhyperpolarization (AHP). Cells with AHP expressed greater density of sodium currents. Morphine (3 µM) significantly reduced the amplitude of the action potential, increased the threshold for spike generation but did not alter the resting membrane potential. The decrease in excitability resulted from inhibition of sodium currents. In the presence of morphine, the steady-state voltage dependence of Na channels was shifted to the left with almost 50% of channels unavailable for activation from hyperpolarized potentials. During prolonged exposure to morphine (two hours), action potentials recovered, indicative of the development of tolerance in single enteric neurons. These results demonstrate the feasibility of isolating mouse myenteric neurons and establish sodium channel inhibition as a mechanism for morphine-induced decrease in neuronal excitability.
|Cerebellar Purkinje cell neurodegeneration after cardiac arrest: Effect of therapeutic hypothermia. |
Michael Gregory Paine,Dongfang Che,Luchuan Li,Robert William Neumar
Resuscitation 83 2012
The cerebellum is among the brain regions most vulnerable to damage caused by cardiac arrest, and cerebellar Purkinje cell loss may contribute to neurologic dysfunction, including post-hypoxic myoclonus. However, it remains unknown whether cerebellar Purkinje cells are protected by post-cardiac arrest therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Therefore, we examined the effect of post-cardiac arrest TH onset and duration on cerebellar Purkinje cell loss.
|Regulation of p27Kip1 by Sox2 maintains quiescence of inner pillar cells in the murine auditory sensory epithelium. |
Liu, Z; Walters, BJ; Owen, T; Brimble, MA; Steigelman, KA; Zhang, L; Mellado Lagarde, MM; Valentine, MB; Yu, Y; Cox, BC; Zuo, J
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 10530-40 2012
Sox2 plays critical roles in cell fate specification during development and in stem cell formation; however, its role in postmitotic cells is largely unknown. Sox2 is highly expressed in supporting cells (SCs) of the postnatal mammalian auditory sensory epithelium, which unlike non-mammalian vertebrates remains quiescent even after sensory hair cell damage. Here, we induced the ablation of Sox2, specifically in SCs at three different postnatal ages (neonatal, juvenile and adult) in mice. In neonatal mice, Sox2-null inner pillar cells (IPCs, a subtype of SCs) proliferated and generated daughter cells, while other SC subtypes remained quiescent. Furthermore, p27(Kip1), a cell cycle inhibitor, was absent in Sox2-null IPCs. Similarly, upon direct deletion of p27(Kip1), p27(Kip1)-null IPCs also proliferated but retained Sox2 expression. Interestingly, cell cycle control of IPCs by Sox2-mediated expression of p27(Kip1) gradually declined with age. In addition, deletion of Sox2 or p27(Kip1) did not cause a cell fate change. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation with Sox2 antibodies and luciferase reporter assays with the p27(Kip1) promoter support that Sox2 directly activates p27(Kip1) transcription in postmitotic IPCs. Hence, in contrast to the well known activity of Sox2 in promoting proliferation and cell fate determination, our data demonstrate that Sox2 plays a novel role as a key upstream regulator of p27(Kip1) to maintain the quiescent state of postmitotic IPCs. Our studies suggest that manipulating Sox2 or p27(Kip1) expression is an effective approach to inducing proliferation of neonatal auditory IPCs, an initial but necessary step toward restoring hearing in mammals.
|Calbindin controls release probability in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. |
Ping-Yue Pan,Timothy A Ryan
Nature neuroscience 15 2012
Relatively little is known about the molecular control of midbrain dopamine release. Using high-fidelity imaging of pHluorin-tagged vesicular monoamine transporter 2 in dopamine neurons, we found that exocytosis was more loosely coupled to calcium entry than in fast synapses. In ventral tegmental area neurons, this allows exocytosis to be efficiently controlled by a native fast calcium buffer, calbindin-D28k, maintaining a lower vesicular release probability compared with substantia nigra neurons.
|Age-dependent in vivo conversion of mouse cochlear pillar and Deiters' cells to immature hair cells by Atoh1 ectopic expression. |
Liu, Z; Dearman, JA; Cox, BC; Walters, BJ; Zhang, L; Ayrault, O; Zindy, F; Gan, L; Roussel, MF; Zuo, J
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 6600-10 2012
Unlike nonmammalian vertebrates, mammals cannot convert inner ear cochlear supporting cells (SCs) into sensory hair cells (HCs) after damage, thus causing permanent deafness. Here, we achieved in vivo conversion of two SC subtypes, pillar cells (PCs) and Deiters' cells (DCs), into HCs by inducing targeted expression of Atoh1 at neonatal and juvenile ages using novel mouse models. The conversion only occurred in ∼10% of PCs and DCs with ectopic Atoh1 expression and started with reactivation of endogenous Atoh1 followed by expression of 11 HC and synaptic markers, a process that took approximately 3 weeks in vivo. These new HCs resided in the outer HC region, formed stereocilia, contained mechanoelectrical transduction channels, and survived for greater than 2 months in vivo; however, they surprisingly lacked prestin and oncomodulin expression and mature HC morphology. In contrast, adult PCs and DCs no longer responded to ectopic Atoh1 expression, even after outer HC damage. Finally, permanent Atoh1 expression in endogenous HCs did not affect prestin expression but caused cell loss of mature HCs. Together, our results demonstrate that in vivo conversion of PCs and DCs into immature HCs by Atoh1 is age dependent and resembles normal HC development. Therefore, combined expression of Atoh1 with additional factors holds therapeutic promise to convert PCs and DCs into functional HCs in vivo for regenerative purposes.
|Exocytosis in the frog amphibian papilla. |
Quiñones, Patricia M, et al.
J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol., 13: 39-54 (2012) 2012
Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we measured changes in membrane capacitance (ΔC (m)) in two subsets of hair cells from the leopard frog amphibian papilla (AP): the low-frequency (100-500 Hz), rostral hair cells and the high-frequency (500-1200 Hz), caudal hair cells, in order to investigate tonotopic differences in exocytosis. Depolarizations of both rostral and caudal hair cells evoked robust ΔC (m) responses of similar amplitude. However, the calcium dependence of release, i.e., the relationship between ΔC (m) relative to the amount of calcium influx (Q (Ca) (2+)), was found to be linear in rostral hair cells but supra-linear in caudal hair cells. In addition, the higher numbers of vesicles released at caudal hair cell active zones suggests increased temporal precision of caudal hair cell exocytosis. ΔC (m) responses were also obtained in response to sinusoidal stimuli of varying frequency, but neither rostral nor caudal hair cell ΔC (m) revealed any frequency selectivity. While all AP hair cells express both otoferlin and synaptotagmin IV (SytIV), we obtained evidence of a tonotopic distribution of the calcium buffer calretinin which may further increase temporal resolution at the level of the hair cell synapse. Our findings suggest that the low (rostral) and high (caudal) frequency hair cells apply different mechanisms for fine-tuning exocytosis.
|Changes in the distribution of calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin in the hippocampus of the circling mouse. |
Dhiraj Maskey,Jonu Pradhan,Cheol Kyu Oh,Myeung Ju Kim
Brain research 1437 2012
The circling (cir) mouse strain, a murine model of deafness caused by a spontaneous mutation, exhibits characteristic behaviors of circling and hyperactivity. In an induced-noise paradigm, cir mice display a significant loss in their spatial orientation abilities, and this has been suggested to be due at least in part to changes in calcium homeostasis. Auditory information is transferred from the cochlear nucleus to the hippocampus, where it is processed to modulate motor and sensory activity. Such a pathway could be affected at the cellular level by alterations in neurotransmission, including alterations that involve Ca(2+). However, there have been no studies in a hearing deficit model examining the concomitant molecular alterations in the hippocampus. Thus, in the present study we used immunohistochemistry to compare the distribution of the calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin, and calretinin in the hippocampi of heterozygous (+/cir), homozygous (cir/cir), and wild-type (+/+) mice. The expression of the CaBPs in various hippocampal subfields appeared to be significantly lower in cir mice (+/- and -/-) than in +/+ mice. Such a decrease in CaBP expression in cir/cir mice would alter calcium homeostasis, which in turn could affect the connection of the tri-synaptic circuit of the hippocampus as well as the cortical region. A decrease in CaBPs and the probable resultant glutamate-mediated excitability could contribute to the functional changes that lead to the characteristic behavioral features of cir mice.
|PTEN regulates retinal interneuron morphogenesis and synaptic layer formation. |
Sakagami, K; Chen, B; Nusinowitz, S; Wu, H; Yang, XJ
Molecular and cellular neurosciences 49 171-83 2012
The lipid phosphatase PTEN is a critical negative regulator of extracellular signal-induced PI3K activities, yet the roles of PTEN in the neural retina remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the function of PTEN during retinal development. Deletion of Pten at the onset of neurogenesis in retinal progenitors results in the reduction of retinal ganglion cells and rod photoreceptors, but increased Müller glial genesis. In addition, PTEN deficiency leads to elevated phosphorylation of Akt, especially in the developing inner plexiform layer, where high levels of PTEN are normally expressed. In Pten mutant retinas, various subtypes of amacrine cells show severe dendritic overgrowth, causing specific expansion of the inner plexiform layer. However, the outer plexiform layer remains relatively undisturbed in the Pten deficient retina. Physiological analysis detects reduced rod function and augmented oscillatory potentials originating from amacrine cells in Pten mutants. Furthermore, deleting Pten or elevating Akt activity in individual amacrine cells is sufficient to disrupt dendritic arborization, indicating that Pten activity is required cell autonomously to control neuronal morphology. Moreover, inhibiting endogenous Akt activity attenuates inner plexiform layer formation in vitro. Together, these findings demonstrate that suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling by PTEN is crucial for proper neuronal differentiation and normal retinal network formation.
|Dissection of adult mouse utricle and adenovirus-mediated supporting-cell infection. |
Brandon, CS; Voelkel-Johnson, C; May, LA; Cunningham, LL
Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE 2012
Hearing loss and balance disturbances are often caused by death of mechanosensory hair cells, which are the receptor cells of the inner ear. Since there is no cell line that satisfactorily represents mammalian hair cells, research on hair cells relies on primary organ cultures. The best-characterized in vitro model system of mature mammalian hair cells utilizes organ cultures of utricles from adult mice (Figure 1). The utricle is a vestibular organ, and the hair cells of the utricle are similar in both structure and function to the hair cells in the auditory organ, the organ of Corti. The adult mouse utricle preparation represents a mature sensory epithelium for studies of the molecular signals that regulate the survival, homeostasis, and death of these cells. Mammalian cochlear hair cells are terminally differentiated and are not regenerated when they are lost. In non-mammalian vertebrates, auditory or vestibular hair cell death is followed by robust regeneration which restores hearing and balance functions. Hair cell regeneration is mediated by glia-like supporting cells, which contact the basolateral surfaces of hair cells in the sensory epithelium. Supporting cells are also important mediators of hair cell survival and death. We have recently developed a technique for infection of supporting cells in cultured utricles using adenovirus. Using adenovirus type 5 (dE1/E3) to deliver a transgene containing GFP under the control of the CMV promoter, we find that adenovirus specifically and efficiently infects supporting cells. Supporting cell infection efficiency is approximately 25-50%, and hair cells are not infected (Figure 2). Importantly, we find that adenoviral infection of supporting cells does not result in toxicity to hair cells or supporting cells, as cell counts in Ad-GFP infected utricles are equivalent to those in non-infected utricles (Figure 3). Thus adenovirus-mediated gene expression in supporting cells of cultured utricles provides a powerful tool to study the roles of supporting cells as mediators of hair cell survival, death, and regeneration.
|Intranasal exposure to manganese disrupts neurotransmitter release from glutamatergic synapses in the central nervous system in vivo. |
Moberly, AH; Czarnecki, LA; Pottackal, J; Rubinstein, T; Turkel, DJ; Kass, MD; McGann, JP
Neurotoxicology 33 996-1004 2012
Chronic exposure to aerosolized manganese induces a neurological disorder that includes extrapyramidal motor symptoms and cognitive impairment. Inhaled manganese can bypass the blood-brain barrier and reach the central nervous system by transport down the olfactory nerve to the brain's olfactory bulb. However, the mechanism by which Mn disrupts neural function remains unclear. Here we used optical imaging techniques to visualize exocytosis in olfactory nerve terminals in vivo in the mouse olfactory bulb. Acute Mn exposure via intranasal instillation of 2-200 μg MnCl(2) solution caused a dose-dependent reduction in odorant-evoked neurotransmitter release, with significant effects at as little as 2 μg MnCl(2) and a 90% reduction compared to vehicle controls with a 200 μg exposure. This reduction was also observed in response to direct electrical stimulation of the olfactory nerve layer in the olfactory bulb, demonstrating that Mn's action is occurring centrally, not peripherally. This is the first direct evidence that Mn intoxication can disrupt neurotransmitter release, and is consistent with previous work suggesting that chronic Mn exposure limits amphetamine-induced dopamine increases in the basal ganglia despite normal levels of dopamine synthesis (Guilarte et al., J Neurochem 2008). The commonality of Mn's action between glutamatergic neurons in the olfactory bulb and dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia suggests that a disruption of neurotransmitter release may be a general consequence wherever Mn accumulates in the brain and could underlie its pleiotropic effects.
|In vivo Notch reactivation in differentiating cochlear hair cells induces Sox2 and Prox1 expression but does not disrupt hair cell maturation. |
Liu, Z; Owen, T; Fang, J; Srinivasan, RS; Zuo, J
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 241 684-96 2012
Notch signaling is active in mouse cochlear prosensory progenitors but declines in differentiating sensory hair cells (HCs). Overactivation of the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD) in progenitors blocks HC fate commitment and/or differentiation. However, it is not known whether reactivation of NICD in differentiating HCs also interrupts their developmental program and reactivates its downstream targets.By analyzing Atoh1(CreER+) ; Rosa26-NICD(loxp/+) or Atoh1(CreER+) ; Rosa26-NICD(loxp/+) ; RBP-J(loxp/loxp) mice, we demonstrated that ectopic NICD in differentiating HCs caused reactivation of Sox2 and Prox1 in an RBP-J-dependent manner. Interestingly, Prox1 reactivation was exclusive to outer HCs (OHCs). In addition, lineage tracing analysis of Prox1(CreER/+) ; Rosa26-EYFP(loxp/+) and Prox1(CreEGFP/+) ; Rosa26-EYFP(loxp/+) mice showed that nearly all HCs experiencing Prox1 expression were OHCs. Surprisingly, these HCs still matured normally with expression of prestin, wild-type-like morphology, and uptake of FM4-64FX dye at adult ages.Our results suggest that the developmental program of cochlear differentiating HCs is refractory to Notch reactivation and that Notch is an upstream regulator of Sox2 and Prox1 in cochlear development. In addition, our results support that Sox2 and Prox1 should not be the main blockers for terminal differentiation of HCs newly regenerated from postnatal cochlear SCs that still maintain Sox2 and Prox1 expression.
|Tbr2 deficiency in mitral and tufted cells disrupts excitatory-inhibitory balance of neural circuitry in the mouse olfactory bulb. |
Mizuguchi, R; Naritsuka, H; Mori, K; Mao, CA; Klein, WH; Yoshihara, Y
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 8831-44 2012
The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first relay station in the brain where odor information from the olfactory epithelium is integrated, processed through its intrinsic neural circuitry, and conveyed to higher olfactory centers. Compared with profound mechanistic insights into olfactory axon wiring from the nose to the OB, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of functional neural circuitry among various types of neurons inside the OB. T-box transcription factor Tbr2 is expressed in various types of glutamatergic excitatory neurons in the brain including the OB projection neurons, mitral and tufted cells. Here we generated conditional knockout mice in which the Tbr2 gene is inactivated specifically in mitral and tufted cells from late embryonic stages. Tbr2 deficiency caused cell-autonomous changes in molecular expression including a compensatory increase of another T-box member, Tbr1, and a concomitant shift of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT) subtypes from VGluT1 to VGluT2. Tbr2-deficient mitral and tufted cells also exhibited anatomical abnormalities in their dendritic morphology and projection patterns. Additionally, several non-cell-autonomous phenotypes were observed in parvalbumin-, calbindin-, and 5T4-positive GABAergic interneurons. Furthermore, the number of dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses between mitral/tufted cells and GABAergic interneurons was significantly reduced. Upon stimulation with odorants, larger numbers of mitral and tufted cells were activated in Tbr2 conditional knockout mice. These results suggest that Tbr2 is required for not only the proper differentiation of mitral and tufted cells, but also for the establishment of functional neuronal circuitry in the OB and maintenance of excitatory-inhibitory balance crucial for odor information processing.
|A study of the spatial protein organization of the postsynaptic density isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum. |
Yun-Hong, Y; Chih-Fan, C; Chia-Wei, C; Yen-Chung, C
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 10 M110.007138 2011
Postsynaptic density (PSD) is a protein supramolecule lying underneath the postsynaptic membrane of excitatory synapses and has been implicated to play important roles in synaptic structure and function in mammalian central nervous system. Here, PSDs were isolated from two distinct regions of porcine brain, cerebral cortex and cerebellum. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analyses indicated that cerebral and cerebellar PSDs consisted of a similar set of proteins with noticeable differences in the abundance of various proteins between these samples. Subsequently, protein localization in these PSDs was analyzed by using the Nano-Depth-Tagging method. This method involved the use of three synthetic reagents, as agarose beads whose surface was covalently linked with a fluorescent, photoactivable, and cleavable chemical crosslinker by spacers of varied lengths. After its application was verified by using a synthetic complex consisting of four layers of different proteins, the Nano-Depth-Tagging method was used here to yield information concerning the depth distribution of various proteins in the PSD. The results indicated that in both cerebral and cerebellar PSDs, glutamate receptors, actin, and actin binding proteins resided in the peripheral regions within ∼ 10 nm deep from the surface and that scaffold proteins, tubulin subunits, microtubule-binding proteins, and membrane cytoskeleton proteins found in mammalian erythrocytes resided in the interiors deeper than 10 nm from the surface in the PSD. Finally, by using the immunoabsorption method, binding partner proteins of two proteins residing in the interiors, PSD-95 and α-tubulin, and those of two proteins residing in the peripheral regions, elongation factor-1α and calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α subunit, of cerebral and cerebellar PSDs were identified. Overall, the results indicate a striking similarity in protein organization between the PSDs isolated from porcine cerebral cortex and cerebellum. A model of the molecular structure of the PSD has also been proposed here.
|Depletion of insulin receptor substrate 2 reverses oncogenic transformation induced by v-src. |
Sun HZ, Xu L, Zhou B, Zang WJ, Wu SF.
Acta pharmacologica Sinica 32 611-8 2011
Aim:To investigate the role of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) in oncogenic transformation induced by v-src.Methods:IRS-2 gene was silenced using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Nuclear translocation and interaction of IRS-2 with v-src was determined using subcellular fractionation, confocal microscopy, and immunoprecipitation. The activity of the cyclin D1 promoter and r-DNA promoter was measured with a luciferase assay.Results:Depletion of IRS-2 inhibited R-/v-src cell growth and reverse the oncogenic transformation. IRS-2 bound to src via its two PI3-K binding sites, which are critical for activities involved in the transformation. Nuclear IRS-2 occupied the cyclin D1 and rDNA promoters. The combination of IRS-2 and v-src increased the activity of the two promoters, especially the rDNA promoter.Conclusion:Depletion of insulin receptor substrate 2 could reverse oncogenic transformation induced by v-src.
|Experimental Sey mouse chimeras reveal the developmental deficiencies of Pax6-null granule cells in the postnatal cerebellum. |
Swanson DJ, Goldowitz D
Developmental biology 351 1-12. Epub 2010 Nov 29. 2011
Pax6 has been implicated in cerebellar granule cell development, however the neonatal lethality of the Sey/Sey mutant has precluded a more detailed study of this late developing neuronal type. In this study we use experimental mouse chimeras made from wildtype and Pax6-null embryos to circumvent early lethality and assess the developmental potential of mutant cells in the construction of the cerebellum. We have identified the granule cell as a direct target of mutant gene action, with glia and Purkinje cells being affected in what is largely a non-cell autonomous manner. Most dramatically, in postnatal day 21 (P21) chimeras, mutant cells are largely absent in the anterior and posterior cerebellum while present in central lobules, but amidst disorganized cerebellar architecture. Analysis of P0/1 and P10 chimeras demonstrates a profound temporally based defect where mutant cells colonize the anterior and posterior EGL but fail to migrate to the IGL. Mutant granule cells in the central lobules can reach the IGL in an abnormal manner, with large streams of cells forming raphes through the molecular layer. These studies provide new insights into the role of Pax6 in postnatal cerebellar development that pinpoint the granule cell as an intrinsic target of the mutant gene and key events in the life of the developing granule cell that depend upon normal Pax6 expression.Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|Depletion of new neurons by image guided irradiation. |
Tan, YF; Rosenzweig, S; Jaffray, D; Wojtowicz, JM
Frontiers in neuroscience 5 59 2011
Ionizing radiation continues to be a relevant tool in both imaging and the treatment of cancer. Experimental uses of focal irradiation have recently been expanded to studies of new neurons in the adult brain. Such studies have shown cognitive deficits following radiation treatment and raised caution as to possible unintentional effects that may occur in humans. Conflicting outcomes of the effects of irradiation on adult neurogenesis suggest that the effects are either transient or permanent. In this study, we used an irradiation apparatus employed in the treatment of human tumors to assess radiation effects on rat neurogenesis. For subjects we used adult male rats (Sprague-Dawley) under anesthesia. The irradiation beam was directed at the hippocampus, a center for learning and memory, and the site of neurogenic activity in adult brain. The irradiation was applied at a dose-rate 0.6 Gy/min for total single-fraction, doses ranging from 0.5 to 10.0 Gy. The animals were returned to home cages and recovered with no sign of any side effects. The neurogenesis was measured either 1 week or 6 weeks after the irradiation. At 1 week, the number of neuronal progenitors was reduced in a dose-dependent manner with the 50% reduction at 0.78 Gy. The dose-response curve was well fitted by a double exponential suggesting two processes. Examination of the tissue with quantitative immunohistochemistry revealed a dominant low-dose effect on neuronal progenitors resulting in 80% suppression of neurogenesis. This effect was partially reversible, possibly due to compensatory proliferation of the remaining precursors. At higher doses (greater than 5 Gy) there was additional, nearly complete block of neurogenesis without compensatory proliferation. We conclude that notwithstanding the usefulness of irradiation for experimental purposes, the exposure of human subjects to doses often used in radiotherapy treatment could be damaging and cause cognitive impairments.Artículo Texto completo
|Slit-Robo signals regulate pioneer axon pathfinding of the tract of the postoptic commissure in the mammalian forebrain. |
Ricaño-Cornejo I, Altick AL, García-Peña CM, Nural HF, Echevarría D, Miquelajáuregui A, Mastick GS, Varela-Echavarría A
Journal of neuroscience research 89 1531-41. doi 2011
During early vertebrate forebrain development, pioneer axons establish a symmetrical scaffold descending longitudinally through the rostral forebrain, thus forming the tract of the postoptic commissure (TPOC). In mouse embryos, this tract begins to appear at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) as a bundle of axons tightly constrained at a specific dorsoventral level. We have characterized the participation of the Slit chemorepellants and their Robo receptors in the control of TPOC axon projection. In E9.5-E11.5 mouse embryos, Robo1 and Robo2 are expressed in the nucleus origin of the TPOC (nTPOC), and Slit expression domains flank the TPOC trajectory. These findings suggested that these proteins are important factors in the dorsoventral positioning of the TPOC axons. Consistently with this role, Slit2 inhibited TPOC axon growth in collagen gel cultures, and interfering with Robo function in cultured embryos induced projection errors in TPOC axons. Moreover, absence of both Slit1 and Slit2 or Robo1 and Robo2 in mutant mouse embryos revealed aberrant TPOC trajectories, resulting in abnormal spreading of the tract and misprojections into both ventral and dorsal tissues. These results reveal that Slit-Robo signaling regulates the dorsoventral position of this pioneer tract in the developing forebrain.Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|HIF1A is essential for the development of the intermediate plexus of the retinal vasculature. |
Caprara, C; Thiersch, M; Lange, C; Joly, S; Samardzija, M; Grimm, C
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 52 2109-17 2011
HIF1A is one of the major transcription factors that regulate tissue response to low oxygen tension. It controls expression of a large number of genes involved in cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, and other cellular processes. HIF1A is present at increased levels in the early postnatal retina. In this study its potential function during postnatal development of the mouse retina and retinal vasculature was analyzed.A mouse line was generated with a Cre-mediated Hif1a knockdown in the peripheral retina. Retinal morphology and vasculature were analyzed in sections and flat mount preparations. Gene and protein expression were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis.The Cre-mediated knockdown caused a significant reduction in Hif1a gene expression and HIF1A protein levels in the early postnatal retina. Retinal morphology was normal but the Hif1a knockdown prevented the formation of the intermediate vascular plexus in the peripheral retina. The primary plexus and the outer plexus were less affected. The Hif1a knockdown did not affect expression of such angiogenesis-related genes as vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) but strongly induced expression of erythropoietin (Epo). At the protein level, EPAS1 (HIF2A) was stabilized in the Hif1a knockdown mice.The results suggest that HIF1A may be directly or indirectly required for normal development of the retinal vasculature, especially of the intermediate plexus. EPO but not VEGF may play a significant role in the development of this phenotype. HIF1A may not be the main factor that regulates Vegf expression during retinal development in the mouse.
|Pax6-positive müller glia cells express cell cycle markers but do not proliferate after photoreceptor injury in the mouse retina. |
Joly S, Pernet V, Samardzija M, Grimm C
|Immunohistochemical study on the expression of calcium binding proteins (calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin) in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampal region of nNOS knock-out(-/-) mice. |
Cho, YJ; Lee, JC; Kang, BG; An, J; Song, HS; Son, O; Nam, DH; Cha, CI; Joo, KM
Anatomy & cell biology 44 106-15 2011
Nitric oxide (NO) modulates the activities of various channels and receptors to participate in the regulation of neuronal intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Ca(2+) binding protein (CaBP) expression may also be altered by NO. Accordingly, we examined expression changes in calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region of neuronal NO synthase knockout(-/-) (nNOS(-/-)) mice using immunohistochemistry. For the first time, we demonstrate that the expression of CaBPs is specifically altered in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region of nNOS(-/-) mice and that their expression changed according to neuronal type. As changes in CaBP expression can influence temporal and spatial intracellular Ca(2+) levels, it appears that NO may be involved in various functions, such as modulating neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis, regulating synaptic transmission, and neuroprotection, by influencing the expression of CaBPs. Therefore, these results suggest another mechanism by which NO participates in the regulation of neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, the exact mechanisms of this regulation and its functional significance require further investigation.Artículo Texto completo
|Ascl1 expression defines a subpopulation of lineage-restricted progenitors in the mammalian retina. |
Brzezinski, JA; Kim, EJ; Johnson, JE; Reh, TA
Development (Cambridge, England) 138 3519-31 2011
The mechanisms of cell fate diversification in the retina are not fully understood. The seven principal cell types of the neural retina derive from a population of multipotent progenitors during development. These progenitors give rise to multiple cell types concurrently, suggesting that progenitors are a heterogeneous population. It is thought that differences in progenitor gene expression are responsible for differences in progenitor competence (i.e. potential) and, subsequently, fate diversification. To elucidate further the mechanisms of fate diversification, we assayed the expression of three transcription factors made by retinal progenitors: Ascl1 (Mash1), Ngn2 (Neurog2) and Olig2. We observed that progenitors were heterogeneous, expressing every possible combination of these transcription factors. To determine whether this progenitor heterogeneity correlated with different cell fate outcomes, we conducted Ascl1- and Ngn2-inducible expression fate mapping using the CreER™/LoxP system. We found that these two factors gave rise to markedly different distributions of cells. The Ngn2 lineage comprised all cell types, but retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were exceedingly rare in the Ascl1 lineage. We next determined whether Ascl1 prevented RGC development. Ascl1-null mice had normal numbers of RGCs and, interestingly, we observed that a subset of Ascl1+ cells could give rise to cells expressing Math5 (Atoh7), a transcription factor required for RGC competence. Our results link progenitor heterogeneity to different fate outcomes. We show that Ascl1 expression defines a competence-restricted progenitor lineage in the retina, providing a new mechanism to explain fate diversification.
|Inhibition of Notch activity promotes nonmitotic regeneration of hair cells in the adult mouse utricles. |
Lin, V; Golub, JS; Nguyen, TB; Hume, CR; Oesterle, EC; Stone, JS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 15329-39 2011
The capacity of adult mammals to regenerate sensory hair cells is not well defined. To explore early steps in this process, we examined reactivation of a transiently expressed developmental gene, Atoh1, in adult mouse utricles after neomycin-induced hair cell death in culture. Using an adenoviral reporter for Atoh1 enhancer, we found that Atoh1 transcription is activated in some hair cell progenitors (supporting cells) 3 d after neomycin treatment. By 18 d after neomycin, the number of cells with Atoh1 transcriptional activity increased significantly, but few cells acquired hair cell features (i.e., accumulated ATOH1 or myosin VIIa protein or developed stereocilia). Treatment with DAPT, an inhibitor of γ-secretase, reduced notch pathway activity, enhanced Atoh1 transcriptional activity, and dramatically increased the number of Atoh1-expressing cells with hair cell features, but only in the striolar/juxtastriolar region. Similar effects were seen with TAPI-1, an inhibitor of another enzyme required for notch activity (TACE). Division of supporting cells was rare in any control or DAPT-treated utricles. This study shows that mature mammals have a natural capacity to initiate vestibular hair cell regeneration and suggests that regional notch activity is a significant inhibitor of direct transdifferentiation of supporting cells into hair cells following damage.
|Repeated social defeat selectively increases δFosB expression and histone H3 acetylation in the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex. |
Hinwood, M; Tynan, RJ; Day, TA; Walker, FR
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 21 262-71 2011
Exposure to social stress has been linked to the development and maintenance of mood-related psychopathology; however, the underlying neurobiological changes remain uncertain. In this study, we examined numbers of δFosB-immunoreactive cells in the forebrains of rats subjected to 12 episodes of social defeat. This was achieved using the social conflict model whereby animals are introduced into the home cage of older males ("residents") trained to attack and defeat all such "intruders"; importantly, controls were treated identically except that the resident was absent. Our results indicated that the only region in which δFosB-positive cells were found in significantly higher numbers in intruders than in controls was the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This same effect was not apparent using another psychological stressor, noise stress. Cells of the infralimbic mPFC also displayed evidence of chromatin remodeling. We found that exposure to repeated episodes of social defeat increased numbers of cells immunoreactive for histone H3 acetylation, but not for histone H3 phosphoacetylation, in the infralimbic mPFC. Collectively, these findings highlight the importance of the infralimbic mPFC in responding to social stress-a finding that provides insight into the possible neurobiological alterations associated with stress-induced psychiatric illness.
|Preclinical differences of intravascular AAV9 delivery to neurons and glia: a comparative study of adult mice and nonhuman primates. |
Gray, SJ; Matagne, V; Bachaboina, L; Yadav, S; Ojeda, SR; Samulski, RJ
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 19 1058-69 2011
Other labs have previously reported the ability of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this report, we carefully characterized variables that might affect AAV9's efficiency for central nervous system (CNS) transduction in adult mice, including dose, vehicle composition, mannitol coadministration, and use of single-stranded versus self-complementary AAV. We report that AAV9 is able to transduce approximately twice as many neurons as astrocytes across the entire extent of the adult rodent CNS at doses of 1.25 × 10¹², 1 × 10¹³, and 8 × 10¹³ vg/kg. Vehicle composition or mannitol coadministration had only modest effects on CNS transduction, suggesting AAV9 crosses the BBB by an active transport mechanism. Self-complementary vectors were greater than tenfold more efficient than single-stranded vectors. When this approach was applied to juvenile nonhuman primates (NHPs) at the middle dose (9-9.5 × 10¹² vg/kg) tested in mice, a reduction in peripheral organ and brain transduction was observed compared to mice, along with a clear shift toward mostly glial transduction. Moreover, the presence of low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) mostly occluded CNS and peripheral transduction using this delivery approach. Our results indicate that high peripheral tropism, limited neuronal transduction in NHPs, and pre-existing NAbs represent significant barriers to human translation of intravascular AAV9 delivery.
|Loss of ATF2 function leads to cranial motoneuron degeneration during embryonic mouse development. |
Ackermann, J; Ashton, G; Lyons, S; James, D; Hornung, JP; Jones, N; Breitwieser, W
PloS one 6 e19090 2011
The AP-1 family transcription factor ATF2 is essential for development and tissue maintenance in mammals. In particular, ATF2 is highly expressed and activated in the brain and previous studies using mouse knockouts have confirmed its requirement in the cerebellum as well as in vestibular sense organs. Here we present the analysis of the requirement for ATF2 in CNS development in mouse embryos, specifically in the brainstem. We discovered that neuron-specific inactivation of ATF2 leads to significant loss of motoneurons of the hypoglossal, abducens and facial nuclei. While the generation of ATF2 mutant motoneurons appears normal during early development, they undergo caspase-dependent and independent cell death during later embryonic and foetal stages. The loss of these motoneurons correlates with increased levels of stress activated MAP kinases, JNK and p38, as well as aberrant accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, NF-H and NF-M, known substrates for these kinases. This, together with other neuropathological phenotypes, including aberrant vacuolisation and lipid accumulation, indicates that deficiency in ATF2 leads to neurodegeneration of subsets of somatic and visceral motoneurons of the brainstem. It also confirms that ATF2 has a critical role in limiting the activities of stress kinases JNK and p38 which are potent inducers of cell death in the CNS.
|A role of the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 in the regulation of pituitary development. |
Zhao Y, Mailloux CM, Hermesz E, PalkÃ³vits M, Westphal H
Developmental biology 337 313-23 2010
The mammalian pituitary gland originates from two separate germinal tissues during embryonic development. The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary are derived from Rathke's pouch, a pocket formed by an invagination of the oral ectoderm. The posterior lobe is derived from the infundibulum, which is formed by evagination of the neuroectoderm in the ventral diencephalon. Previous studies have shown that development of Rathke's pouch and the generation of distinct populations of hormone-producing endocrine cell lineages in the anterior/intermediate pituitary lobes is regulated by a number of transcription factors expressed in the pouch and by inductive signals from the ventral diencephalon/infundibulum. However, little is known about factors that regulate the development of the posterior pituitary lobe. In this study, we show that the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 is extensively expressed in the developing ventral diencephalon, including the infundibulum and the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Deletion of Lhx2 gene results in persistent cell proliferation, a complete failure of evagination of the neuroectoderm in the ventral diencephalon, and defects in the formation of the distinct morphological features of the infundibulum and the posterior pituitary lobe. Rathke's pouch is formed and endocrine cell lineages are generated in the anterior/intermediate pituitary lobes of the Lhx2 mutant. However, the shape and organization of the pouch and the anterior/intermediate pituitary lobes are severely altered due to the defects in development of the infundibulum and the posterior lobe. Our study thus reveals an essential role for Lhx2 in the regulation of posterior pituitary development and suggests a mechanism whereby development of the posterior lobe may affect the development of the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland.Artículo Texto completo
|Immunohistochemical localization of calbindin D28-k, parvalbumin, and calretinin in the cerebellar cortex of the circling mouse. |
Maskey D, Pradhan J, Kim HJ, Park KS, Ahn SC, Kim MJ
Neurosci Lett 483 132-6. Epub 2010 Aug 5. 2010
The spontaneous mutant circling mouse has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and is an animal model for deafness, which is characterized by circling, head tossing, and hyperactivity. Since the main pathology in circling mice lies in the organ of Corti, most studies on deaf mice have focused on auditory brain stem nuclei. No studies regarding behavior-related CNS changes in circling mice have been reported. The major center of sensory input for modulation of motor activity is best-studied in the cerebellum. Considering the importance of calcium homeostasis in numerous processes, calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs), such as calbindin D-28k (CB), parvalbumin (PV), and calretinin (CR), may play crucial roles in preserving cerebellar coordinated motor function. Thus, the distribution of CB, PV, and CR was determined in the cerebellum using immunohistochemical methods to compare immunoreactivity (IR) of CaBPs between wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/cir), and homozygous (cir/cir) mice. The IR of CB and PV was predominantly observed in the Purkinje cell layer of all three genotypes. Compared with the +/+ genotype, the relative mean density of CB and PV IR in the Purkinje cell layer and CR IR in the granular layer was significantly decreased in the cir/cir genotype. Changes in calcium homeostasis in parallel fiber/Purkinje cell synapses could diminish cerebellar control of motor coordination. A number of deficiencies among the CaBPs lead to distinct alterations in brain physiology, which may affect normal behavior.
|Retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-alpha is not critically required for mediating retinoic acid effects in the developing mouse retina. |
Cammas, L; Trensz, F; Jellali, A; Ghyselinck, NB; Roux, MJ; Dollé, P
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 51 3281-90 2010
To determine the functional contribution of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-alpha in the developing murine neural retina, through a phenotypic analysis of the corresponding null mutants.RARalpha mutant (Rara(-/-)) mice were compared with wild-type littermates at several stages of pre- and postnatal development. An RA-response element (RARE)-containing reporter transgene was used to assess the contribution of RARalpha to retinoid signaling in the retina. In situ hybridization was performed on serial eye sections to investigate the expression of main developmental regulators. Immunofluorescence was used to detect differentiated cell types in the adult retina. Mutants were also subjected to clinical observation and visual function evaluation with the optomotor test and electroretinography.Both isoform transcripts of RARalpha were expressed throughout the neural retina at various stages of pre- and postnatal development. In the Rara(-/-) mice the RARE-reporter transgene consistently failed to activate in the developing neural retina. However, they did not exhibit any alteration of the expression patterns of molecular determinants and had a normal organization of retinal cell types at postnatal stages. Their performance in visual tests was indistinguishable from that of control littermates.Although RARalpha mediates RARE reporter transgene activity in the neural retina, its function is not necessary for the retina to develop and function normally. These data suggest that retinoic acid regulates neural retinal development through other, possibly RAR-independent, pathways.
|Blimp1 controls photoreceptor versus bipolar cell fate choice during retinal development. |
Brzezinski, JA; Lamba, DA; Reh, TA
Development (Cambridge, England) 137 619-29 2010
Photoreceptors, rods and cones are the most abundant cell type in the mammalian retina. However, the molecules that control their development are not fully understood. In studies of photoreceptor fate determination, we found that Blimp1 (Prdm1) is expressed transiently in developing photoreceptors. We analyzed the function of Blimp1 in the mouse retina using a conditional deletion approach. Developmental analysis of mutants showed that Otx2(+) photoreceptor precursors ectopically express the bipolar cell markers Chx10 (Vsx2) and Vsx1, adopting bipolar instead of photoreceptor fate. However, this fate shift did not occur until the time when bipolar cells are normally specified during development. Most of the excess bipolar cells died around the time of bipolar cell maturation. Our results suggest that Blimp1 expression stabilizes immature photoreceptors by preventing bipolar cell induction. We conclude that Blimp1 regulates the decision between photoreceptor and bipolar cell fates in the Otx2(+) cell population during retinal development.Artículo Texto completo
|Population based quantification of dendrites: evidence for the lack of microtubule-associate protein 2a,b in Purkinje cell spiny dendrites. |
S Hamodeh,D Eicke,R M A Napper,R J Harvey,F Sultan
Neuroscience 170 2010
The high molecular weight isoforms (a and b) of microtubule-associate protein 2 (MAP2a,b) are widely believed to be specific markers for neuronal somata and dendrites. We analyzed and quantified MAP2a,b stained dendrites of the cerebellar molecular layer using a novel approach that segmented and 3D reconstructed them, and the results have been compared with those obtained by other methods, including single-cell reconstruction and analysis of electron micrographs. Our results show that the molecular layer dendritic volume fraction is lower than in the neocortex (10% compared to neocortical 29%). The low total volume fraction of dendrites in the molecular layer is best explained by the majority of the afferents to the dendrites being from the very densely packed parallel fibers, which allows the dendritic fields of individual neurons to be smaller and more compact than in the cerebral cortex. However, the MAP2a,b dendritic volume fraction is even lower (5.2%) than the total volume fraction of dendrites in the molecular layer (10%). Analysis of the material shows that this difference between the two results is due to the unexpected finding that there were few MAP2a,b stained Purkinje cell spiny dendrites.
|Foxp4 is essential in maintenance of PURKINJE cell dendritic arborization in the mouse cerebellum. |
Tam WY, Leung CK, Tong KK, Kwan KM
Purkinje cells (PCs) are one of the principal neurons in the cerebellar cortex that play a central role in the coordination of fine-tuning body movement and balance. To acquire normal cerebellum function, PCs develop extensive dendritic arbors that establish synaptic connections with the parallel fibers of granule cells to form the proper neuronal circuitry. Therefore, dendritic arborization of PCs is an important developmental step to construct the mature neural network in the cerebellum. However, the genetic control of this process is not fully understood. In this study, Foxp4, a forkhead transcription factor that is expressed specifically in migrating and mature PCs of cerebellum from embryonic stages to adulthood, was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in organotypic cerebellar slice culture. When Foxp4 expression was knocked down at postnatal day 5 (P5), no abnormalities for early dendritic remodeling of PCs were observed. However, when Foxp4 was knocked down in P10 cerebellar slices, the organization of PC dendritic arbors was highly impaired, leaving hypoplastic but non-apoptotic cell bodies. The radial alignment of Bergmann glial fibers that associated with PC dendrites was also lost. These results suggest that Foxp4 is dispensable for the early PC dendrite outgrowth, but is essential for the maintenance of PC dendritic arborization and subsequent association with Bergmann glial fibers.
|Morphological alterations in retinal neurons in the S334ter-line3 transgenic rat. |
A Ray, GJ Sun, L Chan, NM Grzywacz, J Weiland, EJ Lee
Cell and tissue research 339 481-91 2010
The S334ter-line-3 rat is a transgenic model of retinal degeneration developed to express a rhodopsin mutation similar to that found in human retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients. Previous studies have focused on physiological changes in retinal cells and higher centers of the visual system with this model of retinal degeneration. However, little is known about the morphological changes in retinal cells during the development of the S334ter-line-3 rat. In order to understand and aid vision-rescue strategies, our aim has been to describe the retinal degeneration pattern in this model. We focus on changes in the morphologies of horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine cells in developing S334ter-line-3 rat retinas. Degeneration of photoreceptors begins in the central retina and progresses toward the periphery. In retinas at post-natal day 15 (P15), horizontal and rod bipolar cells show normal morphology. However, at P21, horizontal and rod bipolar cells exhibit abnormal processes at the outer plexiform layer, whereas the outer nuclear layer is significantly thinner. A glial reaction occurs concomitantly. In contrast, modifications in cone-bipolar and amacrine cells are much slower and do not occur until P90 and P180, respectively. The density of horizontal and rod-bipolar cells significantly drops after P60. Overall, the S334ter-line-3 model exhibits the hallmarks of cellular remodeling caused by photoreceptor degeneration. Its moderately fast time course makes the S334ter-line-3 a good model for studying vision-rescue strategies.
|Acetylcholine negatively regulates development of the neuromuscular junction through distinct cellular mechanisms. |
An MC, Lin W, Yang J, Dominguez B, Padgett D, Sugiura Y, Aryal P, Gould TW, Oppenheim RW, Hester ME, Kaspar BK, Ko CP, Lee KF
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 10702-7. Epub 2010 May 24. 2010
Emerging evidence suggests that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) negatively regulates the development of the neuromuscular junction, but it is not clear if ACh exerts its effects exclusively through muscle ACh receptors (AChRs). Here, we used genetic methods to remove AChRs selectively from muscle. Similar to the effects of blocking ACh biosynthesis, eliminating postsynaptic AChRs increased motor axon branching and expanded innervation territory, suggesting that ACh negatively regulates synaptic growth through postsynaptic AChRs. However, in contrast to the effects of blocking ACh biosynthesis, eliminating postsynaptic AChRs in agrin-deficient mice failed to restore deficits in pre- and postsynaptic differentiation, suggesting that ACh negatively regulates synaptic differentiation through nonpostsynaptic receptors. Consistent with this idea, the ACh agonist carbachol inhibited presynaptic specialization of motorneurons in vitro. Together, these data suggest that ACh negatively regulates axon growth and presynaptic specialization at the neuromuscular junction through distinct cellular mechanisms.
|Efficient generation of mature cerebellar Purkinje cells from mouse embryonic stem cells. |
Tao O, Shimazaki T, Okada Y, Naka H, Kohda K, Yuzaki M, Mizusawa H, Okano H
J Neurosci Res 88 234-47. 2010
Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can generate cerebellar neurons, including Purkinje cells (PCs) and their precursor cells, in a floating culture system called serum-free culture of embryoid body-like aggregates (SFEB) treated with BMP4, Fgf8b, and Wnt3a. Here we successfully established a coculture system that induced the maturation of PCs in ESC-derived Purkinje cell (EDPC) precursors in SFEB, using as a feeder layer a cerebellum dissociation culture prepared from mice at postnatal day (P) 6-8. PC maturation was incomplete or abnormal when the adherent culture did not include feeder cells or when the feeder layer was from neonatal cerebellum. In contrast, EDPCs exhibited the morphology of mature PCs and synaptogenesis with other cerebellar neurons when grown for 4 weeks in coculture system with the postnatal cerebellar feeder. Furthermore, the electrophysiological properties of these EDPCs were compatible with those of native mature PCs in vitro, such as Na(+) or Ca(2+) spikes elicited by current injections and excitatory or inhibitory postsynaptic currents, which were assessed by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Thus, EDPC precursors in SFEB can mature into PCs whose properties are comparable with those of native PCs in vitro. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|Diverse interneuron populations have highly specific interconnectivity in the rat piriform cortex. |
Cezar Gavrilovici,Sabrina D'Alfonso,Michael O Poulter
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2010
Previous studies have suggested that the patterns of innervation and high interconnectivity of the piriform cortex (PC) provide for strong olfactory hippocampal memory; however, these same attributes may create high seizurogenic tendencies. Thus, understanding this wiring is important from a physiological and pathophysiological perspective. Distinct interneurons expressing differing calcium binding proteins (CBPs), parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR), have been shown to exist in PC. However, a comprehensive examination of the distribution and innervation patterns of these neurons has not been done. Thus the purpose of this study was to combine the analysis of the CBP cell localization with analysis of their innervation patterns. Each type was differentially localized in the three layers of the PC. Only CR-positive neurons were found in layer 1. PV and CB are coexpressed in layers 2-3, most expressing both PV and CB. A morphological estimate of the dendritic extent for each subtype showed that PV and PV/CB cells demonstrated equally wide, horizontal and vertical arborizations, whereas CB cells had wide horizontal and restricted vertical arborizations. CR cells had restricted horizontal and very long vertical arborizations. Postsynaptic morphological targeting was also found to be specific, namely, PV(+) and PV/CB(+) nerve terminals (NTs) innervate perisomatic regions of principal cells. CR(+) NTs innervate only dendrites of principal cells, and CB(+) NTs innervate both somata and dendrites of principal cells. These data show highly complex innervation patterns for all of the CBP interneurons of the PC and form a basis for further studies in the plasticity of this region.
|Neuroglobin expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: colocalization, innervation, and response to light. |
C A Hundahl,J Hannibal,J Fahrenkrug,S Dewilde,A Hay-Schmidt
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2010
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a myoglobin-like (Mb) heme-globin, belonging the globin family located only in neuronal tissue of the central nervous system. Ngb has been shown to be upregulated in and to protect neurons from hypoxic and ischemic injury, but the function of Ngb-in particular how Ngb may protect neurons-remains largely elusive. We have previously described the localization of Ngb in the rat brain and found it to be expressed in areas primarily involved in sleep/wake, circadian, and food regulation. The present study was undertaken, using immunohistochemistry, to characterize the localization, colocalization, innervation, and response to light of Ngb-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Our results demonstrate that the majority of Ngb-expressing neurons in the SCN belong to a cell group not previously characterized by neurotransmitter content; only a small portion was found to co-store GRP in the ventral SCN. Furthermore, some Ngb-containing neurons were responsive to light stimulation at late night evaluated by the induction of cFOS and only a few cells were found to express the core clock gene PER1 during the 24-hour light/dark cycle. The Ngb-containing cells received input from neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing nerve fibers of the geniticulo-hypothalamic tract (GHT), whereas no direct input from the eye or the midbrain raphe system was demonstrated. The results indicate that the Ngb could be involved in both photic and nonphotic entrainment via input from the GHT.
|Expression of calcium-binding proteins and nNOS in the human vestibular and precerebellar brainstem. |
Joan S Baizer,Dianne M Broussard
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2010
Information about the position and movement of the head in space is coded by vestibular receptors and relayed to four nuclei that comprise the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC). Many additional brainstem nuclei are involved in the processing of vestibular information, receiving signals either directly from the eighth nerve or indirectly via projections from the VNC. In cats, squirrel monkeys, and macaque monkeys, we found neurochemically defined subdivisions within the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) and within the functionally related nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (PrH). In humans, different studies disagree about the borders, sizes, and possible subdivisions of the vestibular brainstem. In an attempt to clarify this organization, we have begun an analysis of the neurochemical characteristics of the human using brains from the Witelson Normal Brain Collection and standard techniques for antigen retrieval and immunohistochemistry. Using antibodies to calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, and nitric oxide synthase, we find neurochemically defined subdivisions within the MVe similar to the subdivisions described in cats and monkeys. The neurochemical organization of PrH is different. We also find unique neurochemical profiles for several structures that suggest reclassification of nuclei. These data suggest both quantitative and qualitative differences among cats, monkeys, and humans in the organization of the vestibular brainstem. These results have important implications for the analysis of changes in that organization subsequent to aging, disease, or loss of input.
|Expression of PTPRO in the interneurons of adult mouse olfactory bulb. |
Kotani, T; Murata, Y; Ohnishi, H; Mori, M; Kusakari, S; Saito, Y; Okazawa, H; Bixby, JL; Matozaki, T
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 119-36 2010
PTPRO is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) with a single catalytic domain in its cytoplasmic region and multiple fibronectin type III-like domains in its extracellular region. In the chick, PTPRO mRNA has been shown to be particularly abundant in embryonic brain, and PTPRO is implicated in axon growth and guidance during embryonic development. However, the temporal and spatial expression of PTPRO protein in the mammalian CNS, particularly in the juvenile and adult mammalian brain, has not been evaluated in any detail. By immunohistofluorescence analysis with a monoclonal antibody to PTPRO, we show that PTPRO is widely expressed throughout the mouse brain from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 1, while expression is largely confined to the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory tubercle in the adult brain. In the OB, PTPRO protein is expressed predominantly in the external plexiform layer, the granule cell layer, and the glomerular layer (GL). In these regions, expression of PTPRO is predominant in interneurons such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic or calretinin (CR)-positive granule cells. In addition, PTPRO is expressed in GABAergic, CR-positive, tyrosine hydroxylase-positive, or neurocalcin-positive periglomerular cells in the GL. Costaining of PTPRO with other neuronal markers suggests that PTPRO is likely to be localized to the dendrites or dendritic spines of these olfactory interneurons. Thus, PTPRO might participate in regulation of dendritic morphology or synapse formation of interneurons in the adult mouse OB.
|Chemical coding for cardiovascular sympathetic preganglionic neurons in rats. |
Gonsalvez, DG; Kerman, IA; McAllen, RM; Anderson, CR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 11781-91 2010
Cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART) is present in a subset of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the rat. We examined the distribution of CART-immunoreactive terminals in rat stellate and superior cervical ganglia and adrenal gland and found that they surround neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive postganglionic neurons and noradrenergic chromaffin cells. The targets of CART-immunoreactive preganglionic neurons in the stellate and superior cervical ganglia were shown to be vasoconstrictor neurons supplying muscle and skin and cardiac-projecting postganglionic neurons: they did not target non-vasoconstrictor neurons innervating salivary glands, piloerector muscle, brown fat, or adrenergic chromaffin cells. Transneuronal tracing using pseudorabies virus demonstrated that many, but not all, preganglionic neurons in the vasoconstrictor pathway to forelimb skeletal muscle were CART immunoreactive. Similarly, analysis with the confocal microscope confirmed that 70% of boutons in contact with vasoconstrictor ganglion cells contained CART, whereas 30% did not. Finally, we show that CART-immunoreactive cells represented 69% of the preganglionic neuron population expressing c-Fos after systemic hypoxia. We conclude that CART is present in most, although not all, cardiovascular preganglionic neurons but not thoracic preganglionic neurons with non-cardiovascular targets. We suggest that CART immunoreactivity may identify the postulated "accessory" preganglionic neurons, whose actions may amplify vasomotor ganglionic transmission.
|Inherited neuroaxonal dystrophy in dogs causing lethal, fetal-onset motor system dysfunction and cerebellar hypoplasia. |
Fyfe, JC; Al-Tamimi, RA; Castellani, RJ; Rosenstein, D; Goldowitz, D; Henthorn, PS
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 3771-84 2010
Neuroaxonal dystrophy in brainstem, spinal cord tracts, and spinal nerves accompanied by cerebellar hypoplasia was observed in a colony of laboratory dogs. Fetal akinesia was documented by ultrasonographic examination. At birth, affected puppies exhibited stereotypical positioning of limbs, scoliosis, arthrogryposis, pulmonary hypoplasia, and respiratory failure. Regional hypoplasia in the central nervous system was apparent grossly, most strikingly as underdeveloped cerebellum and spinal cord. Histopathologic abnormalities included swollen axons and spheroids in brainstem and spinal cord tracts; reduced cerebellar foliation, patchy loss of Purkinje cells, multifocal thinning of the external granular cell layer, and loss of neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei; spheroids and loss of myelinated axons in spinal roots and peripheral nerves; increased myocyte apoptosis in skeletal muscle; and fibrofatty connective tissue proliferation around joints. Breeding studies demonstrated that the canine disorder is a fully penetrant, simple autosomal recessive trait. The disorder demonstrated a type and distribution of lesions homologous to that of human infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD), most commonly caused by mutations of phospholipase A2 group VI gene (PLA2G6), but alleles of informative markers flanking the canine PLA2G6 locus did not associate with the canine disorder. Thus, fetal-onset neuroaxonal dystrophy in dogs, a species with well-developed genome mapping resources, provides a unique opportunity for additional disease gene discovery and understanding of this pathology.
|The use of PRV-Bartha to define premotor inputs to lumbar motoneurons in the neonatal spinal cord of the mouse. |
Jovanovic, K; Pastor, AM; O'Donovan, MJ
PloS one 5 e11743 2010
The neonatal mouse has become a model system for studying the locomotor function of the lumbar spinal cord. However, information about the synaptic connectivity within the governing neural network remains scarce. A neurotropic pseudorabies virus (PRV) Bartha has been used to map neuronal connectivity in other parts of the nervous system, due to its ability to travel trans-neuronally. Its use in spinal circuits regulating locomotion has been limited and no study has defined the time course of labelling for neurons known to project monosynaptically to motoneurons.Here we investigated the ability of PRV Bartha, expressing green and/or red fluorescence, to label spinal neurons projecting monosynaptically to motoneurons of two principal hindlimb muscles, the tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GC). As revealed by combined immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, 24-32 h after the viral muscle injection the label was restricted to the motoneuron pool while at 32-40 h the fluorescence was seen in interneurons throughout the medial and lateral ventral grey matter. Two classes of ipsilateral interneurons known to project monosynaptically to motoneurons (Renshaw cells and cells of origin of C-terminals) were consistently labeled at 40 h post-injection but also a group in the ventral grey matter contralaterally. Our results suggest that the labeling of last order interneurons occurred 8-12 h after motoneuron labeling and we presume this is the time taken by the virus to cross one synapse, to travel retrogradely and to replicate in the labeled cells.The study establishes the time window for virally-labelling monosynaptic projections to lumbar motoneurons following viral injection into hindlimb muscles. Moreover, it provides a good foundation for intracellular targeting of the labeled neurons in future physiological studies and better understanding the functional organization of the lumbar neural networks.
|Immunohistochemical study on the expression of calcium binding proteins (calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin) in the cerebellum of the nNOS knock-out(-/-) mice. |
Lee, JC; Chung, YH; Cho, YJ; Kim, J; Kim, N; Cha, CI; Joo, KM
Anatomy & cell biology 43 64-71 2010
Nitric Oxide (NO) actively participates in the regulation of neuronal intracellular Ca(2+) levels by modulating the activity of various channels and receptors. To test the possibility that modulation of Ca(2+) buffer protein expression level by NO participates in this regulatory effect, we examined expression of calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the cerebellum of neuronal NO synthase knock-out (nNOS((-/-))) mice using immunohistochemistry. We observed that in the cerebellar cortex of the nNOS((-/-)) mice, expression of calbindin-D28k and parvalbumin were significantly increased while expression of calretinin was significantly decreased. These results suggest another mechanism by which NO can participate in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis.
|Phenotypic diversity and expression of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons during postnatal development in lumbar spinal cord of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67-green fluorescent protein mice. |
Dougherty, KJ; Sawchuk, MA; Hochman, S
Neuroscience 163 909-19 2009
The synthesis enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 or GAD67) identifies neurons as GABAergic. Recent studies have characterized the physiological properties of spinal cord GABAergic interneurons using lines of GAD67-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice. A more complete characterization of their phenotype is required to better understand the role of this population of inhibitory neurons in spinal cord function. Here, we characterize the distribution of lumbar spinal cord GAD67-GFP neurons at postnatal days (P) 0, 7, and 14, and adult based on their co-expression with GABA and determine the molecular phenotype of GAD67-GFP neurons at P14 based on the expression of various neuropeptides, calcium binding proteins, and other markers. At all ages greater than 67% of GFP(+) neurons were also GABA(+). With increasing age; (i) GFP(+) and GABA(+) cell numbers declined, (ii) ventral horn GFP(+) and GABA(+) neurons vanished, and (iii) somatic labeling was reduced while terminal labeling increased. At P14, vasoactive intestinal peptide and bombesin were expressed in approximately 63% and approximately 35% of GFP(+) cells, respectively. Somatostatin was found in a small number of neurons, whereas calcitonin gene-related peptide never co-localized with GFP. Moderate co-expression was found for all the Ca(2+) binding proteins examined. Notably, most laminae I-II parvalbumin(+) neurons were also GFP(+). Neurogranin, a protein kinase C substrate, was found in approximately 1/2 of GFP(+) cells. Lastly, while only 7% of GFP(+) cells contain nitric oxide synthase (NOS), these cells represent a large fraction of all NOS(+) cells. We conclude that GAD67-GFP neurons represent the majority of spinal GABAergic neurons and that mouse dorsal horn GAD67-GFP(+) neurons comprise a phenotypically diverse population.Artículo Texto completo
|Optimized immunohistochemical analysis of cerebellar purkinje cells using a specific biomarker, calbindin d28k. |
BJ Kim, SY Lee, HW Kim, EJ Park, J Kim, SJ Kim, I So, JH Jeon
The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology 13 373-8 2009
Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) play a crucial role in motor functions and their progressive degeneration is closely associated with spinocerebellar ataxias. Although immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis can provide a valuable tool for understanding the pathophysiology of PC disorders, the method validation of IHC analysis with cerebellar tissue specimens is unclear. Here we present an optimized and validated IHC method using antibodies to calbindin D28k, a specific PC marker in the cerebellum. To achieve the desired sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, we modified IHC analysis procedures for cerebellar tissues. We found that the sensitivity of staining varies depending on the commercial source of primary antibody. In addition, we showed that a biotin-free signal amplification method using a horseradish peroxidase polymer-conjugated secondary antibody increases both the sensitivity and specificity of ICH analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that dye filtration using a 0.22 microm filter eliminates or minimizes nonspecific staining while preserving the analytical sensitivity. These results suggest that our protocol can be adapted for future investigations aiming to understand the pathophysiology of cerebellar PC disorders and to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic strategies for treating these diseases.Artículo Texto completo
|Activity-dependent codevelopment of the corticospinal system and target interneurons in the cervical spinal cord. |
Chakrabarty, S; Shulman, B; Martin, JH
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 8816-27 2009
Corticospinal tract (CST) connections to spinal interneurons are conserved across species. We identified spinal interneuronal populations targeted by the CST in the cervical enlargement of the cat during development. We focused on the periods before and after laminar refinement of the CST terminations, between weeks 5 and 7. We used immunohistochemistry of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), calbindin, calretinin, and parvalbumin to mark interneurons. We first compared interneuron marker distribution before and after CST refinement. ChAT interneurons increased, while calbindin interneurons decreased during this period. No significant changes were noted in parvalbumin and calretinin. We next used anterograde labeling to determine whether the CST targets different interneuron populations before and after the refinement period. Before refinement, the CST terminated sparsely where calbindin interneurons were located and spared ChAT interneurons. After refinement, the CST no longer terminated in calbindin-expressing areas but did so where ChAT interneurons were located. Remarkably, early CST terminations were dense where ChAT interneurons later increased in numbers. Finally, we determined whether corticospinal system activity was necessary for the ChAT and calbindin changes. We unilaterally inactivated M1 between weeks 5 and 7 by muscimol infusion. Inactivation resulted in a distribution of calbindin and ChAT in spinal gray matter regions where the CST terminates that resembled the immature more than mature pattern. Our results show that the CST plays a crucial role in restructuring spinal motor circuits during development, possibly through trophic support, and provide strong evidence for the importance of connections with key spinal interneuron populations in development of motor control functions.
|Live-cell imaging of autophagy induction and autophagosome-lysosome fusion in primary cultured neurons. |
Mona Bains,Kim A Heidenreich
Methods in enzymology 453 2009
The discovery that impaired autophagy is linked to a wide variety of prominent diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration has led to an explosion of research in this area. Methodologies that allow investigators to observe and quantify the autophagic process will clearly advance knowledge of how this process contributes to the pathophysiology of many clinical disorders. The recent identification of essential autophagy genes in higher eukaryotes has made it possible to analyze autophagy in mammalian cells that express autophagy proteins tagged with fluorescent markers. This chapter describes such methods using primary cultured neurons that undergo up-regulation of autophagy when trophic factors are removed from their medium. The prolonged up-regulated autophagy, in turn, contributes to the death of these neurons, thus providing a model to examine the relationship between enhanced autophagy and cell death. Neurons are isolated from the cerebellum of postnatal day 7 rat pups and cultured in the presence of trophic factors and depolarizing concentrations of potassium. Once established, the neurons are transfected with an adeno-viral vector expressing MAP1-LC3 with red fluorescent protein (RFP). MAP1-LC3 is the mammalian homolog of the yeast autophagosomal marker Atg8 and when tagged to GFP or RFP, it is the most widely used marker for autophagosomes. Once expression is stable, autophagy is induced by removing trophic factors. At various time points after inducing autophagy, the neurons are stained with LysoSensor Green (a pH-dependent lysosome marker) and Hoechst (a DNA marker) and subjected to live-cell imaging. In some cases, time-lapse imaging is used to examine the stepwise process of autophagy in live neurons.Artículo Texto completo
|Impaired terminal differentiation of hippocampal granule neurons and defective contextual memory in PC3/Tis21 knockout mice. |
Farioli-Vecchioli, S; Saraulli, D; Costanzi, M; Leonardi, L; Cinà, I; Micheli, L; Nutini, M; Longone, P; Oh, SP; Cestari, V; Tirone, F
PloS one 4 e8339 2009
Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus has been implicated in neural plasticity and memory, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the proliferation and differentiation of newborn neurons and their integration into the synaptic circuitry are still largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we have analyzed the adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a PC3/Tis21-null mouse model. PC3/Tis21 is a transcriptional co-factor endowed with antiproliferative and prodifferentiative properties; indeed, its upregulation in neural progenitors has been shown to induce exit from cell cycle and differentiation. We demonstrate here that the deletion of PC3/Tis21 causes an increased proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult dentate gyrus and an arrest of their terminal differentiation. In fact, in the PC3/Tis21-null hippocampus postmitotic undifferentiated neurons accumulated, while the number of terminally differentiated neurons decreased of 40%. As a result, PC3/Tis21-null mice displayed a deficit of contextual memory. Notably, we observed that PC3/Tis21 can associate to the promoter of Id3, an inhibitor of proneural gene activity, and negatively regulates its expression, indicating that PC3/Tis21 acts upstream of Id3. Our results identify PC3/Tis21 as a gene required in the control of proliferation and terminal differentiation of newborn neurons during adult hippocampal neurogenesis and suggest its involvement in the formation of contextual memories.Artículo Texto completo
|Characterization of the zebrafish atxn1/axh gene family. |
Kerri M Carlson, Laura Melcher, Shaojuan Lai, Huda Y Zoghbi, H Brent Clark, Harry T Orr, Kerri M Carlson, Laura Melcher, Shaojuan Lai, Huda Y Zoghbi, H Brent Clark, Harry T Orr
Journal of neurogenetics 23 313-23 2009
In mammals, ataxin-1 (ATXN1) is a member of a family of proteins in which each member contains an AXH domain. Expansion of the polyglutamine tract in ATXN1 causes the neurodegenerative disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) with prominent cerebellar pathology. Toward a further characterization of the genetic diversification of the ATXN1/AXH gene family, we identified and characterized members of this gene family in zebrafish, a lower vertebrate with a cerebellum. The zebrafish genome encodes two ATXN1 homologs, atxn1a and atxn1b, and one ATXN1L homolog, atxn1l. Key biochemical features of the human ATXN1 protein not seen in the invertebrate homologs (a nuclear localization sequence and a site of phosphorylation at serine 776) are conserved in the zebrafish homologs, and all three zebrafish Atxn1/Axh proteins behave similarly to their human counterparts in tissue-culture cells. Importantly, each of the three homologs is expressed in the zebrafish cerebellum, which in humans, is a prominent site of SCA1 pathogenesis. In addition, atxn1a and atxn1b are expressed in the developing zebrafish cerebellum. These data show that in zebrafish, a lower vertebrate, the complexity of the atxn1/axh gene family is more similar to higher vertebrates than invertebrates with a simple central nervous system and suggests a relationship between the diversification of the ATXN1/AXH gene family and the development of a complex central nervous system, including a cerebellum.Artículo Texto completo
|Cerebellar Purkinje cells incorporate immunoglobulins and immunotoxins in vitro: implications for human neurological disease and immunotherapeutics. |
Hill, KE; Clawson, SA; Rose, JW; Carlson, NG; Greenlee, JE
Journal of neuroinflammation 6 31 2009
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies reactive with intracellular neuronal proteins have been described in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune disorders. Because neurons have been thought impermeable to immunoglobulins, however, such antibodies have been considered unable to enter neurons and bind to their specific antigens during life. Cerebellar Purkinje cells - an important target in paraneoplastic and other autoimmune diseases - have been shown in experimental animals to incorporate a number of molecules from cerebrospinal fluid. IgG has also been detected in Purkinje cells studied post mortem. Despite the possible significance of these findings for human disease, immunoglobulin uptake by Purkinje cells has not been demonstrated in living tissue or studied systematically.To assess Purkinje cell uptake of immunoglobulins, organotypic cultures of rat cerebellum incubated with rat IgGs, human IgG, fluorescein-conjugated IgG, and rat IgM were studied by confocal microscopy in real time and following fixation. An IgG-daunorubicin immunotoxin was used to determine whether conjugation of pharmacological agents to IgG could be used to achieve Purkinje cell-specific drug delivery.IgG uptake was detected in Purkinje cell processes after 4 hours of incubation and in Purkinje cell cytoplasm and nuclei by 24-48 hours. Uptake could be followed in real time using IgG-fluorochrome conjugates. Purkinje cells also incorporated IgM. Intracellular immunoglobulin did not affect Purkinje cell viability, and Purkinje cells cleared intracellular IgG or IgM within 24-48 hours after transfer to media lacking immunoglobulins. The IgG-daunomycin immunotoxin was also rapidly incorporated into Purkinje cells and caused extensive, cell-specific death within 8 hours. Purkinje cell death was not produced by unconjugated daunorubicin or control IgG.Purkinje cells in rat organotypic cultures incorporate and clear host (rat) and non-host (human or donkey) IgG or IgM, independent of the immunoglobulin's reactivity with Purkinje cell antigens. This property permits real-time study of immunoglobulin-Purkinje cell interaction using fluorochrome IgG conjugates, and can allow Purkinje cell-specific delivery of IgG-conjugated pharmacological agents. Antibodies to intracellular Purkinje cell proteins could potentially be incorporated intracellularly to produce cell injury. Antibodies used therapeutically, including immunotoxins, may also be taken up and cause Purkinje cell injury, even if they do not recognize Purkinje cell antigens.
|Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein is expressed by scattered neurons in the vestibular and precerebellar brainstem. |
Brain research 1298 46-56 2009
Vestibular information is essential for the control of posture, balance, and eye movements. The vestibular nerve projects to the four nuclei of the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), as well as to several additional brainstem nuclei and the cerebellum. We have found that expression of the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR) and calbindin (CB), and the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) define subdivisions of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) and the nucleus prepositus (PrH), in cat, monkey, and human. We have asked if the pattern of expression of nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP) might define additional subdivisions of these or other nuclei that participate in vestibular function. We studied the distribution of cells immunoreactive to NPNFP in the brainstems of 5 cats and one squirrel monkey. Labeled cells were scattered throughout the four nuclei of the VNC, as well as in PrH, the reticular formation (RF) and the external cuneate nucleus. We used double-label immunofluorescence to visualize the distribution of these cells relative to other neurochemically defined subdivisions. NPNFP cells were excluded from the CR and CB regions of the MVe. In PrH, NPNFP and nNOS were not colocalized. Cells in the lateral vestibular nucleus and RF colocalized NPNFP and a marker for glutamatergic neurons. We also found that the cholinergic cells and axons of cranial nerve nuclei 3, 4, 6, 7,10 and 12 colocalize NPNFP. The data suggest that NPNFP is expressed by a subset of glutamatergic projection neurons of the vestibular brainstem. NPNFP may be a marker for those cells that are especially vulnerable to the effects of normal aging, neurological disease or disruption of sensory input.
|Neuropathology of the Mcoln1(-/-) knockout mouse model of mucolipidosis type IV. |
Micsenyi, MC; Dobrenis, K; Stephney, G; Pickel, J; Vanier, MT; Slaugenhaupt, SA; Walkley, SU
Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 68 125-35 2009
The recently developed Mcoln1(-/-) knockout mouse provides a novel model for analyzing mucolipin 1 function and mucolipidosis type IV disease. Here we characterize the neuropathology of Mcoln1(-/-) mouse at the end stage. Evidence of ganglioside accumulation, including increases in GM2, GM3, and GD3 and redistribution of GM1, was found throughout the central nervous system (CNS) independent of significant cholesterol accumulation. Unexpectedly, colocalization studies using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that GM1 and GM2 were present in separate vesicles within individual neurons. While GM2 was significantly colocalized with LAMP2, consistent with late-endosomal/lysosomal processing, some GM2-immunoreactivity occurred in LAMP2-negative sites, suggesting involvement of other vesicular systems. P62/Sequestosome 1 (P62/SQSTM1) inclusions were also identified in the CNS of the Mcoln1(-/-) mouse, suggesting deficiencies in protein degradation. Glial cell activation was increased in brain, and there was evidence of reduced myelination in cerebral and cerebellar white matter tracts. Autofluorescent material accumulated throughout the brains of the knockout mice. Finally, axonal spheroids were prevalent in white matter tracts and Purkinje cell axons. This neuropathological characterization of the Mcoln1(-/-) mouse provides an important step in understanding how mucolipin 1 loss of function affects the CNS and contributes to mucolipidosis type IV disease.
|Hes5 expression in the postnatal and adult mouse inner ear and the drug-damaged cochlea. |
Hartman, BH; Basak, O; Nelson, BR; Taylor, V; Bermingham-McDonogh, O; Reh, TA
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO 10 321-40 2009
The Notch signaling pathway is known to have multiple roles during development of the inner ear. Notch signaling activates transcription of Hes5, a homologue of Drosophila hairy and enhancer of split, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor. Previous studies have shown that Hes5 is expressed in the cochlea during embryonic development, and loss of Hes5 leads to overproduction of auditory and vestibular hair cells. However, due to technical limitations and inconsistency between previous reports, the precise spatial and temporal pattern of Hes5 expression in the postnatal and adult inner ear has remained unclear. In this study, we use Hes5-GFP transgenic mice and in situ hybridization to report the expression pattern of Hes5 in the inner ear. We find that Hes5 is expressed in the developing auditory epithelium of the cochlea beginning at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), becomes restricted to a particular subset of cochlear supporting cells, is downregulated in the postnatal cochlea, and is not present in adults. In the vestibular system, we detect Hes5 in developing supporting cells as early as E12.5 and find that Hes5 expression is maintained in some adult vestibular supporting cells. In order to determine the effect of hair cell damage on Notch signaling in the cochlea, we damaged cochlear hair cells of adult Hes5-GFP mice in vivo using injection of kanamycin and furosemide. Although outer hair cells were killed in treated animals and supporting cells were still present after damage, supporting cells did not upregulate Hes5-GFP in the damaged cochlea. Therefore, absence of Notch-Hes5 signaling in the normal and damaged adult cochlea is correlated with lack of regeneration potential, while its presence in the neonatal cochlea and adult vestibular epithelia is associated with greater capacity for plasticity or regeneration in these tissues; which suggests that this pathway may be involved in regulating regenerative potential.Artículo Texto completo
|Bone morphogenetic protein regulation of enteric neuronal phenotypic diversity: relationship to timing of cell cycle exit. |
Chalazonitis, A; Pham, TD; Li, Z; Roman, D; Guha, U; Gomes, W; Kan, L; Kessler, JA; Gershon, MD
The Journal of comparative neurology 509 474-92 2008
The effects of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling on enteric neuron development were examined in transgenic mice overexpressing either the BMP inhibitor, noggin, or BMP4 under control of the neuron specific enolase (NSE) promoter. Noggin antagonism of BMP signaling increased total numbers of enteric neurons and those of subpopulations derived from precursors that exit the cell cycle early in neurogenesis (serotonin, calretinin, calbindin). In contrast, noggin overexpression decreased numbers of neurons derived from precursors that exit the cell cycle late (gamma-aminobutyric acid, tyrosine hydroxylase [TH], dopamine transporter, calcitonin gene-related peptide, TrkC). The numbers of TH- and TrkC-expressing neurons were increased by overexpression of BMP4. These observations are consistent with the idea that phenotypic expression in the enteric nervous system (ENS) is determined, in part, by the number of proliferative divisions neuronal precursors undergo before their terminal mitosis. BMP signaling may thus regulate enteric neuronal phenotypic diversity by promoting the exit of precursors from the cell cycle. BMP2 increased the numbers of TH- and TrkC-expressing neurons developing in vitro from immunoselected enteric crest-derived precursors; BMP signaling may thus also specify or promote the development of dopaminergic TrkC/NT-3-dependent neurons. The developmental defects in the ENS of noggin-overexpressing mice caused a relatively mild disturbance of motility (irregular rapid transit and increased stool frequency, weight, and water content). Although the function of the gut thus displays a remarkable tolerance for ENS defects, subtle functional abnormalities in motility or secretion may arise when ENS defects short of aganglionosis occur during development.Artículo Texto completo
|Imatinib therapy blocks cerebellar apoptosis and improves neurological symptoms in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C disease. |
Alvarez, AR; Klein, A; Castro, J; Cancino, GI; Amigo, J; Mosqueira, M; Vargas, LM; Yévenes, LF; Bronfman, FC; Zanlungo, S
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 22 3617-27 2008
Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in the endosomal-lysosomal system. Patients with NPC disease have markedly progressive neuronal loss, mainly of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. There is strong evidence indicating that cholesterol accumulation and trafficking defects activate apoptosis in NPC brains. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relevance of apoptosis and particularly the proapoptotic c-Abl/p73 system in cerebellar neuron degeneration in NPC disease. We used the NPC1 mouse model to evaluate c-Abl/p73 expression and activation in the cerebellum and the effect of therapy with the c-Abl-specific inhibitor imatinib. The proapoptotic c-Abl/p73 system and the p73 target genes are expressed in the cerebellums of NPC mice. Furthermore, inhibition of c-Abl with imatinib preserved Purkinje neurons and reduced general cell apoptosis in the cerebellum, improved neurological symptoms, and increased the survival of NPC mice. Moreover, this prosurvival effect correlated with reduced mRNA levels of p73 proapoptotic target genes. Our results suggest that the c-Abl/p73 pathway is involved in NPC neurodegeneration and show that treatment with c-Abl inhibitors is useful in delaying progressive neurodegeneration, supporting the use of imatinib for clinical treatment of patients with NPC disease.
|Calretinin-immunopositive cells and fibers in the cerebellar cortex of normal sheep. |
María-Isabel Alvarez, César Lacruz, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz, Eva Monleón, Marta Monzón, Juan-José Badiola, Adolfo Toledano
Cerebellum (London, England) 7 417-29 2008
Calretinin (CR)-immunopositive cells and fibers in the cerebellar cortex (vermal archicerebellum--lobules X and IX--and neocerebellum--lobules VIIb and VIII) of two and 4-year-old Manchega and Rasa Aragonesa sheep were studied. CR-immunoreactivity was seen in subsets of all neurons and afferent fibers described in the cerebellar cortex. Generally, immunopositive cells were seen in very high densities in lobules X and IX, and in low density in lobule VIIb. Apparently, all unipolar brush cells were CR-immunopositive and showed a greater variety of shape than had been reported in other species. CR-immunoreactivity of Purkinje cells was either absent or varied from low to medium intensity. Few granule cell perikarya were immunostained (5%) but a large number of their axons were CR-immunopositive. Subsets of stellate and basket cells were CR-immunoreactive--quite different to what is seen in most of mammalian species. Strongly CR-immunopositive mossy and climbing fibers, isolated or grouped, were observed in all lobules. Although we found neither a difference in CR-immunoreactivity between the two breds of sheep, nor between the two ages examined, we observed important differences in CR-immunoreactivity between sheep and other mammalian species. Our observation of neuronal clusters and groups of fibers with very high CR-immunopositivity supports the idea of a heterogeneous species-specific functional organization for the cerebellar cortex within an apparent homogeneous histological structure maintained throughout mammalian evolution. The results also suggest that the varied levels of CR expression may be related to the specific functions of these immunopositive neurons and fibers rather than to a general neuroprotective role played by calretinin in the cerebellar cortex.
|Leukemia inhibitory factor extends the lifespan of injured photoreceptors in vivo. |
Joly, S; Lange, C; Thiersch, M; Samardzija, M; Grimm, C
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 13765-74 2008
Survival and death of photoreceptors in degenerative diseases of the retina is controlled by a multitude of genes and endogenous factors. Some genes may be involved in the degenerative process itself whereas others may be part of an endogenous defense system. We show in two models of retinal degeneration that photoreceptor death strongly induces expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in a subset of Muller glia cells in the inner nuclear layer of the retina. LIF expression is essential to induce an extensive intraretinal signaling system which includes Muller cells and photoreceptors and is characterized by an upregulation of Edn2, STAT3, FGF2 and GFAP. In the absence of LIF, Muller cells remain quiescent, the signaling system is not activated and retinal degeneration is strongly accelerated. Intravitreal application of recombinant LIF induces the full molecular pathway including the activation of Muller cells in wild-type and Lif(-/-) mice. Interruption of the signaling cascade by an Edn2 receptor antagonist increases whereas activation of the receptor decreases photoreceptor cell death. Thus, LIF is essential and sufficient to activate an extensive molecular defense response to photoreceptor injury. Our data establish LIF as a Muller cell derived neuronal survival factor which controls an intrinsic protective mechanism that includes Edn2 signaling to support photoreceptor cell survival and to preserve vision in the injured retina.
|Cross-midline interactions between mouse commissural hindbrain axons contribute to their efficient decussation. |
Teresa Sandoval-Minero, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría, Teresa Sandoval-Minero, Alfredo Varela-Echavarría
Developmental neurobiology 68 349-64 2008
Information from both sides of the brain is integrated by axons that project across the midline of the central nervous system via numerous commissures present at all axial levels. Despite the accumulated experimental evidence, questions remain regarding the formation of commissures in the presence of strong repulsive signals in the ventral midline. Studies from invertebrates suggest that interaction at the midline between homologous axons of specific decussating neurons contributes to efficient midline crossing, but such evidence is lacking in vertebrate systems. We performed experiments to determine whether commissural axons of the caudal region of the hindbrain interact with their contralateral counterparts at the ventral midline and to evaluate the relevance of this reciprocal interaction. Double anterograde axon labeling with lipophilic tracers revealed close apposition between growth cones of contralateral pioneer decussating axons at the midline. Later, we detected fasciculation between contralateral axons that is maintained even after they have crossed the midline. Blocking axon projections unilaterally with a solid mechanical barrier decreased dramatically the midline crossing of the equivalent population from the contralateral side. Decussation was also blocked by a unilateral barrier permeable to diffusible molecules but not by an axon-permeable barrier. These results suggest that in the caudal region of the hindbrain, midline crossing is facilitated by interactions between decussating contralateral axon partners.
|The Reelin receptors Apoer2 and Vldlr coordinate the patterning of Purkinje cell topography in the developing mouse cerebellum. |
Larouche, M; Beffert, U; Herz, J; Hawkes, R
PloS one 3 e1653 2008
The adult cerebellar cortex is comprised of reproducible arrays of transverse zones and parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells. Adult stripes are created through the perinatal rostrocaudal dispersion of embryonic Purkinje cell clusters, triggered by signaling through the Reelin pathway. Reelin is secreted by neurons in the external granular layer and deep cerebellar nuclei and binds to two high affinity extracellular receptors on Purkinje cells-the Very low density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (Apoer2). In mice null for either Reelin or double null for Vldlr and Apoer2, Purkinje cell clusters fail to disperse. Here we report that animals null for either Vldlr or Apoer2 individually, exhibit specific and parasagittally-restricted Purkinje cell ectopias. For example, in mice lacking Apoer2 function immunostaining reveals ectopic Purkinje cells that are largely restricted to the zebrin II-immunonegative population of the anterior vermis. In contrast, mice null for Vldlr have a much larger population of ectopic Purkinje cells that includes members from both the zebrin II-immunonegative and -immunopositive phenotypes. HSP25 immunoreactivity reveals that in Vldlr null animals a large portion of zebrin II-immunopositive ectopic cells are probably destined to become stripes in the central zone (lobules VI-VII). A small population of ectopic zebrin II-immunonegative Purkinje cells is also observed in animals heterozygous for both receptors (Apoer2(+/-): Vldlr(+/-)), but no ectopia is present in mice heterozygous for either receptor alone. These results indicate that Apoer2 and Vldlr coordinate the dispersal of distinct, but overlapping subsets of Purkinje cells in the developing cerebellum.Artículo Texto completo
|Sox2 and JAGGED1 expression in normal and drug-damaged adult mouse inner ear. |
Oesterle, EC; Campbell, S; Taylor, RR; Forge, A; Hume, CR
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO 9 65-89 2008
Inner ear hair cells detect environmental signals associated with hearing, balance, and body orientation. In humans and other mammals, significant hair cell loss leads to irreversible hearing and balance deficits, whereas hair cell loss in nonmammalian vertebrates is repaired by the spontaneous generation of replacement hair cells. Research in mammalian hair cell regeneration is hampered by the lack of in vivo damage models for the adult mouse inner ear and the paucity of cell-type-specific markers for non-sensory cells within the sensory receptor epithelia. The present study delineates a protocol to drug damage the adult mouse auditory epithelium (organ of Corti) in situ and uses this protocol to investigate Sox2 and Jagged1 expression in damaged inner ear sensory epithelia. In other tissues, the transcription factor Sox2 and a ligand member of the Notch signaling pathway, Jagged1, are involved in regenerative processes. Both are involved in early inner ear development and are expressed in developing support cells, but little is known about their expressions in the adult. We describe a nonsurgical technique for inducing hair cell damage in adult mouse organ of Corti by a single high-dose injection of the aminoglycoside kanamycin followed by a single injection of the loop diuretic furosemide. This drug combination causes the rapid death of outer hair cells throughout the cochlea. Using immunocytochemical techniques, Sox2 is shown to be expressed specifically in support cells in normal adult mouse inner ear and is not affected by drug damage. Sox2 is absent from auditory hair cells, but is expressed in a subset of vestibular hair cells. Double-labeling experiments with Sox2 and calbindin suggest Sox2-positive hair cells are Type II. Jagged1 is also expressed in support cells in the adult ear and is not affected by drug damage. Sox2 and Jagged1 may be involved in the maintenance of support cells in adult mouse inner ear.Artículo Texto completo
|Hsp70 inhibits aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death and is necessary for the protective effect of heat shock. |
Taleb, M; Brandon, CS; Lee, FS; Lomax, MI; Dillmann, WH; Cunningham, LL
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO 9 277-89 2008
Sensory hair cells of the inner ear are sensitive to death from aging, noise trauma, and ototoxic drugs. Ototoxic drugs include the aminoglycoside antibiotics and the antineoplastic agent cisplatin. Exposure to aminoglycosides results in hair cell death that is mediated by specific apoptotic proteins, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspases. Induction of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is a highly conserved stress response that can inhibit JNK- and caspase-dependent apoptosis in a variety of systems. We have previously shown that heat shock results in a robust upregulation of Hsps in the hair cells of the adult mouse utricle in vitro. In addition, heat shock results in significant inhibition of both cisplatin- and aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. In our system, Hsp70 is the most strongly induced Hsp, which is upregulated over 250-fold at the level of mRNA 2 h after heat shock. Therefore, we have begun to examine the role of Hsp70 in mediating the protective effect of heat shock. To determine whether Hsp70 is necessary for the protective effect of heat shock against aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death, we utilized utricles from Hsp70.1/3 (-/-) mice. While heat shock inhibited gentamicin-induced hair cell death in wild-type utricles, utricles from Hsp70.1/3 (-/-) mice were not protected. In addition, we have examined the role of the major heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1, in mediating the protective effect of heat shock. Utricles from Hsf1 (-/-) mice and wild-type littermates were exposed to heat shock followed by gentamicin. The protective effect of heat shock on aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death was only observed in wild-type mice and not in Hsf1 (-/-) mice. To determine whether Hsp70 is sufficient to protect hair cells, we have utilized transgenic mice that constitutively overexpress Hsp70. Utricles from Hsp70-overexpressing mice and wild-type littermates were cultured in the presence of varying neomycin concentrations for 24 h. The Hsp70-overexpressing utricles were significantly protected against neomycin-induced hair cell death at moderate to high doses of neomycin. This protective effect was achieved without a heat shock. Taken together, these data indicate that Hsp70 and Hsf1 are each necessary for the protective effect of heat shock against aminoglycoside-induced death. Furthermore, overexpression of Hsp70 alone significantly inhibits aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death.Artículo Texto completo
|The role of thioredoxin reductases in brain development. |
Soerensen, J; Jakupoglu, C; Beck, H; Förster, H; Schmidt, J; Schmahl, W; Schweizer, U; Conrad, M; Brielmeier, M
PloS one 3 e1813 2008
The thioredoxin-dependent system is an essential regulator of cellular redox balance. Since oxidative stress has been linked with neurodegenerative disease, we studied the roles of thioredoxin reductases in brain using mice with nervous system (NS)-specific deletion of cytosolic (Txnrd1) and mitochondrial (Txnrd2) thioredoxin reductase. While NS-specific Txnrd2 null mice develop normally, mice lacking Txnrd1 in the NS were significantly smaller and displayed ataxia and tremor. A striking patterned cerebellar hypoplasia was observed. Proliferation of the external granular layer (EGL) was strongly reduced and fissure formation and laminar organisation of the cerebellar cortex was impaired in the rostral portion of the cerebellum. Purkinje cells were ectopically located and their dendrites stunted. The Bergmann glial network was disorganized and showed a pronounced reduction in fiber strength. Cerebellar hypoplasia did not result from increased apoptosis, but from decreased proliferation of granule cell precursors within the EGL. Of note, neuron-specific inactivation of Txnrd1 did not result in cerebellar hypoplasia, suggesting a vital role for Txnrd1 in Bergmann glia or neuronal precursor cells.
|Dendritic A-type potassium channel subunit expression in CA1 hippocampal interneurons. |
Menegola, M; Misonou, H; Vacher, H; Trimmer, JS
Neuroscience 154 953-64 2008
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are important and diverse determinants of neuronal excitability and exhibit specific expression patterns throughout the brain. Among Kv channels, Kv4 channels are major determinants of somatodendritic A-type current and are essential in controlling the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials (BAPs) into neuronal dendrites. BAPs have been well studied in a variety of neurons, and have been recently described in hippocampal and cortical interneurons, a heterogeneous population of GABAergic inhibitory cells that regulate activity of principal cells and neuronal networks. We used well-characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Kv4.3 and potassium channel interacting protein (KChIP) 1 subunits of A-type Kv channels, and antibodies against different interneuron markers in single- and double-label immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the expression patterns of Kv4.3 and KChIP1 in hippocampal Ammon's horn (CA1) neurons. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 mum rat brain sections using nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine staining or multiple-label immunofluorescence. Our results show that Kv4.3 and KChIP1 component subunits of A-type channels are co-localized in the soma and dendrites of a large number of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. These subunits co-localize extensively but not completely with markers defining the four major interneuron subpopulations tested (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin). These results suggest that CA1 hippocampal interneurons can be divided in two groups according to the expression of Kv4.3/KChIP1 channel subunits. Antibodies against Kv4.3 and KChIP1 represent an important new tool for identifying a subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons with a unique dendritic A-type channel complement and ability to control BAPs.
|Muscarinic M2 and M1 receptors reduce GABA release by Ca2+ channel modulation through activation of PI3K/Ca2+ -independent and PLC/Ca2+ -dependent PKC. |
Salgado, H; Bellay, T; Nichols, JA; Bose, M; Martinolich, L; Perrotti, L; Atzori, M
Journal of neurophysiology 98 952-65 2007
We measured pharmacologically isolated GABAergic currents from layer II/III neurons of the rat auditory cortex using patch-clamp recording. Activation of muscarinic receptors by muscarine (1 microM) or oxotremorine (10 microM) decreased the amplitude of electrically evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents to about one third of their control value. Neither miniature nor exogenously evoked GABAergic currents were altered by the presence of muscarinic agonists, indicating that the effect was spike-dependent and not mediated postsynaptically. The presence of the N- or P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel blockers omega-conotoxin GVIA (1 microM) or omega-AgaTx TK (200 nM) greatly blocked the muscarinic effect, suggesting that Ca(2+)-channels were target of the muscarinic modulation. The presence of the muscarinic M(2) receptor (M(2)R) antagonists methoctramine (5 muM) or AF-DX 116 (1 microM) blocked most of the muscarinic evoked inhibitory postsynaptic current (eIPSC) reduction, indicating that M(2)Rs were responsible for the effect, whereas the remaining component of the depression displayed M(1)R-like sensitivity. Tissue preincubation with the specific blockers of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI(3)K) wortmannin (200 nM), LY294002 (1 microM), or with the Ca(2+)-dependent PKC inhibitor Gö 6976 (200 nM) greatly impaired the muscarinic decrease of the eIPSC amplitude, whereas the remaining component was sensitive to preincubation in the phospholipase C blocker U73122 (10 microM). We conclude that acetylcholine release enhances the excitability of the auditory cortex by decreasing the release of GABA by inhibiting axonal V-dependent Ca(2+) channels, mostly through activation of presynaptic M(2)Rs/PI(3)K/Ca(2+)-independent PKC pathway and-to a smaller extent-by the activation of M(1)/PLC/Ca(2+)-dependent PKC.
|Unique requirement for Rb/E2F3 in neuronal migration: evidence for cell cycle-independent functions. |
McClellan, KA; Ruzhynsky, VA; Douda, DN; Vanderluit, JL; Ferguson, KL; Chen, D; Bremner, R; Park, DS; Leone, G; Slack, RS
Molecular and cellular biology 27 4825-43 2007
The cell cycle regulatory retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is a key regulator of neural precursor proliferation; however, its role has been expanded to include a novel cell-autonomous role in mediating neuronal migration. We sought to determine the Rb-interacting factors that mediate both the cell cycle and migration defects. E2F1 and E2F3 are likely Rb-interacting candidates that we have shown to be deregulated in the absence of Rb. Using mice with compound null mutations of Rb and E2F1 or E2F3, we asked to what extent either E2F1 or E2F3 interacts with Rb in neurogenesis. Here, we report that E2F1 and E2F3 are both functionally relevant targets in neural precursor proliferation, cell cycle exit, and laminar patterning. Each also partially mediates the Rb requirement for neuronal survival. Neuronal migration, however, is specifically mediated through E2F3, beyond its role in cell cycle regulation. This study not only outlines overlapping and distinct functions for E2Fs in neurogenesis but also is the first to establish a physiologically relevant role for the Rb/E2F pathway beyond cell cycle regulation in vivo.Artículo Texto completo
|Caytaxin deficiency disrupts signaling pathways in cerebellar cortex. |
J Xiao, S Gong, M S Ledoux
Neuroscience 144 439-61 2007
The genetically dystonic (dt) rat, an autosomal recessive model of generalized dystonia, harbors an insertional mutation in Atcay. As a result, dt rats are deficient in Atcay transcript and the neuronally-restricted protein caytaxin. Previous electrophysiological and biochemical studies have defined olivocerebellar pathways, particularly the climbing fiber projection to Purkinje cells, as sites of significant functional abnormality in dt rats. In normal rats, Atcay transcript is abundantly expressed in the granular and Purkinje cell layers of cerebellar cortex. To better understand the consequences of caytaxin deficiency in cerebellar cortex, differential gene expression was examined in dt rats and their normal littermates. Data from oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (QRT-PCR) identified phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways, calcium homeostasis, and extracellular matrix interactions as domains of cellular dysfunction in dt rats. In dt rats, genes encoding the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRH-R1, Crhr1) and plasma membrane calcium-dependent ATPase 4 (PMCA4, Atp2b4) showed the greatest up-regulation with QRT-PCR. Immunocytochemical experiments demonstrated that CRH-R1, CRH, and PMCA4 were up-regulated in cerebellar cortex of mutant rats. Along with previous electrophysiological and pharmacological studies, our data indicate that caytaxin plays a critical role in the molecular response of Purkinje cells to climbing fiber input. Caytaxin may also contribute to maturational events in cerebellar cortex.Artículo Texto completo
|Molecular and cellular alterations induced by sustained expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. |
Rhee, KD; Ruiz, A; Duncan, JL; Hauswirth, WW; Lavail, MM; Bok, D; Yang, XJ
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 48 1389-400 2007
To characterize molecular and cellular changes induced by sustained expression of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the rds mutant mouse retina.Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) expressing CNTF was injected subretinally, for transduction of peripherin/rds(+/)(-) transgenic mice that carry the P216L mutation found in human retinitis pigmentosa. Characterization of retinal neurons and glia was performed by immunocytochemistry with cell-type-specific markers. Activation of signaling molecules was examined by Western blot and immunostaining. Alterations of gene transcription profiles were studied by microarray analyses.CNTF viral transduction maintained rhodopsin expression in surviving rod photoreceptors, but greatly reduced both S- and M-opsin normally expressed in cones. In addition, CNTF treatment resulted in increased numbers and dispersion of Müller glia and Chx10-positive bipolar cells within the inner nuclear layer. Persistent CNTF signaling also caused enhanced phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3, and p42/44 ERK, as well as their levels of expression. Moreover, altered transcription profiles were detected for a large number of genes. Among these, Crx and Nrl involved in photoreceptor differentiation and several genes involved in phototransduction were suppressed.Despite the rescue from cell death, continuous exposure to CNTF changed photoreceptor cell profiles, especially resulting in the loss of cone immunoreactivity. In addition, the Müller glia and bipolar cells became disorganized, and the number of cells expressing Müller and bipolar cell markers increased. Constitutive CNTF production resulted in sustained activation of cytokine signal transduction and altered the expression of a large number of genes. Therefore, stringent regulation of CNTF may be necessary for its therapeutic application in preventing retinal degeneration.
|Macrophage contribution to the response of the rat organ of Corti to amikacin. |
Sabine Ladrech, Jing Wang, Lionel Simonneau, Jean-Luc Puel, Marc Lenoir
Journal of neuroscience research 85 1970-9 2007
Transdifferentiation of nonsensory supporting cells into sensory hair cells occurs naturally in the damaged avian inner ear. Such transdifferentiation was achieved experimentally in the cochlea of deaf guinea pigs through Atoh 1 gene transfection. Supporting cells may therefore serve as targets for transdifferentiation therapy. Supporting cells rapidly degenerate after hair cell disappearance, however, limiting the therapeutic window for gene transfer. We studied the time course of ultrastructural and phenotypical changes occurring in Deiters cells (hair cell supporting cells) after ototoxic treatment in the rat. The presence of macrophages in the cochlea was also investigated, to study any deleterious effects they may have on pathologic tissues. One week after treatment most hair cells had disappeared. Deiters cells no longer expressed the glial marker vimentin but instead displayed typical hair cell markers, the calcium binding proteins calbindin and parvalbumin. This suggests that a process of transdifferentiation of Deiters cells into hair cells was activated. By 3 weeks post-treatment, however, the Deiters cells began to degenerate and by 10 weeks post-treatment the organ of Corti was degraded fully. Interestingly, a marked increase in macrophage density was seen after the end of amikacin treatment to 10 weeks post-treatment. This suggests chronic inflammation is involved in epithelium degeneration. Consequently, early treatments with anti-inflammatory factors might promote supporting cell survival, thus improving the efficacy of more specific strategies aimed to regenerate hair cells from nonsensory cells.
|Characterization of neuron-specific huntingtin aggregates in human huntingtin knock-in mice. |
Hirohide Sawada,Hiroshi Ishiguro,Kazuhiro Nishii,Kouji Yamada,Kunihiro Tsuchida,Hisahide Takahashi,Jun Goto,Ichiro Kanazawa,Toshiharu Nagatsu
Neuroscience research 57 2007
Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a mutation causing expanded polyglutamine tracts in the N-terminal fragment of huntingtin. A pathological hallmark of HD is the formation of aggregates in the striatal neurons. Here we report that ageing human huntingtin knock-in mice expressing mutant human huntingtin contained neuronal huntingtin aggregates, as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis. In heterozygous knock-in mice with 77 CAG repeats, aggregates of N-terminal fragments of huntingtin were specifically formed in nuclei and neuropils in the striatal projection neurons, and in neuropils in their projection regions. This aggregate formation progressed depending on age, became interacted with proteolytic or chaperone proteins, and occurred most prominently in the nucleus accumbens. These mutant mice demonstrated abnormal aggressive behavior. In homozygous knock-in mice, heavy deposits of intranuclear and neuropil aggregates were detected, which extended to other regions; and characteristic large perikaryal aggregates were also found in the affected neurons. However, cell death was not observed among the striatal and affected neurons of these mutant mice. Our results indicate that the polyglutamine aggregates do not necessarily correlate with neuronal death. These human huntingtin knock-in mice should be useful to provide an effective therapeutic approach against HD.
|Adult neurogenesis and specific replacement of interneuron subtypes in the mouse main olfactory bulb. |
Bagley, J; LaRocca, G; Jimenez, DA; Urban, NN
BMC neuroscience 8 92 2007
New neurons are generated in the adult brain from stem cells found in the subventricular zone (SVZ). These cells proliferate in the SVZ, generating neuroblasts which then migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), ending their migration in the glomerular layer (GLL) and the granule cell layer (GCL) of the MOB. Neuronal populations in these layers undergo turnover throughout life, but whether all neuronal subtypes found in these areas are replaced and when neurons begin to express subtype-specific markers is not known.Here we use BrdU injections and immunohistochemistry against (calretinin, calbindin, N-copein, tyrosine hydroxylase and GABA) and show that adult-generated neurons express markers of all major subtypes of neurons in the GLL and GCL. Moreover, the fractions of new neurons that express subtype-specific markers at 40 and 75 days post BrdU injection are very similar to the fractions of all neurons expressing these markers. We also show that many neurons in the glomerular layer do not express NeuN, but are readily and specifically labeled by the fluorescent nissl stain Neurotrace.The expression of neuronal subtype-specific markers by new neurons in the GLL and GCL changes rapidly during the period from 14-40 days after BrdU injection before reaching adult levels. This period may represent a critical window for cell fate specification similar to that observed for neuronal survival.
|GABAergic neurons immunoreactive for calcium binding proteins are reduced in the prefrontal cortex in major depression. |
Rajkowska, G; O'Dwyer, G; Teleki, Z; Stockmeier, CA; Miguel-Hidalgo, JJ
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 32 471-82 2007
Post-mortem morphometric studies report reductions in the average density and size of cortical neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (ORB) in major depressive disorder (MDD). The contribution of specific neuronal phenotypes to this general pathology in depression is still unclear. Post-mortem sections from the dlPFC and ORB regions of 14 subjects with MDD and 11 controls were immunostained to visualize calbindin-immunoreactive (CB-IR) and parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) presumptive GABAergic neurons. A three-dimensional cell counting probe was used to assess the cell packing density and size of CB-IR neurons in layers II+IIIa and PV-IR neurons in layers III-VI. The density of CB-IR neurons was significantly reduced by 50% in depression in the dlPFC and there was a trend toward reduction in the ORB. The size of CB-IR somata was significantly decreased (18%) in depression in the dlPFC with a trend toward reduction in the ORB. In contrast, there was no difference in the density of PV-IR neurons between the depressed and control groups in the dlPFC. The size of PV-IR neuronal soma was unchanged in depressed compared to control subjects in either dlPFC or ORB. In depression, subpopulations of GABAergic neurons may be affected differently in dlPFC and ORB. A significant reduction in the density and size of GABAergic interneurons immunoreactive for calcium binding proteins was found predominantly in the dlPFC region. These cellular changes are consistent with recent neuroimaging studies revealing a reduction in the cortical levels of GABA in depression.
|Functional engraftment of human ES cell-derived dopaminergic neurons enriched by coculture with telomerase-immortalized midbrain astrocytes. |
Roy, Neeta S, et al.
Nat. Med., 12: 1259-68 (2006) 2006
To direct human embryonic stem (HES) cells to a dopaminergic neuronal fate, we cocultured HES cells that were exposed to both sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor 8 with telomerase-immortalized human fetal midbrain astrocytes. These astrocytes substantially potentiated dopaminergic neurogenesis by both WA09 and WA01 HES cells, biasing them to the A9 nigrostriatal phenotype. When transplanted into the neostriata of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian rats, the dopaminergic implants yielded a significant, substantial and long-lasting restitution of motor function. However, although rich in donor-derived tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons, the grafts exhibited expanding cores of undifferentiated mitotic neuroepithelial cells, which can be tumorigenic. These results show the utility of recreating the cellular environment of the developing human midbrain while driving dopaminergic neurogenesis from HES cells, and they demonstrate the potential of the resultant cells to mediate substantial functional recovery in a model of Parkinson disease. Yet these data also mandate caution in the clinical application of HES cell-derived grafts, given their potential for phenotypic instability and undifferentiated expansion.
|Differential distributions of the Ca2+ -dependent activator protein for secretion family proteins (CAPS2 and CAPS1) in the mouse brain. |
Tetsushi Sadakata, Makoto Itakura, Shunji Kozaki, Yukiko Sekine, Masami Takahashi, Teiichi Furuichi
The Journal of comparative neurology 495 735-53 2006
The Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS/Cadps) family consists of two members, CAPS1 and CAPS2, and plays an important role in secretory granule exocytosis. It has been shown that CAPS1 regulates catecholamine release from neuroendocrine cells, whereas CAPS2 is involved in the release of two neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), from parallel fibers of cerebellar granule cells. Although both CAPS proteins are expressed predominantly in the brain, their cellular and regional distributions in the brain are largely unknown. In this study we analyzed the immunohistochemical distributions of the CAPS family proteins in the mouse brain. In most areas of the embryonic nervous system CAPS1 and CAPS2 proteins were complementarily expressed. In the postnatal brain, CAPS1 was widespread at different levels. On the other hand, CAPS2 was localized to distinct cell types and fibers of various brain regions, including the olfactory bulb, cerebrum, hippocampal formation, thalamus, mesencephalic tegmentum, cerebellum, medulla, and spinal cord, except for some regions that overlapped with CAPS1. These CAPS2 cellular distribution patterns had the marked feature of coinciding with those of BDNF in various brain regions. Immunolabels for CAPS2 were also colocalized with those for some proteins related to exocytosis (VAMP and SNAP-25) and endocytosis (Dynamin I) in the cell soma and processes of the mesencephalic tegmentum and cerebellum, suggesting that these proteins might be involved in the dynamics of CAPS2-associated vesicles, although their colocalization on vesicles remains elusive. These results demonstrate that the CAPS family proteins are involved in the secretion of different secretory substances in developing and postnatal brains, and that CAPS2 is probably involved in BDNF secretion in many brain areas.
|Neurogranin expression identifies a novel array of Purkinje cell parasagittal stripes during mouse cerebellar development. |
Matt Larouche, Priscilla M Che, Richard Hawkes
The Journal of comparative neurology 494 215-27 2006
Markers that reveal the parasagittal organization of cerebellar Purkinje cells may be grouped into two classes based on the time during development when they are expressed. In mice, early-onset markers are defined by their heterogeneous expression in clusters of Purkinje cells during late embryogenesis, which disappears shortly following birth. Late-onset markers are generally not expressed until about 1 week after birth and do not reach a stable striped expression pattern until about 3 weeks postnatally. Currently, no endogenous markers are known that are heterogeneously expressed in the temporal gap between these two classes. Here we present immunocytochemical evidence that parasagittal stripes of Purkinje cells express a member of the calpacitin protein family, neurogranin, possibly from as early as embryonic day (E) 13 and definitively from E15, in a pattern that persists up to postnatal day (P) 20. Neurogranin is thus the first endogenous marker of a Purkinje cell subset capable of bridging the temporal gap between the early- and late-onset patterns. In the early neonate, up to five pairs of neurogranin-immunopositive Purkinje cell stripes run parasagittally through the cerebellum, with the exact number dependent on the rostrocaudal position. Expression is lost during postnatal development in a transverse zone-dependent fashion. Purkinje cells in the central and nodular zones lose neurogranin expression between approximately P4 and P6, whereas expression in the posterior zone persists until approximately P20. Neurogranin immunoreactivity will be a valuable tool in helping to clarify the relationships between early- and late-onset patterns.
|JNK signaling in neomycin-induced vestibular hair cell death. |
Sugahara, K; Rubel, EW; Cunningham, LL
Hearing research 221 128-35 2006
Mechanosensory hair cells are susceptible to apoptotic death in response to exposure to ototoxic drugs, including aminoglycoside antibiotics. The c-Jun n-terminal kinase (JNK) is a stress-activated protein kinase that can promote apoptotic cell death in a variety of systems. Inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway can prevent aminoglycoside-induced death of cochlear and vestibular sensory hair cells. We used an in vitro preparation of utricles from adult mice to examine the role of JNK activation in aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. CEP-11004 was used as an indirect inhibitor of JNK signaling. Immunohistochemistry showed that both JNK and its downstream target c-Jun are phosphorylated in hair cells of utricles exposed to neomycin. CEP-11004 inhibited neomycin-induced phosphorylation of both JNK and c-Jun. CEP-11004 inhibited hair cell death in utricles exposed to moderate doses of neomycin. However, the results were not uniform across the dose-response function; CEP-11004 did not inhibit hair cell death in utricles exposed to high-dose neomycin. The CEP-11004-induced protective effect was not due to inhibition of PKC or p38, since neither Chelerythrine nor SB203580 could mimic the protective effect of CEP-11004. In addition, inhibition of JNK inhibited the activation of caspase-9 in hair cells. These results indicate that JNK plays an important role in neomycin-induced vestibular hair cell death and caspase-9 activation.
|Requirement of TrkB for synapse elimination in developing cerebellar Purkinje cells. |
Bosman, LW; Hartmann, J; Barski, JJ; Lepier, A; Noll-Hussong, M; Reichardt, LF; Konnerth, A
Brain cell biology 35 87-101 2006
The receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB and its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5), are critically important for growth, survival and activity-dependent synaptic strengthening in the central nervous system. These TrkB-mediated actions occur in a highly cell-type specific manner. Here we report that cerebellar Purkinje cells, which are richly endowed with TrkB receptors, develop a normal morphology in trkB-deficient mice. Thus, in contrast to other types of neurons, Purkinje cells do not need TrkB for dendritic growth and spine formation. Instead, we find a moderate delay in the maturation of GABAergic synapses and, more importantly, an abnormal multiple climbing fiber innervation in Purkinje cells in trkB-deficient mice. Thus, our results demonstrate an involvement of TrkB receptors in synapse elimination and reveal a new role for receptor tyrosine kinases in the brain.
|Cholinergic input is required during embryonic development to mediate proper assembly of spinal locomotor circuits. |
Myers, Christopher P, et al.
Neuron, 46: 37-49 (2005) 2005
Rhythmic limb movements are controlled by pattern-generating neurons within the ventral spinal cord, but little is known about how these locomotor circuits are assembled during development. At early stages of embryogenesis, motor neurons are spontaneously active, releasing acetylcholine that triggers the depolarization of adjacent cells in the spinal cord. To investigate whether acetylcholine-driven activity is required for assembly of the central pattern-generating (CPG) circuit, we studied mice lacking the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) enzyme. Our studies show that a rhythmically active spinal circuit forms in ChAT mutants, but the duration of each cycle period is elongated, and right-left and flexor-extensor coordination are abnormal. In contrast, blocking acetylcholine receptors after the locomotor network is wired does not affect right-left or flexor-extensor coordination. These findings suggest that the cholinergic neurotransmitter pathway is involved in configuring the CPG during a transient period of development.
|Characterization of olfactory bulb glomeruli in schizophrenia. |
Lise Rioux, Edward Isaac Gelber, Leila Parand, Hala Altaf Kazi, Joannie Yeh, Rebecca Wintering, Warren Bilker, Steven Edward Arnold
Schizophrenia research 77 229-39 2005
Olfactory deficits, observed in schizophrenia, may be associated with a disruption of synaptic transmission in the olfactory system. Using immunohistochemistry and optical densitometry, we assessed the integrity of the synaptic connection between olfactory receptor neurons and olfactory bulb target neurons in schizophrenia by comparing the level of eight proteins, expressed in the olfactory bulb glomeruli, among schizophrenia and control subjects. In schizophrenia, no change was observed in the levels of OMP, GAP43 and NCAM, proteins expressed by olfactory receptor neurons, suggesting an intact innervation of the olfactory bulb by these neurons. This was supported by the absence of change in calbindin level, which has been shown to decrease after the destruction of the olfactory epithelium. The level of synaptophysin, a pre-synaptic protein, was also unchanged. These findings suggested that axons of olfactory receptor neurons establish synapses with their olfactory bulb targets in schizophrenia. The absence of change in the level of poorly phosphorylated neurofilament of moderate and high molecular weight (NFM/HP) suggested no lack of dendritic innervation despite a previously seen reduction of glomerular MAP2 level in schizophrenia subjects. This and above findings were consistent with the absence of change in the level of beta-tubulin III, a protein expressed by neurons of both olfactory epithelium and bulb. Finally, we noted no significant decrease in trkB level, a neurotrophin receptor involved in the olfactory epithelium maintenance. This study showed no evidence of major structural alteration of the synapse between the olfactory epithelium and bulb in schizophrenia.
|Carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII deficiency is associated with a distinctive lifelong gait disorder in waddles mice. |
Jiao, Yan, et al.
Genetics, 171: 1239-46 (2005) 2005
The waddles (wdl) mouse is a unique animal model that exhibits ataxia and appendicular dystonia without pathological abnormalities of either the central or the peripheral nervous systems. A 19-bp deletion in exon 8 of the carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII gene (Car8) was detected by high-throughput temperature-gradient capillary electrophoresis heteroduplex analysis of PCR amplicons of genes and ESTs within the wdl locus on mouse chromosome 4. Although regarded as a member of the carbonic anhydrase gene family, the encoded protein (CAR8) has no reported enzymatic activity. In normal mice, CAR8 is abundantly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells as well as in several other cell groups. Compatible with nonsense-mediated decay of mutant transcripts, CAR8 is virtually absent in mice homozygous for the wdl mutation. These data indicate that the wdl mouse is a Car8 null mutant and that CAR8 plays a central role in motor control.
|Stereotyped axon pruning via plexin signaling is associated with synaptic complex elimination in the hippocampus. |
Liu, Xiao-Bo, et al.
J. Neurosci., 25: 9124-34 (2005) 2005
Plexin signaling is required for stereotyped pruning of long axon collaterals in the vertebrate CNS; however, a cellular basis for plexins on stereotyped pruning has not been determined. Using quantitative electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry, we found that infrapyramidal mossy fiber axon collaterals form transient synaptic complexes with basal dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells in the early postnatal mouse hippocampus. At later postnatal ages, these synaptic complexes stop maturing and are removed before stereotyped pruning by a mechanism that does not involve axon degeneration and glial cell engulfment. In knock-out mice that lack plexin-A3 signaling, the synaptic complexes continue to mature, and, as a result, the collaterals are not pruned. Thus, our results suggest that intact plexin-A3 signaling contributes to synaptic complex elimination, which is associated with stereotyped axon pruning.
|Genetic modifiers of the Kv beta2-null phenotype in mice. |
J X Connor, K McCormack, A Pletsch, S Gaeta, B Ganetzky, S-Y Chiu, A Messing
Genes, brain, and behavior 4 77-88 2005
Shaker-type potassium (K+) channels are composed of pore-forming alpha subunits associated with cytoplasmic beta subunits. Kv beta2 is the predominant Kv beta subunit in the mammalian nervous system, but its functions in vivo are not clear. Kv beta2-null mice have been previously characterized in our laboratory as having reduced lifespans, cold swim-induced tremors and occasional seizures, but no apparent defect in Kv alpha-subunit trafficking. To test whether strain differences might influence the severity of this phenotype, we analyzed Kv beta2-null mice in different strain backgrounds: 129/SvEv (129), C57BL/6J (B6) and two mixed B6/129 backgrounds. We found that strain differences significantly affected survival, body weight and thermoregulation in Kv beta2-null mice. B6 nulls had a more severe phenotype than 129 nulls in these measures; this dramatic difference did not reflect alterations in seizure thresholds but may relate to strain differences we observed in cerebellar Kv1.2 expression. To specifically test whether Kv beta1 is a genetic modifier of the Kv beta2-null phenotype, we generated Kv beta1.1-deficient mice by gene targeting and bred them to Kv beta2-null mice. Kv beta1.1/Kv beta2 double knockouts had significantly increased mortality compared with either single knockout but still maintained surface expression of Kv1.2, indicating that trafficking of this alpha subunit does not require either Kv beta subunit. Our results suggest that genetic differences between 129/SvEv and C57Bl/6J are key determinants of the severity of defects seen in Kv beta2-null mice and that Kv beta1.1 is a specific although not strain-dependent modifier.
|Expression of type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor in the guinea pig enteric nervous system. |
Sumei Liu, Xiang Gao, Na Gao, Xiyu Wang, Xiucai Fang, Hong-Zhen Hu, Guo-Du Wang, Yun Xia, Jackie D Wood
The Journal of comparative neurology 481 284-98 2005
Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry, electrophysiological recording, and intraneuronal injection of the neuronal tracer biocytin were integrated in a study of the functional expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in the guinea pig enteric nervous system. RT-PCR revealed expression of CRF1 receptor mRNA, but not CRF2, in both myenteric and submucosal plexuses. Immunoreactivity for the CRF1 receptor was distributed widely in the myenteric plexus of the stomach and small and large intestine and in the submucosal plexus of the small and large intestine. CRF1 receptor immunoreactivity was coexpressed with calbindin, choline acetyltransferase, and substance P in the myenteric plexus. In the submucosal plexus, CRF1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in neurons that expressed calbindin, substance P, choline acetyltransferase, or neuropeptide Y. Application of CRF evoked slowly activating depolarizing responses associated with elevated excitability in both myenteric and submucosal neurons. Histological analysis of biocytin-filled neurons revealed that both uniaxonal neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology responded to CRF. The CRF-evoked depolarizing responses were suppressed by the CRF1/CRF2 receptor antagonist astressin and the selective CRF1 receptor antagonist NBI27914 and were unaffected by the selective CRF2 receptor antagonist antisauvagine-30. The findings support the hypothesis that the CRF1 receptor mediates the excitatory actions of CRF on neurons in the enteric nervous system. Actions on enteric neurons might underlie the neural mechanisms by which stress-related release of CRF in the periphery alters intestinal propulsive motor function, mucosal secretion, and barrier functions.
|Immunohistochemistry (Tissue)||Guinea Pig||15593376|
|Phenotype screening for genetically determined age-onset disorders and increased longevity in ENU-mutagenized mice. |
Johnson, DK; Rinchik, EM; Moustaid-Moussa, N; Miller, DR; Williams, RW; Michaud, EJ; Jablonski, MM; Elberger, A; Hamre, K; Smeyne, R; Chesler, E; Goldowitz, D
Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) 27 75-90 2005
With the goal of discovering genes that contribute to late-onset neurological and ocular disorders and also genes that extend the healthy life span in mammals, we are phenotyping mice carrying new mutations induced by the chemical N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). The phenotyping plan includes basic behavioral, neurohistological, and vision testing in sibling cohorts of mice aged to 18 months, and then evaluation for markers of growth trajectory and stress response in these same cohorts aged up to 28 months. Statistical outliers are identified by comparison to test results of similar aged cohorts, and potential mutants are recovered for re-aging to confirm heritability of the phenotype.
|A cell-autonomous requirement for the cell cycle regulatory protein, Rb, in neuronal migration. |
Ferguson, KL; McClellan, KA; Vanderluit, JL; McIntosh, WC; Schuurmans, C; Polleux, F; Slack, RS
The EMBO journal 24 4381-91 2005
Precise cell cycle regulation is critical for nervous system development. To assess the role of the cell cycle regulator, retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, in forebrain development, we studied mice with telencephalon-specific Rb deletions. We examined the role of Rb in neuronal specification and migration of diverse neuronal populations. Although layer specification occurred at the appropriate time in Rb mutants, migration of early-born cortical neurons was perturbed. Consistent with defects in radial migration, neuronal cell death in Rb mutants specifically affected Cajal-Retzius neurons. In the ventral telencephalon, although calbindin- and Lhx6-expressing cortical neurons were generated at embryonic day 12.5, their tangential migration into the neocortex was dramatically and specifically reduced in the mutant marginal zone. Cell transplantation assays revealed that defects in tangential migration arose owing to a cell-autonomous loss of Rb in migrating interneurons and not because of a defective cortical environment. These results revealed a cell-autonomous role for Rb in regulating the tangential migration of cortical interneurons. Taken together, we reveal a novel requirement for the cell cycle protein, Rb, in the regulation of neuronal migration.
|The p75 neurotrophin receptor can induce autophagy and death of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. |
Florez-McClure, Maria L, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 4498-509 (2004) 2004
The cellular mechanisms underlying Purkinje neuron death in various neurodegenerative disorders of the cerebellum are poorly understood. Here we investigate an in vitro model of cerebellar neuronal death. We report that cerebellar Purkinje neurons, deprived of trophic factors, die by a form of programmed cell death distinct from the apoptotic death of neighboring granule neurons. Purkinje neuron death was characterized by excessive autophagic-lysosomal vacuolation. Autophagy and death of Purkinje neurons were inhibited by nerve growth factor (NGF) and were activated by NGF-neutralizing antibodies. Although treatment with antisense oligonucleotides to the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75ntr) decreased basal survival of cultured cerebellar neurons, p75ntr-antisense decreased autophagy and completely inhibited death of Purkinje neurons induced by trophic factor withdrawal. Moreover, adenoviral expression of a p75ntr mutant lacking the ligand-binding domain induced vacuolation and death of Purkinje neurons. These results suggest that p75ntr is required for Purkinje neuron survival in the presence of trophic support; however, during trophic factor withdrawal, p75ntr contributes to Purkinje neuron autophagy and death. The autophagic morphology resembles that found in neurodegenerative disorders, suggesting a potential role for this pathway in neurological disease.
|Enhanced in vitro midbrain dopamine neuron differentiation, dopaminergic function, neurite outgrowth, and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridium resistance in mouse embryonic stem cells overexpressing Bcl-XL. |
Shim, Jae-Won, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 843-52 (2004) 2004
Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide a potentially unlimited source of specialized cells for regenerative medicine. The ease of inducing stable genetic modifications in ES cells allows for in vitro manipulations to enhance differentiation into specific cell types and to optimize in vivo function of differentiated progeny in animal models of disease. We have generated mouse ES cells that constitutively express Bcl-XL, an antiapoptotic protein of Bcl-2 family. In vitro differentiation of Bcl-XL overexpressing ES (Bcl-ES) cells resulted in higher expression of genes related to midbrain dopamine (DA) neuron development and increased the number of ES-derived neurons expressing midbrain DA markers compared with differentiation of wild-type ES cells. Moreover, DA neurons derived from Bcl-ES cells were less susceptible to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridium, a neurotoxin for DA neurons. On transplantation into parkinsonian rats, the Bcl-ES-derived DA neurons exhibited more extensive fiber outgrowth and led to a more pronounced reversal of behavioral symptoms than wild-type ES-derived DA neurons. These data suggest a role for Bcl-XL during in vitro midbrain DA neuron differentiation and provide an improved system for cell transplantation in a preclinical animal model of Parkinson's disease.
|Induction of deltaFosB in reward-related brain structures after chronic stress. |
Perrotti, LI; Hadeishi, Y; Ulery, PG; Barrot, M; Monteggia, L; Duman, RS; Nestler, EJ
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24 10594-602 2004
Acute and chronic stress differentially regulate immediate-early gene (IEG) expression in the brain. Although acute stress induces c-Fos and FosB, repeated exposure to stress desensitizes the c-Fos response, but FosB-like immunoreactivity remains high. Several other treatments differentially regulate IEG expression in a similar manner after acute versus chronic exposure. The form of FosB that persists after these chronic treatments has been identified as DeltaFosB, a splice variant of the fosB gene. This study was designed to determine whether the FosB form induced after chronic stress is also DeltaFosB and to map the brain regions and identify the cell populations that exhibit this effect. Western blotting, using an antibody that recognizes all Fos family members, revealed that acute restraint stress caused robust induction of c-Fos and full-length FosB, as well as a small induction of DeltaFosB, in the frontal cortex (fCTX) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The induction of c-Fos (and to some extent full-length FosB) was desensitized after 10 d of restraint stress, at which point levels of DeltaFosB were high. A similar pattern was observed after chronic unpredictable stress. By use of immunohistochemistry, we found that chronic restraint stress induced DeltaFosB expression predominantly in the fCTX, NAc, and basolateral amygdala, with lower levels of induction seen elsewhere. These findings establish that chronic stress induces DeltaFosB in several discrete regions of the brain. Such induction could contribute to the long-term effects of stress on the brain.
|Orexin (hypocretin)/dynorphin neurons control GABAergic inputs to tuberomammillary neurons. |
Eriksson, Krister S, et al.
Eur. J. Neurosci., 19: 1278-84 (2004) 2004
High activity of the histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus increases wakefulness, and their firing rate is highest during waking and lowest during rapid eye movement sleep. The TM neurons receive a prominent innervation from sleep-active gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, which inhibits them during sleep. They also receive an excitatory input from the orexin- and dynorphin-containing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, which are critically involved in sleep regulation and whose dysfunction causes narcolepsy. We have used intracellular recordings and immunohistochemistry to study if orexin neurons exert control over the GABAergic inputs to TM neurons in rat hypothalamic slices. Dynorphin suppressed GABAergic inputs and thus disinhibits the TM neurons, acting in concert with orexin to increase the excitability of these neurons. In contrast, both orexin-A and orexin-B markedly increased the frequency of GABAergic potentials, while co-application of orexin and dynorphin produced responses similar to dynorphin alone. Thus, orexins excite TM neurons directly and by disinhibition, gated by dynorphin. These data might explain some of the neuropathology of narcolepsy.
|Loss of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons in frontal and temporal cortex resulting from attenuation of FGFR1 signaling is associated with spontaneous hyperactivity in mice. |
Shin, DM; Korada, S; Raballo, R; Shashikant, CS; Simeone, A; Taylor, JR; Vaccarino, F
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 24 2247-58 2004
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene products (Fgfr1, Fgfr2, Fgfr3) are widely expressed by embryonic neural progenitor cells throughout the CNS, yet their functional role in cerebral cortical development is still unclear. To understand whether the FGF pathways play a role in cortical development, we attenuated FGFR signaling by expressing a tyrosine kinase domain-deficient Fgfr1 (tFgfr1) gene construct during embryonic brain development. Mice carrying the tFgfr1 transgene under the control of the Otx1 gene promoter have decreased thickness of the cerebral cortex in frontal and temporal areas because of decreased number of pyramidal neurons and disorganization of pyramidal cell dendritic architecture. These alterations may be, in part, attributable to decreased genesis of T-Brain-1-positive early glutamatergic neurons and, in part, to a failure to maintain radial glia fibers in medial prefrontal and temporal areas of the cortical plate. No changes were detected in cortical GABAergic interneurons, including Cajal-Retzius cells or in the basal ganglia. Behaviorally, tFgfr1 transgenic mice displayed spontaneous and persistent locomotor hyperactivity that apparently was not attributable to alterations in subcortical monoaminergic systems, because transgenic animals responded to both amphetamine and guanfacine, an alpha2A adrenergic receptor agonist. We conclude that FGF tyrosine kinase signaling may be required for the genesis and growth of pyramidal neurons in frontal and temporal cortical areas, and that alterations in cortical development attributable to disrupted FGF signaling are critical for the inhibitory regulation of motor behavior.
|Altered expression of Bcl2, Bad and Bax mRNA occurs in the rat cerebellum within hours after ethanol exposure on postnatal day 4 but not on postnatal day 9. |
Yun Ge, Scott M Belcher, Dwight R Pierce, Kim E Light
Brain research. Molecular brain research 129 124-34 2004
Previous studies have demonstrated that ethanol exposure during the vulnerable postnatal (PN) day 4-6 period results in a dose-dependent loss of Purkinje neurons in rats by apoptosis. Although the mechanism of ethanol action and the reasons for Purkinje cell vulnerability are unknown, we hypothesize that during the PN4-6 vulnerable period Purkinje cells are dependent on active trophic factor suppression of apoptosis. Furthermore, ethanol acts to prevent the reception of this trophic signaling resulting in the execution of the apoptotic pathway that includes specific alterations of proteins in the Bcl2 gene family. Ethanol exposure that occurs after this vulnerable period (i.e. PN9) would not be expected to demonstrate alterations in these apoptotic proteins since the Purkinje cells no longer demonstrate vulnerability to ethanol. The current study was undertaken to identify the alterations in mRNA expression for members of the Bcl2-family within the initial hours following ethanol administration on PN4 or PN9. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to determine the expression levels of pro-apoptotic factors Bad and Bax, and anti-apoptotic Bcl(2) mRNA. Ethanol was administered at four different doses (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 g/kg) on PN4 and analyses of whole cerebellar mRNA was conducted at 1, 4, 6, and 8 h after treatment. Doses greater than 1.5 g/kg produced significant decreases in Bcl(2) and significant increases in Bad and Bax mRNA during the 8-h period after treatment. In stark contrast, when ethanol was administered at 3.0 or 6.0 g/kg to PN9 pups, no significant alterations of these apoptotic factors were identified at either 1 or 4 h after treatment. These results are in agreement with and provide further support for our hypothesis that ethanol interrupts the active suppression of apoptosis that is a crucial feature of Purkinje cell vulnerability during this time period.
|Focused motor stereotypies do not require enhanced activation of neurons in striosomes. |
Sara B Glickstein, Claudia Schmauss
The Journal of comparative neurology 469 227-38 2004
Stereotypic motor behavior is a widespread phenomenon of many neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Studies on the mechanisms controlling motor stereotypies have focused on the role of dopamine in modulating the activity of basal ganglia neuronal circuits, and recent results demonstrated that stereotypic motor responses characteristic of psychomotor stimulant sensitization correlate with an enhanced activation of neurons located in striatal striosomes that substantially exceeds that of the surrounding matrix. The present study tested whether predominant striosomal activation is a general predictor for stereotypy. Wild-type and dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptor knockout mice were treated either three times with methamphetamine (METH; 3 x 5 mg/kg every 2 hours) or once with a full D(1) agonist. Depending on the genotype, both treatments elicit the same focused stereotypy (taffy pulling). Repeated METH-treatment elicits intense stereotypy in wild-type and D(3) mutants but not in D(2) single and D(2)/D(3) double mutants. The stereotypic response of wild-type and D(3) mutants correlates with a predominant activation of neurons located in striosomes. No striosomal predominance is detected in METH-treated D(2) single and D(2)/D(3) double mutants. In contrast, D(2) single and D(2)/D(3) double mutants exhibited the most severe stereotypic response to D(1)-agonist treatment. However, this treatment did not result in enhanced striosomal activation. Thus, whereas the expression of stereotypy in response to repeated METH treatment requires D(2) receptor expression, D(2) receptor expression diminishes stereotypic responses to an acute dose of a D(1) agonist. Enhanced striosomal activation, however, is a reliable indicator of D(1)- and D(2)-receptor coactivation but not a predictor for repetitive motor behavior in general.
|alpha3beta1 integrin modulates neuronal migration and placement during early stages of cerebral cortical development. |
Schmid, RS; Shelton, S; Stanco, A; Yokota, Y; Kreidberg, JA; Anton, ES
Development (Cambridge, England) 131 6023-31 2004
We show that alpha3 integrin mutation disrupts distinct aspects of neuronal migration and placement in the cerebral cortex. The preplate develops normally in alpha3 integrin mutant mice. However, time lapse imaging of migrating neurons in embryonic cortical slices indicates retarded radial and tangential migration of neurons, but not ventricular zone-directed migration. Examination of the actin cytoskeleton of alpha3 integrin mutant cortical cells reveals aberrant actin cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading edges. Deficits are also evident in the ability of developing neurons to probe their cellular environment with filopodial and lamellipodial activity. Calbindin or calretinin positive upper layer neurons as well as the deep layer neurons of alpha3 integrin mutant mice expressing EGFP were misplaced. These results suggest that alpha3beta1 integrin deficiency impairs distinct patterns of neuronal migration and placement through dysregulated actin dynamics and defective ability to search and respond to migration modulating cues in the developing cortex.
|Cajal-Retzius cells in the mouse: transcription factors, neurotransmitters, and birthdays suggest a pallial origin. |
Hevner, Robert F, et al.
Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res., 141: 39-53 (2003) 2003
Cajal-Retzius cells are reelin-secreting neurons found in the marginal zone of the mammalian cortex during development. Recently, it has been proposed that Cajal-Retzius cells may be generated both early and late in corticogenesis, and may migrate into the cortex from proliferative zones in the subpallium (lateral ganglionic eminence and medial ganglionic eminence) or cortical hem. In the present study, we used reelin as a marker to study the properties of Cajal-Retzius cells, including their likely origins, neurotransmitters, and birthdates. In double labeling experiments, Cajal-Retzius cells (reelin(+)) expressed transcription factors characteristic of pallial neurons (Tbr1 and Emx2), contained high levels of glutamate, were usually calretinin(+), and were born early in corticogenesis, on embryonic days (E)10.5 and E11.5. Tbr1(+) cells in the marginal zone were almost always reelin(+). The first Cajal-Retzius cells (Tbr1(+)/reelin(+)) appeared in the preplate on E10.5. In contrast, interneurons expressed a subpallial transcription factor (Dlx), contained high levels of GABA, were frequently calbindin(+), and were born throughout corticogenesis (from E10.5 to E16.5). Interneurons (Dlx(+)) first appeared in the cortex on E12.5. Our results suggest that the marginal zone contains two main types of neurons: Cajal-Retzius cells derived from the pallium, and migrating interneurons derived from the subpallium.
|Mediolateral compartmentalization of the cerebellum is determined on the "birth date" of Purkinje cells. |
Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro and Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko
J. Neurosci., 23: 11342-51 (2003) 2003
The adult cerebellum is functionally compartmentalized into clusters along the mediolateral axis (M-L clusters), and a variety of molecular makers are expressed in specific subsets of M-L clusters. These M-L clusters appear to be the basic structure in which cerebellar functions are performed, but the mechanisms by which cerebellar mediolateral compartmentalization is established are still unclear. To address these questions, we examined the development of M-L clusters using replication-defective adenoviral vectors. The adenoviral vectors effectively introduced foreign genes into the neuronal progenitor cells of the cerebellum in a birth date-specific manner, allowing us to observe the native behavior of each cohort of birth date-related progenitor cells. When the adenoviral vectors were injected into the midbrain ventricle of mouse embryos on embryonic days 10.5 (E10.5), E11.5, and E12.5, the virally infected cerebellar progenitor cells developed into Purkinje cells. Notably, the Purkinje cells that shared the same birth date formed specific subsets of M-L clusters in the cerebellum. Each subset of M-L clusters displayed nested and, in part, mutually complementary patterns, and these patterns were unchanged from the late embryonic stage to adulthood, suggesting that Purkinje cell progenitors are fated to form specific subsets of M-L clusters after their birth between E10.5 and E12.5. This study represents the first such direct observation of Purkinje cell development. Moreover, we also show that there is a correlation between the M-L clusters established by the birth date-related Purkinje cells and the domains of engrailed-2, Wnt-7B, L7/pcp2, and EphA4 receptor tyrosine kinase expression.
|Dlx1, Dlx2, Pax6, Brn3b, and Chx10 homeobox gene expression defines the retinal ganglion and inner nuclear layers of the developing and adult mouse retina. |
de Melo, Jimmy, et al.
J. Comp. Neurol., 461: 187-204 (2003) 2003
Distal-less homeobox genes are expressed in the developing forebrain. We assessed Dlx gene expression in the developing and adult mouse retina. Dlx1 and Dlx2 are detected in retinal neuroprogenitors by embryonic day (E) 12.5 (Eisenstat et al.  J. Comp. Neurol. 217-237). At E13.5, the expression of four homeodomain proteins, DLX2, BRN3b, PAX6, and CHX10, define distinct yet overlapping domains in the retinal neuroepithelium. By postnatal day (P) 0, DLX2 is expressed in the neuroblastic layer and the ganglion cell layer (GCL) consisting of ganglion and displaced amacrine cells. DLX1 expression resembles DLX2 to P0 but decreases postnatally. In the adult, DLX2 is localized to ganglion, amacrine, and horizontal cells as determined by coexpression with retinal cell-specific markers. There is coincident expression of DLX2 with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65, and GAD67 in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and GCL. In the adult, DLX2 is coexpressed with BRN3b in ganglion cells; PAX6 in amacrine, horizontal, and ganglion cells; and Chx10 in some bipolar cells. We predict that a combinatorial code of these homeobox genes and others specify retinal cell fate. Our results support a possible role for Dlx1 and Dlx2 in inner retinal development and in the terminal differentiation and/or maintenance of INL interneurons and ganglion cells in the adult. The correlation of DLX2 with GABA expression in the mouse retina closely mirrors the relationship of DLX2 to GABAergic neuronal differentiation in the embryonic forebrain, including neocortex, olfactory bulb and hippocampus, signifying a conservation of function of Dlx genes in the developing central nervous system.
|Calbindin D28K immunoreactive neurons in vomeronasal organ and their projections to the accessory olfactory bulb in the rat. |
Changping Jia, Mimi Halpern
Brain research 977 261-9 2003
The vomeronasal system is a nasal chemosensory system involved in pheromone detection. The chemosensory receptor neurons are located in the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ (VNO). Their axons terminate in the glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). In this study, we examined the expression of calbindin D28k (CB) in the rat VNO and AOB. In the VNO, a subpopulation of receptor neurons in the middle layer of the sensory epithelium was immunostained with antibodies to CB. Their axons could be traced to terminate in a group of glomeruli in the anterior half of the AOB glomerular layer. This group of CB-immunostained glomeruli in the anterior half of the AOB included a few large glomeruli close to the boundary between the anterior and posterior halves of the AOB, and several small glomeruli scattered in the anterior region of the AOB glomerular layer. The positions of the CB-immunostained glomeruli in the AOB, especially those close to the anterior-posterior boundary, were similar in the two bulbs and in different rats. No sex difference was found. A developmental study showed that the CB-immunoreactive receptor neurons in the middle layer of the VNO sensory epithelium and CB-immunoreactive glomeruli in the anterior AOB were present on the 14th postnatal day and older. The distribution pattern of the CB-immunostained receptor neurons and their localized projection suggest the possibility that these neurons may express the same or functionally related pheromone receptor genes.
|Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates activity-dependent dendritic growth in nonpyramidal neocortical interneurons in developing organotypic cultures. |
Xiaoming Jin, Hang Hu, Peter H Mathers, Ariel Agmon
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 23 5662-73 2003
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes postnatal maturation of GABAergic inhibition in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices, and its expression and release are enhanced by neuronal activity, suggesting that it acts in a feedback manner to maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition during development. BDNF promotes differentiation of cerebellar, hippocampal, and neostriatal inhibitory neurons, but its effects on the dendritic development of neocortical inhibitory interneurons remain unknown. Here, we show that BDNF mediates depolarization-induced dendritic growth and branching in neocortical interneurons. To visualize inhibitory interneurons, we biolistically transfected organotypic cortical slice cultures from neonatal mice with green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)67 promoter. Nearly all GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons were nonpyramidal, many contained GABA, and some expressed markers of neurochemically defined GABAergic subtypes, indicating that GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons were GABAergic. We traced dendritic trees from confocal images of the same GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons before and after a 5 d growth period, and quantified the change in total dendritic length (TDL) and total dendritic branch points (TDBPs) for each neuron. GAD67-GFP-expressing neurons growing in control medium exhibited a 20% increase in TDL, but in 200 ng/ml BDNF or 10 mm KCl, this increase nearly doubled and was accompanied by a significant increase in TDBPs. Blocking action potentials with TTX did not prevent the BDNF-induced growth, but antibodies against BDNF blocked the growth-promoting effect of KCl. We conclude that BDNF, released by neocortical pyramidal neurons in response to depolarization, enhances dendritic growth and branching in nearby inhibitory interneurons.
|Signaling cascade regulating long-term potentiation of GABA(A) receptor responsiveness in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. |
Kawaguchi, Shin-Ya and Hirano, Tomoo
J. Neurosci., 22: 3969-76 (2002) 2002
Synaptic plasticity, a cellular basis of learning and memory, has been studied extensively at excitatory synapses. Although synaptic plasticity has also been reported at inhibitory synapses, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we attempted to clarify the overall signaling cascades regulating the induction of inhibitory synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum. Rebound potentiation (RP), a long-lasting increase in GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) responsiveness, is induced by postsynaptic depolarization of a Purkinje neuron (PN) at synapses formed with inhibitory interneurons (stellate or basket neurons). Previously, we showed that RP is suppressed by homosynaptic activation during depolarization through activation of the postsynaptic GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R). Activation of GABA(B)R reduces cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity via the G(i)/G(o)-protein. Here we examined the molecular pathway through which PKA activity affects RP induction. We confirmed that inhibition of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) or PKA suppresses RP. We also found that inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1) or calcineurin (PP-2B) impaired suppression of RP induction. Inhibition of either PP-1 or calcineurin abolished RP impairment by PKA inhibition, but not that by CaMKII inhibition. Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knock down of DARPP-32, which is a substrate of PKA and calcineurin and inhibits PP-1 when phosphorylated by PKA, suppressed RP. Furthermore, activation of GABA(B)R inhibited CaMKII activation through PKA inhibition and PP-1 activity. These results suggest that calcineurin activation accompanied by PKA inhibition in a PN causes dephosphorylation of DARPP-32, which releases PP-1 from inhibition. PP-1 in turn inhibits CaMKII activity, which is then directly involved in the RP induction.
|Human-specific organization of primary visual cortex: alternating compartments of dense Cat-301 and calbindin immunoreactivity in layer 4A. |
Preuss, Todd M and Coleman, Ghislaine Q
Cereb. Cortex, 12: 671-91 (2002) 2002
There is evidence that the cortical anatomy of the magnocellular (M) visual pathway, which carries information about motion and luminance contrast, was modified in human evolution. Recent results indicate that layer 4A of humans contains a meshwork of tissue bands that stain densely for nonphosphorylated neurofilament (NPNF), a protein that is preferentially expressed in elements of the M pathway, whereas apes and monkeys lack a comparable pattern. Here we examined the distribution of staining for Cat-301 -- a monoclonal antibody well established to stain M-related structures preferentially -- in area V1 of humans, apes (chimpanzees, orangutan), Old World monkeys (macaques) and New World monkeys (spider monkeys, squirrel monkeys). Single-staining experiments, using a peroxidase-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) reaction, revealed alternating zones of dark and light staining for Cat-301 in layer 4A of humans, similar to those observed with NPNF. Double-staining studies in humans revealed that Cat-301-immunoreactive somas and neuropil were localized within the same tissue bands that stained strongly for NPNF and, furthermore, that these bands alternated with irregularly shaped territories that stained very strongly for calbindin. Nonhuman primates, by contrast to humans, displayed weak Cat-301 and calbindin staining in layer 4A. The co-localization of Cat-301 and NPNF in human layer 4A, and the weak staining for these molecules in layer 4A of other primates, suggests that the cortical representation of the M channel was modified in recent human evolution. The calbindin-rich compartments in human layer 4A cannot be related to a particular geniculostriate pathway on neurochemical grounds; they may constitute an interneuronal population that increased in human evolution.
|Caspase activation in hair cells of the mouse utricle exposed to neomycin. |
Cunningham, Lisa L, et al.
J. Neurosci., 22: 8532-40 (2002) 2002
Aminoglycoside exposure results in the apoptotic destruction of auditory and vestibular hair cells. This ototoxic hair cell death is prevented by broad-spectrum caspase inhibition. We have used in situ substrate detection, immunohistochemistry, and specific caspase inhibitors to determine which caspases are activated in the hair cells of the adult mouse utricle in response to neomycin exposure in vitro. In addition, we have examined the hierarchy of caspase activation. Our data indicate that both upstream caspase-8 and upstream caspase-9, as well as downstream caspase-3 are activated in hair cells exposed to neomycin. The inhibition of caspase-9-like activity provided significant protection of hair cells exposed to neomycin, whereas the inhibition of caspase-8-like activity was not effective in preventing neomycin-induced hair cell death. In addition, caspase-9 inhibition prevented the activation of downstream caspase-3, whereas the inhibition of caspase-8 did not. These data indicate that caspase-9 is the primary upstream caspase mediating neomycin-induced hair cell death in this preparation.
|Changes in MAP2 and tyrosinated alpha-tubulin expression in cochlear inner hair cells after amikacin treatment in the rat. |
Sabine Ladrech, Marc Lenoir, Sabine Ladrech, Marc Lenoir
The Journal of comparative neurology 451 70-8 2002
The expression of MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein 2) and of tyrosinated alpha-tubulin was investigated immunocytochemically in the cochleas of normal and amikacin-treated rats. For MAP2, two different antibodies were used: anti-MAP2ab, against the high molecular weight forms, and anti-MAP2abc, additionally against the embryonic form c. In the cochlea of the normal rat, the outer (OHCs) and inner (IHCs) hair cells were labeled for MAP2abc. The labeling was weaker in IHCs than in OHCs. The hair cells were rarely labeled for MAPab. Both OHCs and IHCs were labeled for tyrosinated alpha-tubulin. In the cochlea of the amikacin-treated rat, aggregates of anti-MAP2abc and anti-tyrosinated alpha-tubulin antibodies were seen in the apical region of the IHCs as early as the end of the antibiotic treatment. In rats investigated during the following week, the cell body of most of the surviving IHCs were not labeled for MAP2abc and tyrosinated alpha-tubulin. Then, labeling for these two antibodies reappeared in the surviving IHCs, including their giant stereocilia. Fewer surviving IHCs were labeled for tyrosinated alpha-tubulin than for MAP2abc. The amikacin-poisoned IHCs were rarely labeled for MAP2ab. These results suggest that cochlear hair cells essentially express form c of MAP2. In the amikacin-damaged cochlea, the apical aggregation of MAP2c and tyrosinated alpha-tubulin within the poisoned IHCs could be implicated in a cell degenerative process. By contrast, the extinction and recovery of MAP2c and tyrosinated alpha-tubulin labeling in the remaining IHCs suggest the occurrence of a limited repair process. A possible role of MAP2 and tubulin in hair cell survival is discussed.
|Localization of ataxin-2 within the cerebellar cortex of the rat. |
Fusco, F R, et al.
Brain Res. Bull., 56: 343-7 (2001) 2001
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 is caused by a polyglutamine stretch in the protein ataxin-2 that is due to an expansion of a CAG repeat in the spinocerebellar ataxia-2 gene. The function of wild-type ataxin-2 has not been clarified. A widespread distribution of this protein throughout the brain has been reported. We examined the expression of ataxin-2 in cortical cerebellar cells of the adult rat. We performed a single label immunohistochemical study of ataxin-2 and a single label immunofluorescence study of ataxin-2 and zebrin on adjacent sections, to compare the distribution of the observed parasagittal band pattern. We also performed a double label immunofluorescence study of ataxin-2 and one of each parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin. Single label studies revealed that between 50% and 70% of the Purkinje cells express ataxin-2. The abundance of ataxin-2 was different between hemisphere and vermis, with a clear prevalence for the former. Furthermore, the distribution of ataxin-2-positive Purkinje cells showed a peculiar alternating parasagittal band pattern. Among the other cortical cerebellar cells only basket and granule cells showed ataxin-2 staining. Our dual label studies showed that about 50% of calbindin and more than 70% of parvalbumin-immunoreactive Purkinje cells were also labeled for ataxin-2. The uneven distribution of ataxin-2 expression in the Purkinje cell layer does not support the hypothesized link between ataxin-2 content and cell vulnerability. The differences in ataxin-2 expression among the cell types of cerebellar cortex, on the other hand, suggest a possible correlation between ataxin-2 content and cell function.
|Enhanced CREB phosphorylation in immature dentate gyrus granule cells precedes neurotrophin expression and indicates a specific role of CREB in granule cell differentiation. |
Bender, R A, et al.
Eur. J. Neurosci., 13: 679-86 (2001) 2001
Differentiation and maturation of dentate gyrus granule cells requires coordinated interactions of numerous processes. These must be regulated by protein factors capable of integrating signals mediated through diverse signalling pathways. Such integrators of inter and intracellular physiological stimuli include the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a leucine-zipper class transcription factor that is activated through phosphorylation. Neuronal activity and neurotrophic factors, known to be involved in granule cell differentiation, are major physiologic regulators of CREB function. To examine whether CREB may play a role in governing coordinated gene transcription during granule cell differentiation, we determined the spatial and temporal profiles of phosphorylated (activated) CREB throughout postnatal development in immature rat hippocampus. We demonstrate that CREB activation is confined to discrete, early stages of granule cell differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation occurs prior to expression of the neurotrophins BDNF and NT-3. These data indicate that in a signal transduction cascade connecting CREB and neurotrophins in the process of granule cell maturation, CREB is located upstream of neurotrophins. Importantly, CREB may be a critical component of the machinery regulating the coordinated transcription of genes contributing to the differentiation of granule cells and their integration into the dentate gyrus network.
|Altered expression of β-galactosidase-1-like protein 3 (Glb1l3) in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific 65-kDa protein knock-out mouse model of Leber\'s congenital amaurosis. |
Le Carré J, Schorderet DF, Cottet S
Molecular vision 17 1287-97. Epub 2011 May 7. 2001
Artículo Texto completo
|Diverse types of interneurons generate thalamus-evoked feedforward inhibition in the mouse barrel cortex. |
J T Porter, C K Johnson, A Agmon
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 21 2699-710 2001
Sensory information, relayed through the thalamus, arrives in the neocortex as excitatory input, but rapidly induces strong disynaptic inhibition that constrains the cortical flow of excitation both spatially and temporally. This feedforward inhibition is generated by intracortical interneurons whose precise identity and properties were not known. To characterize interneurons generating feedforward inhibition, neurons in layers IV and V of mouse somatosensory (barrel) cortex in vitro were tested in the cell-attached configuration for thalamocortically induced firing and in the whole-cell mode for synaptic responses. Identification as inhibitory or excitatory neurons was based on intrinsic firing patterns and on morphology revealed by intracellular staining. Thalamocortical stimulation evoked action potentials in approximately 60% of inhibitory interneurons but in 5% of excitatory neurons. The inhibitory interneurons that fired received fivefold larger thalamocortical inputs compared with nonfiring inhibitory or excitatory neurons. Thalamocortically evoked spikes in inhibitory interneurons followed at short latency the onset of excitatory monosynaptic responses in the same cells and slightly preceded the onset of inhibitory responses in nearby neurons, indicating their involvement in disynaptic inhibition. Both nonadapting (fast-spiking) and adapting (regular-spiking) inhibitory interneurons fired on thalamocortical stimulation, as did interneurons expressing parvalbumin, calbindin, or neither calcium-binding protein. Morphological analysis revealed that some interneurons might generate feedforward inhibition within their own layer IV barrel, whereas others may convey inhibition to upper layers, within their own or in adjacent columns. We conclude that feedforward inhibition is generated by diverse classes of interneurons, possibly serving different roles in the processing of incoming sensory information.
|Selective immunolesions of cholinergic neurons in mice: effects on neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and behavior. |
J Berger-Sweeney, N A Stearns, S L Murg, L R Floerke-Nashner, D A Lappi, M G Baxter
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 21 8164-73 2001
The ability to selectively lesion mouse basal forebrain cholinergic neurons would permit experimental examination of interactions between cholinergic functional loss and genetic factors associated with neurodegenerative disease. We developed a selective toxin for mouse basal forebrain cholinergic neurons by conjugating saporin (SAP), a ribosome-inactivating protein, to a rat monoclonal antibody against the mouse p75 nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor (anti-murine-p75). The toxin proved effective and selective in vitro and in vivo. Intracerebroventricular injections of anti-murine-p75-SAP produced a dose-dependent loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in the hippocampus and neocortex without affecting glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity. Hippocampal ChAT depletions induced by the immunotoxin were consistently greater than neocortical depletions. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a dose-dependent loss of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum (MS) but no marked loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis after intracerebroventricular injection of the toxin. No loss of noncholinergic neurons in the MS was apparent, nor could we detect loss of noncholinergic cerebellar Purkinje cells, which also express p75. Behavioral analysis suggested a spatial learning deficit in anti-murine-p75-SAP-lesioned mice, based on a correlation between a loss of hippocampal ChAT activity and impairment in Morris water maze performance. Our results indicate that we have developed a specific cholinergic immunotoxin for mice. They also suggest possible functional differences in the mouse and rat cholinergic systems, which may be of particular significance in attempts to develop animal models of human diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, which are associated with impaired cholinergic function.
|Nuclear localization or inclusion body formation of ataxin-2 are not necessary for SCA2 pathogenesis in mouse or human. |
Huynh, D P, et al.
Nat. Genet., 26: 44-50 (2000) 2000
Instability of CAG DNA trinucleotide repeats is the mutational mechanism for several neurodegenerative diseases resulting in the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. Proteins with long polyQ tracts have an increased tendency to aggregate, often as truncated fragments forming ubiquitinated intranuclear inclusion bodies. We examined whether similar features define spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) pathogenesis using cultured cells, human brains and transgenic mouse lines. In SCA2 brains, we found cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, microaggregates. Mice expressing ataxin-2 with Q58 showed progressive functional deficits accompanied by loss of the Purkinje cell dendritic arbor and finally loss of Purkinje cells. Despite similar functional deficits and anatomical changes observed in ataxin-1[Q80] transgenic lines, ataxin-2[Q58] remained cytoplasmic without detectable ubiquitination.
|Calbindin D28k-immunoreactive afferent nerve endings in the laryngeal mucosa. |
Y Yamamoto, Y Atoji, Y Suzuki, Y Yamamoto, Y Atoji, Y Suzuki
The Anatomical record 259 237-47 2000
The distribution of the calbindin D28k in the laryngeal sensory structures was studied by immunohistochemistry, immunoelectronmicroscopy, and double immunofluorescence with calretinin-immunoreactivity. Moreover, origin of the nerve endings were observed using retrograde tracer, fast blue. Immunoreactivity for calbindin D28k was found in the various types of nerve endings in the larynx, namely, laminar nerve endings, nerve endings associated with the taste buds, intraepithelial nerve endings, and endocrine cells. The laminar endings with calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity were observed in the subepithelial connective tissue. In some endings, terminals were expanded. The laminar endings were also observed in the perichondrium of the epiglottic cartilage. In the epiglottic and arytenoid epithelia, thick nerve fibers with calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity ascending to taste buds and intragemmal nerve fibers were also observed. Within the epithelial layer, intraepithelial free nerve endings with calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity were observed. Furthermore, diffuse endocrine cells were observed within the laryngeal epithelium. By immunoelectron microscopy, immunoreaction products in the endings mentioned above were localized in the cytoplasm of the axon terminals and nerve fibers which contained with numerous mitochondria. Out of the 100 laminar endings, 18 endings were immunopositive for both calbindin D28k and calretinin, 33 were positive for calbindin D28k but negative for calretinin, and 49 were positive for only calretinin in the double immunofluorescence microscopy. The nerve fibers associated with the taste buds and the free nerve endings, which immunostained for calbindin D28k, were not stained with antibody against calretinin. After injection of the fast blue in the laryngeal mucosa, fast blue-labeled cells were mainly observed in the nodose ganglia. Of the total number of labeled cell in the nodose and dorsal root ganglia at the level C1 to Th2, 65.1% occurred in nodose ganglia (572/879, n = 6). In the nodose ganglia, 79.7% of labeled cells (456/572) were immunoreacted for calbindin D28k. The distribution of calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity may be differnt from that of calretinin. It is suggested that calbindin D28k have regulatory role on intracellular calcium concentration in the laryngeal sensory corpuscles.
|Immunohistochemical evidence for the presence of calbindin containing neurones in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig stomach. |
D Reiche, H Pfannkuche, K Michel, S Hoppe, M Schemann
Neuroscience letters 270 71-4 1999
Using immunohistochemistry we studied the presence of calbindin in myenteric neurones of the guinea-pig stomach. A rabbit anti recombinant rat calbindin-D28k (CALB) stained 12, 12 and 25% of all myenteric neurones in the fundus, corpus and antrum, respectively. A rabbit anti recombinant human CALB stained 4, 4 and 16%, respectively. A mouse monoclonal antibody against the chicken intestinal CALB showed no labelling. In all regions most calbindin neurones were additionally choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) positive while only a small proportion exhibited nicotinamide adenosine dinucleatide phosphate (NADPH)-diaphorase-activity. Numerous calbindin-positive varicose nerve fibres were present within myenteric ganglia, rarely detectable in the muscle layers and virtually absent in the mucosa. This study demonstrated that a supopulation of cholinergic myenteric neurones in the stomach contain calbindin and suggested that many of these neurones fulfil interneuronal tasks.
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - Data Sheet|