Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|R, M||IH(P), ICC, IHC, IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit purified polyclonal serum in buffer containing 0.1M Tris-Glycine, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% Sodium Azide, pH7.4|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|Anti-GluR4 - 2398898||2398898|
|Anti-GluR4 - 1983963||1983963|
|Anti-GluR4 - 2040388||2040388|
|Anti-GluR4 - 2070825||2070825|
|Anti-GluR4 - 2204911||2204911|
|Anti-GluR4 - 2294343||2294343|
|Anti-GluR4 - LV1614138||LV1614138|
|Anti-GluR4 - LV1679489||LV1679489|
|Anti-GluR4 - LV1751777||LV1751777|
|Anti-GluR4 - LV1815847||LV1815847|
Referencias bibliográficas | 41 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Neuronal pentraxin 2 supports clear cell renal cell carcinoma by activating the AMPA-selective glutamate receptor-4. |
von Roemeling, CA; Radisky, DC; Marlow, LA; Cooper, SJ; Grebe, SK; Anastasiadis, PZ; Tun, HW; Copland, JA
Cancer research 74 4796-810 2014
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of kidney cancer and has the highest propensity to manifest as metastatic disease. Recent characterizations of the genetic signature of ccRCC have revealed several factors correlated with tumor cell migration and invasion; however, the specific events driving malignancy are not well defined. Furthermore, there remains a lack of targeted therapies that result in long-term, sustainable response in patients with metastatic disease. We show here that neuronal pentraxin 2 (NPTX2) is overexpressed specifically in ccRCC primary tumors and metastases, and that it contributes to tumor cell viability and promotes cell migration through its interaction with the ��-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunit GluR4. We propose NPTX2 as a novel molecular target for therapy for patients with ccRCC diagnosed with or at risk of developing metastatic disease.
|Kainate receptors mediate synaptic input to transient and sustained OFF visual pathways in primate retina. |
Puthussery, T; Percival, KA; Venkataramani, S; Gayet-Primo, J; Gr��nert, U; Taylor, WR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 7611-21 2014
Visual signals are segregated into parallel pathways at the first synapse in the retina between cones and bipolar cells. Within the OFF pathways of mammals, the selective expression of AMPA or kainate-type glutamate receptors in the dendrites of different OFF-bipolar cell types is thought to contribute to formation of distinct temporal channels. AMPA receptors, with rapid recovery from desensitization, are proposed to transmit high temporal frequency signals, whereas kainate receptors (KARs) are presumed to encode lower temporal frequencies. Here we studied the glutamate receptors expressed by OFF-bipolar cells in slice preparations of macaque monkey retina, where the low (midget/parvocellular) and high-frequency (parasol/magnocellular) temporal channels are well characterized. We found that all OFF-bipolar types receive input primarily through KARs and that KAR antagonists block light-evoked input to both OFF-midget and OFF-parasol ganglion cells. KAR subunits were differentially expressed in OFF-bipolar types; the diffuse bipolar (DB) cells, DB2 and DB3b, expressed GluK1 and showed transient responses to glutamate and the KAR agonist, ATPA. In contrast, flat midget bipolar, DB1, and DB3a cells lacked GluK1 and showed relatively sustained responses. Finally, we found that the KAR accessory protein, Neto1, is expressed at the base of cone pedicles but is not colocalized with the GluK1 subunit. In summary, the results indicate that transient signaling in the OFF pathway of macaques is not dependent on AMPA receptors and that heterogeneity of KARs and accessory proteins may contribute to the formation of parallel temporal channels.
|Evidence for glutamate as a neuroglial transmitter within sensory ganglia. |
Kung, LH; Gong, K; Adedoyin, M; Ng, J; Bhargava, A; Ohara, PT; Jasmin, L
PloS one 8 e68312 2013
This study examines key elements of glutamatergic transmission within sensory ganglia of the rat. We show that the soma of primary sensory neurons release glutamate when depolarized. Using acute dissociated mixed neuronal/glia cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or trigeminal ganglia and a colorimetric assay, we show that when glutamate uptake by satellite glial cells (SGCs) is inhibited, KCl stimulation leads to simultaneous increase of glutamate in the culture medium. With calcium imaging we see that the soma of primary sensory neurons and SGCs respond to AMPA, NMDA, kainate and mGluR agonists, and selective antagonists block this response. Using whole cell patch-clamp technique, inward currents were recorded from small diameter (less than 30 ��m) DRG neurons from intact DRGs (ex-vivo whole ganglion preparation) in response to local application of the above glutamate receptor agonists. Following a chronic constriction injury (CCI) of either the inferior orbital nerve or the sciatic nerve, glutamate expression increases in the trigeminal ganglia and DRG respectively. This increase occurs in neurons of all diameters and is present in the somata of neurons with injured axons as well as in somata of neighboring uninjured neurons. These data provides additional evidence that glutamate can be released within the sensory ganglion, and that the somata of primary sensory neurons as well as SGCs express functional glutamate receptors at their surface. These findings, together with our previous gene knockdown data, suggest that glutamatergic transmission within the ganglion could impact nociceptive threshold.
|Pain after discontinuation of morphine treatment is associated with synaptic increase of GluA4-containing AMPAR in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. |
Caba��ero, D; Baker, A; Zhou, S; Hargett, GL; Irie, T; Xia, Y; Beaudry, H; Gendron, L; Melyan, Z; Carlton, SM; Mor��n, JA
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 38 1472-84 2013
Withdrawal from prescribed opioids results in increased pain sensitivity, which prolongs the treatment. This pain sensitivity is attributed to neuroplastic changes that converge at the spinal cord dorsal horn. We have recently reported that repeated morphine administration triggers an insertion of GluA2-lacking (Ca(2+)-permeable) ��-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR) in the hippocampus. This finding together with the reported involvement of AMPAR in the mechanisms underlying inflammatory pain led us to hypothesize a role for spinal AMPAR in opioid-induced pain behavior. Mice treated with escalating doses of morphine showed hypersensitivity to mechanical stimulation. Intrathecal administration of a Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR selective blocker disrupted morphine-induced mechanical sensitivity. Analysis of the expression and phosphorylation levels of AMPAR subunits (GluA1/2/3/4) in homogenates and in postsynaptic density fractions from spinal cord dorsal horns showed an increase in GluA4 expression and phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density after morphine. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses suggested an increase in GluA4 homomers (Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR) and immunohistochemical staining localized the increase in GluA4 levels in laminae III-V. The excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) recorded in laminae III-V showed enhanced sensitivity to Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR blockers in morphine-treated mice. Furthermore, current-voltage relationships of AMPAR-mediated EPSCs showed that rectification index (an indicator of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR contribution) is increased in morphine-treated but not in saline-treated mice. These effects could be reversed by infusion of GluA4 antibody through patch pipette. This is the first direct evidence for a role of GluA4-containing AMPAR in morphine-induced pain and highlights spinal GluA4-containing AMPAR as targets to prevent the morphine-induced pain sensitivity.
|Amacrine and bipolar inputs to midget and parasol ganglion cells in marmoset retina. |
Carla J Abbott,Kumiko A Percival,Paul R Martin,Ulrike Gr��nert
Visual neuroscience 29 2012
Retinal ganglion cells receive excitatory synapses from bipolar cells and inhibitory synapses from amacrine cells. Previous studies in primate suggest that the strength of inhibitory amacrine input is greater to cells in peripheral retina than to foveal (central) cells. A comprehensive study of a large number of ganglion cells at different eccentricities, however, is still lacking. Here, we compared the amacrine and bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in central and peripheral retina of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Ganglion cells were labeled by retrograde filling from the lateral geniculate nucleus or by intracellular injection. Presumed amacrine input was identified with antibodies against gephyrin; presumed bipolar input was identified with antibodies against the GluR4 subunit of the AMPA receptor. In vertical sections, about 40% of gephyrin immunoreactive (IR) puncta were colocalized with GABAA receptor subunits, whereas immunoreactivity for gephyrin and GluR4 was found at distinct sets of puncta. The density of gephyrin IR puncta associated with ganglion cell dendrites was comparable for midget and parasol cells at all eccentricities studied (up to 2 mm or about 16 degrees of visual angle for midget cells and up to 10 mm or >80 degrees of visual angle for parasol cells). In central retina, the densities of gephyrin IR and GluR4 IR puncta associated with the dendrites of midget and parasol cells are comparable, but the average density of GluR4 IR puncta decreased slightly in peripheral parasol cells. These anatomical results indicate that the ratio of amacrine to bipolar input does not account for the distinct functional properties of parasol and midget cells or for functional differences between cells of the same type in central and peripheral retina.
|Histamine receptors of cones and horizontal cells in Old World monkey retinas. |
Vila, A; Satoh, H; Rangel, C; Mills, SL; Hoshi, H; O'Brien, J; Marshak, DR; Macleish, PR; Marshak, DW
The Journal of comparative neurology 520 528-43 2012
In primates the retina receives input from histaminergic neurons in the posterior hypothalamus that are active during the day. In order to understand how this input contributes to information processing in Old World monkey retinas, we have been localizing histamine receptors (HR) and studying the effects of histamine on the neurons that express them. Previously, we localized HR3 to the tips of ON bipolar cell dendrites and showed that histamine hyperpolarizes the cells via this receptor. We raised antisera against synthetic peptides corresponding to an extracellular domain of HR1 between the 4th and 5th transmembrane domains and to an intracellular domain near the carboxyl terminus of HR2. Using these, we localized HR1 to horizontal cells and a small number of amacrine cells and localized HR2 to puncta closely associated with synaptic ribbons inside cone pedicles. Consistent with this, HR1 mRNA was detected in horizontal cell perikarya and primary dendrites and HR2 mRNA was found in cone inner segments. We studied the effect of 5 ��M exogenous histamine on primate cones in macaque retinal slices. Histamine reduced I(h) at moderately hyperpolarized potentials, but not the maximal current. This would be expected to increase the operating range of cones and conserve ATP in bright, ambient light. Thus, all three major targets of histamine are in the outer plexiform layer, but the retinopetal axons containing histamine terminate in the inner plexiform layer. Taken together, the findings in these three studies suggest that histamine acts primarily via volume transmission in primate retina.
|Quantitative analysis of AMPA receptor subunit composition in addiction-related brain regions. |
Reimers, JM; Milovanovic, M; Wolf, ME
Brain research 1367 223-33 2011
The subunit composition of ��-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs) is an important determinant of AMPAR biophysical properties and trafficking. To date, AMPAR subunit composition has been quantitatively evaluated only for the hippocampus, where different experimental approaches have yielded different results. Here, we used quantitative co-immunoprecipitation to characterize GluA1-3 associations in the adult rat nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus, and blue native electrophoresis (BNE) to study GluA1-3 assembly state. In all brain regions, co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that ~90% of GluA1 was associated with GluA2 or GluA3 (most was GluA1A2). All regions contained a small number of GluA1A3 receptors. Homomeric GluA1 receptors may also exist. More than half of the GluA2 (53%-65% depending on the region) was not associated with GluA1. However, this represents an over-estimate of the percent of GluA2 present in GluA2A3 receptors, based on BNE results demonstrating that the majority of GluA2 exists as dimers, rather than functional tetrameric receptors. Relatively more GluA1 was present in tetramers. Together with other findings, our results suggest a dominant role for GluA1A2 receptors in all brain regions examined. They also help explain why different results for hippocampal AMPAR subunit composition were obtained using co-immunoprecipitation, which assesses the total cellular pool of AMPARs including partially assembled AMPARs in intracellular compartments, and electrophysiological approaches, which can selectively assess tetrameric (functional) AMPARs on the cell surface.
|Cell-type-specific localization of protocadherin ��16 at AMPA and AMPAKainate receptor-containing synapses in the primate retina. |
Puller C, Haverkamp S
J Comp Neurol 519 467-79. 2011
Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are thought to be key features of cell-type-specific synapse formation. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of Pcdh subunit ��16 (��16) in the primate retina by applying antibodies against ��16, different subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs), and cell-type-specific markers as well as by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blots. Immunocytochemical localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy and preembedding electron microscopy. In the outer plexiform layer (OPL) H1, but not H2, horizontal cells expressed ��16 as revealed by the strong reduction of ��16 at short-wavelength-sensitive cones. ��16 colocalized with the GluR subunits GluR2-4 at horizontal cell dendritic tips and with GluR2-4 and GluR6/7 at the desmosome-like junctions. At the latter, these AMPA and kainate receptor subunits were found to be clustered within single synaptic hot spots. Additionally, ��16-labeled dendritic tips of OFF cone bipolar cells appeared in triad-associated positions at the cone pedicle base, pointing to ��16 expression by OFF midget or DB3 bipolar cells. In the inner plexiform layer, ��16 was localized also postsynaptically at most of the glutamatergic synapses. Overall, we provide evidence for a cell-type-specific localization of ��16 together with GluRs at defined postsynaptic sites and a coexistence of AMPA and kainate receptors within single synaptic hot spots. This study supports the hypothesis that ��16 plays an important role in the formation and/or stabilization of specific glutamatergic synapses, whereas our in vivo protein biochemical results argue against the existence of protein complexes formed by ��16 and GluRs.�� 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|Immunohistochemical identification and synaptic inputs to the diffuse bipolar cell type DB1 in macaque retina. |
Puthussery, T; Gayet-Primo, J; Taylor, WR; Haverkamp, S
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 3640-56 2011
Detailed analysis of the synaptic inputs to the primate DB1 bipolar cell has been precluded by the absence of a suitable immunohistochemical marker. Here we demonstrate that antibodies for the EF-hand calcium-binding protein, secretagogin, strongly label the DB1 bipolar cell as well as a mixed population of GABAergic amacrine cells in the macaque retina. Using secretagogin as a marker, we show that the DB1 bipolar makes synaptic contact with both L/M as well as S-cone photoreceptors and only minimal contact with rod photoreceptors. Electron microscopy showed that the DB1 bipolar makes flat contacts at both triad-associated and nontriad-associated positions on the cone pedicle. Double labeling with various glutamate receptor subunit antibodies failed to conclusively determine the subunit composition of the glutamate receptors on DB1 bipolar cells. In the IPL, DB1 bipolar cell axon terminals expressed the glycine receptor, GlyR��1, at sites of contact with AII amacrine cells, suggesting that these cells receive input from the rod pathway.
|Bidirectional plasticity of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors in oligodendrocyte lineage cells. |
Zonouzi, M; Renzi, M; Farrant, M; Cull-Candy, SG
Nature neuroscience 14 1430-8 2011
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), a major glial cell type that gives rise to myelinating oligodendrocytes in the CNS, express calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). Although CP-AMPARs are important for OPC proliferation and neuron-glia signaling, they render OPCs susceptible to ischemic damage in early development. We identified factors controlling the dynamic regulation of AMPAR subtypes in OPCs from rat optic nerve and mouse cerebellar cortex. We found that activation of group 1 mGluRs drove an increase in the proportion of CP-AMPARs, reflected by an increase in single-channel conductance and inward rectification. This plasticity required the elevation of intracellular calcium and used PI3K, PICK-1 and the JNK pathway. In white matter, neurons and astrocytes release both ATP and glutamate. Unexpectedly, activation of purinergic receptors in OPCs decreased CP-AMPAR expression, suggesting a capacity for homeostatic regulation. Finally, we found that stargazin-related transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins, which are critical for AMPAR surface expression in neurons, regulate CP-AMPAR plasticity in OPCs.
|Immunohistochemical localization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in the nucleus of the Edinger-Westphal in embryonic chick. |
Toledo, CA; Reiner, A; Patel, RS; Vitale, AW; Klein, JM; Dalsania, BJ; Fitzgerald, ME
Neuroscience letters 498 199-203 2011
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) in birds is responsible for the control of pupil constriction, accommodation, and choroidal blood flow. The activation of EW neurons is mediated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, in large part through AMPA-type glutamate receptors (GluRs), whose behavior varies according to the subunit composition. We investigated the developmental expression of the GluR subunits in EW of the chick (Gallus gallus) using immunohistochemistry on tissue from embryonic days 10 through 20 (E10-E20). Of the three antibodies used, one recognized the GluR1 subunit, another the GluR4 subunit, and the third recognized a sequence common to GluR2 and GluR3 subunits. No immunolabeling of EW neurons for any GluR subunits was observed prior to E12, although immunolabeling was seen in somatic oculomotor prior to E12. At E12, immunoreactivity for each of the three antibodies was in only approximately 2% of EW neurons. By E14, the abundance of GluR1+ perikarya in EW had increased to 13%, and for GluR2/3 had increased to 48%. The perikaryal abundance of the immunoreactivity for GluR1 and GluR2/3 declined to 3% and 23%, respectively, by E16. At E14, 33% of EW neurons immunolabeled for GluR4, and their frequency increased to 43% by E16, and remained at that approximate percentage through hatching. The increased expression of GluR1 and GluR4 in EW at E14 coincides with the reported onset of the expression of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, and the calcium currents associated with AMPA receptors formed by these two subunits may play a role in the occurrence of parvalbumin expression.
|Spatial compartmentalization of AMPA glutamate receptor subunits at the calyx of Held synapse. |
Diana Hermida,Jos�� Mar��a Mateos,Izaskun Elezgarai,Nagore Puente,Aurora Bilbao,Jos�� Luis Bueno-L��pez,Peter Streit,Pedro Grandes
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2010
The mature calyx of Held ending on principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) has very specialized morphological and molecular features that make it possible to transmit auditory signals with high fidelity. In a previous work we described an increased localization of the ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor (GluA) subunits at postsynaptic sites of the calyx of Held-principal cell body synapses from postnatal development to adult. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the pattern of the synaptic distribution of GluA2/3/4c and -4 in adult MNTB principal cell bodies correlated with preferential subcellular domains (stalks and swellings) of the calyx. We used a postembedding immunocytochemical method combined with specific antibodies to GluA2/3/4c and GluA4 subunits. We found that the density of GluA2/3/4c in calyceal swellings (19 +/- 1.54 particles/microm) was higher than in stalks (10.93 +/- 1.37 particles/microm); however, the differences for GluA4 were not statistically significant (swellings: 13.84 +/- 1.39 particles/microm; stalks: 10.42 +/- 1.24 particles/microm). Furthermore, GluA2/3/4c and GluA4 labeling co-localized to some extent in calyceal stalks and swellings. Taking these data together, the distribution pattern of GluA subunits in postsynaptic specializations are indicative of a spatial compartmentalization of AMPA subunits in mature calyx-principal neuron synapses that may support the temporally precise transmission required for sound localization in the auditory brainstem.
|Progression of neuronal and synaptic remodeling in the rd10 mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. |
M Joseph Phillips,Deborah C Otteson,David M Sherry
The Journal of comparative neurology 518 2010
The Pde6b(rd10) (rd10) mouse has a moderate rate of photoreceptor degeneration and serves as a valuable model for human autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We evaluated the progression of neuronal remodeling of second- and third-order retinal cells and their synaptic terminals in retinas from Pde6b(rd10) (rd10) mice at varying stages of degeneration ranging from postnatal day 30 (P30) to postnatal month 9.5 (PNM9.5) using immunolabeling for well-known cell- and synapse-specific markers. Following photoreceptor loss, changes occurred progressively from outer to inner retina. Horizontal cells and rod and cone bipolar cells underwent morphological remodeling that included loss of dendrites, cell body migration, and the sprouting of ectopic processes. Gliosis, characterized by translocation of M��ller cell bodies to the outer retina and thickening of their processes, was evident by P30 and became more pronounced as degeneration progressed. Following rod degeneration, continued expression of VGluT1 in the outer retina was associated with survival and expression of synaptic proteins by nearby second-order neurons. Rod bipolar cell terminals showed a progressive reduction in size and ectopic bipolar cell processes extended into the inner nuclear layer and ganglion cell layer by PNM3.5. Putative ectopic conventional synapses, likely arising from amacrine cells, were present in the inner nuclear layer by PNM9.5. Despite these changes, the laminar organization of bipolar and amacrine cells and the ON-OFF organization in the inner plexiform layer was largely preserved. Surviving cone and bipolar cell terminals continued to express the appropriate cell-specific presynaptic proteins needed for synaptic function up to PNM9.5.Artículo Texto completo
|Modulation of agonist binding to AMPA receptors by 1-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-ylcarbonyl)piperidine (CX546): differential effects across brain regions and GluA1-4/transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory prot |
Montgomery KE, Kessler M, Arai AC
The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 331 965-74 2009
Ampakines are cognitive enhancers that potentiate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor currents and synaptic responses by slowing receptor deactivation. Their efficacy varies greatly between classes of neurons and brain regions, but the factor responsible for this effect remains unclear. Ampakines also increase agonist affinity in binding tests in ways that are related to their physiological action. We therefore examined 1) whether ampakine effects on agonist binding vary across brain regions and 2) whether they differ across receptor subunits expressed alone and together with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), which associate with AMPA receptors in the brain. We found that the maximal increase in agonist binding (E(max)) caused by the prototypical ampakine 1-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-ylcarbonyl)piperidine (CX546) differs significantly between brain regions, with effects in hippocampus and cerebellum being nearly three times larger than that in thalamus, brainstem, and striatum, and cortex being intermediate. These differences can be explained at least in part by regional variations in receptor subunit and TARP expression because combinations prevalent in hippocampus (GluA2 with TARPs gamma3 and gamma8) exhibited E(max) values nearly twice those of combinations abundant in thalamus (GluA4 with gamma2 or gamma4). TARPs seem to be critical because GluA2 and GluA4 alone had comparable E(max) and also because hippocampal and thalamic receptors had similar E(max) after solubilization with Triton X-100, which probably removes associated proteins. Taken together, our data suggest that variations in physiological drug efficacy, such as the 3-fold difference previously seen in recordings from hippocampus versus thalamus, may be explained by region-specific expression of GluA1-4 as well as TARPs.Artículo Texto completo
|Synaptic inputs onto small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmoset retina. |
Percival KA, Jusuf PR, Martin PR, Gr��nert U
J Comp Neurol 517 655-69. 2009
The inner plexiform layer of the retina contains functional subdivisions, which segregate ON and OFF type light responses. Here, we studied quantitatively the ON and OFF synaptic input to small bistratified (blue-ON/yellow-OFF) ganglion cells in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Small bistratified cells display an extensive inner dendritic tier that receives blue-ON input from short-wavelength-sensitive (S) cones via blue cone bipolar cells. The outer dendritic tier is sparse and is thought to receive yellow-OFF input from medium (M)- and long (L)-wavelength-sensitive cones via OFF diffuse bipolar cells. In total, 14 small bistratified cells from different eccentricities were analyzed. The cells were retrogradely labeled from the koniocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus and subsequently photofilled. Retinal preparations were processed with antibodies against the C-terminal binding protein 2, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4, and/or gephyrin to identify bipolar and/or amacrine input. The results show that the synaptic input is evenly distributed across the dendritic tree, with a density similar to that reported previously for other ganglion cell types. The population of cells showed a consistent pattern, where bipolar input to the inner tier is about fourfold greater than bipolar input to the outer tier. This structural asymmetry of bipolar input may help to balance the weight of cone signals from the sparse S cone array against inputs from the much denser M/L cone array.
|Ultrastructural analysis of the glutamatergic system in the outer plexiform layer of zebrafish retina. |
Jan Klooster,Stephen Yazulla,Maarten Kamermans
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 37 2009
L-Glutamate, the photoreceptor neurotransmitter, depolarizes horizontal cells and OFF-bipolar cells by ionotropic receptors and hyperpolarizes ON-bipolar cells by metabotropic receptors. Despite extensive light microscopy on the distribution of glutamate receptors in zebrafish retina, there are little ultrastructural data. Given the importance of zebrafish in studies on the genetic manipulation of retinal development and function, precise data on the synaptic neurochemical organization of the zebrafish retina is needed. Immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the ultrastructural localization of glutamate receptor subunits GluR2, GluR4, NMDA2B (NR2B) and mGluR1alpha in zebrafish outer plexiform layer (OPL). These antibodies were chosen because of an apparent conservation of localization of GluR2, GluR4 and mGluR1alpha in the vertebrate OPL, while there is some support for NMDA receptors in the OPL. GluR2-immunoreactivity (IR) was in all horizontal cell dendrites that invaginated cone pedicles and rod spherules. Three arrangements of dendrites contained GluR-IR in rod spherules: classical-type with GluR2-IR on lateral horizontal cell dendrites, a butterfly-shaped horizontal cell dendrite, and a goblet-shaped dendrite, likely of bipolar cell origin. GluR4-IR was restricted to dendrites of OFF-bipolar cells that innervated rod and cone terminals. NR2B-IR was restricted to a subtype of cone ON-bipolar cell. mGluR1alpha-IR was restricted to ON mixed rod/cone (Mb) bipolar cells whose dendrites innervated rod and cone synaptic terminals. The presence of mGluR1alpha on Mb bipolar cell dendrites is consistent with a role in retrograde endocannabinoid suppression. The subunit composition of glutamate receptors should affect the kinetics and pharmacology of these cells to glutamate receptor activation.
|ZO-1 and the spatial organization of gap junctions and glutamate receptors in the outer plexiform layer of the mammalian retina. |
Puller, C; de Sevilla M��ller, LP; Janssen-Bienhold, U; Haverkamp, S
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 29 6266-75 2009
Information processing in the retina starts at the first synaptic layer, where photoreceptors and second-order neurons exhibit a complex architecture of glutamatergic and electrical synapses. To investigate the composition of this highly organized synaptic network, we determined the spatial relationship of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) with different connexins (Cx) and glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) of rabbit, mouse, and monkey retinas. ZO-1 is well known as an intracellular component of tight and adherens junctions, but also interacts with various connexins at gap junctions. We found ZO-1 closely associated with Cx50 on dendrites of A-type horizontal cells in rabbit, and with Cx57 at dendro-dendritic gap junctions of mouse horizontal cells. The spatial arrangement of ZO-1 at the giant gap-junctional plaques in rabbit was particularly striking. ZO-1 formed a clear margin around the large Cx50 plaques instead of being colocalized with the connexin staining. Our finding suggests the involvement of ZO-1 in the composition of tight or adherens junctions around gap-junctional plaques instead of interacting with connexins directly. Furthermore, gap junctions were found to be clustered in close proximity to GluRs at the level of desmosome-like junctions, where horizontal cell dendrites converge before invaginating the cone pedicle. Based on this distinct spatial organization of gap junctions and GluRs, it is tempting to speculate that glutamate released from the photoreceptors may play a role in modulating the conductance of electrical synapses in the OPL.
|A neurochemical signature of visual recovery after extrastriate cortical damage in the adult cat. |
Krystel R Huxlin,Jennifer M Williams,Tracy Price
The Journal of comparative neurology 508 2008
In adult cats, damage to the extrastriate visual cortex on the banks of the lateral suprasylvian (LS) sulcus causes severe deficits in motion perception that can recover as a result of intensive direction discrimination training. The fact that recovery is restricted to trained visual field locations suggests that the neural circuitry of early visual cortical areas, with their tighter retinotopy, may play an important role in attaining perceptual improvements after damage to higher level visual cortex. The present study tests this hypothesis by comparing the manner in which excitatory and inhibitory components of the supragranular circuitry in an early visual cortical area (area 18) are affected by LS lesions and postlesion training. First, the proportion of LS-projecting pyramidal cells as well as calbindin- and parvalbumin-positive interneurons expressing each of the four AMPA receptor subunits was estimated in layers II and III of area 18 in intact animals. The degree to which LS lesions and visual retraining altered these expression patterns was then assessed. Both LS-projecting pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons exhibited long-term, differential reductions in the expression of glutamate receptor (GluR)1, -2, -2/3, and -4 following LS lesions. Intensive visual training post lesion restored normal AMPAR subunit expression in all three cell-types examined. Furthermore, for LS-projecting and calbindin-positive neurons, this restoration occurred only in portions of the ipsi-lesional area 18 representing trained visual field locations. This supports our hypothesis that stimulation of early visual cortical areas-in this case, area 18-by training is an important factor in restoring visual perception after permanent damage to LS cortex.Artículo Texto completo
|Characterization and synaptic connectivity of melanopsin-containing ganglion cells in the primate retina. |
Patricia R Jusuf,Sammy C S Lee,Jens Hannibal,Ulrike Gr��nert
The European journal of neuroscience 26 2007
Melanopsin is a photopigment expressed in retinal ganglion cells, which are intrinsically photosensitive and are also involved in retinal circuits arising from rod and cone photoreceptors. This circuitry, however, is poorly understood. Here, we studied the morphology, distribution and synaptic input to melanopsin-containing ganglion cells in a New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The dendrites of melanopsin-containing cells in marmoset stratify either close to the inner nuclear layer (outer stratifying), or close to the ganglion cell layer (inner stratifying). The dendritic fields of outer-stratifying cells tile the retina, with little overlap. However, the dendritic fields of outer-stratifying cells largely overlap with the dendritic fields of inner-stratifying cells. Thus, inner-stratifying and outer-stratifying cells may form functionally independent populations. The synaptic input to melanopsin-containing cells was determined using synaptic markers (antibodies to C-terminal binding protein 2, CtBP2, for presumed bipolar synapses, and antibodies to gephyrin for presumed amacrine synapses). Both outer-stratifying and inner-stratifying cells show colocalized immunoreactive puncta across their entire dendritic tree for both markers. The density of CtBP2 puncta on inner dendrites was about 50% higher than that on outer dendrites. The density of gephyrin puncta was comparable for outer and inner dendrites but higher than the density of CtBP2 puncta. The inner-stratifying cells may receive their input from a type of diffuse bipolar cell (DB6). Our results are consistent with the idea that both outer and inner melanopsin cells receive bipolar and amacrine input across their dendritic tree.
|Cation Cl- cotransporters in the dendrites of goldfish bipolar cells. |
Baoqin Li,Wen Shen
Neuroreport 18 2007
Bipolar cells receive an input from gamma-aminobutyric acid ergic horizontal cells in distal retinas. gamma-Aminobutyric acid can induce either an inhibitory or an excitatory Cl(-) response based on the intracellular Cl(-) concentration in the bipolar dendrites. Two cation Cl(-) cotransporters, Na-K-2Cl(-) and K-2Cl(-), differently control local Cl(-) levels in neurons by uptaking or extracting Cl(-), respectively. By using immunocytochemical techniques, we found that Na-K-2Cl(-) and K-2Cl(-) were preferentially distributed in On-bipolar and Off-bipolar dendrites in goldfish retinas. Na-K-2Cl(-) was colocalized with protein kinase C in On-bipolar dendrites, whereas K-2Cl(-) was located in Off-bipolar dendrites, fully overlapping with ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR4. Possibly, an internal Cl(-) level is higher in the On-bipolar dendrites than in the Off-bipolar dendrites. gamma-Aminobutyric acid inputs in the distal retina might excite On-bipolar cells, but inhibit Off-bipolar cells.
|Interaction of the N-terminal domain of the AMPA receptor GluR4 subunit with the neuronal pentraxin NP1 mediates GluR4 synaptic recruitment. |
Sia, GM; B����que, JC; Rumbaugh, G; Cho, R; Worley, PF; Huganir, RL
Neuron 55 87-102 2007
Synaptogenesis requires recruitment of neurotransmitter receptors to developing postsynaptic specializations. We developed a coculture system reconstituting artificial synapses between neurons and nonneuronal cells to investigate the molecular components required for AMPA-receptor recruitment to synapses. With this system, we find that excitatory axons specifically express factors that recruit the AMPA receptor GluR4 subunit to sites of contact between axons and GluR4-transfected nonneuronal cells. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain (NTD) of GluR4 is necessary and sufficient for its recruitment to these artificial synapses and also for GluR4 recruitment to native synapses. Moreover, we show that axonally derived neuronal pentraxins NP1 and NPR are required for GluR4 recruitment to artificial and native synapses. RNAi knockdown and knockout of the neuronal pentraxins significantly decreases GluR4 targeting to synapses. Our results indicate that NP1 and NPR secreted from presynaptic neurons bind to the GluR4 NTD and are critical trans-synaptic factors for GluR4 recruitment to synapses.
|Synaptic contact between melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells and rod bipolar cells. |
��stergaard, J; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 48 3812-20 2007
Evidence indicates that the melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) receive input from rods and cones, which are thought to modulate the irradiance detecting system driving entrainment of the circadian system and pupillomotor control. This study was performed to identify retinal cells that have synaptic contact with ipRGCs.Immunohistochemistry and high-power confocal microscopy were used to generate stacks of digital images of sections stained with antibodies against melanopsin, protein kinase C (PKCalpha), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), presynaptic terminal markers (C-terminal binding protein 2 [CtBP2], vesicular monoamine transporter 2 [VMAT2] and postsynaptic marker (glutamate receptor subunit 4 [GluR4]). Results were analyzed in a computer-based three-dimensional reconstruction program for cellular contacts.Markers and melanopsin rod bipolar processes were found to have axosomatic and axodendritic contact with melanopsin-containing RGCs. Typically, three to four contacts were found on the soma of the melanopsin-containing RGCs, together with contacts on proximal dendrites. Contacts visualized by only CtBP2 immunoreactivity could also be demonstrated on melanopsin cell bodies and processes representing contacts with other types of bipolar cells. At the border of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and inner nuclear layer (INL), where melanopsin processes stratify, contacts between melanopsin and TH or VMAT2 immunoreactivity processes were observed.Through confocal microscopy and computer-based three-dimensional analyses, this study demonstrates that melanopsin-containing RGCs have synaptic contact with PKC/CtBP2-containing rod bipolar cells and TH/VMAT2-immunoreactive amacrine cells through axodendritic and axosomatic contact, supporting electrophysiological observations that rods and cones signal to the melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive RGCs.
|Synaptic pattern of AMPA receptor subtypes upon direction-selective retinal ganglion cells. |
Jeong, Seong-Ah, et al.
Neurosci. Res., 56: 427-34 (2006) 2006
In the search for anisotropies that might contribute to a directional preference of direction-selective (DS) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), we studied the distributions of AMPA receptor subtypes GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4 upon the dendritic arbors of DS RGCs of the rabbit with antibody immunocytochemistry. DS RGCs were injected with Lucifer yellow and the cells were identified by their characteristic morphology. The double-labeled images of dendrites and receptors were visualized by confocal microscopy and were reconstructed from high-resolution confocal images. We found no evidence of asymmetry in any of the AMPA receptor subunits examined upon the dendritic arbors of both On and Off layers of DS RGCs. The present results indicate that direction selectivity appears to lie in presynaptic pattern.
|Cadherin is required for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic terminal organization of retinal horizontal cells. |
Tanabe, K; Takahashi, Y; Sato, Y; Kawakami, K; Takeichi, M; Nakagawa, S
Development (Cambridge, England) 133 4085-96 2006
Dendrite morphology of neurons provides a structural basis for their physiological characteristics, and is precisely regulated in a cell type-dependent manner. Using a unique transposon-mediated gene transfer system that enables conditional and cell-type specific expression of exogenous genes, we investigated the role of cadherin on dendritic morphogenesis of horizontal cells in the developing chicken retina. We first visualized single horizontal cells by overexpressing membrane-targeted EGFP, and confirmed that there were three subtypes of horizontal cells, the dendritic terminals of which projected to distinct synaptic sites in the outer plexiform layer. Expression of a dominant-negative cadherin decreased the dendritic field size, and perturbed the termination of dendritic processes onto the photoreceptor cells. The cadherin blockade also impaired the accumulation of GluR4, a postsynaptic marker, at the cone pedicles. We thus provide in vivo evidence that cadherin is required for dendrite morphogenesis of horizontal cells and subsequent synapse formation with photoreceptor cells in the vertebrate retina.
|Developmental increase in postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoxazolepropionic acid receptor compartmentalization at the calyx of Held synapse. |
Diana Hermida, Izaskun Elezgarai, Nagore Puente, Virginia Alonso, Naroa Anabitarte, Aurora Bilbao, Francisco Do��ate-Oliver, Pedro Grandes
The Journal of comparative neurology 495 624-34 2006
The pattern of expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits 1-4 in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) has been reported to change during development. The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of the GluR1-4 subunits in the MNTB at postnatal day (P) 9, before high-frequency signal transmission in the auditory system has developed, with that observed in mature adult rats. GluR1-4 subunits were studied by preembedding and postembedding immunocytochemical methods. Increased levels of GluR1, 2/3, and 4 associated with development were evident only at postsynaptic sites of MNTB principal cell bodies receiving calyces of Held synapses, whereas receptor density at nonsynaptic sites was found to remain unaltered. Taken together, the expression pattern of GluR subunits and the density of immunoparticles in postsynaptic specializations are indicative of a compartmentalization of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subunits upon development. These developmental changes provide a morphological basis for establishment of the postsynaptic properties needed for high-frequency synaptic transmission of auditory signals to MNTB principal neurons.
|Expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in the cervical spinal cord of wobbler mice. |
Bigini, P; Gardoni, F; Barbera, S; Cagnotto, A; Fumagalli, E; Longhi, A; Corsi, MM; Di Luca, M; Mennini, T
BMC neuroscience 7 71 2006
The localisation of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits was studied in a model of degeneration of cervical spinal motoneurons, the wobbler mouse. Cervical regions from early or late symptomatic wobbler mice (4 or 12 weeks of age) were compared to lumbar tracts (unaffected) and to those of healthy mice.No differences were found in the distribution of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits at both ages. Western blots analysis showed a trend of reduction in AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits, mainly GluR1 and NR2A, exclusively in the cervical region of late symptomatic mice in the triton-insoluble post-synaptic fraction but not whole homogenates. Colocalisation experiments evidenced the expression of GluR1 and NR2A receptors in activated astrocytes from the cervical spinal cord of wobbler mice, GluR2 did not colocalise with GFAP positive cells. No differences were found in the expression of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in the lumbar tract of wobbler mice, where neither motoneuron loss nor reactive gliosis occurs.In late symptomatic wobbler mice altered levels of GluR1 and NR2A receptor subunits may be a consequence of motoneuron loss rather than an early feature of motoneuron vulnerability.Artículo Texto completo
|The role of AMPA receptor gating in the development of high-fidelity neurotransmission at the calyx of Held synapse. |
Joshi, Indu, et al.
J. Neurosci., 24: 183-96 (2004) 2004
During early postnatal development of auditory synapses, the decay time course of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) EPSCs accelerates markedly, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain uncertain. Using the developing calyx of Held synapse in the mouse auditory brainstem, we have examined presynaptic and postsynaptic elements that may regulate decay kinetics of AMPAR EPSCs. We found that the decay time kinetics was voltage dependent in both immature and mature synapses, being slower at positive potentials than negative potentials. By recording evoked miniature events in extracellular Ca2+ or Sr2+, we revealed a significant decrease in decay time constants of EPSCs as maturation progresses. On the basis of internal and external polyamine block of AMPAR EPSCs and immunohistochemistry assays with subunit-specific antibodies, we demonstrated that the glutamate receptor (GluR) 2 subunit is virtually absent at all developmental ages. Antibody staining patterns suggest a gradual shift in subunit composition from GluR1- to GluR3/4-dominant phenotypes. Kinetic analyses of deactivation, desensitization, and recovery from desensitization in outside-out patches in response to ultrafast application of glutamate lend supportive evidence that such a shift in the gating phenotype likely accounts for the accelerated time course throughout development. Finally, by pharmacologically manipulating AMPAR gating and using simulated EPSCs to evoke action potentials, we demonstrated that rapid decay kinetics of AMPAR EPSCs is essential for this synapse to accommodate high-frequency firing without compromising spike amplitude. Hence, developmental alterations in the subunit composition likely dictate changes in the time course of AMPAR EPSCs and play an indispensable role in the refinement of high-fidelity neurotransmission at the calyx of Held synapse.
|Increased expression of AMPA receptor subunits in the nucleus of the solitary tract in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. |
Saha, Sikha, et al.
Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res., 121: 37-49 (2004) 2004
The expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1-4 in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of adult Wistar rats was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the neuronal localisation of these receptor subunits in the NTS were confirmed by immunohistochemistry using subunit-specific antibodies. Semi-quantitative PCR was used to investigate differences in AMPA receptor subunit expression between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) and age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). All four receptor subunits were expressed in both strains, but compared to WKY, total AMPA receptor and the GluR3 mRNA expressions were significantly higher in SH. No differences were detected in cDNA form the cerebral cortex or cerebellum. Immunolabelling for GluRs 1, 2 and 2/3 in the neuropil relative to neuronal somata in the cardioregulatory areas of the NTS appeared to be increased in SH, with an overall increase in the density of GluR2/3 labelling in the medial and commissural NTS of SH. These results indicate a possible role for changes in AMPA receptor subunit expression in NTS neurones, involving an increase in GluR3 associated with development of hypertension in SH.
|Spinal axonal injury induces brief downregulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and no stripping of synapses in cord-projection central neurons. |
Yueh-Jan Wang, Guo-Fang Tseng
Journal of neurotrauma 21 1624-39 2004
Spinal cord injury often damages the axons of cord-projecting central neurons. To determine whether their excitatory inputs are altered following axonal injury, we used rat rubrospinal neurons as a model and examined their excitatory input following upper cervical axotomy. Anterograde tracing showed that the primary afferents from the cerebellum terminated in a pattern similar to that of control animals. Ultrastructurally, neurons in the injured nucleus were contacted by excitatory synapses of normal appearance, with no sign of glial stripping. Since cerebellar fibers are glutamatergic, we examined the expression of ionotropic receptor subunits GluR1-4 and NR1 for AMPA and NMDA receptors, respectively, in control and injured neurons using immunolabeling methods. In control neurons, GluR2 appeared to be low as compared to GluR1, GluR3, and GluR4, while NR1 labeling was intense. Following unilateral tractotomy, the levels of expression of each subunit in axotomized neurons appeared to be normal, with the exception that they were lower than those of control neurons of the nonlesioned side at 2-6 days postinjury. These findings suggest that axotomized neurons are only temporarily protected from excitotoxicity. This is in sharp contrast to the responses of central neurons that innervate peripheral targets, in which both synaptic stripping and reduction of their ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits persist following axotomy. The absence of an injury-induced trimming of afferents and stripping of synapses and the lack of a persistent downregulation of postsynaptic receptors might enable injured cord-projection neurons to continue to control their supraspinal targets during most of their postinjury survival. Although this may support neurons by providing trophic influences, it nevertheless may subject them to excitotoxicity and ultimately lead to their degenerative fate.
|AMPA receptors mediate acetylcholine release from starburst amacrine cells in the rabbit retina. |
Sally I Firth, Wei Li, Stephen C Massey, David W Marshak
The Journal of comparative neurology 466 80-90 2003
The light response of starburst amacrine cells is initiated by glutamate released from bipolar cells. To identify the receptors that mediate this response, we used a combination of anatomical and physiological techniques. An in vivo, rabbit eyecup was preloaded with [(3)H]-choline, and the [(3)H]-acetylcholine (ACh) released into the superfusate was monitored. A photopic, 3 Hz flashing light increased ACh release, and the selective AMPA receptor antagonist, GYKI 53655, blocked this light-evoked response. Nonselective AMPA/kainate agonists increased the release of ACh, but the specific kainate receptor agonist, SYM 2081, did not increase ACh release. Selective AMPA receptor antagonists, GYKI 53655 or GYKI 52466, also blocked the responses to agonists. We conclude that the predominant excitatory input to starburst amacrine cells is mediated by AMPA receptors. We also labeled lightly fixed rabbit retinas with antisera to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), AMPA receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2/3, or GluR4, and kainate receptor subunits GluR6/7 and KA2. Labeled puncta were observed in the inner plexiform layer with each of these antisera to glutamate receptors, but only GluR2/3-IR puncta and GluR4-IR puncta were found on the ChAT-IR processes. The same was true of starburst cells injected intracellularly with Neurobiotin, and these AMPA receptor subunits were localized to two populations of puncta. The AMPA receptors are expected to desensitize rapidly, enhancing the sensitivity of starburst amacrine cells to moving or other rapidly changing stimuli.
|An Unfolded Putative Transmembrane Polypeptide which Can Lead To Endoplamic Reticulum Stress is a Substrate of Parkin |
Imai, Y et.al.
Cell, 105:891-902 (2001) 2001
|GDNF acutely modulates excitability and A-type K(+) channels in midbrain dopaminergic neurons |
Yang, F, et al
Nat Neurosci, 4:1071-8 (2001) 2001
|Extension of glial processes by activation of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor channels. |
S Ishiuchi, K Tsuzuki, N Yamada, H Okado, A Miwa, H Kuromi, H Yokoo, Y Nakazato, T Sasaki, S Ozawa, S Ishiuchi, K Tsuzuki, N Yamada, H Okado, A Miwa, H Kuromi, H Yokoo, Y Nakazato, T Sasaki, S Ozawa
Neuroreport 12 745-8 2001
AMPA type-glutamate receptor channels (AMPARs) assembled without the GluR2 (GluR-B) subunit are characterized by high Ca2+ permeability, and are expressed abundantly in cerebellar Bergmann glial cells. Here we show that the morphology of cultured Bergmann glia-like fusiform cells derived from the rat cerebellum was changed by manipulating expression of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs using adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer. Converting endogenous Ca2+-permeable AMPARs into Ca2+-impermeable channels by viral-mediated transfer of GluR2 gene induced retraction of glial processes. In contrast, overexpression of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs markedly elongated glial processes. The process extension was blocked by 2,3-Dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(F)quinoxaline (NBQX), a specific antagonist of AMPAR. These results indicate that glutamate regulates the morphology of glial processes by activating Ca2+-permeable AMPARs.
|Distribution of bipolar input to midget and parasol ganglion cells in marmoset retina. |
Bahar Erik��z,Patricia R Jusuf,Kumiko A Percival,Ulrike Gr��nert
Visual neuroscience 25 2001
Different types of retinal ganglion cell show differences in their response properties. Here we investigated the question of whether these differences are related to the distribution of the synaptic input to the dendritic tree. We measured the distribution and density of synaptic input to the dendrites of midget and parasol ganglion cells in the retina of a New World monkey, the marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Ganglion cells were retrogradely labeled by dye injection into parvocellular or magnocellular regions of the lateral geniculate nucleus and subsequently photo-filled. Presumed bipolar cell synapses were identified immunocytochemically using antibodies against the ribbon protein CtBP2 or the GluR4 subunit of the AMPA receptor. For all cells, colocalized immunoreactive puncta were distributed across the entire dendritic tree. The density of the presumed bipolar input to midget ganglion cells was comparable for both synaptic markers, suggesting that the AMPA receptor GluR4 subunit is expressed at all synapses between midget bipolar and midget ganglion cells. Midget ganglion cells had an average of nine colocalized immunoreactive puncta per 100 microm2 dendritic surface, and parasol cells had an average of seven colocalized immunoreactive puncta per 100 microm2 dendritic surface. The densities were comparable in different regions of the dendritic tree and were not influenced by the location of the cells with respect to the fovea. Our findings suggest that the differences in the response characteristics of midget and parasol cells are not due to differences in the density of synaptic input to their dendritic tree.
|Stargazin regulates synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors by two distinct mechanisms. |
Chen, L, et al.
Nature, 408: 936-43 (2000) 2000
Stargazer, an ataxic and epileptic mutant mouse, lacks functional AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate) receptors on cerebellar granule cells. Stargazin, the mutated protein, interacts with both AMPA receptor subunits and synaptic PDZ proteins, such as PSD-95. The interaction of stargazin with AMPA receptor subunits is essential for delivering functional receptors to the surface membrane of granule cells, whereas its binding with PSD-95 and related PDZ proteins through a carboxy-terminal PDZ-binding domain is required for targeting the AMPA receptor to synapses. Expression of a mutant stargazin lacking the PDZ-binding domain in hippocampal pyramidal cells disrupts synaptic AMPA receptors, indicating that stargazin-like mechanisms for targeting AMPA receptors may be widespread in the central nervous system.
|Ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits are differentially regulated in the motoneuronal pools of the rat hypoglossal nucleus in response to axotomy. |
Garc��a Del Ca��o, G, et al.
J. Neurocytol., 29: 509-23 (2000) 2000
Unilateral hypoglossal nerve axotomy was used as a model to analyse immunohistochemically the expression of the GluR1, GluR2, GluR3, and GluR4 glutamate receptor subunits of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) subtype and the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype in the different morphofunctional hypoglossal pools from 1 to 45 days postaxotomy. Following hypoglossal nerve axotomy, the percentage of motoneurons that were GluR1-immunopositive and the labeling intensity for this subunit was increased in some hypoglossal pools. Immunolabeling for the GluR2 subunit was undetectable. These results contrast with the unchanged pattern for these two subunits after sciatic nerve axotomy previously described. Image analysis showed a significant decrease in the intensity of immunohistochemical labeling for the GluR2/3 and GluR4 subunits in motoneurons, although most motoneurons were still immunopositive for these 2 subunits after axotomy. The intensity of immunolabeling for the NR1 subunit was slightly decreased postlesion, whereas the percentage of NR1-immunopositive motoneurons increased. Immunoreactivity returned to basal levels 45 days postlesion. These findings show that in axotomized hypoglossal motoneurons, i) AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits are still expressed, ii) the composition of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit pool is subjected to continuous changes during the regeneration process, iii) AMPA receptors, if functional, would have physiological properties different to those in intact motoneurons, and iv) the various AMPA receptor subunits are differentially regulated. The present results also suggest a faster recovery of basal levels of immunoreactivity for caudally localised groups of motoneurons which could reflect a caudo-rostral sequential functional recovery in the hypoglossal nucleus.
|Proteomic analysis of NMDA receptor-adhesion protein signaling complexes |
Husi, H, et al
Nat Neurosci, 3:661-9 (2000) 2000
|Differential expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the outer retina |
Morigiwa, K and Vardi, N
J Comp Neurol, 405:173-84 (1999) 1999
|Localization of glutamate receptors in dorsal horn of rat spinal cord. |
Yung, K K
Neuroreport, 9: 1639-44 (1998) 1998
|Cellular localization of GluR1, GluR2/3 and GluR4 glutamate receptor subunits in neurons of the rat neostriatum. |
Kwok, K H, et al.
Brain Res., 778: 43-55 (1997) 1997
Glutamate excitocytotoxicity is implied in the cause of neuronal degeneration in the neostriatum, in which the toxicity may be mediated by different families of glutamate receptors. The precise cellular localization of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1-4), one of the major family that involves in the mechanisms of glutamate excitocytotoxicity, in different populations of striatal neurons is therefore of special interest. Immunoreactivity for GluR2/3 subunits was detected in the medium-sized spiny neurons. By double labelling experiments, immunoreactivity for GluR1 and GluR4 was detected only in aspiny striatal neurons that display parvalbumin immunoreactivity, but not in the other neuron populations that display choline acetyltransferase or muscarinic m2 receptor immunoreactivity, nor neurons that display nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity. These results indicate that GluR1 and GluR4 immunoreactivity is displayed only in the GABAergic interneurons in the neostriatum. In addition, almost all of the GluR1-immunoreactive neurons were found to display GluR4 immunoreactivity. This finding indicates for the first time that the striatal GABAergic interneurons co-express GluR1 and GluR4 subunits. The results of the present study indicate that there is a differential localization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits in different populations of striatal neurons and they may have a different susceptibility to glutamate excitocytotoxicity.
|Expression of glutamate receptor subunits 2/3 and 4 in the hypoglossal nucleus of the rat after neurectomy |
Tang, F R and Sim, M K
Experimental brain research Experimentelle Hirnforschung Experimentation cerebrale, 117:453-6 (1997) 1997
|Anti-Glutamate Receptor 4 - Data Sheet|