Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, B, Ca, Ch, H, Mk, Po, Rb||FC, IF, IHC, IP, FUNC||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 82 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Endothelial destabilization by angiopoietin-2 via integrin β1 activation. |
Hakanpaa, L; Sipila, T; Leppanen, VM; Gautam, P; Nurmi, H; Jacquemet, G; Eklund, L; Ivaska, J; Alitalo, K; Saharinen, P
Nature communications 6 5962 2015
Angiopoietins regulate vascular homeostasis via the endothelial Tie receptor tyrosine kinases. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) supports endothelial stabilization via Tie2 activation. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) functions as a context-dependent Tie2 agonist/antagonist promoting pathological angiogenesis, vascular permeability and inflammation. Elucidating Ang2-dependent mechanisms of vascular destablization is critical for rational design of angiopoietin antagonists that have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in cancer trials. Here, we report that Ang2, but not Ang1, activates β1-integrin, leading to endothelial destablization. Autocrine Ang2 signalling upon Tie2 silencing, or in Ang2 transgenic mice, promotes β1-integrin-positive elongated matrix adhesions and actin stress fibres, regulating vascular endothelial-cadherin-containing cell-cell junctions. The Tie2-silenced monolayer integrity is rescued by β1-integrin, phosphoinositide-3 kinase or Rho kinase inhibition, and by re-expression of a membrane-bound Tie2 ectodomain. Furthermore, Tie2 silencing increases, whereas Ang2 blocking inhibits transendothelial tumour cell migration in vitro. These results establish Ang2-mediated β1-integrin activation as a promoter of endothelial destablization, explaining the controversial vascular functions of Ang1 and Ang2.
|H-CRRETAWAC-OH, a lead structure for the development of radiotracer targeting integrin α5β1? |
Haubner, R; Maschauer, S; Einsiedel, J; Eder, IE; Rangger, C; Gmeiner, P; Virgolini, IJ; Prante, O
BioMed research international 2014 243185 2014
Imaging of angiogenic processes is of great interest in preclinical research as well as in clinical settings. The most commonly addressed target structure for imaging angiogenesis is the integrin α(v)β(3). Here we describe the synthesis and evaluation of [(18)F]FProp-Cys(*)-Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala-Cys(*)-OH, a radiolabelled peptide designed to selectively target the integrin α(5)β(1). Conjugation of 4-nitrophenyl-(RS)-2-[(18)F]fluoropropionate provided [(18)F]FProp-Cys(*)-Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala-Cys(*)-OH in high radiochemical purity (greater than 95%) and a radiochemical yield of approx. 55%. In vitro evaluation showed α(5)β(1) binding affinity in the nanomolar range, whereas affinity to α(v)β(3) and α(IIb)β(3) was greater than 50 μM. Cell uptake studies using human melanoma M21 (α(v)β(3)-positive and α(5)β(1)-negative), human melanoma M21-L (α(v)β(3)-negative and α(5)β(1)-negative), and human prostate carcinoma DU145 (α(v)β(3)-negative and α(5)β(1)-positive) confirmed receptor-specific binding. The radiotracer was stable in human serum and showed low protein binding. Biodistribution studies showed tumour uptake ranging from 2.5 to 3.5% ID/g between 30 and 120 min post-injection. However, blocking studies and studies using mice bearing α(5)β(1)-negative M21 tumours did not confirm receptor-specific uptake of [(18)F]FProp-Cys(*)-Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala-Cys(*)-OH, although this radiopeptide revealed high affinity and substantial selectivity to α(5)β(1) in vitro. Further experiments are needed to study the in vivo metabolism of this peptide and to develop improved radiopeptide candidates suitable for PET imaging of α(5)β(1) expression in vivo.
|Prestress in the extracellular matrix sensitizes latent TGF-β1 for activation. |
Klingberg, F; Chow, ML; Koehler, A; Boo, S; Buscemi, L; Quinn, TM; Costell, M; Alman, BA; Genot, E; Hinz, B
The Journal of cell biology 207 283-97 2014
Integrin-mediated force application induces a conformational change in latent TGF-β1 that leads to the release of the active form of the growth factor from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Mechanical activation of TGF-β1 is currently understood as an acute process that depends on the contractile force of cells. However, we show that ECM remodeling, preceding the activation step, mechanically primes latent TGF-β1 akin to loading a mechanical spring. Cell-based assays and unique strain devices were used to produce a cell-derived ECM of controlled organization and prestrain. Mechanically conditioned ECM served as a substrate to measure the efficacy of TGF-β1 activation after cell contraction or direct force application using magnetic microbeads. The release of active TGF-β1 was always higher from prestrained ECM as compared with unorganized and/or relaxed ECM. The finding that ECM prestrain regulates the bioavailability of TGF-β1 is important to understand the context of diseases that involve excessive ECM remodeling, such as fibrosis or cancer.
|Identification of platelet function defects by multi-parameter assessment of thrombus formation. |
de Witt, SM; Swieringa, F; Cavill, R; Lamers, MM; van Kruchten, R; Mastenbroek, T; Baaten, C; Coort, S; Pugh, N; Schulz, A; Scharrer, I; Jurk, K; Zieger, B; Clemetson, KJ; Farndale, RW; Heemskerk, JW; Cosemans, JM
Nature communications 5 4257 2014
Assays measuring platelet aggregation (thrombus formation) at arterial shear rate mostly use collagen as only platelet-adhesive surface. Here we report a multi-surface and multi-parameter flow assay to characterize thrombus formation in whole blood from healthy subjects and patients with platelet function deficiencies. A systematic comparison is made of 52 adhesive surfaces with components activating the main platelet-adhesive receptors, and of eight output parameters reflecting distinct stages of thrombus formation. Three types of thrombus formation can be identified with a predicted hierarchy of the following receptors: glycoprotein (GP)VI, C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2)greater than GPIbgreater than α6β1, αIIbβ3greater than α2β1greater than CD36, α5β1, αvβ3. Application with patient blood reveals distinct abnormalities in thrombus formation in patients with severe combined immune deficiency, Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, May-Hegglin anomaly or grey platelet syndrome. We suggest this test may be useful for the diagnosis of patients with suspected bleeding disorders or a pro-thrombotic tendency.
|Cyp1b1 mediates periostin regulation of trabecular meshwork development by suppression of oxidative stress. |
Zhao, Y; Wang, S; Sorenson, CM; Teixeira, L; Dubielzig, RR; Peters, DM; Conway, SJ; Jefcoate, CR; Sheibani, N
Molecular and cellular biology 33 4225-40 2013
Mutation in CYP1B1 has been reported for patients with congenital glaucoma. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show increased diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) in Cyp1b1-deficient (Cyp1b1(-/-)) mice. Cyp1b1(-/-) mice presented ultrastructural irregular collagen distribution in their trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue along with increased oxidative stress and decreased levels of periostin (Postn). Increased levels of oxidative stress and decreased levels of Postn were also detected in human glaucomatous TM tissues. Furthermore, Postn-deficient mice exhibited TM tissue ultrastructural abnormalities similar to those of Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. Administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) restored structural abnormality of TM tissue in Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. In addition, TM cells prepared from Cyp1b1(-/-) mice exhibited increased oxidative stress, altered adhesion, and decreased levels of Postn. These aberrant cellular responses were reversed in the presence of NAC or by restoration of Cyp1b1 expression. Cyp1b1 knockdown or inhibition of CYP1B1 activity in Cyp1b1(+/+) TM cells resulted in a Cyp1b1(-/-) phenotype. Thus, metabolic activity of CYP1B1 contributes to oxidative homeostasis and ultrastructural organization and function of TM tissue through modulation of Postn expression.
|Apolipoprotein(a) acts as a chemorepellent to human vascular smooth muscle cells via integrin αVβ3 and RhoA/ROCK-mediated mechanisms. |
Riches, K; Franklin, L; Maqbool, A; Peckham, M; Adams, M; Bond, J; Warburton, P; Feric, NT; Koschinsky, ML; O'Regan, DJ; Ball, SG; Turner, NA; Porter, KE
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 45 1776-83 2013
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) motility and plasticity, functions that are influenced by environmental cues, are vital to adaptation and remodelling in vascular physiology and pathophysiology. Lp(a) is reportedly damaging to SMC function via unknown molecular mechanisms. Apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), a unique glycoprotein moiety of Lp(a), has been demonstrated as its active component. The aims of this study were to determine functional effects of recombinant apo(a) on human vascular SMC motility and explore the underlying mechanism(s). Exposure of SMC to apo(a) in migration assays induced a potent, concentration-dependent chemorepulsion that was RhoA and integrin αVβ3-dependent, but transforming growth factor β-independent. SMC manipulation through RhoA gene silencing, Rho kinase inhibition, statin pre-treatment, αVβ3 neutralising antibody and tyrosine kinase inhibition all markedly inhibited apo(a)-mediated SMC migration. Our data reveal unique and potent activities of apo(a) that may negatively influence SMC remodelling in cardiovascular disease. Circulating levels of Lp(a) are resistant to lipid-lowering strategies and hence a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying its functional effects on SMC may provide alternative therapeutic targets.
|Efficient downregulation of VEGF in retinal pigment epithelial cells by integrin ligand-labeled liposome-mediated siRNA delivery. |
Chen, CW; Yeh, MK; Shiau, CY; Chiang, CH; Lu, DW
International journal of nanomedicine 8 2613-27 2013
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of an integrin peptide ligand-labeled liposomal delivery system loaded with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-siRNA in a model study of gene therapy for retinopathy using human retinal pigment epithelial cells.Arg(R)-Gly(G)-Asp(D) motif peptide conjugating polyethylene glycol modified (RGD-PEGylated) liposomes were prepared using a thin-film hydration method and optimized for surface charge, particle size, small interfering RNA (siRNA) load, and entrapment efficiency. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine VEGF levels in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cytotoxicity was determined using the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and flow cytometry.Physicochemical properties, including particle size, zeta potential, and siRNA load, of the prepared RGD-PEGylated liposomes and their entrapment efficiency were determined to be within the following ranges: 123.8-234.1 nm, 17.31-40.09 m V, 5.27%-6.33%, and greater than 97%, respectively. RGD-PEGylated liposome-mediated fluorescent-labeled siRNA delivery demonstrated significantly enhanced cellular uptake, and 3 mol% RGD-PEGylated liposomes (having 3β-[N-(N', N'-dimethylaminoethane) carbamoyl] cholesterol (DC-cholesterol) DSPE and DSPE-PEG(2000)-RGD with molar ratio of 50/47/3) were shown to have better efficacy with regard to specificity for retinal pigment epithelial cells, reduced cytotoxicity, and knockdown of the target molecule.By integrin receptor-mediated endocytosis, 3 mol% RGD-PEGylated liposomes were shown to be a suitable vector when loaded with VEGF-siRNA for efficient downregulation of VEGF in retinal pigment epithelial cells at both the protein and gene levels. This integrin ligand-modified liposomal delivery system has therapeutic potential for ocular gene therapy.
|The differentiation of pancreatic tumor-initiating cells by vitronectin can be blocked by cilengitide. |
Cabarcas, SM; Sun, L; Mathews, L; Thomas, S; Zhang, X; Farrar, WL
Pancreas 42 861-70 2013
Pancreatic cancer is a leading cancer type and its molecular pathology is poorly understood. The only potentially curative therapeutic option available is complete surgical resection; however, this is inadequate as most of the patients are diagnosed at an advanced or metastatic stage. Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) constitute a subpopulation of cells within a solid tumor that sustain tumor growth, metastasis, and chemo/radioresistance. Within pancreatic cancer, TICs have been identified based on the expression of specific cell surface markers.We use a sphere formation assay to enrich putative TICs and use human serum as a driver of differentiation. We demonstrate by using specific blocking reagents that we can inhibit the differentiation process and maintain TIC-associated markers and genes.We can induce differentiation of pancreatospheres with the addition of human serum, and we identified vitronectin as an inducer of differentiation. We inhibit differentiation by human serum using an arginine-glycine-aspartate-specific peptide, which is Cilengitide; hence, demonstrating this differentiation is mediated via specific integrin receptors.Overall, our studies further the definition of pancreatic TICs and provide further insight into both the maintenance and differentiation of this lethal population.
|Integrin control of the transforming growth factor-β pathway in glioblastoma. |
Roth, P; Silginer, M; Goodman, SL; Hasenbach, K; Thies, S; Maurer, G; Schraml, P; Tabatabai, G; Moch, H; Tritschler, I; Weller, M
Brain : a journal of neurology 136 564-76 2013
Transforming growth factor-β is a central mediator of the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma, the most common and malignant form of intrinsic brain tumours. Transforming growth factor-β promotes invasiveness and angiogenesis, maintains cancer cell stemness and induces profound immunosuppression in the host. Integrins regulate cellular adhesion and transmit signals important for cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and motility, and may be involved in the activation of transforming growth factor-β. We report that αvβ3, αvβ5 and αvβ8 integrins are broadly expressed not only in glioblastoma blood vessels but also in tumour cells. Exposure to αv, β3 or β5 neutralizing antibodies, RNA interference-mediated integrin gene silencing or pharmacological integrin inhibition using the cyclic RGD peptide EMD 121974 (cilengitide) results in reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 in most glioma cell lines, including glioma-initiating cell lines and reduced transforming growth factor-β-mediated reporter gene activity, coinciding with reduced transforming growth factor-β protein levels in the supernatant. Time course experiments indicated that the loss of transforming growth factor-β bioactivity due to integrin inhibition likely results from two distinct mechanisms: an early effect on activation of preformed inactive protein, and second, major effect on transforming growth factor-β gene transcription as confirmed by decreased activity of the transforming growth factor-β gene promoter and decreased transforming growth factor-β(1) and transforming growth factor-β(2) messenger RNA expression levels. In vivo, EMD 121974 (cilengitide), which is currently in late clinical development as an antiangiogenic agent in newly diagnosed glioblastoma, was a weak antagonist of pSmad2 phosphorylation. These results validate integrin inhibition as a promising strategy not only to inhibit angiogenesis, but also to block transforming growth factor-β-controlled features of malignancy including invasiveness, stemness and immunosuppression in human glioblastoma.
|The ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 is a cellular receptor for Kaposi's sarcoma–associated herpesvirus. |
Hahn, AS; Kaufmann, JK; Wies, E; Naschberger, E; Panteleev-Ivlev, J; Schmidt, K; Holzer, A; Schmidt, M; Chen, J; König, S; Ensser, A; Myoung, J; Brockmeyer, NH; Stürzl, M; Fleckenstein, B; Neipel, F
Nature medicine 18 961-6 2012
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma(1), a highly vascularized tumor originating from lymphatic endothelial cells, and of at least two different B cell malignancies(2,3). A dimeric complex formed by the envelope glycoproteins H and L (gH-gL) is required for entry of herpesviruses into host cells(4). We show that the ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase A2 (EphA2) is a cellular receptor for KSHV gH-gL. EphA2 co-precipitated with both gH-gL and KSHV virions. Infection of human epithelial cells with a GFP-expressing recombinant KSHV strain, as measured by FACS analysis, was increased upon overexpression of EphA2. Antibodies against EphA(2) and siRNAs directed against EphA2 inhibited infection of endothelial cells. Pretreatment of KSHV with soluble EphA2 resulted in inhibition of KSHV infection by up to 90%. This marked reduction of KSHV infection was seen with all the different epithelial and endothelial cells used in this study. Similarly, pretreating epithelial or endothelial cells with the soluble EphA2 ligand ephrinA4 impaired KSHV infection. Deletion of the gene encoding EphA2 essentially abolished KSHV infection of mouse endothelial cells. Binding of gH-gL to EphA2 triggered EphA2 phosphorylation and endocytosis, a major pathway of KSHV entry(5,6). Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ histochemistry revealed a close correlation between KSHV infection and EphA2 expression both in cultured cells derived from human Kaposi's sarcoma lesions or unaffected human lymphatic endothelium, and in situ in Kaposi's sarcoma specimens, respectively. Taken together, our results identify EphA2, a tyrosine kinase with known functions in neovascularization and oncogenesis, as an entry receptor for KSHV.
|Acute podocyte vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) knockdown disrupts alphaVbeta3 integrin signaling in the glomerulus. |
Veron, D; Villegas, G; Aggarwal, PK; Bertuccio, C; Jimenez, J; Velazquez, H; Reidy, K; Abrahamson, DR; Moeckel, G; Kashgarian, M; Tufro, A
PloS one 7 e40589 2012
Podocyte or endothelial cell VEGF-A knockout causes thrombotic microangiopathy in adult mice. To study the mechanism involved in acute and local injury caused by low podocyte VEGF-A we developed an inducible, podocyte-specific VEGF-A knockdown mouse, and we generated an immortalized podocyte cell line (VEGF(KD)) that downregulates VEGF-A upon doxycycline exposure. Tet-O-siVEGF:podocin-rtTA mice express VEGF shRNA in podocytes in a doxycycline-regulated manner, decreasing VEGF-A mRNA and VEGF-A protein levels in isolated glomeruli to ~20% of non-induced controls and urine VEGF-A to ~30% of control values a week after doxycycline induction. Induced tet-O-siVEGF:podocin-rtTA mice developed acute renal failure and proteinuria, associated with mesangiolysis and microaneurisms. Glomerular ultrastructure revealed endothelial cell swelling, GBM lamination and podocyte effacement. VEGF knockdown decreased podocyte fibronectin and glomerular endothelial alpha(V)beta(3) integrin in vivo. VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) interacts with beta(3) integrin and neuropilin-1 in the kidney in vivo and in VEGF(KD) podocytes. Podocyte VEGF knockdown disrupts alpha(V)beta(3) integrin activation in glomeruli, detected by WOW1-Fab. VEGF silencing in cultured VEGF(KD) podocytes downregulates fibronectin and disrupts alpha(V)beta(3) integrin activation cell-autonomously. Collectively, these studies indicate that podocyte VEGF-A regulates alpha(V)beta(3) integrin signaling in the glomerulus, and that podocyte VEGF knockdown disrupts alpha(V)beta(3) integrin activity via decreased VEGFR2 signaling, thereby damaging the three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier, causing proteinuria and acute renal failure.
|Sangassou virus, the first hantavirus isolate from Africa, displays genetic and functional properties distinct from those of other murinae-associated hantaviruses. |
Klempa, B; Witkowski, PT; Popugaeva, E; Auste, B; Koivogui, L; Fichet-Calvet, E; Strecker, T; Ter Meulen, J; Krüger, DH
Journal of virology 86 3819-27 2012
We have discovered the first indigenous African hantavirus, Sangassou virus (SANGV). The virus was isolated from an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus), trapped in a forest habitat in Guinea, West Africa. Here, we report on the characterization of the genetic and functional properties of the virus. The complete genome of SANGV was determined and showed typical hantavirus organization. The small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments containing genes encoding nucleocapsid protein, two envelope glycoproteins, and viral polymerase were found to be 1,746, 3,650, and 6,531 nucleotides long, respectively. The exact 5' and 3' termini for all three segments of the SANGV genome were determined and were predicted to form the panhandle structures typical of bunyaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of all three segment sequences confirmed SANGV as a Murinae-associated hantavirus most closely related to the European Dobrava-Belgrade virus. We showed, however, that SANGV uses β(1) integrin rather than β(3) integrin and decay-accelerating factor (DAF)/CD55 as an entry receptor. In addition, we demonstrated a strong induction of type III lambda interferon (IFN-λ) expression in type I IFN-deficient Vero E6 cells by SANGV. These properties are unique within Murinae-associated hantaviruses and make the virus useful in comparative studies focusing on hantavirus pathogenesis.
|Integrin-assisted drug delivery of nano-scaled polymer therapeutics bearing paclitaxel. |
Eldar-Boock A, Miller K, Sanchis J, Lupu R, Vicent MJ, Satchi-Fainaro R
Biomaterials 32 3862-74. Epub 2011 Mar 4. 2011
Angiogenesis plays a prominent role in cancer progression. Anti-angiogenic therapy therefore, either alone or in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapy, offers a promising therapeutic approach. Paclitaxel (PTX) is a widely-used potent cytotoxic drug that also exhibits anti-angiogenic effects at low doses. However, its use, at its full potential, is limited by severe side effects. Here we designed and synthesized a targeted conjugate of PTX, a polymer and an integrin-targeted moiety resulting in a polyglutamic acid (PGA)-PTX-E-[c(RGDfK)(2)] nano-scaled conjugate. Polymer conjugation converted PTX to a macromolecule, which passively targets the tumor tissue exploiting the enhanced permeability and retention effect, while extravasating via the leaky tumor neovasculature. The cyclic RGD peptidomimetic enhanced the effects previously seen for PGA-PTX alone, utilizing the additional active targeting to the α(v)β(3) integrin overexpressed on tumor endothelial and epithelial cells. This strategy is particularly valuable when tumors are well-vascularized, but they present poor vascular permeability. We show that PGA is enzymatically-degradable leading to PTX release under lysosomal acidic pH. PGA-PTX-E-[c(RGDfK)(2)] inhibited the growth of proliferating α(v)β(3)-expressing endothelial cells and several cancer cells. We also showed that PGA-PTX-E-[c(RGDfK)(2)] blocked endothelial cells migration towards vascular endothelial growth factor; blocked capillary-like tube formation; and inhibited endothelial cells attachment to fibrinogen. Orthotopic studies in mice demonstrated preferential tumor accumulation of the RGD-bearing conjugate, leading to enhanced anti-tumor efficacy and a marked decrease in toxicity as compared with free PTX-treated mice.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Novel RGD-lipid conjugate-modified liposomes for enhancing siRNA delivery in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. |
Cheng-Wei Chen,Da-Wen Lu,Ming-Kung Yeh,Chia-Yang Shiau,Chiao-Hsi Chiang
International journal of nanomedicine 6 2011
Human retinal pigment epithelial cells are promising target sites for small interfering RNA (siRNA) that might be used for the prevention and/or treatment of choroidal neovascularization by inhibiting the expression of angiogenic factor; for example, by downregulating expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene.Artículo Texto completo
|Resistance of canine lymphoma cells to adenoviral infection due to reduced cell surface RGD binding integrins. |
O'Neill, AM; Smith, AN; Spangler, EA; Whitley, EM; Schleis, SE; Bird, RC; Curiel, DT; Thacker, EE; Smith, BF
Cancer biology & therapy 11 651-8 2011
Recombinant adenovirus vectors (Ad) have been recognized as effective in vivo gene delivery vehicles and utilized as gene therapy agents for a number of cancers. The elucidation of viral entry mechanisms has allowed the development of recombinant vectors that exploit existing cell surface receptors to achieve entry into the cell. B lymphocytes are normally resistant to infection by adenovirus 5, likely due to the lack of the Coxsackie and Adenovirus receptor (CAR). Using reverse-transcriptase PCR and flow cytometry, the CD40 receptor has been shown to be expressed on many lymphoma cells. We exploited this finding to develop a gene therapy strategy for treatment of canine B cell lymphoma. Ad5 was targeted to cells expressing CD40 via CD40 ligand (CD40L) and was effective in infecting CD40-expressing control cells; however, both primary canine lymphoma cells and cell lines demonstrated limited evidence of transduction. Following receptor binding, adenovirus entry into cells may require interaction with α(v)β(3/5) integrins; we demonstrate that canine lymphoma cells are deficient in these integrins. Reduced α(v)β(3) integrin expression may render these cells incapable of internalizing Ad vectors. Thus, any viral targeting approaches for treatment of canine lymphoma must also take into account the potential lack of internalization signals.
|Isolation and characterization of human trophoblast side-population (SP) cells in primary villous cytotrophoblasts and HTR-8/SVneo cell line. |
Takao, T; Asanoma, K; Kato, K; Fukushima, K; Tsunematsu, R; Hirakawa, T; Matsumura, S; Seki, H; Takeda, S; Wake, N
PloS one 6 e21990 2011
Recently, numerous studies have identified that immature cell populations including stem cells and progenitor cells can be found among "side-population" (SP) cells. Although SP cells isolated from some adult tissues have been reported elsewhere, isolation and characterization of human trophoblast SP remained to be reported. In this study, HTR-8/SVneo cells and human primary villous cytotrophoblasts (vCTBs) were stained with Hoechst 33342 and SP and non-SP (NSP) fractions were isolated using a cell sorter. A small population of SP cells was identified in HTR-8/SVneo cells and in vCTBs. SP cells expressed several vCTB-specific markers and failed to express syncytiotrophoblast (STB) or extravillous cytotrophopblast (EVT)-specific differentiation markers. SP cells formed colonies and proliferated on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder cells or in MEF conditioned medium supplemented with heparin/FGF2, and they also showed long-term repopulating property. SP cells could differentiate into both STB and EVT cell lineages and expressed several differentiation markers. Microarray analysis revealed that IL7R and IL1R2 were exclusively expressed in SP cells and not in NSP cells. vCTB cells sorted as positive for both IL7R and IL1R2 failed to express trophoblast differentiation markers and spontaneously differentiated into both STB and EVT in basal medium. These features shown by the SP cells suggested that IL7R and IL1R2 are available as markers to detect the SP cells and that vCTB progenitor cells and trophoblast stem cells were involved in the SP cell population.
|Active targeting of RGD-conjugated bioreducible polymer for delivery of oncolytic adenovirus expressing shRNA against IL-8 mRNA. |
Kim, J; Nam, HY; Kim, TI; Kim, PH; Ryu, J; Yun, CO; Kim, SW
Biomaterials 32 5158-66 2011
Even though oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) has been highlighted in the field of cancer gene therapy, transductional targeting and immune privilege still remain difficult challenges. The recent reports have noted the increasing tendency of adenoviral surface shielding with polymer to overcome the limits of its practical application. We previously reported the potential of the biodegradable polymer, poly(CBA-DAH) (CD) as a promising candidate for efficient gene delivery. To endow the selective-targeting moiety of tumor vasculature to CD, cRGDfC well-known as a ligand for cell-surface integrins on tumor endothelium was conjugated to CD using hetero-bifunctional cross-linker SM (PEG)(n). The cytopathic effects of oncolytic Ad coated with the polymers were much more enhanced dose-dependently when compared with that of naked Ad in cancer cells selectively. Above all, the most potent oncolytic effect was assessed with the treatment of Ad/CD-PEG(500)-RGD in all cancer cells. The enhanced cytopathic effect of Ad/RGD-conjugated polymer was specifically inhibited by blocking antibodies to integrins, but not by blocking antibody to CAR. HT1080 cells treated with Ad/CD-PEG(500)-RGD showed strong induction of apoptosis and suppression of IL-8 and VEGF expression as well. These results suggest that RGD-conjugated bioreducible polymer might be used to deliver oncolytic Ad safely and efficiently for tumor therapy.
|Osteopontin selectively regulates p70S6K/mTOR phosphorylation leading to NF-kappaB dependent AP-1-mediated ICAM-1 expression in breast cancer cells. |
Ahmed M, Kundu GC
Mol Cancer 9 101. 2010
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer and accounts for over 400,000 deaths each year worldwide. It causes premature death in women, despite progress in early detection, treatment, and advances in understanding the molecular basis of the disease. Therefore, it is important to understand the in depth mechanism of tumor progression and develop new strategies for the treatment of breast cancer. Thus, this study is aimed at gaining an insight into the molecular mechanism by which osteopontin (OPN), a member of SIBLING (Small Integrin Binding LIgand N-linked Glycoprotein) family of protein regulates tumor progression through activation of various transcription factors and expression of their downstream effector gene(s) in breast cancer. RESULTS: In this study, we report that purified native OPN induces ICAM-1 expression in breast cancer cells. The data revealed that OPN induces NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB dependent ICAM-1 expression. We also observed that OPN-induced NF-kappaB further controls AP-1 transactivation, suggesting that there is cross talk between NF-kappaB and AP-1 which is unidirectional towards AP-1 that in turn regulates ICAM-1 expression in these cells. We also delineated the role of mTOR and p70S6 kinase in OPN-induced ICAM-1 expression. The study suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin augments whereas overexpression of mTOR/p70S6 kinase inhibits OPN-induced ICAM-1 expression. Moreover, overexpression of mTOR inhibits OPN-induced NF-kappaB and AP-1-DNA binding and transcriptional activity. However, rapamycin further enhanced these OPN-induced effects. We also report that OPN induces p70S6 kinase phosphorylation at Thr-421/Ser-424, but not at Thr-389 or Ser-371 and mTOR phosphorylation at Ser-2448. Overexpression of mTOR has no effect in regulation of OPN-induced phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase at Thr-421/Ser-424. Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin attenuates Ser-371 phosphorylation but does not have any effect on Thr-389 and Thr-421/Ser-424 phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. However, OPN-induced phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase at Thr-421/Ser-424 is being controlled by MEK/ERK pathway. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that blocking of OPN-induced ICAM-1 expression through mTOR/p70S6 kinase signaling pathway may be an important therapeutic strategy for the treatment of breast cancer.Artículo Texto completo
|Heparin binding domain in vitronectin is required for oligomerization and thus enhances integrin mediated cell adhesion and spreading. |
Chandramouli R Chillakuri,Céline Jones,Helen J Mardon
FEBS letters 584 2010
Vitronectin is a multi-functional protein found predominantly as a monomer in blood and as an oligomer in the extracellular matrix. We have dissected the minimal regions of vitronectin protein needed for effective integrin dependent cell adhesion and spreading. A fragment of vitronectin containing the RGD integrin binding site showed similar binding affinity as that of full vitronectin protein to purified integrin alphavbeta3 but had diminished cell adhesion and spreading function in vivo. We demonstrate that the oligomeric state of the protein is responsible for this effect. We provide compelling evidence for the involvement of the heparin binding domain of vitronectin in the oligomerization process and show that such oligomerization reinforces the activity of vitronectin in cell adhesion and spreading.
|Protein kinase D1 regulates VEGF-A-induced alphavbeta3 integrin trafficking and endothelial cell migration. |
Laura di Blasio,Sara Droetto,Jim Norman,Federico Bussolino,Luca Primo
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 11 2010
The bidirectional communication between integrin alphavbeta3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors acts to integrate and coordinate endothelial cell (EC) activity during angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this signaling crosstalk are only partially revealed. We have found that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) was activated by VEGF-A, but not by other angiogenic factors, and associated with alphavbeta3 integrin. Moreover, knockdown of PKD1 increased endocytosis of alphavbeta3 and reduced its return from endosomes to the plasma membrane leading to accumulation of the integrin in Rab5- and Rab4-positive endosomes. Consistent with this, PKD1 knockdown caused defects in focal complex formation and reduced EC migration in response to VEGF-A. Moreover, knockdown of PKD1 reduced EC motility on vitronectin, whereas migration on collagen I was not PKD1 dependent. These results suggest that PKD1-regulated alphavbeta3 trafficking contributes to the angiogenesis process by integrating VEGF-A signaling with extracellular matrix interactions.
|Alphav and beta1 integrins regulate dynamic compression-induced proteoglycan synthesis in 3D gel culture by distinct complementary pathways. |
D H Chai,E C Arner,D W Griggs,A J Grodzinsky
Osteoarthritis and cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society 18 2010
Our goal was to test the hypothesis that specific integrin receptors regulate chondrocyte biosynthetic response to dynamic compression at early times in 3D gel culture, during initial evolution of the pericellular matrix, but prior to significant accumulation of further-removed matrix. The study was motivated by increased use of dynamic loading, in vitro, for early stimulation of tissue engineered cartilage, and the need to understand the effects of loading, in vivo, at early times after implantation of constructs.Artículo Texto completo
|Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein promotes cell attachment via two independent mechanisms involving CD47 and alphaVbeta3 integrin. |
Rock, MJ; Holden, P; Horton, WA; Cohn, DH
Molecular and cellular biochemistry 338 215-24 2010
Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a pentameric approximately 524 kDa multidomain extracellular matrix protein and is the fifth member of the thrombospondin family. COMP is abundantly expressed in proliferating and hypertrophic chondrocytes of the growth plate, articular cartilage, synovium, tendon, and ligament. The spatial localization of COMP highlights its importance in the phenotypes of pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED), COMP disorders that are characterized by disproportionate short stature, brachydactyly, scoliosis, early-onset osteoarthritis, and joint hypermobility. In this study, the role of COMP in ligament was investigated with a series of cell attachment assays using ligament cells binding to COMP. A dose-dependent cell attachment activity was found, which was inhibited by a peptide containing the SFYVVMWK amino acid sequence derived from the globular C-terminal domain of COMP. This activity was independent of the recently described RGD-dependent attachment activity. Function-blocking antibodies to CD47 and alphaVbeta3 integrin reduced cell attachment to COMP, implicating the participation of these cell surface molecules in COMP cell binding. Immunofluorescence studies showed that cell attachment to COMP induced the formation of lamellae containing F-actin microspikes associated with fascin. We propose that COMP promotes cell attachment via two independent mechanisms involving cell surface CD47 and alphaVbeta3 integrin and that a consequence of cell attachment to COMP is the specific induction of fascin-stabilized actin microspikes.Artículo Texto completo
|Vascular pathology in dermatomyositis and anatomic relations to myopathology. |
Alan Pestronk,Robert E Schmidt,Rati Choksi
Muscle & nerve 42 2010
The causes of perifascicular myofiber atrophy and capillary pathology in dermatomyositis are incompletely understood. We studied 11 dermatomyositis muscles by histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructure. We found that endomysial capillaries within regions of perifascicular atrophy are not entirely lost, but they have reduced size, endothelial loss, C5b9 complement deposits, and relatively preserved connective tissue molecules and pericytes. In all muscles, the perimysium varies regionally. Some areas contain intermediate-sized vessels. Others are avascular. In dermatomyositis, vascular perimysium contains abnormal vessel fragments, perivascular inflammation, and increased PECAM-1. Perifascicular myofiber atrophy and capillary pathology are concentrated near the avascular perimysium. We conclude that both perimysial intermediate-sized vessels and endomysial capillaries within regions of perifascicular myofiber atrophy are abnormal in dermatomyositis. Capillary damage and myofiber atrophy are concentrated in regions distant from intermediate-sized perimysial vessels. Chronic immune vascular damage and insufficiency in dermatomyositis may cause ischemia, myofiber atrophy, and capillary damage in watershed regions of muscle near the avascular perimysium.
|Src, PKCalpha, and PKCdelta are required for alphavbeta3 integrin-mediated metastatic melanoma invasion. |
Putnam, Andrew J, et al.
Cell Commun. Signal, 7: 10 (2009) 2009
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Integrins, cell-surface receptors that mediate adhesive interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM), play an important role in cancer progression. Expression of the vitronectin receptor alphavbeta3 integrin correlates with increased invasive and metastatic capacity of malignant melanomas, yet it remains unclear how expression of this integrin triggers melanoma invasion and metastasis. RESULTS: Two melanoma cell lines C8161.9 and M14 both express high levels of alphavbeta3 integrin and adhere to vitronectin. However, only the highly metastatic C8161.9 cells are capable of invading vitronectin-enriched Matrigel in an alphavbeta3-depenent manner. Elevated levels of PKCalpha and PKCdelta, and activated Src were detected specifically in the highly metastatic melanoma cells, but not in the low metastatic M14 cells. Inhibition of Src or PKC activity suppressed alphavbeta3-dependent invasion. Furthermore, over expression of Src or PKCalpha and PKCdelta was sufficient to confer alphavbeta3-dependent invasiveness to M14 cells. Stress fiber formation and focal adhesion formation were almost completely absent in C8161.9 cells compared to M14 cells. Inhibition of Src signaling was sufficient to restore normal actin architecture, and resulted in decreased p190RhoGAP phosphorylation and enhanced RhoA activity. Src had no effect on Rac activity. Loss of PKCalpha expression, but not PKCdelta, by siRNA inhibited Rac and PAK activity as well as invasiveness. Loss of PKCalpha restored focal adhesion formation and partially restored stress fiber formation, while loss of PKCdelta primarily restored stress fibers. CONCLUSION: The misregulated expression of PKCalpha and PKCdelta and elevated Src activity in metastatic melanoma cells is required for efficient alphavbeta3-mediated invasion. PKCalpha and Src enhance alphavbeta3-mediated invasion in part by increasing the GTPase activity of Rac relative to RhoA. PKCalpha influences focal adhesion formation, while PKCdelta controls stress fibers.
|Expression of integrins on human choroidal neovascular membranes. |
Cui, J; Maberley, D; Samad, A; Ma, P; Ning, A; Matsubara, JA; Baciu, P
Journal of ocular biology, diseases, and informatics 2 12-9 2009
0Artículo Texto completo
|Replication-competent Ad11p vector (RCAd11p) efficiently transduces and replicates in hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer cells. |
Linda Sandberg, Praveen Papareddy, Jim Silver, Anders Bergh, Ya-Fang Mei, Linda Sandberg, Praveen Papareddy, Jim Silver, Anders Bergh, Ya-Fang Mei
Human gene therapy 20 361-73 2009
Selective replication-competent adenovirus serotype 5 vectors have been used for prostate cancer therapy. Unfortunately, gene transfer is inefficient because hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer cells have minimal coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor expression. Vectors based on species B adenoviruses are attractive tools for use in human gene therapy because the viruses have low seroprevalence and they have efficient transduction capacity. Most species B adenoviruses use ubiquitously expressed complement-regulatory CD46 protein as a cellular receptor. Here we report the transduction efficacy and oncolytic capacity of a replication-competent Ad11p (RCAd11p) vector in human prostate cancer cells. Green fluorescent protein was efficiently expressed in a dose-dependent manner in PC-3 and DU 145 cells derived from metastasis of prostate cancer to bone and brain, respectively. However, transduction was less effective in LNCaP cells derived from prostate cancer metastasis to lymph nodes. The oncolytic capacity of the RCAd11p vector was 100 times higher in PC-3 cells than in the two other cell lines. The oncolysis was independent of the level of expression of p53 in the cells or on the absence of E1B55k expression in the vector. In vivo experiments revealed significant growth inhibition of PC-3 tumors in the xenograft mouse group treated with RCAd11p vector or Ad11pwt in comparison with the untreated control group. Thus, we have demonstrated that RCAd11p vector intrinsically possesses oncolytic properties, which were active in targeting tumor cells. Consequently, the novel RCAd11p vector has great potential for the treatment of incurable metastatic prostate disease.
|Downregulation of connective tissue growth factor by three-dimensional matrix enhances ovarian carcinoma cell invasion. |
Maria V Barbolina, Brian P Adley, David L Kelly, Jaclyn Shepard, Angela J Fought, Denise Scholtens, Peter Penzes, Lonnie D Shea, M Sharon Stack
International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 125 816-25 2009
Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies, due mainly to the prevalence of undetected metastatic disease. The process of cell invasion during intraperitoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions requires concerted regulation of many processes, including modulation of adhesion to the extracellular matrix and localized invasion. Exploratory cDNA microarray analysis of early response genes (altered after 4 hr of 3D collagen culture) coupled with confirmatory real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, multiple 3D cell culture matrices, Western blot, immunostaining, adhesion, migration and invasion assays were used to identify modulators of adhesion pertinent to EOC progression and metastasis. cDNA microarray analysis indicated a dramatic downregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in EOC cells placed in invasion- mimicking conditions (3D Type I collagen). Examination of human EOC specimens revealed that CTGF expression was absent in 46% of the tested samples (n = 41), but was present in 100% of normal ovarian epithelium samples (n = 7). Reduced CTGF expression occurs in many types of cells and may be a general phenomenon displayed by cells encountering a 3D environment. CTGF levels were inversely correlated with invasion such that downregulation of CTGF increased, while its upregulation reduced collagen invasion. Cells adhered preferentially to a surface comprised of both collagen I and CTGF relative to either component alone using alpha6beta1 and alpha3beta1 integrins. Together these data suggest that downregulation of CTGF in EOC cells may be important for cell invasion through modulation of cell-matrix adhesion.Artículo Texto completo
|Neuropilin-1/GIPC1 signaling regulates alpha5beta1 integrin traffic and function in endothelial cells. |
Valdembri, D; Caswell, PT; Anderson, KI; Schwarz, JP; König, I; Astanina, E; Caccavari, F; Norman, JC; Humphries, MJ; Bussolino, F; Serini, G
PLoS biology 7 e25 2009
Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a coreceptor for vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A164 in mice) and semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A). Nevertheless, Nrp1 null embryos display vascular defects that differ from those of mice lacking either VEGF-A164 or Sema3A proteins. Furthermore, it has been recently reported that Nrp1 is required for endothelial cell (EC) response to both VEGF-A165 and VEGF-A121 isoforms, the latter being incapable of binding Nrp1 on the EC surface. Taken together, these data suggest that the vascular phenotype caused by the loss of Nrp1 could be due to a VEGF-A164/SEMA3A-independent function of Nrp1 in ECs, such as adhesion to the extracellular matrix. By using RNA interference and rescue with wild-type and mutant constructs, we show here that Nrp1 through its cytoplasmic SEA motif and independently of VEGF-A165 and SEMA3A specifically promotes alpha5beta1-integrin-mediated EC adhesion to fibronectin that is crucial for vascular development. We provide evidence that Nrp1, while not directly mediating cell spreading on fibronectin, interacts with alpha5beta1 at adhesion sites. Binding of the homomultimeric endocytic adaptor GAIP interacting protein C terminus, member 1 (GIPC1), to the SEA motif of Nrp1 selectively stimulates the internalization of active alpha5beta1 in Rab5-positive early endosomes. Accordingly, GIPC1, which also interacts with alpha5beta1, and the associated motor myosin VI (Myo6) support active alpha5beta1 endocytosis and EC adhesion to fibronectin. In conclusion, we propose that Nrp1, in addition to and independently of its role as coreceptor for VEGF-A165 and SEMA3A, stimulates through its cytoplasmic domain the spreading of ECs on fibronectin by increasing the Rab5/GIPC1/Myo6-dependent internalization of active alpha5beta1. Nrp1 modulation of alpha5beta1 integrin function can play a causal role in the generation of angiogenesis defects observed in Nrp1 null mice.
|Platelet adhesion to multimerin 1 in vitro: influences of platelet membrane receptors, von Willebrand factor and shear. |
S Tasneem, F Adam, I Minullina, M Pawlikowska, S K Hui, S Zheng, J L Miller, C P M Hayward, S Tasneem, F Adam, I Minullina, M Pawlikowska, S K Hui, S Zheng, J L Miller, C P M Hayward
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH 7 685-92 2009
BACKGROUND: Multimerin 1 (MMRN1) is a large, homopolymeric adhesive protein, stored in platelets and endothelium, that when released, binds to activated platelets, endothelial cells and the extracellular matrix. OBJECTIVES: The goals of our study were to determine if (i) MMRN1 supports adhesion of resting and/or activated platelets under conditions of blood flow, and (ii) if MMRN1 enhances platelet adhesion to types I and III collagen. PATIENTS/METHODS: Platelet adhesion was evaluated using protein-coated microcapillaries, with or without added adhesive proteins and receptor antibodies. Platelets from healthy controls, Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) and severe von Willebrand factor (VWF)-deficient donors were tested. RESULTS: MMRN1 supported the adhesion of activated, but not resting, washed platelets over a wide range of shear rates. At low shear (150 s(-1)), this adhesion was supported by integrins alphavbeta3 and glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha but it did not require integrins alphaIIbbeta3 or VWF. At high shear (1500 s(-1)), adhesion to MMRN1 was supported by beta3 integrin-independent mechanisms, involving GPIbalpha and VWF, that did not require platelet activation when VWF was perfused over MMRN1 prior to platelets. MMRN1 bound to types I and III collagen, independent of VWF, however, its enhancing effects on platelet adhesion to collagen at high shear were VWF dependent. CONCLUSIONS: MMRN1 supports platelet adhesion by VWF-dependent and -independent mechanisms that vary by flow rate. Additionally, MMRN1 binds to, and enhances, platelet adhesion to collagen. These findings suggest that MMRN1 could function as an adhesive ligand that promotes platelet adhesion at sites of vascular injury.
|FAK-independent alphavbeta3 integrin-EGFR complexes rescue from anoikis matrix-defective fibroblasts. |
Zoppi, Nicoletta, et al.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1783: 1177-88 (2008) 2008
|Rescue of migratory defects of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome fibroblasts in vitro by type V collagen but not insulin-like binding protein-1. |
Viglio, Simona, et al.
J. Invest. Dermatol., 128: 1915-9 (2008) 2008
|Integrin-mediated expression of bone formation-related genes in osteoblast-like cells in response to fluid shear stress: roles of extracellular matrix, Shc, and mitogen-activated protein kinase. |
Ding-Yu Lee, Chiuan-Ren Yeh, Shun-Fu Chang, Pei-Ling Lee, Shu Chien, Cheng-Kung Cheng, Jeng-Jiann Chiu, Ding-Yu Lee, Chiuan-Ren Yeh, Shun-Fu Chang, Pei-Ling Lee, Shu Chien, Cheng-Kung Cheng, Jeng-Jiann Chiu
Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 23 1140-9 2008
Integrins play significant roles in mechanical responses of cells on extracellular matrix (ECM). We studied the roles of integrins and ECM proteins (fibronectin [FN], type I collagen [COL1], and laminin [LM]) in shear-mediated signaling and the expression of bone formation-related genes (early growth response-1 [Egr-1], c-fos, cyclooxygenase-2 [Cox-2], and osteopontin [OPN]) in human osteosarcoma MG63 cells. MG63 cells on FN, COL1, and LM were kept as controls or subjected to shear stress (12 dynes/cm(2)), and the association of alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1) integrins with Shc, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, i.e., extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK], c-jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase [JNK], and p38), and expressions of Egr-1, c-fos, Cox-2, and OPN were determined. In MG63 cells, shear stress induces sustained associations of alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1) with Shc when seeded on FN, but sustained associations of only beta(1) with Shc when seeded on COL1/LM. Shear inductions of MAPKs and bone formation-related genes were sustained (24 h) in cells on FN, but some of these responses were transient in cells on COL1/LM. The shear activations of ERK, JNK, and p38 were mediated by integrins and Shc, and these pathways differentially modulated the downstream bone formation-related gene expression. Our findings showed that beta(1) integrin plays predominant roles for shear-induced signaling and gene expression in osteoblast-like MG63 cells on FN, COL1, and LM and that alpha(v)beta(3) also plays significant roles for such responses in cells on FN. The beta(1)/Shc association leads to the activation of ERK, which is critical for shear induction of bone formation-related genes in osteoblast-like cells.
|Heparan sulfate-binding foot-and-mouth disease virus enters cells via caveola-mediated endocytosis. |
O'Donnell, V; Larocco, M; Baxt, B
Journal of virology 82 9075-85 2008
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes different cell surface macromolecules to facilitate infection of cultured cells. Virus, which is virulent for susceptible animals, infects cells via four members of the alpha(V) subclass of cellular integrins. In contrast, tissue culture adaptation of some FMDV serotypes results in the loss of viral virulence in the animal, accompanied by the loss of virus' ability to use integrins as receptors. These avirulent viral variants acquire positively charged amino acids on surface-exposed structural proteins, resulting in the utilization of cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) molecules as receptors. We have recently shown that FMDV serotypes utilizing integrin receptors enter cells via a clathrin-mediated mechanism into early endosomes. Acidification within the endosome results in a breakdown of the viral capsid, releasing the RNA, which enters the cytoplasm by a still undefined mechanism. Since there is evidence that HS internalizes bound ligands via a caveola-mediated mechanism, it was of interest to analyze the entry of FMDV by cell-surface HS. Using a genetically engineered variant of type O(1)Campos (O(1)C3056R) which can utilize both integrins and HS as receptors and a second variant (O(1)C3056R-KGE) which can utilize only HS as a receptor, we followed viral entry using confocal microscopy. After virus bound to cells at 4 degrees C, followed by a temperature shift to 37 degrees C, type O(1)C3056R-KGE colocalized with caveolin-1, while O(1)C3056R colocalized with both clathrin and caveolin-1. Compounds which either disrupt or inhibit the formation of lipid rafts inhibited the replication of O(1)C3056R-KGE. Furthermore, a caveolin-1 knockdown by RNA interference also considerably reduced the efficiency of O(1)C3056R-KGE infection. These results indicate that HS-binding FMDV enters the cells via the caveola-mediated endocytosis pathway and that caveolae can associate and traffic with endosomes. In addition, these results further suggest that the route of FMDV entry into cells is a function solely of the viral receptor.
|Beta1-6 branching of cell surface glycoproteins may contribute to uveal melanoma progression by up-regulating cell motility. |
Przybyło, M; Pocheć, E; Link-Lenczowski, P; Lityńska, A
Molecular vision 14 625-36 2008
This study investigated the influence of integrin expression as well as the oligosaccharide structure of surface N-glycoproteins on cell behavior of two primary uveal (92-1 and Mel202) and two primary cutaneous (FM55P and IGR-39) melanoma cell lines.Cell adhesion to fibronectin and cell migration on fibronectin (wound healing) were selected as the studied cell behavior parameters. The percentage of cells positive for expression of selected integrins was estimated by flow cytometric analysis. The influence of beta1-6 branched complex-type N-oligosaccharides on wound healing on fibronectin was investigated. Cell surface beta1-6 branched N-oligosaccharides were measured by their specific binding to PHA-L followed by flow cytometry, and the fibronectin receptors bearing beta1-6 GlcNAc branched N-linked glycans were identified. In addition, the transcript of GnT-V (the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to the core mannose of di- and tri-antennary N-glycans through a beta1-6 linkage) was analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR.Unlike the two examined cutaneous melanoma cell lines, neither of the uveal melanoma cells adhered to fibronectin. The adhesion efficiency of IGR-39 cells was twice that of FM55P cells. In contrast, uveal melanoma cells repaired scratch wounds on fibronectin-coated surfaces twice as fast as cutaneous melanoma cells did. The expression of alpha(3)beta(1), alpha(4)beta(1), alpha(5)beta(1), and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins, acting as fibronectin receptors, differed between the tested cell lines, and no distinct pattern distinguished uveal melanoma from cutaneous melanoma except for high expression of alpha(4)beta(1) integrin on both FM55P and IGR-39 cells. The results also demonstrated that the high levels of alpha(3)beta(1), alpha(4)beta(1), and alpha(5)beta(1) integrin expression on IGR-39 cells promoted their strong attachment to fibronectin-coated surfaces. In addition, 92-1, Mel202, and FM55P cells showed no or low adhesion to fibronectin, perhaps the result of low expression of fibronectin receptors excluding high expression of alpha(4)beta(1) integrin in FM55P cells. Cell migration was significantly decreased in three out of four PHA-L-treated cell lines, suggesting that beta1-6 branched complex type N-oligosaccharides are critical for 92-1, Mel202, and FM55P cell motility. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the tested cells did not differ in mRNA levels of beta1-6 -N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V. However, FACS analysis showed that 92-1, Mel202 and IGR-39 cells expressed significantly higher amounts of beta1-6 branched N-oligosaccharides on the cell surface than FM55P cells did. All examined alpha(3), alpha(5), alpha(v), and beta(1) integrin subunits were shown to bear beta1-6 branched N-linked glycans.The role of integrins and their N-glycosylation in the regulation of uveal melanoma growth and progression is largely unknown. These results reveal that cell surface complex-type N-glycans with GlcNAc beta1-6 branches are important factors determining the migration of primary uveal melanoma cells on fibronectin.
|Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)||18385798|
|Mechanisms of induction of endothelial cell E-selectin expression by smooth muscle cells and its inhibition by shear stress. |
Jeng-Jiann Chiu, Li-Jing Chen, Chih-I Lee, Pei-Ling Lee, Ding-Yu Lee, Min-Chien Tsai, Chia-Wen Lin, Shunichi Usami, Shu Chien
Blood 110 519-28 2007
E-selectin is a major adhesion molecule expressed by endothelial cells (ECs), which are exposed to shear stress and neighboring smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We investigated the mechanisms underlying the modulation of EC E-selectin expression by SMCs and shear stress. SMC coculture induced rapid and sustained increases in expression of E-selectin and phosphorylation of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase glycoprotein-130, as well as the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt. By using specific inhibitors, dominant-negative mutants, and small interfering RNA, we demonstrated that activations of c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 of the MAPK pathways are critical for the coculture-induced E-selectin expression. Gel shifting and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that SMC coculture increased the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-promoter binding activity in ECs; inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by p65-antisense, lactacystin, and N-acetyl-cysteine blocked the coculture-induced E-selectin promoter activity. Protein arrays and blocking assays using neutralizing antibodies demonstrated that IL-1beta and IL-6 produced by EC/SMC cocultures are major contributors to the coculture induction of EC signaling and E-selectin expression. Preshearing of ECs at 12 dynes/cm(2) inhibited the coculture-induced EC signaling and E-selectin expression. Our findings have elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying the SMC induction of EC E-selectin expression and the shear stress protection against this SMC induction.Artículo Texto completo
|Different modulation of cellular transcription by adenovirus 5, DeltaE1/E3 adenovirus and helper-dependent vectors. |
Yuri Martina, Daniele Avitabile, Stefania Piersanti, Gioia Cherubini, Isabella Saggio
Virus research 130 71-84 2007
One problem encountered in the use of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy is their toxicity. Although many studies have analyzed this question in vivo, few researches have investigated adenovirus vector effects at the cellular level using a large-scale approach. In particular, no such data are available for helper-dependent adenovirus vectors (HD), which are promising adenovirus vectors for clinical applications since they are devoid of all viral genes and can host large transgene cassettes. The present study used gene chips to examine (Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 interrogating 12,626 unique human transcripts) the effect on liver cells of HD vectors versus that of DeltaE1/E3 adenovirus vector and wild type Adenovirus (Ad5). The effects of the DeltaE1/E3 adenovirus and of HD vectors were comparable, and significantly milder than that of Ad5. Interestingly the expression signatures of DeltaE1/E3 adenovirus and HD vectors were non-overlapping both at the single gene and the pathway level, suggesting specific and different interactions between the host cell and the two gene therapy vectors.
|Altered expression pattern of integrin alphavbeta3 correlates with actin cytoskeleton in primary cultures of human breast cancer. |
Havaki, S; Kouloukoussa, M; Amawi, K; Drosos, Y; Arvanitis, LD; Goutas, N; Vlachodimitropoulos, D; Vassilaros, SD; Katsantoni, EZ; Voloudakis-Baltatzis, I; Aleporou-Marinou, V; Kittas, C; Marinos, E
Cancer cell international 7 16 2007
Integrins are transmembrane adhesion receptors that provide the physical link between the actin cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix. It has been well established that integrins play a major role in various cancer stages, such as tumor growth, progression, invasion and metastasis. In breast cancer, integrin alphavbeta3 has been associated with high malignant potential in cancer cells, signaling the onset of widespread metastasis. Many preclinical breast cancer studies are based on established cell lines, which may not represent the cell behavior and phenotype of the primary tumor of origin, due to undergone genotypic and phenotypic changes. In the present study, short-term primary breast cancer cell cultures were developed. Integrin alphavbeta3 localization was studied in correlation with F-actin cytoskeleton by means of immunofluorescence and immunogold ultrastructural localization. Integrin fluorescence intensities were semi-quantitatively assessed by means of computerized image analysis, while integrin and actin expression was evaluated by Western immunoblotting.In the primary breast cancer epithelial cells integrin alphavbeta3 immunofluorescence was observed in the marginal cytoplasmic area, whereas in the primary normal breast epithelial cells it was observed in the main cell body, i.e. in the ventrally located perinuclear area. In the former, F-actin cytoskeleton appeared well-formed, consisting of numerous and thicker stress fibers, compared to normal epithelial cells. Furthermore, electron microscopy showed increased integrin alphavbeta3 immunogold localization in epithelial breast cancer cells over the area of stress fibers at the basal cell surface. These findings were verified with Western immunoblotting by the higher expression of integrin beta3 subunit and actin in primary breast cancer cells, revealing their reciprocal relation, in response to the higher motility requirements, determined by the malignant potential of the breast cancer cells.A model system of primary breast cancer cell cultures was developed, in an effort to maintain the closest resembling environment to the tumor of origin. Using the above system model as an experimental tool the study of breast tumor cell behavior is possible concerning the adhesion capacity and the migrating potential of these cells, as defined by the integrin alphavbeta3 distribution in correlation with F-actin cytoskeleton.
|Insulin-like growth factor-I promotes migration in human androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via the alphavbeta3 integrin and PI3-K/Akt signaling |
Marelli, M. et al.
Int J Oncol., 28:723-730 (2006) 2006
|RANK Expression as a cell surface marker of human osteoclast precursors in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and giant cell tumors of bone. |
Gerald J Atkins, Panagiota Kostakis, Cristina Vincent, Amanda N Farrugia, Jeffrey P Houchins, David M Findlay, Andreas Evdokiou, Andrew C W Zannettino
Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 21 1339-49 2006
RANK expression in vivo on hematopoietic subsets including pre-osteoclasts, identified by monoclonal antibodies, has not been described. We describe the lineages that express RANK in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and GCTs. We show that CD14(+)RANK(high) cells constitute a circulating pre-osteoclast pool. INTRODUCTION: The expression of RANK by subsets of hematopoietic cells has not been adequately studied in humans. While attributed to the monocytoid lineage, the phenotype of the pre-osteoclast (pre-OC) with respect to RANK expression in vivo remains unclear. We tested monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against the extracellular domain of recombinant human RANK for reactivity with normal peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells (PBMNCs and BMMNCs, respectively). We also tested reactivity with giant cell tumor cells (GCT), a confirmed source of pre-OC and mature OCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human PBMNCs, BMMNCs, and GCT cells were analyzed for reactivity with anti-RANK MAbs by flow cytometry in combination with hematopoietic lineage restricted markers. GCTs were also analyzed by immunofluorescence. CD14+ monocytoid cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) based on their relative RANK expression and cultured under OC-forming conditions. RESULTS: RANK+ cells were detected similarly by three independent anti-RANK MAbs. One MAb (80736) immunoprecipitated RANK-RANKL complexes from surface-biotinylated GCT lysates. Using dual-color flow cytometry, RANK was detected on CD14+ (monocytoid), CD19+ (B-lymphoid), CD56+ (NK cell), and glycophorin A+ erythroid progenitors. Minor populations of both CD3+ T lymphocytes and BM CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors also expressed cell surface RANK. In GCTs, RANK expression was identified on mononuclear CD45(+)CD14(+)alphaVbeta3(+)c-Fms+ cells, likely to be committed pre-OC, and on multinucleated CD45(+)alphaVbeta3(+)TRACP(+) OCs. Importantly, sorted CD14(+)RANK(high) PBMNCs treated with recombinant RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) gave rise to approximately twice the number of osteoclasts than RANK(mid) or RANK(low) cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that committed monocytoid RANK+ pre-OCs are represented in the marrow and circulate in the periphery, forming a pool of cells capable of responding rapidly to RANKL. The ability to reliably detect committed pre-OC in peripheral blood could have important clinical applications in the management of diseases characterized by abnormal osteoclastic activity.
|Targeting rheumatoid tenosynovial angiogenesis with cytokine inhibitors. |
Abhilash Jain, Serafim Kiriakidis, Fionula Brennan, Ann Sandison, Ewa Paleolog, Jagdeep Nanchahal
Clinical orthopaedics and related research 446 268-77 2006
Proliferation and invasion of the tenosynovial lining of tendons in patients with rheumatoid arthritis can result in tendon damage and rupture, leading to decreased hand function. Angiogenesis is an important process in rheumatoid joint disease; however, the role of angiogenesis in tendon disease is unknown. Our aim was to determine whether rheumatoid tenosynovial lining could produce angiogenic proteins, and if inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 could decrease vascular endothelial growth factor production. Samples of encapsulating and invasive tenosynovial lining taken from the same hand and wrist synovial lining were harvested from 58 patients with rheumatoid arthritis having wrist surgery. Ex vivo samples were studied to quantify vascularity, angiogenic protein production under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and the effect of inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 on vascular endothelial growth factor production. Rheumatoid tenosynovial lining was more vascular than rheumatoid joint synovial lining and produced high levels of angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-1beta, fibroblast growth factor-2, and angiopoietin-2. Hypoxia induced an increase in production of vascular endothelial growth factor by ex vivo tenosynovial lining cells. Inhibition of the cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha effectively reduced vascular endothelial growth factor production by tenosynovial samples. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic study. Level II (Prospective comparative study). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
|Carcinoembryonic antigen-targeted selective gene therapy for gastric cancer through FZ33 fiber-modified adenovirus vectors. |
Tanaka, T; Huang, J; Hirai, S; Kuroki, M; Kuroki, M; Watanabe, N; Tomihara, K; Kato, K; Hamada, H
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 12 3803-13 2006
A major problem when using the adenoviral vectors for gene therapy applications is thought to be related to low transduction efficiency in cancer cells or to side effects in normal cells. There is an urgent requirement to improve the specificity of gene delivery in the context of cancer gene therapy.We constructed a genetically modified adenovirus incorporating an IgG Fc-binding motif from the Staphylococcus protein A, Z33, within the HI loop (Adv-FZ33). A remarkable degree of targeted gene delivery to gastric cancer cells was obtained with Adv-FZ33 with the fully human anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody, C2-45.In vitro LacZ or EGFP gene expression after Adv-FZ33 infection via C2-45 was 20 times higher than control monoclonal antibody in MKN-45 at 1,000 viral particles/cell. We generated Ax3CAUP-FZ33 (UP-FZ33), which is an Adv-FZ33 derivative vector expressing a therapeutic gene (i.e., Escherichia coli uracil phosphoribosyltransferase), which converts 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) directly to 5-fluoro-UMP. UP-FZ33 with C2-45 enhanced the cytotoxicity of 5-FU by 10.5-fold in terms of IC(50) against MKN-45 compared with control IgG4. In a nude mouse peritoneal dissemination model, tumor growth in mice treated with UP-FZ33/C2-45/5-FU was significantly suppressed, and tumor volumes were less than one-fourth of those of the control IgG4 group (P less than 0.05). The median survival time of the UP-FZ33/C2-45/5-FU group was significantly longer than those treated with PBS or 5-FU only (P less than 0.01).These data suggest that CEA-targeted FZ33 mutant adenovirus-mediated gene delivery offers a strong and selective therapeutic modality against CEA-producing cancers.
|Beta1 integrin mediates internalization of mammalian reovirus. |
Maginnis, MS; Forrest, JC; Kopecky-Bromberg, SA; Dickeson, SK; Santoro, SA; Zutter, MM; Nemerow, GR; Bergelson, JM; Dermody, TS
Journal of virology 80 2760-70 2006
Reovirus infection is initiated by interactions between the attachment protein sigma1 and cell surface carbohydrate and junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A). Expression of a JAM-A mutant lacking a cytoplasmic tail in nonpermissive cells conferred full susceptibility to reovirus infection, suggesting that cell surface molecules other than JAM-A mediate viral internalization following attachment. The presence of integrin-binding sequences in reovirus outer capsid protein lambda2, which serves as the structural base for sigma1, suggests that integrins mediate reovirus endocytosis. A beta1 integrin-specific antibody, but not antibodies specific for other integrin subunits, inhibited reovirus infection of HeLa cells. Expression of a beta1 integrin cDNA, along with a cDNA encoding JAM-A, in nonpermissive chicken embryo fibroblasts conferred susceptibility to reovirus infection. Infectivity of reovirus was significantly reduced in beta1-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells in comparison to isogenic cells expressing beta1. However, reovirus bound equivalently to cells that differed in levels of beta1 expression, suggesting that beta1 integrins are involved in a postattachment entry step. Concordantly, uptake of reovirus virions into beta1-deficient cells was substantially diminished in comparison to viral uptake into beta1-expressing cells. These data provide evidence that beta1 integrin facilitates reovirus internalization and suggest that viral entry occurs by interactions of reovirus virions with independent attachment and entry receptors on the cell surface.
|Antiangiogenesis and anticancer efficacy of TA138, a novel alphavbeta3 antagonist. |
Shaker A Mousa, Seema Mohamed, Eric J Wexler, Janet S Kerr
Anticancer research 25 197-206 2005
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is a complex process involving endothelial cell migration, proliferation, invasion, and tube formation. Inhibition of these processes might have implications in various angiogenesis-mediated disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antiangiogenic efficacy of the novel alphavbeta3 antagonist TA138 was examined using in vivo and in vitro model systems. RESULTS: The in vitro studies demonstrated the ability of TA138 and RP747 (conjugated TA138) to inhibit endothelial cell migration toward vitronectin, with an IC50=0.04 and 0.045 microM, respectively. Furthermore, utilizing the chick chorioallantoic membrane models, TA138 inhibited basic fibroblast growth factor-induced neovascularization. CONCLUSION: TA138 might be a useful tool for the inhibition of angiogenesis associated with human tumor growth, or other pathological neovascularization processes. RP747 demonstrated antitumor efficacy in 1 spontaneous tumor model (c-neu oncomouse model, alphavbeta3 positive cells) and in 1 xenograft model (HCT116 human tumor colon carcinoma, alphavbeta3 negative cells) injected subcutaneously into nude mice.
|A 13-bp deletion in alpha(IIb) gene is a founder mutation that predominates in Palestinian-Arab patients with Glanzmann thrombasthenia |
Rosenberg, N. et al.
J. Thromb. Haemost., 3(12):2764-2772 (2005) 2005
|CD44 cross-linking induces integrin-mediated adhesion and transendothelial migration in breast cancer cell line by up-regulation of LFA-1 (alpha L beta2) and VLA-4 (alpha4beta1). |
Hwai-Shi Wang, Ying Hung, Cheng-Hsi Su, Shu-Ting Peng, Yi-Jhih Guo, Mei-Chun Lai, Ching-Yi Liu, Jia-Wei Hsu
Experimental cell research 304 116-26 2005
CD44, a widely expressed cell surface glycoprotein, plays a major role in cell-cell adhesion, cell-substrate interaction, lymphocyte homing, and tumor metastasis. For tumor metastasis to occur through the blood vessel and lymphatic vessel pathway, the tumor cells must first adhere to endothelial cells. Recent studies have shown that high expression of CD44 in certain types of tumors is associated with the hematogenic spread of cancer cells. However, the functional relevance of CD44 to tumor cell metastasis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of CD44 cross-linking-induced adhesion and transendothelial migration of tumor cells using MDA-MB-435S breast cancer cell line. Breast cancer cells were found to express high levels of CD44. Using flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence staining, we demonstrated that cross-linking of CD44 resulted in a marked induction of the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) by exocytosis. These results were also observed with the Hs578T breast cancer cell line. Furthermore, LFA-1- and VLA-4-mediated adhesion and transendothelial cancer cell migration were also studied. Anti-LFA-1 mAb or anti-VLA-4 mAb alone had no effect on adhesion or transendothelial cancer cell migration, but were able to inhibit both of these functions when added together. This shows that CD44 cross-linking induces LFA-1 and VLA-4 expression in MDA-MB-435S cells and increases integrin-mediated adhesion to endothelial cells, resulting in the transendothelial migration of breast cancer cells. These observations provide direct evidence of a new function for CD44 that is involved in the induction of LFA-1 and VLA-4 expression by exocytosis in MDA-MB-435S cells. Because these induced integrins promote tumor cell migration into the target tissue, it may be possible to suppress this by pharmacological means, and thus potentially cause a reduction in invasive capability and metastasis.
|Pathogenic hantaviruses bind plexin-semaphorin-integrin domains present at the apex of inactive, bent alphavbeta3 integrin conformers. |
Raymond, T; Gorbunova, E; Gavrilovskaya, IN; Mackow, ER
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102 1163-8 2005
The alphavbeta3 integrins are linked to human bleeding disorders, and pathogenic hantaviruses regulate the function of alphavbeta3 integrins and cause acute vascular diseases. alphavbeta3 integrins are present in either extended (active) or dramatically bent (inactive) structures, and interconversion of alphavbeta3 conformers dynamically regulates integrin functions. Here, we show that hantaviruses bind human alphavbeta3 integrins and that binding maps to the plexin-semaphorin-integrin (PSI) domain present at the apex of inactive, bent, alphavbeta3-integrin structures. Pathogenic hantaviruses [New York-1 virus (NY-1V) and Hantaan virus (HTNV)] bind immobilized beta3 polypeptides containing the PSI domain, and human (but not murine) beta3 polypeptides inhibit hantavirus infectivity. Substitution of human beta3 residues 1-39 for murine beta3 residues directed pathogenic hantavirus infection of nonpermissive CHO cells expressing chimeric alphavbeta3 receptors. Mutation of murine beta3 Asn-39 to Asp-39 present in human beta3 homologues (N39D) permitted hantavirus infection of cells and specified PSI domain residue interactions with pathogenic hantaviruses. In addition, cell-surface expression of alphavbeta3 locked in an inactive bent conformation conferred hantavirus infectivity of CHO cells. Our findings indicate that hantaviruses bind to a unique domain exposed on inactive integrins and, together with prior findings, suggest that this interaction restricts alphavbeta3 functions that regulate vascular permeability. Our findings suggest mechanisms for viruses to direct hemorrhagic or vascular diseases and provide a distinct target for modulating alphavbeta3-integrin functions.Artículo Texto completo
|Analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus internalization events in cultured cells. |
O'Donnell, V; LaRocco, M; Duque, H; Baxt, B
Journal of virology 79 8506-18 2005
It has been demonstrated that foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can utilize at least four members of the alpha(V) subgroup of the integrin family of receptors in vitro. The virus interacts with these receptors via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid amino acid sequence motif located within the betaG-betaH loop of VP1. While there have been extensive studies of virus-receptor interactions at the cell surface, our understanding of the events during viral entry into the infected cell is still not clear. We have utilized confocal microscopy to analyze the entry of two FMDV serotypes (types A and O) after interaction with integrin receptors at the cell surface. In cell cultures expressing both the alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins, virus adsorbed to the cells at 4 degrees C appears to colocalize almost exclusively with the alphaVbeta6 integrin. Upon shifting the infected cells to 37 degrees C, FMDV capsid proteins were detected within 15 min after the temperature shift, in association with the integrin in vesicular structures that were positive for a marker of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In contrast, virus did not colocalize with a marker for caveola-mediated endocytosis. Virus remained associated with the integrin until about 1 h after the temperature shift, when viral proteins appeared around the perinuclear region of the cell. By 15 min after the temperature shift, viral proteins were seen colocalizing with a marker for early endosomes, while no colocalization with late endosomal markers was observed. In the presence of monensin, which raises the pH of endocytic vesicles and has been shown to inhibit FMDV replication, viral proteins were not released from the recycling endosome structures. Viral proteins were not observed associated with the endoplasmic reticulum or the Golgi. These data indicate that FMDV utilizes the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway to infect the cells and that viral replication begins due to acidification of endocytic vesicles, causing the breakdown of the viral capsid structure and release of the genome by an as-yet-unidentified mechanism.
|Laminin-5 induces osteogenic gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells through an ERK-dependent pathway. |
Klees, RF; Salasznyk, RM; Kingsley, K; Williams, WA; Boskey, A; Plopper, GE
Molecular biology of the cell 16 881-90 2005
The laminin family of proteins is critical for managing a variety of cellular activities including migration, adhesion, and differentiation. In bone, the roles of laminins in controlling osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are unknown. We report here that laminin-5 is found in bone and expressed by hMSC. hMSC isolated from bone synthesize laminin-5 and adhere to exogenous laminin-5 through alpha3beta1 integrin. Adhesion to laminin-5 activates extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) within 30 min and leads to phosphorylation of the osteogenic transcription factor Runx2/CBFA-1 within 8 d. Cells plated on laminin-5 for 16 d express increased levels of osteogenic marker genes, and those plated for 21 d deposit a mineralized matrix, indicative of osteogenic differentiation. Addition of the ERK inhibitor PD98059 mitigates these effects. We conclude that contact with laminin-5 is sufficient to activate ERK and to stimulate osteogenic differentiation in hMSC.
|On the mode of action of thrombin-induced angiogenesis: thrombin peptide, TP508, mediates effects in endothelial cells via alphavbeta3 integrin. |
Tsopanoglou, Nikos E, et al.
Thromb. Haemost., 92: 846-57 (2004) 2004
In a previous report we have presented evidence that thrombin interacts with alpha(v)beta(3) integrin in endothelial cells at the molecular and cellular level. This interaction was shown to be of functional significance in vitro and in vivo and contributed to activation of angiogenesis by thrombin. In the present study, we have used a synthetic thrombin peptide, TP508, which represents residues 183 to 200 of human thrombin. This peptide lacks the catalytic site of thrombin but contains the thrombin RGD sequence. Immobilized (surface-coated) TP508 peptide, like thrombin, supported alpha(v)beta(3) integrin-dependent endothelial cell attachment and haptotactic migration. These effects were specific (a scrambled TP508 peptide was without effect), and dosedependent. The RGD sequence was essential since a modified TP508 peptide, which contained RAD sequence instead of RGD, was inactive. Immobilized TP508 peptide stimulated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and focal adhesion kinase, the signal transduction pathways characteristic for integrin activation. On the other hand, TP508 peptide, when in solution, did not mimic other thrombin-promoted angiogenic effects, such as that of activation gelatinase A, upregulation of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor mRNA or prostacyclin PGI(2) release in endothelial cells. On the contrary, soluble TP508 acted as an antagonist for the aforementioned effects of thrombin. TP508 peptide inhibited these thrombin-induced effects through a RGD and alpha(v)beta(3)-related mechanism. The antagonism with thrombin or thrombin receptor activating peptide was specific and involved at least in part mitogen-activated protein kinases activation. These results point to the importance of RGD sequence of thrombin in mediating effects on endothelial cells and angiogenesis.
|Effects on rotavirus cell binding and infection of monomeric and polymeric peptides containing alpha2beta1 and alphaxbeta2 integrin ligand sequences |
Graham, Kate L, et al
J Virol, 78:11786-97 (2004) 2004
|Efficient internalization into low-passage glioma cell lines using adenoviruses other than type 5: an approach for improvement of gene delivery to brain tumours. |
Skog, J; Edlund, K; Widegren, B; Salford, LG; Wadell, G; Mei, YF
The Journal of general virology 85 2627-38 2004
There is a need for improvement of the commonly used adenovirus vectors based on serotype 5. This study was performed on three adenovirus serotypes with a CAR-binding motif (Ad4p, Ad5p and Ad17p) and three non-CAR-binding serotypes (Ad11p, Ad16p and Ad21p). The capacity of these alternative adenovirus vector candidates to deliver DNA into low-passage glioma cell lines from seven different donors was evaluated. The non-CAR-binding serotype Ad16p was the most efficient serotype with regard to import of its DNA, as well as initiation of hexon protein expression. Ad16p established hexon expression in 60-80 % of the cell population in gliomas from all donors tested. The other non-CAR-binding serotypes, Ad11p and Ad21p, showed hexon expression in 25-60 and 40-80 % of cells, respectively. The corresponding figure for the best CAR-binding serotype, Ad5p, was only 25-65 %, indicating greater variability between cells from different donors than serotype Ad16p had. The other CAR-binding serotypes, Ad4p and Ad17p, were refractory to some of the gliomas, giving a maximum of only 45 and 40 % hexon expression, respectively, in the most permissive cells. Interestingly, the transduction capacity of the CAR-binding serotypes was not correlated to the level of CAR expression on the cells.
|Interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with soluble bovine alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins. |
Duque, H; LaRocco, M; Golde, WT; Baxt, B
Journal of virology 78 9773-81 2004
At least four members of the integrin family of receptors, alphaVbeta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta6, and alphaVbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro. Our investigators have recently shown that the efficiency of receptor usage appears to be related to the viral serotype and may be influenced by structural differences on the viral surface (H. Duque and B. Baxt, J. Virol. 77:2500-2511, 2003). To further examine these differences, we generated soluble alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins. cDNA plasmids encoding the individual complete integrin alphaV, beta3, and beta6 subunits were used to amplify sequences encoding the subunits' signal peptide and ectodomain, resulting in subunits lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. COS-1 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding the soluble alphaV subunit and either the soluble beta3 or beta6 subunit and labeled with [35S]methionine-cysteine. Complete subunit heterodimeric integrins were secreted into the medium, as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. For the examination of the integrins' biological activities, stable cell lines producing the soluble integrins were generated in HEK 293A cells. In the presence of divalent cations, soluble alphaVbeta6 bound to representatives of type A or O viruses, immobilized on plastic dishes, and significantly inhibited viral replication, as determined by plaque reduction assays. In contrast, soluble alphaVbeta3 was unable to bind to immobilized virus of either serotype; however, virus bound to the immobilized integrin, suggesting that FMDV binding to alphaVbeta3 is a low-affinity interaction. In addition, soluble alphaVbeta3 did not neutralize virus infectivity. Incubation of soluble alphaVbeta6 with labeled type A12 or O1 resulted in a significant inhibition of virus adsorption to BHK cells, while soluble alphaVbeta3 caused a low (20 to 30%), but consistent, inhibition of virus adsorption. Virus incubated with soluble alphaVbeta6 had a lower sedimentation rate than native virus on sucrose density gradients, but the particles retained all of their structural proteins and still contained bound integrin and, therefore, were not exhibiting characteristics of a picornavirus A particle.Artículo Texto completo
|Glioblastoma cells block radiation-induced programmed cell death of endothelial cells. |
Charles K Brown, Nikolai N Khodarev, Jianqing Yu, Tricia Moo-Young, Edwardine Labay, Thomas E Darga, Mitchell C Posner, Ralph R Weichselbaum, Helena J Mauceri
FEBS letters 565 167-70 2004
We demonstrate that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) grown in co-culture (CC) with U87 glioblastoma cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP-U87) exhibit resistance to radiation-mediated apoptosis. cDNA macroarray analysis reveals increases in the accumulation of RNAs for HUVEC genes encoding cell adhesion molecules, growth factor-related proteins, and cell cycle regulatory/DNA repair proteins. An increase in protein expression of integrin alphav, integrin beta1, MAPK(p42), Rad51, DNA-PK(CS), and ataxia telangiectasia gene (ATM) was detected in HUVEC grown in CC with GFP-U87 cells compared with HUVEC grown in mono-culture. Treatment with anti-VEGF antibody decreases the expression of integrin alphav, integrin beta1, DNA-PK(CS) and ATM with a corresponding increase in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. These data support the concept that endothelial cells growing in the tumor microenvironment may develop resistance to cytotoxic therapies due to the up-regulation by tumor cells of endothelial cells genes associated with survival.
|Molecular pathway for cancer metastasis to bone |
De, Sarmishtha, et al
J Biol Chem, 278:39044-50 (2003) 2003
|The vimentin cytoskeleton regulates focal contact size and adhesion of endothelial cells subjected to shear stress. |
Tsuruta, Daisuke and Jones, Jonathan C R
J. Cell. Sci., 116: 4977-84 (2003) 2003
Recently, we reported that vimentin-type intermediate filaments, in addition to microfilaments, associate with alphavbeta3 integrin-positive focal contacts in endothelial cells. To gain insight into intermediate filament-focal contact interaction, we induced expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-integrin beta3 and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-vimentin protein in endothelial cells. At least 50% of the YFP-beta3 integrin-labeled focal contacts associated with CFP-labeled vimentin intermediate filaments in live cells. Moreover, focal contacts and intermediate filaments moved in concert in the plane of the membrane and assembling focal contacts were sites of vimentin filament assembly. When endothelial cells were subjected to flow, large focal contacts assembled and associated with thick vimentin bundles. These large focal contacts showed minimal dynamic activity. Cells in which vimentin expression had been inhibited by RNA interference assembled smaller than normal focal contacts. More dramatically, such cells showed decreased adhesion to the substratum. These data provide evidence that the vimentin cytoskeleton regulates focal contact size and helps stabilize cell-matrix adhesions in endothelial cells.
|Disruption of the beta3 663-687 disulfide bridge confers constitutive activity to beta3 integrins. |
Butta, N; Arias-Salgado, EG; González-Manchón, C; Ferrer, M; Larrucea, S; Ayuso, MS; Parrilla, R
Blood 102 2491-7 2003
The platelet fibrinogen receptor, integrin alphaIIbbeta3, is a noncovalent heterodimer of glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. This work was aimed at elucidating the role played by the carboxy-terminal extracellular, trans-membrane, and cytoplasmic regions of the glycoprotein beta3 in the formation of functional complexes with alpha subunits. Progressive carboxy-terminal deletions of beta3 revealed that surface exposure of alphaIIbbeta3 or alphavbeta3 could not occur in the absence of the transmembrane domain of beta3. In contrast, internal deletions 616 to 690 of the carboxy-terminal regions of the beta3 ectodomain led to surface exposure of constitu tive active receptors in CHO cells, as indicated by the enhanced rate of cell adhesion to immobilized ligands and spontaneous binding to soluble fibrinogen or activation-dependent antibody PAC-1. The functional analysis of cysteine mutations within the 616 to 690 region of beta3 or chimeric beta3-beta7 subunits revealed that disruption of the C663-C687 disulfide bridge endows constitutive activity to the alphaIIbbeta3 receptor. It is concluded that the carboxy-terminal tail of the beta3 ectodomain, so-called beta tail domain (betaTD), is not essential for cell surface expression of beta3 receptors. However, a basal, nonactivated, low ligand-affinity state of the beta3 integrins demands a normal conformation of this domain.
|Selective replicating viral vectors : potential for use in cancer gene therapy. |
BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy 17 2003
Treatment of cancer is limited by toxicity to normal tissue with standard approaches (chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy). The use of selective replicating viral vectors may enable the targeting of gene-modified viruses to malignant tissue without toxic effect. Studies of these vectors have demonstrated tumour-selective replication and minimal evidence of replication in normal tissue. The most advanced clinical results reported involve gene-modified adenoviral vectors. Several completed, histologically confirmed responses to local/regional injection have been induced, particularly in recurrent squamous cell carcinoma involving the head and neck region. Dose limiting toxicity above 10(13) viral particles per injection has been observed. Anti-tumour effect is demonstrable in animal models without evidence of significant toxicity when these vectors are used alone or in combination with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or as gene delivery vehicles. Preliminary clinical trials, particularly with E1B-deleted adenoviruses, report evidence of clinical activity in comparison with expected historical responses. Enhancement in replication selectivity to malignant tissue is also demonstrated preclinically and clinically with an E1B-deleted adenovirus utilising a prostate-specific antigen promoter. Other selective replicating viral vectors such as herpes simplex virus and vaccinia virus have also been explored clinically and suggest evidence of activity in patients with cancer. Modifications may one day enable more aggressive use of these new and exciting therapeutics as systemic gene delivery vehicles.
|Endometrial integrin expression in the early luteal phase in natural and stimulated cycles for in vitro fertilization. |
Asimina Tavaniotou, Claire Bourgain, Carola Albano, Peter Platteau, Johan Smitz, Paul Devroey, Asimina Tavaniotou, Claire Bourgain, Carola Albano, Peter Platteau, Johan Smitz, Paul Devroey
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 108 67-71 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ovarian stimulation on integrin expression in the early luteal phase. STUDY DESIGN: Seven endometrial biopsies were taken 2 days after the oocyte retrieval from stimulated cycles for IVF and 23 from natural cycles, 2 days after ovulation. RESULT: Endometrium was in-phase in 22/23 and 7/7 biopsies from the natural and stimulated cycles, respectively. Integrins alpha(1) and alpha(4) were simultaneously positive in 43.4% from the natural and in all (100%) the stimulated cycles (P0.03). On the day of the endometrial biopsy, progesterone serum values were higher in the stimulated cycles (55.2+/-9.5 microg/l versus 8.5+/-3.8 microg/l) (P0.001). HSCORE value was significantly higher in stimulated cycles for both integrins. CONCLUSION: Endometrial integrin expression is more consistently present in the early luteal phase in stimulated cycles than in natural cycles and this may be related to the higher serum progesterone concentration and/or the more advanced endometrial histological features.
|On the mechanism of thrombin-induced angiogenesis: involvement of alphavbeta3-integrin. |
Tsopanoglou, Nikos E, et al.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol., 283: C1501-10 (2002) 2002
Thrombin has been reported to be a potent angiogenic factor both in vitro and in vivo, and many of the cellular effects of thrombin may contribute to activation of angiogenesis. In this report we show that thrombin-treatment of human endothelial cells increases mRNA and protein levels of alphavbeta3-integrin. This thrombin-mediated effect is specific, dose dependent, and requires the catalytic site of thrombin. In addition, thrombin interacts with alphavbeta3 as demonstrated by direct binding of alphavbeta3 protein to immobilized thrombin. This interaction of thrombin with alphavbeta3-integrin, which is an angiogenic marker in vascular tissue, is of functional significance. Immobilized thrombin promotes endothelial cells attachment, migration, and survival. Antibody to alphavbeta3 or a specific peptide antagonist to alphavbeta3 can abolish all these alphavbeta3-mediated effects. Furthermore, in the chick chorioallantoic membrane system, the antagonist peptide to alphavbeta3 diminishes both basal and the thrombin-induced angiogenesis. These results support the pivotal role of thrombin in activation of endothelial cells and angiogenesis and may be related to the clinical observation of neovascularization within thrombi.
|Osteopontin gene expression and immunolocalization in the rabbit urinary tract. |
H A Arafat, A J Wein, S Chacko
The Journal of urology 167 746-52 2002
PURPOSE: Osteopontin is a highly phosphorylated, calcium binding sialoprotein characterized by a conserved arginine-glycine-aspartate sequence. Vitronectin receptor (alphavbeta3 integrin) and hyaluronan receptor (CD44) are documented as receptors for osteopontin and their expression has been established in the bladder. Based on that finding and the fact that osteopontin protein is present in urine we hypothesized that osteopontin is expressed in the lower urinary tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Osteopontin messenger (m)RNA and protein were analyzed in 5 adult urinary tracts and 5 neonatal bladders of New Zealand White rabbits using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical testing. Analysis of mRNA expression and localization of osteopontin receptors, alphavbeta3 integrin and CD44 were also performed in adult bladders and primary cultures of detrusor myocytes. RESULTS: Adult renal pelvis, ureter, bladder and urethra, and neonatal bladders contained significant levels of osteopontin mRNA. Immunohistochemical staining revealed osteopontin expression in all layers of the transitional epithelium of the bladder, co-localizing with alphavbeta3 integrin mainly in the superficial layers and with CD44 mainly in the basal layers. Osteopontin was detected within the cytoplasm of smooth muscle cells, while alphavbeta3 integrin was located closer to the plasmalemma. Furthermore, primary cultured detrusor myocytes expressed osteopontin mRNA in stable fashion for up to 4 passages. Treating bladder myocyte cultures with insulin-like growth factor-1 and 17beta-estradiol resulted in up-regulation and down-regulation of osteopontin mRNA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adult and neonatal rabbit detrusors are a prominent source of osteopontin in vivo and in vitro. Epithelial osteopontin may be a source of osteopontin in urine. The co-localization of osteopontin in the bladder epithelium with alphavbeta3 integrin and CD44 suggests a role in maintaining the integrity of the transitional epithelium by providing the sealing and adhesiveness needed for the impermeable state of the bladder.
|Three SIBLINGs (small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoproteins) enhance factor H's cofactor activity enabling MCP-like cellular evasion of complement-mediated attack. |
Jain, A; Karadag, A; Fohr, B; Fisher, LW; Fedarko, NS
The Journal of biological chemistry 277 13700-8 2002
Previously we have shown that two members of the newly named SIBLING (small integrin-binding ligand, N-linked glycoproteins) family of proteins, bone sialoprotein, and osteopontin, bound first to a cell surface receptor and then to complement Factor H thereby blocking the lytic activity of the alternative pathway of complement. Another member of this family, dentin matrix protein 1, is shown in this paper to be very similar to osteopontin in that it can bind strongly to Factor H (K(a) approximately 1 nm) and block the lytic activity through either the vitronectin receptor (alpha(V)beta(3) integrin) or CD44. Binding of Factor H to SIBLING localized to the cells surface was demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Extensive overlapping fragment analyses suggests that both dentin matrix protein 1 and osteopontin interact with cell surface CD44 through their amino termini. Similar fragments of bone sialoprotein, like the intact protein, did not functionally interact with CD44. All three proteins are shown to act in conjunction with Factor I, a serum protease that, when complexed to appropriate cofactors, stops the lytic pathway by digesting the bound C3b in a series of proteolytic steps. These results show that at least three members of this family confer membrane cofactor protein-like activity (MCP or CD46) upon cells expressing RGD-binding integrins or CD44. The required order of the assembly of the complex suggests that this cofactor activity is limited to short diffusional distances.
|Association between alphavbeta6 integrin expression, elevated p42/44 kDa MAPK, and plasminogen-dependent matrix degradation in ovarian cancer. |
Ahmed, Nuzhat, et al.
J. Cell. Biochem., 84: 675-86 (2002) 2002
Altered expression of alphav integrins plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this study, we show that normal human epithelial ovarian cell line, HOSE, and ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCA 429, OVCA 433, and OVHS-1, expressed alphav integrin and associated beta1, beta3, and beta5 subunits, but only ovarian cancer cell lines OVCA 429 and OVCA 433 expressed alphavbeta6 integrin. The expression of alphavbeta6 in OVCA 429 and OVCA 433 was far higher than alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 integrin and correlated with high p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and high secretion of high molecular weight urokinase plasminogen activator (HMW-uPA), pro-metalloproteinase 2 and 9 (pro-MMP-9 and pro-MMP-2). In contrast to HOSE and OVHS 1, OVCA 433 and OVCA 429 exhibited approximately 2-fold more plasminogen-dependent [3H]-collagen type IV degradation. Plasminogen-dependent [3H]-collagen IV degradation was inhibited by inhibitor of uPA (amiloride) and MMP (phenanthroline) and by antibodies against uPA or MMP-9 or alphavbeta6 integrin, indicating the involvement of alphavbeta6 integrin, uPA and MMP-9 in the process. The alphavbeta6 correlated increase in HMW-uPA and pro-MMP secretion could be inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein or the MEK 1 inhibitor U0126, consistent with a role of active p42/44 MAPK in the elevation of uPA, MMP-9, and MMP-2 secretion. Under similar conditions, genistein and U0126 inhibited plasminogen-dependent [3H]-collagen type IV degradation. These data suggest that sustained elevation of p42/44 MAPK activity may be required for the co-expression of alphavbeta6 integrin, which in turn may regulate the malignant potential of ovarian cancer cells via proteolytic mechanisms.
|Pathogenic hantaviruses selectively inhibit beta3 integrin directed endothelial cell migration. |
I N Gavrilovskaya, T Peresleni, E Geimonen, E R Mackow
Archives of virology 147 1913-31 2002
Hantaviruses cause two diseases of man, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses use beta3 and beta1 integrins, respectively, to enter endothelial cells. Beta3 integrins were recently reported to bind receptors that regulate vascular permeability suggesting that hantavirus beta3 integrin interactions may regulate endothelial cell function and contribute to viral pathogenesis. In this study we investigated the ability of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses to regulate beta3 and beta1 integrin directed endothelial cell functions. We found that pathogenic NY-1, SNV, HTN, SEO and PUU viruses blocked endothelial cell migration on beta3, but not beta1, integrin ligands. Migration is similarly inhibited by antibodies to beta3 integrins which selectively block vitronectin directed endothelial cell migration. As a result, the ability of endothelial cells to migrate on integrin ligands was selectively inhibited by only pathogenic hantaviruses. Infection by NY-1 virus inhibited endothelial cell migration as early as 24-48 h post-infection. In contrast, non-pathogenic PH and TUL viruses had no effect on the ability of endothelial cells to migrate on either beta3 or beta1 integrin ligands from 1 to 5 days post-infection. These findings indicate that only hantaviruses which use beta3 integrins, and are associated with HPS and HFRS diseases, functionally dysregulate endothelial cell migration. These findings further demonstrate that hantaviruses regulate only beta3 integrin directed endothelial cell functions and have no effect on beta1 integrin functions. Since beta3 integrins are linked to changes in vascular permeability and the maintenance of vascular integrity, these findings suggest a means by which hantavirus usage and regulation of beta3 integrins may contribute to hantavirus pathogenesis.
|GRP78, a coreceptor for coxsackievirus A9, interacts with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules which mediate virus internalization. |
Triantafilou, K; Fradelizi, D; Wilson, K; Triantafilou, M
Journal of virology 76 633-43 2002
It is becoming apparent that over the years cell infection by virus seems to have evolved into a multistep process in which many viruses employ distinct cell surface molecules for their attachment and cell entry. In this study the attachment and entry pathway of coxsackievirus A9 (CAV-9), a member of the Picornaviridae family, was investigated. It has been known that, although integrin alpha(v)beta3 is utilized as a receptor, its presence alone is insufficient for CAV-9 infection and that CAV-9 also requires a 70-kDa major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I)-associated protein (MAP-70) as a coreceptor molecule. We document by protein isolation and peptide sequencing that the 70-kDa protein is GRP78, a member of the heat shock protein 70 family of stress proteins. Furthermore we show by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) that GRP78 is also expressed on the cell surface and associates with MHC-I molecules. In addition CAV-9 infection of permissive cells requires GRP78 and also MHC-I molecules, which are essential for virus internalization. The identification of GRP78 as a coreceptor for CAV-9 and the revelation of GRP78 and MHC-I associations have provided new insights into the life cycle of CAV-9, which utilizes integrin alpha(v)beta3 and GRP78 as receptor molecules whereas MHC-I molecules serve as the internalization pathway of this virus to mammalian cells.
|The ability of integrin alpha(v)beta(3) To function as a receptor for foot-and-mouth disease virus is not dependent on the presence of complete subunit cytoplasmic domains. |
Neff, S; Baxt, B
Journal of virology 75 527-32 2001
The integrin alpha(v)beta(3) has been shown to function as one of the integrin receptors on cultured cells for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), and high-efficiency utilization of the bovine homolog of this integrin is dependent on the cysteine-rich repeat region of the bovine beta(3) subunit. In this study we have examined the role of the cytoplasmic domains of the alpha(v) and beta(3) subunits in FMDV infection. We have found that truncations or extensions of these domains of either subunit, including deletions removing almost all of the cytoplasmic domains, had little or no effect on the ability of the integrin to function as a receptor for FMDV. The lysosomotropic agent monensin inhibited viral replication in cells transfected with either intact or cytoplasmic domain-truncated alpha(v)beta(3). In addition, viral replication in transfected cells was inhibited by an alpha(v)beta(3) function-blocking antibody but not by function-blocking antibodies to three other RGD-directed integrins, suggesting that these integrins are not involved in the infectious process. These results indicate that alterations to the cytoplasmic domains of either subunit, which lead to the inability of the integrin receptor to function normally, do not abolish the ability of the integrin to bind and internalize this viral ligand.Artículo Texto completo
|Vitronectin regulates Sonic hedgehog activity during cerebellum development through CREB phosphorylation. |
S Pons, J L Trejo, J R Martínez-Morales, E Martí
Development (Cambridge, England) 128 1481-92 2001
During development of the cerebellum, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is expressed in migrating and settled Purkinje neurons and is directly responsible for proliferation of granule cell precursors in the external germinal layer. We have previously demonstrated that SHH interacts with vitronectin in the differentiation of spinal motor neurons. Here, we analysed whether similar interactions between SHH and extracellular matrix glycoproteins regulate subsequent steps of granule cell development. Laminins and their integrin receptor subunit alpha6 accumulate in the outer most external germinal layer where proliferation of granule cell precursors is maximal. Consistent with this expression pattern, laminin significantly increases SHH-induced proliferation in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells. Vitronectin and its integrin receptor subunits alpha(v) are expressed in the inner part of the external germinal layer where granule cell precursors exit the cell cycle and commence differentiation. In cultures, vitronectin is able to overcome SHH-induced proliferation, thus allowing granule cell differentiation. Our studies indicate that the pathway in granule cell precursors responsible for the conversion of a proliferative SHH-mediated response to a differentiation signal depends on CREB. Vitronectin stimulates phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB), and over-expression of CREB is sufficient to induce granule cell differentiation in the presence of SHH. Taken together, these data suggest that granule neuron differentiation is regulated by the vitronectin-induced phosphorylation of CREB, a critical event that terminates SHH-mediated proliferation and permits the differentiation program to proceed in these cells.
|Solution structures and integrin binding activities of an RGD peptide with two isomers. |
N Assa-Munt, X Jia, P Laakkonen, E Ruoslahti
Biochemistry 40 2373-8 2001
The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence serves as the primary integrin recognition site in extracellular matrix proteins, and peptides containing this sequence can mimic the activities of the matrix proteins. Depending on the context of the RGD sequence, an RGD-containing peptide may bind to all of the RGD-directed integrins, to a few, or to only a single one. We have previously isolated from a phage-displayed peptide library a cyclic peptide that binds avidly to the alpha(v)beta3 and alpha(v)beta5 integrins but does not bind to other closely related integrins. This peptide, ACDCRGDCFCG, exists in two natural configurations depending on internal disulfide bonding. The peptide with the 1-4; 2-3 disulfide bond arrangement accounts for most of the alpha(v) integrin binding activity, whereas the 1-3; 2-4 peptide is about 10-fold less potent. Solution structure analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance reveals an entirely different presentation of the RGD motif in the two isomers of RGD-4C. These results provide new insight into the ligand recognition specificity of integrins.
|Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion and migration by c7E3 Fab (abciximab): a possible mechanism for influencing restenosis. |
J H Baron, E P Moiseeva, D P de Bono, K R Abrams, A H Gershlick
Cardiovascular research 48 464-72 2000
OBJECTIVES: Brief intravenous administration of chimeric antibody c7E3 Fab during coronary angioplasty has been shown in some studies to provide long term protection against coronary events. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) adhesion and migration are key initial steps in the development of restenosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of c7E3 Fab on adhesion and migration of SMC to the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins osteopontin (Opn) and vitronectin (Vn). METHODS: Adhesion of human vascular SMCs to ECM proteins was quantified using a CyQUANT assay kit. Migration of SMCs to Vn, Opn and PDGF was studied using a modified Boyden's chamber migration assay. Integrin expression was determined by immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: c7E3 Fab reduced SMC adhesion on Vn and Opn to 69.2+/-3.3% (P0.001) and 52.5+/-4.8% (P0.001) respectively, compared to adhesion without antibody present. This reduction was the same as that for anti-alpha(v)beta(3) integrin antibody LM609 (P=0.5). The combination of anti-alpha(v)beta(5) integrin antibody and c7E3 Fab had a greater effect than either antibody alone (P0.001). c7E3 Fab reduced SMC migration to Vn and Opn to 51.6+/-8.9% (P0.001) and 20.3+/-6.1% (P0.001) respectively, compared to migration in the absence of antibodies. Again, similar results were seen with LM609. PDGF-induced SMC migration was also inhibited by c7E3 Fab (P=0.004) and LM609 (P=0.001), but to much less an extent. The migration SMCs from a culture found not to express the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin was unaffected by these antibodies, strengthening the argument that c7E3 Fab inhibits SMC function via this integrin. CONCLUSIONS: c7E3 Fab inhibits the adhesion and migration of SMCs via the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin. The inhibition, however, is partial, and varied depending on type of ECM protein and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin expression. Some of the clinical benefits of c7E3 Fab may be due to its effect on SMCs.
|Vascular expression of the alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin in lung and other organs. |
B Singh, C Fu, J Bhattacharya
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 278 L217-26 2000
The expression of the alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin in nonproliferating vascular beds remains unclear. To determine possible organ-specific differences, we compared alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin expression in the lung and other organs. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections of lung, liver, brain, muscle and skin obtained from rats were processed for immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal (LM609) and a polyclonal antibody (AB1903) against the alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin. Immunogold electron microscopy was used to localize alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin in rat lung microvasculature. With the use of custom-designed primers, lung sections were subjected to in situ PCR in a thermal cycler to amplify alpha(v) or beta(3) mRNA. To confirm specific amplification, PCR products were further hybridized in situ with an alpha(v) or beta(3) cDNA probe. In the lung, the alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin protein as well as alpha(v) and beta(3) mRNAs was extensively evident in the endothelium of extra-alveolar and alveolar microvessels, in vascular smooth muscle, and in large bronchial epithelium but not in the epithelium of alveolar ducts or alveoli. Ultrastructural immunogold labeling showed the presence of the integrin on the luminal and abluminal faces of the lung microvascular endothelium but not on the apical surface of the alveolar epithelium. Staining for the integrin was generally negative in blood vessels of several systemic organs, although weak staining was evident in branches of the hepatic portal vein. The constitutive presence of the alpha(v) and beta(3) mRNAs and the alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin in the lung microvascular bed suggests that gene transcription for the integrin is ongoing in lung vessels. Because it binds vitronectin, the lung vascular alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin may play a role in ligation of bloodborne, vitronectin-containing macromolecular complexes formed in inflammation.
|In vitro adenoviral vector p53-mediated transduction and killing correlates with expression of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor and alpha(nu)beta5 integrin in SUDHL-1 cells derived from anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. |
F Turturro, P Seth, C J Link
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 6 185-92 2000
Adenoviral vector-mediated p53 expression induced apoptosis is a well established gene therapy approach that has been evaluated extensively in epithelial tumors but only recently in lymphoid malignancies mainly due to the known resistance of the lymphoid lineage to adenovirus infection. Recently, it was shown that this resistance is not absolute and that cell lines derived from anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and some other lymphoid malignancies are efficiently transduced by adenoviral vectors. Normal circulating T lymphocytes do not express coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and alpha(nu)beta integrins and are relatively resistant to infection by adenovirus. These molecules serve as receptors for adenovirus entry into the cells. ALCL-derived SUDHL-1 cells were evaluated for transduction efficiency and expression of p53 after infection with an adenoviral vector containing wild-type p53 (AdWTp53). Cells derived from ALCL and circulating mononucleated cells (MNCs) were also evaluated for expression of CAR and alpha(nu)beta integrins. AdWTp53-mediated expression of p53 resulted in p21/WAF1 induction, G1 arrest, and apoptosis in SUDHL-1 cells. The expression of CAR and alpha(nu)beta5 integrin was high in SUDHL-1 cells and comparable to levels observed with epithelial tumor cells, but it was absent in MNCs. The susceptibility to adenoviral vector transduction of the tumor-derived cells implies an important biological difference between them and circulating MNCs, possibly underlying the malignant transformation that ALCL cells undergo. Further studies will be required to evaluate this initial observation in more cell lines and tissue derived from ALCL.
|Factor XIIIa supports microvascular endothelial cell adhesion and inhibits capillary tube formation in fibrin. |
S M Dallabrida, L A Falls, D H Farrell
Blood 95 2586-92 2000
Coagulation factor XIIIa is a transglutaminase that catalyzes covalent cross-link formation in fibrin clots. In this report, we demonstrate that factor XIIIa also mediates adhesion of endothelial cells and inhibits capillary tube formation in fibrin. The adhesive activity of factor XIIIa was not dependent on the transglutaminase activity, and did not involve the factor XIIIb-subunits. The adhesion was inhibited by 99% using a combination of monoclonal antibodies directed against integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and beta(1)-containing integrins, and was dependent on Mg(2+) or Mn(2+). Soluble factor XIIIa also bound to endothelial cells in solution, as detected by flow cytometry. In addition, factor XIIIa inhibited endothelial cell capillary tube formation in fibrin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the extent of inhibition differed in 2 types of fibrin. The addition of 10 to 100 microg/mL factor XIIIa produced a dose-dependent reduction in capillary tube formation of 60% to 100% in gammaA/gammaA fibrin, but only a 10% to 37% decrease in gammaA/gamma' fibrin. These results show that factor XIIIa supports endothelial cell adhesion in an integrin-dependent manner and inhibits capillary tube formation. (Blood. 2000;95:2586-2592)
|Identification of CD47/integrin-associated protein and alpha(v)beta3 as two receptors for the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen on tumor cells. |
T A Shahan, Z Ziaie, S Pasco, A Fawzi, G Bellon, J C Monboisse, N A Kefalides
Cancer research 59 4584-90 1999
Previous studies from our laboratories demonstrated that a peptide from the noncollagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of basement membrane collagen (COL IV), comprising residues 185-203, inhibits polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation and melanoma cell proliferation independently of its ability to promote cell adhesion; these properties require the presence of the triplet -SNS- at residues 189-191 (J. C. Monboisse et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269: 25475-25482, 1994; J. Han et al., J. Biol. Chem., 272: 20395-20401, 1997). More recently, we demonstrated that native COL IV and -SNS-containing synthetic peptides (10 microg/ml) added to culture medium inhibit the proliferation of not only melanoma cells but also breast, pancreas, and stomach tumor cells up to 82% and prostate tumor cells by 15%. This inhibition was shown to be dependent on a COL IV- or peptide-induced increase in intracellular cAMP (T. A. Shahan et al., Connect. Tissue Res., 40: 221-232, 1999). Attempts to identify the putative receptor(s) on tumor cells led to the isolation of five proteins (Mr 33,000, 52,000, 72,000, 95,000, and 250,000) from melanoma and prostate cells by affinity purification with the alpha3(IV)179-208 peptide. The Mr 52,000, 95,000, and 250,000 proteins were shown to be CD47/integrin-associated protein(IAP), the integrin beta3 subunit, and the alpha(v)beta3 integrin complex, respectively. The Mr 33,000 and 72,000 proteins have not yet been identified. To confirm the specificity of ligand binding to the receptors, cell membranes from either melanoma or prostate tumor cells were pretreated with the unlabeled ligand alpha3(IV)187-191 (-YYSNS-); alternatively, the peptide was pretreated with a peptide-reactive monoclonal antibody (A5D7) before receptor isolation. These treatments inhibited the purification of CD47/IAP, the integrin beta3 subunit, and the alpha(v)beta3 integrin complex from tumor cells. Furthermore, cells treated with CD47/IAP- or the alpha(v)beta3 integrin-reactive antibodies prevented the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide from inhibiting cell proliferation and the subsequent rise in intracellular cAMP. Pretreating cells with the alpha3(IV)187-191 (-YYSNS-) peptide also inhibited their adhesion to the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide substrate, whereas the inactive alpha1(IV)185-203 peptide, from the same region of the alpha1 chain as the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide, had no effect. Incubation of cells with either CD47/IAP and/or alpha(v)beta3 integrin-reactive antibodies inhibited their adhesion to the alpha3(IV)185-203 peptide, whereas antibodies to the beta1 and beta2 integrin subunits were without effect. These data suggest that ALC-COL IV, through its alpha3(IV) chain, inhibits tumor cell proliferation using the receptors CD47/IAP and the alpha(v)beta3 integrin.
|A distinct integrin-mediated phagocytic pathway for extracellular matrix remodeling by RPE cells. |
M W Zhao, M L Jin, S He, C Spee, S J Ryan, D R Hinton
Investigative ophthalmology visual science 40 2713-23 1999
PURPOSE: To characterize the phagocytosis of extracellular matrix components by retinal pigment epithelial cells and to determine which receptors and signal transduction pathways are involved. METHODS: Fluorescent latex beads were coated with fibronectin (FN), collagen type I or IV, or thrombospondin and incubated with human retinal pigment epithelial cells for 3 hours. Phagocytosis was quantified by flow cytometry. The effects of adhesion blocking antibodies to cell surface receptors (alpha1, alpha3, alpha5, beta1, alpha5beta1, alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5 integrins and CD36) and inhibitors of specific intracellular signaling pathways (tyrosine kinase phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3-kinase], protein kinase C [PKC], and mitogen-activated protein kinase) were determined using FN-coated beads. RESULTS: Phagocytosis of FN-coated beads was greater than phagocytosis of beads coated with collagen type I, collagen type IV, or thrombospondin or uncoated controls (P 0.0005). Anti-alpha5, -beta1, and -alpha5beta1 antibodies markedly inhibited FN phagocytosis (P 0.0005); the inhibitory effects of anti-alpha5 antibody were stronger in the initial stages (binding) than in the later stages (internalization) of phagocytosis. There was no significant effect on phagocytosis when anti-alpha1, -alpha3, -alphavbeta5, -alphavbeta3 or -CD36 antibodies were used. Fibronectin phagocytosis was decreased by inhibitors of tyrosine kinase (genistein, 100 microg/ml, P 0.005) and PI3-kinase (wortmannin, 5 microM, P 0.01), but these reagents did not affect the uncoated controls. The PKC inhibitor calphostin C (400 nM) nonspecifically increased the phagocytosis of FN-coated (P 0.05) and uncoated beads (P 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Subconfluent retinal pigment epithelial cells preferentially phagocytose FN over other extracellular matrix components. Phagocytosis of FN utilizes the alpha5beta1 integrin, is mediated in part through tyrosine kinase and PI3-kinase signaling pathways, and is modulated by PKC. Phagocytosis of extracellular matrix by retinal pigment epithelial cells may represent a novel mechanism for remodeling of the provisional extracellular matrix during outer retinal wound healing.
|Vitronectin receptors are expressed by macaque trophoblast cells and play a role in migration and adhesion to endothelium. |
G C Douglas, T L Thirkill, T N Blankenship, G C Douglas, T L Thirkill, T N Blankenship
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1452 36-45 1999
The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro system that would extend the usefulness of the macaque as a model for studying trophoblast invasion and spiral artery modification. We sought to determine whether trophoblast cells isolated from early gestation macaque placentas expressed vitronectin receptors and tested the idea that these receptors play a role in trophoblast migration and adhesion. Cytotrophoblast cells were isolated from 40-100 day macaque placentas, cultured, and characterized by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The cells expressed alphaV, beta3, and beta1 integrins on their surfaces. Immunohistochemical analysis of early gestation placentas and decidua basalis confirmed that intravascular trophoblast cells express alphaVbeta3/beta5. Using migration chambers we found that the trophoblast cells migrated towards vitronectin but not towards bovine serum albumin. This specific migration was blocked by preincubating the trophoblast cells with anti-vitronectin receptor (alphaVbeta3/beta5) antibodies. In other experiments, macaque trophoblast cells adhered to myometrial endothelial cells in a time-dependent manner and adhesion was significantly blocked by antibodies against alphaVbeta3/beta5 integrin. The results suggest that vitronectin receptors expressed by macaque trophoblast cells play a role in the migratory activity of these cells and may also be important in mediating attachment to endothelium.
|Involvement of beta2-microglobulin and integrin alphavbeta3 molecules in the coxsackievirus A9 infectious cycle. |
M Triantafilou, K Triantafilou, K M Wilson, Y Takada, N Fernandez, G Stanway, M Triantafilou, K Triantafilou, K M Wilson, Y Takada, N Fernandez, G Stanway
The Journal of general virology 80 ( Pt 10) 2591-600 1999
It is becoming apparent that many viruses employ more than one cell surface molecule for their attachment and cell entry. In this study, we have tested the role of integrin alpha(v)beta3 and MHC class I molecules in the coxsackievirus A9 (CAV-9) infectious cycle. Binding experiments utilizing CHO cells transfected and expressing human integrin alpha(v)beta3, revealed that CAV-9 particles were able to bind to cells, but did not initiate a productive cell infection. Antibodies specific for integrin alpha(v)beta3 molecules significantly reduced CAV-9 infection in susceptible cell lines. Moreover, MAbs specific for beta2-microglobulin (beta2-m) and MHC class I molecules completely inhibited CAV-9 infection. To assess the effect of these antibodies on virus binding, we analysed CAV-9 binding by flow cytometry in the presence of alpha2-m- or integrin alpha(v)beta3-specific antibodies. The results showed a reduction in CAV-9 binding in the presence of integrin alpha(v)beta3-specific antibodies while there was no reduction in the presence of beta2-m-specific MAb. Taken together, these data suggest that integrin alphavbeta3 is required for CAV-9 attachment but is not sufficient for cell entry, while beta2-m, although not directly involved in CAV-9 binding, plays a post-attachment role in the CAV-9 infectious process, possibly being involved in virus entry.
|Different integrins mediate cell spreading, haptotaxis and lateral migration of HaCaT keratinocytes on fibronectin. |
L Koivisto, K Larjava, L Häkkinen, V J Uitto, J Heino, H Larjava
Cell adhesion and communication 7 245-57 1999
Collaborative role of various fibronectin-binding integrins (alpha5beta1, alphavbeta1 and alphavbeta6) as mediators of cell adhesion and migration on fibronectin was studied using cultured HaCaT keratinocytes. This cell line spontaneously expressed all three fibronectin-binding integrins. In addition, the expression of alphavbeta6 integrin was strongly and specifically upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) whereas the amount of other integrins remained practically unchanged on the cell surface. Adhesion, spreading and motility of HaCaT keratinocytes on fibronectin were promoted by TGFbeta1. Based on antibody blocking experiments, both untreated and TGFbeta1-treated HaCaT cells used alphavbeta6 integrin as their main fibronectin receptor for cell spreading. In contrast to TGFbeta1-treated cells, the untreated cells also needed alpha5beta1 integrin for maximal cell spreading on fibronectin. Combinations of antibodies blocking both of these receptors totally prevented spreading of both untreated and TGFbeta1-treated cells. Haptotactic motility of individual HaCaT cells through fibronectin-coated membranes was again mainly dependent on alphavbeta6 integrin, while alphavbeta1 and alpha5beta1 integrins played a lesser role both in untreated and TGFbeta1-treated HaCaT cells. However, unlike haptotaxis, lateral migration of HaCaT cell sheet was mainly mediated by beta1 integrins, and alphavbeta6 integrin showed a minor role. The migration process appeared to involve a number of beta1 integrins that could adaptively replace each other when blocking antibodies were present. Thus, keratinocytes appear to use different fibronectin receptors for different functions, such as cell spreading, haptotaxis and lateral migration. The cells can also adapt to a situation where one receptor is unfunctional by switching to another receptor of the same ligand.
|The role of putative fibrinogen Aalpha-, Bbeta-, and GammaA-chain integrin binding sites in endothelial cell-mediated clot retraction. |
Smith, R A, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 272: 22080-5 (1997) 1997
In this study, endothelial cell-mediated clot retraction was supported by fibrin generated from several purified fractions of plasma fibrinogen, purified proteolytic fragments of plasma fibrinogen, recombinant normal fibrinogen, and recombinant variant fibrinogen. These results were surprising because some of these fibrinogens lack domains that are known binding sites for the integrin receptors that support clot retraction. Specifically, fibrinogens lacking Aalpha-chain RGD residues at 572-574 or lacking the gamma-chain residues AGDV 408-411 supported endothelial cell-mediated clot retraction as well as intact fibrinogen. Thus, clot retraction mediated by endothelial cells is not dependent on either of these sites. A variety of monoclonal antibodies against the integrin alphavbeta3 partially inhibited the endothelial cell-mediated retraction of clots formed from plasma fibrinogen. As expected, an antibody to the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 did not inhibit endothelial cell-mediated clot retraction. These results indicate that this retraction is mediated at least in part by alphavbeta3. These results support the conclusion that (a) neither of the two fibrinogen cell binding sites described above is required to support clot retraction or that (b) either site alone or in conjunction with other fibrin(ogen) region(s) can support clot retraction. Thus, endothelial cell-mediated clot retraction appears to be dependent on fibrinogen cell binding sites other than those required to support adhesion of resting platelets to immobilized fibrinogen and platelet aggregation.
|Osteopontin N-terminal domain contains a cryptic adhesive sequence recognized by alpha9beta1 integrin. |
Smith, L L, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 271: 28485-91 (1996) 1996
Osteopontin is an adhesive glycoprotein implicated in numerous diseases associated with inflammation and remodeling. There are several structural domains in osteopontin that are of particular interest. The RGD motif is a cell attachment sequence shown to be critical for cell adhesion through alphav-containing integrins. In close proximity to the RGD domain is the thrombin cleavage site. Previous observations suggest that thrombin cleavage of osteopontin occurs in vivo and may be physiologically important. To study the functional significance of osteopontin cleavage by thrombin, we made glutathione S-transferase-osteopontin fusion proteins. These proteins contain either the N- or C-terminal domains expected to be formed following thrombin cleavage at the Arg169-Ser170 peptide bond. We compared these osteopontin fragments with native osteopontin in their ability to support adhesion of several different cell lines and identified the receptors mediating these interactions. Our data show that the N-terminal osteopontin fragment, which contains the RGD domain, supports adhesion of a melanoma cell line that is unable to bind native osteopontin. This suggests that osteopontin adhesive interactions may be regulated by thrombin cleavage. We also demonstrate that osteopontin contains a cryptic binding activity, which can be recognized by a novel osteopontin receptor. This receptor has been identified as the alpha9beta1 integrin.
|Beta 3 integrin-mediated fibrin clot retraction by nucleated cells: differing behavior of alpha IIb beta 3 and alpha v beta 3 |
Chen, Y. P. et al.
Blood, 86(7):2606-2615 (1995) 1995
|Requirement of vascular integrin alpha v beta 3 for angiogenesis. |
Brooks, P C, et al.
Science, 264: 569-71 (1994) 1994
Angiogenesis depends on the adhesive interactions of vascular cells. The adhesion receptor integrin alpha v beta 3 was identified as a marker of angiogenic vascular tissue. Integrin alpha v beta 3 was expressed on blood vessels in human wound granulation tissue but not in normal skin, and it showed a fourfold increase in expression during angiogenesis on the chick chorioallantoic membrane. In the latter assay, a monoclonal antibody to alpha v beta 3 blocked angiogenesis induced by basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and human melanoma fragments but had no effect on preexisting vessels. These findings suggest that alpha v beta 3 may be a useful therapeutic target for diseases characterized by neovascularization.
|Epiligrin, a component of epithelial basement membranes, is an adhesive ligand for alpha 3 beta 1 positive T lymphocytes. |
Wayner, E A, et al.
J. Cell Biol., 121: 1141-52 (1993) 1993
The cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL), typified by mycosis fungoides, and several chronic T cell mediated dermatoses are characterized by the migration of T lymphocytes into the epidermis (epidermotropism). Alternatively, other types of cutaneous inflammation (malignant cutaneous B cell lymphoma, CBCL, or lymphocytoma cutis, non-malignant T or B cell type) do not show evidence of epidermotropism. This suggests that certain T lymphocyte subpopulations are able to interact with and penetrate the epidermal basement membrane. We show here that T lymphocytes derived from patients with CTCL (HUT 78 or HUT 102 cells), adhere to the detergent-insoluble extracellular matrix prepared from cultured basal keratinocytes (HFK ECM). HUT cell adhesion to HFK ECM was inhibitable with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to the alpha 3 (P1B5) or beta 1 (P4C10) integrin receptors, and could be up-regulated by an activating anti-beta 1 mAb (P4G11). An inhibitory mAb, P3H9-2, raised against keratinocytes identified epiligrin as the ligand for alpha 3 beta 1 positive T cells in HFK ECM. Interestingly, two lymphocyte populations could be clearly distinguished relative to expression of alpha 3 beta 1 by flow cytometry analysis. Lymphokine activated killer cells, alloreactive cytotoxic T cells and T cells derived from patients with CTCL expressed high levels of alpha 3 beta 1 (alpha 3 beta 1high). Non-adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells, acute T or B lymphocytic leukemias, or non-cutaneous T or B lymphocyte cell lines expressed low levels of alpha 3 beta 1 (alpha 3 beta 1low). Resting PBL or alpha 3 beta 1low T or B cell lines did not adhere to HFK ECM or purified epiligrin. However, adhesion to epiligrin could be up-regulated by mAbs which activate the beta 1 subunit indicating that alpha 3 beta 1 activity is a function of expression and affinity. In skin derived from patients with graft-vs.-host (GVH) disease, experimentally induced delayed hypersensitivity reactions, and CTCL, the infiltrating T cells could be stained with mAbs to alpha 3 or beta 1 and were localized in close proximity to the epiligrin-containing basement membrane. Infiltrating lymphocytes in malignant cutaneous B disease (CBCL) did not express alpha 3 beta 1 by immunohistochemical techniques and did not associate with the epidermal basement membrane. The present findings clearly define a function for alpha 3 beta 1 in T cells and strongly suggest that alpha 3 beta 1 interaction with epiligrin may be involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous inflammation.
|Human endothelial cells synthesize and express an Arg-Gly-Asp-directed adhesion receptor involved in attachment to fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor. |
Cheresh, D A
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 84: 6471-5 (1987) 1987
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells express a heterodimeric adhesion receptor complex consisting of noncovalently associated alpha and beta subunits that under reducing conditions have molecular masses of 135 kDa and 115 kDa, respectively. This complex can be isolated in pure form from an affinity matrix consisting of an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing heptapeptide and is specifically immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against the vitronectin receptor of human melanoma cells. These data suggest that this complex is one member of a large family of cell adhesion receptors. One of the mAbs, LM609, inhibits the attachment of human endothelial cells to fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and vitronectin yet has no effect on the attachment of these cells to fibronectin, collagen, or laminin. In addition, mAb LM609 inhibits attachment of endothelial cells to an immobilized synthetic peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. This adhesion receptor appears structurally similar to the IIb/IIIa glycoprotein complex expressed on platelets yet is antigenically distinct, since mAb LM609 fails to recognize IIb/IIIa glycoproteins. This receptor organizes in clusters on endothelial cells during their attachment to von Willebrand factor, vitronectin, or the Arg-Gly-Asp-containing heptapeptide. The data presented in this report suggest that Arg-Gly-Asp recognition may play a significant role in biological events associated with vascular proliferation.
|MOUSE ANTI-HUMAN INTEGRIN alphaVbeta3 (VITRONECTIN RECEPTOR)|
|Does this product react with paraffin embedded tissues?||Some researchers have gotten LM609 to react with traditionally fixed paraffin tissue, however Millipore cannot endorse the use of paraffin tissues with LM609 at this time.|
|Does LM609 react with rat or mouse?||LM609 traditionally has not worked with rat or mouse tissues, however one can find reports of LM609 working with rat under some special conditions. At this time Millipore does not endorse the use of LM609 with mouse or rat tissues, however.|
|What fixation works best for LM609?||Because the epitope of LM609 is fragile acetone is the preferred fixation, however short fixations in paraformaldehyde usually presents no serious difficulties.|
|Does LM609 work in western blots?||No, the epitope recognized by LM609 is to the complex of Av and B3 together, thus when run on gels and denatured that epitope is physically destroyed, thus non-reactive.|