Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Am, Av, B, H, M, R, Xn, Qu||IHC, WB||M||Ascites||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Unpurified mouse monoclonal IgG1 ascites fluid in buffer containing 15 mM sodium azide|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - 2370693||2370693|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - 2455697||2455697|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - 2090934||2090934|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - 2159650||2159650|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - 2295665||2295665|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - LV1486527||LV1486527|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - LV1583055||LV1583055|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - LV1657471||LV1657471|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - NG1865600||NG1865600|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B -2500681||2500681|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B -2578077||2578077|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B -2667328||2667328|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B -2716249||2716249|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B -2746357||2746357|
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B -2813876||2813876|
Referencias bibliográficas | 51 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|STIM2 protects hippocampal mushroom spines from amyloid synaptotoxicity. |
Popugaeva, E; Pchitskaya, E; Speshilova, A; Alexandrov, S; Zhang, H; Vlasova, O; Bezprozvanny, I
Molecular neurodegeneration 10 37 2015
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a disease of lost memories. Mushroom postsynaptic spines play a key role in memory storage, and loss of mushroom spines has been proposed to be linked to memory loss in AD. Generation of amyloidogenic peptides and accumulation of amyloid plaques is one of the pathological hallmarks of AD. It is important to evaluate effects of amyloid on stability of mushroom spines.In this study we used in vitro and in vivo models of amyloid synaptotoxicity to investigate effects of amyloid peptides on hippocampal mushroom spines. We discovered that application of Aβ42 oligomers to hippocampal cultures or injection of Aβ42 oligomers directly into hippocampal region resulted in reduction of mushroom spines and activity of synaptic calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). We further discovered that expression of STIM2 protein rescued CaMKII activity and protected mushroom spines from amyloid toxicity in vitro and in vivo.Obtained results suggest that downregulation of STIM2-dependent stability of mushroom spines and reduction in activity of synaptic CaMKII is a mechanism of hippocampal synaptic loss in AD model of amyloid synaptotoxicity and that modulators/activators of this pathway may have a potential therapeutic value for treatment of AD.
|HIV-1 Tat alters neuronal autophagy by modulating autophagosome fusion to the lysosome: implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. |
Fields, J; Dumaop, W; Eleuteri, S; Elueteri, S; Campos, S; Serger, E; Trejo, M; Kosberg, K; Adame, A; Spencer, B; Rockenstein, E; He, JJ; Masliah, E
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 35 1921-38 2015
Antiretroviral therapy has increased the life span of HIV+ individuals; however, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) occurrence is increasing in aging HIV patients. Previous studies suggest HIV infection alters autophagy function in the aging CNS and HIV-1 proteins affect autophagy in monocyte-derived cells. Despite these findings, the mechanisms leading to dysregulated autophagy in the CNS remain unclear. Here we sought to determine how HIV Tat dysregulates autophagy in neurons. Tat caused a dose-dependent decrease in autophagosome markers, microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain β II (LC3II), and sequestosome 1(SQSTM1), in a membrane-enriched fraction, suggesting Tat increases autophagic degradation. Bafilomycin A1 increased autophagosome number, LC3II, and SQSTM1 accumulation; Tat cotreatment diminished this effect. Tat had no effect when 3-methyladenine or knockdown of beclin 1 blocked early stages of autophagy. Tat increased numbers of LC3 puncta and resulted in the formation of abnormal autophagosomes in vitro. Likewise, in vivo studies in GFAP-Tat tg mice showed increased autophagosome accumulation in neurons, altered LC3II levels, and neurodegeneration. These effects were reversed by rapamycin treatment. Tat colocalized with autophagosome and lysosomal markers and enhanced the colocalization of autophagosome with lysosome markers. Furthermore, co-IP studies showed that Tat interacts with lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) in vitro and in vivo, and LAMP2A overexpression reduces Tat-induced neurotoxicity. Hence, Tat protein may induce autophagosome and lysosome fusion through interaction with LAMP2A leading to abnormal neuronal autophagy function and dysregulated degradation of critical intracellular components. Therapies targeting Tat-mediated autophagy alterations may decrease neurodegeneration in aging patients with HAND.
|MHC class I limits hippocampal synapse density by inhibiting neuronal insulin receptor signaling. |
Dixon-Salazar, TJ; Fourgeaud, L; Tyler, CM; Poole, JR; Park, JJ; Boulanger, LM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 11844-56 2014
Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) negatively regulate synapse density in the developing vertebrate brain (Glynn et al., 2011; Elmer et al., 2013; Lee et al., 2014), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we identify a novel MHCI signaling pathway that involves the inhibition of a known synapse-promoting factor, the insulin receptor. Dominant-negative insulin receptor constructs decrease synapse density in the developing Xenopus visual system (Chiu et al., 2008), and insulin receptor activation increases dendritic spine density in mouse hippocampal neurons in vitro (Lee et al., 2011). We find that genetically reducing cell surface MHCI levels increases synapse density selectively in regions of the hippocampus where insulin receptors are expressed, and occludes the neuronal insulin response by de-repressing insulin receptor signaling. Pharmacologically inhibiting insulin receptor signaling in MHCI-deficient animals rescues synapse density, identifying insulin receptor signaling as a critical mediator of the tonic inhibitory effects of endogenous MHCI on synapse number. Insulin receptors co-immunoprecipitate MHCI from hippocampal lysates, and MHCI unmasks a cytoplasmic epitope of the insulin receptor that mediates downstream signaling. These results identify an important role for an MHCI-insulin receptor signaling pathway in circuit patterning in the developing brain, and suggest that changes in MHCI expression could unexpectedly regulate neuronal insulin sensitivity in the aging and diseased brain.
|SDF1 reduces interneuron leading process branching through dual regulation of actin and microtubules. |
Lysko, DE; Putt, M; Golden, JA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 4941-62 2014
Normal cerebral cortical function requires a highly ordered balance between projection neurons and interneurons. During development these two neuronal populations migrate from distinct progenitor zones to form the cerebral cortex, with interneurons originating in the more distant ganglionic eminences. Moreover, deficits in interneurons have been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders underscoring the importance of understanding interneuron development and function. We, and others, have identified SDF1 signaling as one important modulator of interneuron migration speed and leading process branching behavior in mice, although how SDF1 signaling impacts these behaviors remains unknown. We previously found SDF1 inhibited leading process branching while increasing the rate of migration. We have now mechanistically linked SDF1 modulation of leading process branching behavior to a dual regulation of both actin and microtubule organization. We find SDF1 consolidates actin at the leading process tip by de-repressing calpain protease and increasing proteolysis of branched-actin-supporting cortactin. Additionally, SDF1 stabilizes the microtubule array in the leading process through activation of the microtubule-associated protein doublecortin (DCX). DCX stabilizes the microtubule array by bundling microtubules within the leading process, reducing branching. These data provide mechanistic insight into the regulation of interneuron leading process dynamics during neuronal migration in mice and provides insight into how cortactin and DCX, a known human neuronal migration disorder gene, participate in this process.
|Neurotrophins regulate ApoER2 proteolysis through activation of the Trk signaling pathway. |
Larios, JA; Jausoro, I; Benitez, ML; Bronfman, FC; Marzolo, MP
BMC neuroscience 15 108 2014
ApoER2 and the neurotrophin receptors Trk and p75(NTR) are expressed in the CNS and regulate key functional aspects of neurons, including development, survival, and neuronal function. It is known that both ApoER2 and p75(NTR) are processed by metalloproteinases, followed by regulated intramembrane proteolysis. TrkA activation by nerve growth factor (NGF) increases the proteolytic processing of p75(NTR) mediated by ADAM17. Reelin induces the sheeding of ApoER2 ectodomain depending on metalloproteinase activity. However, it is not known if there is a common regulation mechanism for processing these receptors.We found that TrkA activation by NGF in PC12 cells induced ApoER2 processing, which was dependent on TrkA activation and metalloproteinases. NGF-induced ApoER2 proteolysis was independent of mitogen activated protein kinase activity and of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase activity. In contrast, the basal proteolysis of ApoER2 increased when both kinases were pharmacologically inhibited. The ApoER2 ligand reelin regulated the proteolytic processing of its own receptor but not of p75(NTR). Finally, in primary cortical neurons, which express both ApoER2 and TrkB, we found that the proteolysis of ApoER2 was also regulated by brain-derived growth factor (BDNF).Our results highlight a novel relationship between neurotrophins and the reelin-ApoER2 system, suggesting that these two pathways might be linked to regulate brain development, neuronal survival, and some pathological conditions.
|Ischemia induces different levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α protein expression in interneurons and pyramidal neurons. |
Ramamoorthy, P; Shi, H
Acta neuropathologica communications 2 51 2014
Pyramidal (glutamatergic) neurons and interneurons are morphologically and functionally well defined in the central nervous system. Although it is known that glutamatergic neurons undergo immediate cell death whereas interneurons are insensitive or survive longer during cerebral ischemia, the protection mechanisms responsible for this interneuronal survival are not well understood. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an important role in protecting neurons from hypoxic/ischemic insults. Here, we studied the expression of HIF-1α, the regulatable subunit of HIF-1, in the different neuronal phenotypes under in vitro and in vivo ischemia.In a primary cortical culture, HIF-1α expression was observed in neuronal somata after hypoxia (1% oxygen) in the presence of 5 or 25 mM glucose but not under normoxia (21% oxygen). Interestingly, only certain MAP2-positive neurons containing round somata (interneuron-like morphology) co-localized with HIF-1α staining. Other neurons such as pyramidal-like neurons showed no expression of HIF-1α under either normoxia or hypoxia. The HIF-1α positive neurons were GAD65/67 positive, confirming that they were interneuron-type cells. The HIF-1α expressing GAD65/67-positive neurons also possessed high levels of glutathione. We further demonstrated that ischemia induced significant HIF-1α expression in interneurons but not in pyramidal neurons in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion.These results suggest that HIF-1α protein expression induced by ischemia is neuron-type specific and that this specificity may be related to the intracellular level of glutathione (GSH).
|Olfactory deficits in Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease. |
Hovakimyan, M; Meyer, A; Lukas, J; Luo, J; Gudziol, V; Hummel, T; Rolfs, A; Wree, A; Witt, M
PloS one 8 e82216 2013
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. As only a few studies have been conducted on the impact of NPC on sensory systems, we used a mutant mouse model (NPC1(-/-)) to examine the effects of this disorder to morphologically distinct regions of the olfactory system, namely the olfactory epithelium (OE) and olfactory bulb (OB).For structural and functional analysis immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, western blotting, and electrophysiology have been applied. For histochemistry and western blotting, we used antibodies against a series of neuronal and glia marker proteins, as well as macrophage markers. NPC1(-/-) animals present myelin-like lysosomal deposits in virtually all types of cells of the peripheral and central olfactory system. Especially supporting cells of the OE and central glia cells are affected, resulting in pronounced astrocytosis and microgliosis in the OB and other olfactory cortices. Up-regulation of Galectin-3, Cathepsin D and GFAP in the cortical layers of the OB underlines the critical role and location of the OB as a possible entrance gate for noxious substances. Unmyelinated olfactory afferents of the lamina propria seem less affected than ensheathing cells. Supporting the structural findings, electro-olfactometry of the olfactory mucosa suggests that NPC1(-/-) animals exhibit olfactory and trigeminal deficits.Our data demonstrate a pronounced neurodegeneration and glia activation in the olfactory system of NPC1(-/-), which is accompanied by sensory deficits.
|Sorafenib selectively depletes human glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells from primary cultures. |
Carra, E; Barbieri, F; Marubbi, D; Pattarozzi, A; Favoni, RE; Florio, T; Daga, A
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 491-500 2013
Glioblastomas are grade IV brain tumors characterized by high aggressiveness and invasiveness, giving patients a poor prognosis. We investigated the effects of the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib on six cultures isolated from human glioblastomas and maintained in tumor initiating cells-enriching conditions. These cell subpopulations are thought to be responsible for tumor recurrence and radio- and chemo-resistance, representing the perfect target for glioblastoma therapy. Sorafenib reduces proliferation of glioblastoma cultures, and this effect depends, at least in part, on the inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, both involved in gliomagenesis. Sorafenib significantly induces apoptosis/cell death via downregulation of the survival factor Mcl-1. We provide evidence that sorafenib has a selective action on glioblastoma stem cells, causing enrichment of cultures in differentiated cells, downregulation of the expression of stemness markers required to maintain malignancy (nestin, Olig2 and Sox2) and reducing cell clonogenic ability in vitro and tumorigenic potential in vivo. The selectivity of sorafenib effects on glioblastoma stem cells is confirmed by the lower sensitivity of glioblastoma cultures after differentiation as compared with the undifferentiated counterpart. Since current GBM therapy enriches the tumor in cancer stem cells, the evidence of a selective action of sorafenib on these cells is therapeutically relevant, even if, so far, results from first phase II clinical trials did not demonstrate its efficacy.
|Automated imaging system for fast quantitation of neurons, cell morphology and neurite morphometry in vivo and in vitro. |
Tapias, V; Greenamyre, JT; Watkins, SC
Neurobiology of disease 54 158-68 2013
Quantitation of neurons using stereologic approaches reduces bias and systematic error, but is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Accurate methods for quantifying neurons in vitro are lacking; conventional methodologies are limited in reliability and application. The morphological properties of the soma and neurites are a key aspect of neuronal phenotype and function, but the assays commonly used in such evaluations are beset with several methodological drawbacks. Herein we describe automated techniques to quantify the number and morphology of neurons (or any cell type, e.g., astrocytes) and their processes with high speed and accuracy. Neuronal quantification from brain tissue using a motorized stage system yielded results that were statistically comparable to those generated by stereology. The approach was then adapted for in vitro neuron and neurite outgrowth quantification. To determine the utility of our methods, rotenone was used as a neurotoxicant leading to morphological changes in neurons and cell death, astrocytic activation, and loss of neurites. Importantly, our technique counted about 8 times as many neurons in less than 5-10% of the time taken by manual stereological analysis.
|Differential expression and HIV-1 regulation of μ-opioid receptor splice variants across human central nervous system cell types. |
Dever, SM; Xu, R; Fitting, S; Knapp, PE; Hauser, KF
Journal of neurovirology 18 181-90 2012
The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is known to undergo extensive alternative splicing as numerous splice variants of MOR have been identified. However, the functional significance of MOR variants, as well as how splice variants other than MOR-1 might differentially regulate human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS), or elsewhere, has largely been ignored. Our findings suggest that there are specific differences in the MOR variant expression profile among CNS cell types, and that the expression levels of these variants are differentially regulated by HIV-1. While MOR-1A mRNA was detected in astroglia, microglia, and neurons, MOR-1 and MOR-1X were only found in astroglia. Expression of the various forms of MOR along with the chimeric G protein qi5 in HEK-293T cells resulted in differences in calcium/NFAT signaling with morphine treatment, suggesting that MOR variant expression might underlie functional differences in MOR-effector coupling and intracellular signaling across different cell types. Furthermore, the data suggest that the expression of MOR-1 and other MOR variants may also be differentially regulated in the brains of HIV-infected subjects with varying levels of neurocognitive impairment. Overall, the results reveal an unexpected finding that MOR-1 may not be the predominant form of MOR expressed by some CNS cell types and that other splice variants of MOR-1, with possible differing functions, may contribute to the diversity of MOR-related processes in the CNS.
|Regulation of Wnt signaling by nociceptive input in animal models. |
Shi, Y; Yuan, S; Li, B; Wang, J; Carlton, SM; Chung, K; Chung, JM; Tang, SJ
Molecular pain 8 47 2012
Central sensitization-associated synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) critically contributes to the development of chronic pain, but understanding of the underlying molecular pathways is still incomplete. Emerging evidence suggests that Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in regulation of synaptic plasticity. Little is known about the potential function of the Wnt signaling cascades in chronic pain development.Fluorescent immunostaining results indicate that β-catenin, an essential protein in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is expressed in the superficial layers of the mouse SCDH with enrichment at synapses in lamina II. In addition, Wnt3a, a prototypic Wnt ligand that activates the canonical pathway, is also enriched in the superficial layers. Immunoblotting analysis indicates that both Wnt3a a β-catenin are up-regulated in the SCDH of various mouse pain models created by hind-paw injection of capsaicin, intrathecal (i.t.) injection of HIV-gp120 protein or spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Furthermore, Wnt5a, a prototypic Wnt ligand for non-canonical pathways, and its receptor Ror2 are also up-regulated in the SCDH of these models.Our results suggest that Wnt signaling pathways are regulated by nociceptive input. The activation of Wnt signaling may regulate the expression of spinal central sensitization during the development of acute and chronic pain.
|Morphine and gp120 toxic interactions in striatal neurons are dependent on HIV-1 strain. |
Podhaizer, EM; Zou, S; Fitting, S; Samano, KL; El-Hage, N; Knapp, PE; Hauser, KF
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology 7 877-91 2012
A rigorously controlled, cell culture paradigm was used to assess the role of HIV-1 gp120 ± morphine in mediating opioid-HIV interactive toxicity in striatal neurons. Computerized time-lapse microscopy tracked the fate of individual neurons co-cultured with mixed-glia from mouse striata during opioid and gp120 exposure. Subpopulations of neurons and astroglia displayed μ-opioid receptor, CXCR4, and CCR5 immunoreactivity. While gp120 alone was or tended to be neurotoxic irrespective of whether X4-tropic gp120(IIIB), R5-tropic gp120(ADA), or dual-tropic gp120(MN) was administered, interactive toxicity with morphine differed depending on HIV-1 strain. For example, morphine only transiently exacerbated gp120(IIIB)-induced neuronal death; however, in combination with gp120(MN), morphine caused sustained increases in the rate of neuronal death compared to gp120(MN) alone that were prevented by naloxone. Alternatively, gp120(ADA) significantly increased the rate of neuron death, but gp120(ADA) toxicity was unaffected by morphine. The transient neurotoxic interactions between morphine and gp120(IIIB) were abrogated in the absence of glia suggesting that glia contribute significantly to the interactive pathology with chronic opiate abuse and neuroAIDS. To assess how mixed-glia might contribute to the neurotoxicity, the effects of morphine and/or gp120 on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and on glutamate buffering were examined. All gp120 variants, and to a lesser extent morphine, increased ROS and/or decreased glutamate buffering, but together failed to show any interaction with morphine. Our findings indicate that HIV-1 strain-specific differences in gp120 are critical determinants in shaping both the timing and pattern of neurotoxic interactions with opioid drugs.
|Altered expression of brain monocarboxylate transporter 1 in models of temporal lobe epilepsy. |
Lauritzen, F; Perez, EL; Melillo, ER; Roh, JM; Zaveri, HP; Lee, TS; Wang, Y; Bergersen, LH; Eid, T
Neurobiology of disease 45 165-76 2012
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) facilitates the transport of monocarboxylate fuels (lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies) and acidic drugs, such as valproic acid, across cell membranes. We recently reported that MCT1 is deficient on microvessels in the epileptogenic hippocampal formation in patients with medication-refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To further define the role of MCT1 in the pathophysiology of TLE, we used immunohistochemistry and stereological analysis to localize and quantify the transporter in the hippocampal formation in three novel and highly relevant rat models of TLE and in nonepileptic control animals. One model utilizes methionine sulfoximine to induce brain glutamine synthetase deficiency and recurrent limbic seizures, while two models employ an episode of perforant pathway stimulation to cause epilepsy. MCT1 was lost on microvessels and upregulated on astrocytes in the hippocampal formation in all models of TLE. Notably, the loss of MCT1 on microvessels was not due to a reduction in microvessel density. The similarities in MCT1 expression among human subjects with TLE and several animal models of the disease strongly suggest a critical role of this molecule in the pathogenesis of TLE. We hypothesize that the downregulation of MCT1 may promote seizures via impaired uptake of ketone bodies and antiepileptic drugs by the epileptogenic brain. We also propose that the overexpression of MCT1 on astrocytes may lead to increased uptake or release of monocarboxylates by these cells, with important implications for brain metabolism and excitability. These hypotheses can now be rigorously tested in several animal models that replicate key features of human TLE.
|Collagen VI protects against neuronal apoptosis elicited by ultraviolet irradiation via an Aktphosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway. |
Cheng IH, Lin YC, Hwang E, Huang HT, Chang WH, Liu YL, Chao CY
Collagen VI, one of the extracellular matrix proteins, has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation and reducing apoptosis in several different systems. However, the role of collagen VI in the central nervous system remains unclear. In this manuscript, we demonstrated that upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, mouse primary hippocampal neurons specifically up-regulate the expression of Col6a1, Col6a2, and Col6a3 mRNA and secreted collagen VI protein. Augmentation of collagen VI mRNA and protein after UV irradiation may have a neuroprotective role as suggested by the fact that extracellular supplying soluble collagen VI protein, but not other collagen proteins, reduced UV induced DNA damage, mitochondria dysfunction, and neurite shrinkage. We also tried to determine the signaling molecules that mediate the protective effect of collagen VI via Western blot and inhibitor analysis. After collagen VI treatment, UV irradiated neurons increased phosphorylation of Akt and decreased phosphorylation of JNK. Inhibiting Akt/Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K) pathway diminished the protective effect of collagen VI. Our study suggested a potential protective mechanism by which neurons up-regulate collagen VI production under stress conditions to activate Akt/PI3K anti-apoptotic signaling pathway.Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
|Alternations of 14-3-3 θ and β protein levels in brain during experimental sepsis. |
Nikolaos Memos,Agapi Kataki,Emmy Chatziganni,Marilena Nikolopoulou,Euthimios Skoulakis,Christos Consoulas,George Zografos,Manousos Konstadoulakis
Journal of neuroscience research 89 2011
The 14-3-3 family members play a crucial role in the determination of cell fate, exerting their antiapoptotic activity through directly interfering with the critical function of the mitochondrial core proapoptotic machinery. Dimerization of 14-3-3 is vital for the interaction with many of its client proteins and is regulated by phosphorylation. In a previous study, we observed time-dependent neuronal apoptosis during sepsis. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to evaluate the expression of 14-3-3 θ and β isoforms in septic brain and their association with apoptosis. Sepsis was induced by a CLP model in Wistar rats that were sacrificed at predefined time points. Flow cytometric analysis showed a sepsis-induced, time-dependent alteration of 14-3-3 θ and β isoforms in both Neun(+) and GFAP(+) cells. 14-3-3 θ was linearly correlated with apoptosis, and stratified analysis for alive and apoptotic neuronal cells demonstrated a gradual down-regulation of θ isoform in alive neurons and astrocytes. The phospho-P38 (pP38) MAP kinase levels were altered in a time-dependent manner during sepsis, presenting a peak at 6 hr post-CLP. A significant correlation between the two isoforms of 14-3-3 was observed in septic rats, with the θ isoform predominant at all time points. The hippocampus, Purkinje cells, and glia-like cells showed intense immunohistochemical reactivity for 14-3-3 θ isoform, whereas the choroid plexus showed constantly increased β isoform expression. Our results showed that sepsis alters the expression of both 14-3-3 θ and β isoforms in a time-, cell-, and topography-dependent manner.
|Morphine potentiates neurodegenerative effects of HIV-1 Tat through actions at μ-opioid receptor-expressing glia. |
Zou, S; Fitting, S; Hahn, YK; Welch, SP; El-Hage, N; Hauser, KF; Knapp, PE
Brain : a journal of neurology 134 3616-31 2011
Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 who abuse opiates can have a higher incidence of virus-associated neuropathology. Human immunodeficiency virus does not infect neurons, but viral proteins such as transactivator of transcription and glycoprotein 120, originating from infected glia, are neurotoxic. Moreover, functional changes in glial cells that enhance inflammation and reduce trophic support are increasingly implicated in human immunodeficiency virus neuropathology. In previous studies, co-exposure with morphine enhanced transactivator of transcription neurotoxicity towards cultured striatal neurons. Since those cultures contained µ-opioid receptor-expressing astroglia and microglia, and since glia are the principal site of infection in the central nervous system, we hypothesized that morphine synergy might be glially mediated. A 60 hour, repeated measures paradigm and multiple co-culture models were used to investigate the cellular basis for opiate-enhanced human immunodeficiency virus neurotoxicity. Morphine co-exposure significantly enhanced transactivator of transcription-induced neuron death when glia were present. Synergistic effects of morphine on transactivator of transcription neurotoxicity were greatest with neuron-glia contact, but also occurred to a lesser extent with glial conditioned medium. Importantly, synergy was lost if glia, but not neurons, lacked µ-opioid receptors, indicating that opiate interactions with human immunodeficiency virus converge at the level of µ-opioid receptor-expressing glia. Morphine enhanced transactivator of transcription-induced inflammatory effectors released by glia, elevating reactive oxygen species, increasing 3-nitrotyrosine production by microglia, and reducing the ability of glia to buffer glutamate. But neuron survival was reduced even more with glial contact than with exposure to conditioned medium, suggesting that noxious elements associated with cell contact augment the toxicity due to soluble factors. Similar morphine-transactivator of transcription synergy was also observed in studies with the clade C sequence of HIV-1 transactivator of transcription, which did not cause neuron death unless morphine was present. Several paradoxical observations related to opiate effects were noted when µ-opioid receptors were specifically ablated from either glia or neurons. This suggests that µ-opioid receptor loss in isolated cell types can fundamentally distort cell-to-cell signalling, revealing opponent processes that may exist in individual cell types. Our findings show the critical role of glia in orchestrating neurotoxic interactions of morphine and transactivator of transcription, and support the emerging concept that combined exposure to opiates and human immunodeficiency virus drives enhanced pathology within the central nervous system.
|Erythropoietin and sonic hedgehog mediate the neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor against mitochondrial inhibition. |
Chia-Lin Wu,Shang-Der Chen,Jiu-Haw Yin,Chi-Shin Hwang,Ding-I Yang
Neurobiology of disease 40 2010
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a mitochondrial inhibitor commonly used as a pharmacological model mimicking HD. We have recently reported that preconditioning of primary rat cortical cultures with BDNF induces sonic hedgehog (SHH), which contributes to the protective effects of BDNF against 3-NP neurotoxicity. Because carbamylated erythropoietin (EPO) may induce SHH, we investigated whether BDNF-dependent SHH expression and 3-NP resistance require prior induction of EPO. We found that BDNF induced EPO expression at both mRNA and protein levels. BDNF-mediated SHH induction and 3-NP resistance were abolished by the soluble EPO receptor (sEPO-R), an EPO inhibitor. Recombinant rat EPO (rEPO) induced SHH and attenuated 3-NP neurotoxicity. The rEPO-dependent neuroprotection was suppressed by the SHH inhibitor cyclopamine (CPM); however, sEPO-R failed to affect SHH neuroprotection. Furthermore, the rEPO-dependent neuroprotection was not suppressed by the BDNF neutralizing antibody, which completely abolished BDNF-mediated 3-NP resistance at the same dosage. Overall, our results demonstrate that BDNF-dependent SHH expression and 3-NP resistance require prior induction of EPO, thus establishing a signaling cascade of BDNF-->EPO-->SHH-->3-NP resistance in rat cortical neurons.
|Sound stimulation modulates high-threshold K(+) currents in mouse auditory brainstem neurons. |
Leão, KE; Leão, RN; Deardorff, AS; Garrett, A; Fyffe, R; Walmsley, B
The European journal of neuroscience 32 1658-67 2010
The auditory system provides a valuable experimental model to investigate the role of sensory activity in regulating neuronal membrane properties. In this study, we have investigated the role of activity directly by measuring changes in medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) neurons in normal hearing mice subjected to 1-h sound stimulation. Broadband (4-12 kHz) chirps were used to activate MNTB neurons tonotopically restricted to the lateral MNTB, as confirmed by c-Fos-immunoreactivity. Following 1-h sound stimulation a substantial increase in Kv3.1b-immunoreactivity was measured in the lateral region of the MNTB, which lasted for 2 h before returning to control levels. Electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings in brainstem slices revealed an increase in high-threshold potassium currents in the lateral MNTB of sound-stimulated mice. Current-clamp and dynamic-clamp experiments showed that MNTB cells from the sound-stimulated mice were able to maintain briefer action potentials during high-frequency firing than cells from control mice. These results provide evidence that acoustically driven auditory activity can selectively regulate high-threshold potassium currents in the MNTB of normal hearing mice, likely due to an increased membrane expression of Kv3.1b channels.
|A novel role of CPEB3 in regulating EGFR gene transcription via association with Stat5b in neurons. |
Peng, SC; Lai, YT; Huang, HY; Huang, HD; Huang, YS
Nucleic acids research 38 7446-57 2010
CPEB3 is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein and represses translation of its target mRNAs in neurons. Here, we have identified a novel function of CPEB3 as to interact with Stat5b and inhibit its transcription activity in the nucleus without disrupting dimerization, DNA binding and nuclear localization of Stat5b. Moreover, CPEB3 is a nucleocytoplasm-shuttling protein with predominant residence in the cytoplasm; whereas activation of NMDA receptors accumulates CPEB3 in the nucleus. Using the knockdown approach, we have found the receptor tyrosine kinase, EGFR, is a target gene transcriptionally activated by Stat5b and downregulated by CPEB3 in neurons. The increased EGFR expression in CPEB3 knockdown neurons, when stimulated with EGF, alters the kinetics of downstream signaling. Taken together, CPEB3 has a novel function in the nucleus as to suppress Stat5b-dependent EGFR gene transcription. Consequently, EGFR signaling is negatively regulated by CPEB3 in neurons.
|Paradoxical ATP elevation in ischemic penumbra revealed by quantitative imaging mass spectrometry. |
Hattori, K; Kajimura, M; Hishiki, T; Nakanishi, T; Kubo, A; Nagahata, Y; Ohmura, M; Yachie-Kinoshita, A; Matsuura, T; Morikawa, T; Nakamura, T; Setou, M; Suematsu, M
Antioxidants & redox signaling 13 1157-67 2010
Local responses of energy metabolism during brain ischemia are too heterogeneous to decipher redox distribution between anoxic core and adjacent salvageable regions such as penumbra. Imaging mass spectrometry combined by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry providing quantitative metabolomics revealed spatio-temporal changes in adenylates and NADH in a mouse middle-cerebral artery occlusion model. Unlike the core where ATP decreased, the penumbra displayed paradoxical elevation of ATP despite the constrained blood supply. It is noteworthy that the NADH elevation in the ischemic region is clearly demarcated by the ATP-depleting core. Results suggest that metabolism in ischemic penumbra does not respond passively to compromised circulation, but actively compensates energy charges.
|Host Cell Preference of Toxoplasma gondii Cysts in Murine Brain: A Confocal Study. |
Melzer, TC; Cranston, HJ; Weiss, LM; Halonen, SK
Journal of neuroparasitology 1 2010
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that is widely prevalent in humans and typically results in a chronic infection characterized by cysts located predominantly in the central nervous system. In immunosuppressed hosts, such as patients with HIV infection, the infection can be reactivated from the cysts in the brain resulting in a severe and potentially fatal encephalitis. Studies suggest that the chronic infection may also have neuropathological and behavioral effects in immune competent hosts. An improved understanding of tissue cyst behavior is of importance for understanding both the reactivation as well as the neurophysiological consequences of chronic infection. In vivo studies have identified neurons as host cells for cysts but in vitro studies have found that astrocytes can also foster development of the cysts. In this study we have addressed the question of which neural cell tissue cysts of T. gondii reside during chronic infection using a mouse model. Mice were infected with Me49 Strain T. gondii and the intracellular localization of the cysts analyzed during the development and establishment of a chronic infection at 1, 2, and 6 months post infection. Brains were fixed, cryosectioned, and stained with FITC-Dolichos biflorans to identify the Toxoplasma cysts and they were labeled with cell specific antibodies to neurons or astrocytes and then analyzed using confocal fluorescence microscopy. Cysts were found to occur almost exclusively in neurons throughout chronic infection. No cysts were identified in astrocytes, using the astrocyte marker, GFAP. Astrocyte interactions with neuronal-cysts, however, were frequently observed.
|Sonic hedgehog mediates BDNF-induced neuroprotection against mitochondrial inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid. |
Chia-Lin Wu, Shang-Der Chen, Chi-Shin Hwang, Ding-I Yang, Chia-Lin Wu, Shang-Der Chen, Chi-Shin Hwang, Ding-I Yang, Chia-Lin Wu, Shang-Der Chen, Chi-Shin Hwang, Ding-I Yang
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 385 112-7 2009
Sonic hedgehog (SHH), a morphogen critical for embryogenesis, has also been shown to be neuroprotective. We have recently reported that pretreatment of rat cortical neurons for 8 h with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; 100 ng/ml) affords protection against neurotoxicity of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 2.5 mM for 24 h), a mitochondrial complex II inhibitor. However, whether SHH is involved in BDNF-mediated neuroprotection remains unknown. Herein we tested whether BDNF induces SHH expression and if so, whether BDNF induction of SHH contributes to the observed neuroprotective effects. We found BDNF (100 ng/ml) increased SHH expression at both mRNA and protein levels. BDNF protection against 3-NP was abolished by cyclopamine (CPM; 5 microM), the SHH pathway inhibitor. Preconditioning of cortical neurons with N-terminal fragment of SHH (SHH-N; 0.1-1 ng/ml) was sufficient to confer resistance. These results indicate that BDNF induces SHH expression, which contributes to neuroprotection against 3-NP toxicity in rat cortical neurons.
|Subventricular zone neural progenitors from rapid brain autopsies of elderly subjects with and without neurodegenerative disease. |
Leonard, BW; Mastroeni, D; Grover, A; Liu, Q; Yang, K; Gao, M; Wu, J; Pootrakul, D; van den Berge, SA; Hol, EM; Rogers, J
The Journal of comparative neurology 515 269-94 2009
In mice and in young adult humans, the subventricular zone (SVZ) contains multipotent, dividing astrocytes, some of which, when cultured, produce neurospheres that differentiate into neurons and glia. It is unknown whether the SVZ of very old humans has this capacity. Here, we report that neural stem/progenitor cells can also be cultured from rapid autopsy samples of SVZ from elderly human subjects, including patients with age-related neurologic disorders. Histological sections of SVZ from these cases showed a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive ribbon of astrocytes similar to the astrocyte ribbon in human periventricular white matter biopsies that is reported to be a rich source of neural progenitors. Cultures of the SVZ contained 1) neurospheres with a core of Musashi-1-, nestin-, and nucleostemin-immunopositive cells as well as more differentiated GFAP-positive astrocytes; 2) SMI-311-, MAP2a/b-, and beta-tubulin(III)-positive neurons; and 3) galactocerebroside-positive oligodendrocytes. Neurospheres continued to generate differentiated progeny for months after primary culturing, in some cases nearly 2 years postinitial plating. Patch clamp studies of differentiated SVZ cells expressing neuron-specific antigens revealed voltage-dependent, tetrodotoxin-sensitive, inward Na+ currents and voltage-dependent, delayed, slowly inactivating K+ currents, electrophysiologic characteristics of neurons. A subpopulation of these cells also exhibited responses consistent with the kinetics and pharmacology of the h-current. However, although these cells displayed some aspects of neuronal function, they remained immature, insofar as they did not fire action potentials. These studies suggest that human neural progenitor activity may remain viable throughout much of the life span, even in the face of severe neurodegenerative disease.Artículo Texto completo
|PIKfyve regulates CaV1.2 degradation and prevents excitotoxic cell death. |
Tsuruta F, Green EM, Rousset M, Dolmetsch RE
The Journal of cell biology 187 279-94 2009
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) play a key role in neuronal signaling but can also contribute to cellular dysfunction and death under pathological conditions such as stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. We report that activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors causes internalization and degradation of Ca(V)1.2 channels, resulting in decreased Ca(2+) entry and reduced toxicity. Ca(V)1.2 internalization and degradation requires binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve), a lipid kinase which generates phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P(2)) and regulates endosome and lysosome function. Sustained activation of glutamate receptors recruits PIKfyve to Ca(V)1.2 channels, increases cellular levels of PtdIns(3,5)P(2), and promotes targeting of Ca(V)1.2 to lysosomes. Knockdown of PIKfyve prevents Ca(V)1.2 degradation and increases neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxicity. These experiments identify a novel mechanism by which neurons are protected from excitotoxicity and provide a possible explanation for neuronal death in diseases caused by mutations that affect PtdIns(3,5)P(2) regulation.Artículo Texto completo
|Diacylglycerol kinase beta promotes dendritic outgrowth and spine maturation in developing hippocampal neurons. |
Hozumi, Y; Watanabe, M; Otani, K; Goto, K
BMC neuroscience 10 99 2009
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid and comprises multiple isozymes of distinct properties. Of DGKs, mRNA signal for DGKbeta is strongly detected in the striatum, and one of the transcripts derived from the human DGKbeta locus is annotated in GenBank as being differentially expressed in bipolar disorder patients. Recently, we have reported that DGKbeta is expressed in medium spiny neurons of the striatum and is highly concentrated at the perisynapse of dendritic spines. However, it remains elusive how DGKbeta is implicated in pathophysiological role in neurons at the cellular level.In the present study, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of DGKbeta in the hippocampus, together with its functional implication using transfected hippocampal neurons. DGKbeta is expressed not only in projection neurons but also in interneurons and is concentrated at perisynaptic sites of asymmetrical synapses. Overexpression of wild-type DGKbeta promotes dendrite outgrowth at 7 d in vitro (DIV) and spine maturation at 14 DIV in transfected hippocampal neurons, although its kinase-dead mutant has no effect.In the hippocampus, DGKbeta is expressed in both projection neurons and interneurons and is accumulated at the perisynapse of dendritic spines in asymmetrical synapses. Transfection experiments suggest that DGKbeta may be involved in the molecular machineries of dendrite outgrowth and spinogenesis through its kinase activity.
|Mislocalization of TDP-43 in the G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS. |
Xiaoyang Shan, David Vocadlo, Charles Krieger, Xiaoyang Shan, David Vocadlo, Charles Krieger, Xiaoyang Shan, David Vocadlo, Charles Krieger, Xiaoyang Shan, David Vocadlo, Charles Krieger
Neuroscience letters 458 70-4 2009
Previous evidence demonstrates that TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) mislocalization is a key pathological feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 normally shows nuclear localization, but in CNS tissue from patients who died with ALS this protein mislocalizes to the cytoplasm. Disease specific TDP-43 species have also been reported to include hyperphosphorylated TDP-43, as well as a C-terminal fragment. Whether these abnormal TDP-43 features are present in patients with SOD1-related familial ALS (fALS), or in mutant SOD1 over-expressing transgenic mouse models of ALS remains controversial. Here we investigate TDP-43 pathology in transgenic mice expressing the G93A mutant form of SOD1. In contrast to previous reports we observe redistribution of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm of motor neurons in mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, but this is seen only in mice having advanced disease. Furthermore, we also observe rounded TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions associated with intense ubiquitin immunoreactivity in lumbar spinal cord at end stage disease in mSOD mice. These data indicate that TDP-43 mislocalization and ubiquitination are present in end stage mSOD mice. However, we do not observe C-terminal TDP-43 fragments nor TDP-43 hyperphosphorylated species in these end stage mSOD mice. Our findings indicate that G93A mutant SOD1 transgenic mice recapitulate some key pathological, but not all biochemical hallmarks, of TDP-43 pathology previously observed in human ALS. These studies suggest motor neuron degeneration in the mutant SOD1 transgenic mice is associated with TDP-43 histopathology.
|Chromosomal number aberrations and transformation in adult mouse retinal stem cells in vitro. |
Djojosubroto, M; Bollotte, F; Wirapati, P; Radtke, F; Stamenkovic, I; Arsenijevic, Y
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 50 5975-87 2009
The potential of stem cells (SCs) as a source for cell-based therapy on a wide range of degenerative diseases and damaged tissues such as retinal degeneration has been recognized. Generation of a high number of retinal stem cells (RSCs) in vitro would thus be beneficial for transplantation in the retina. However, as cells in prolonged cultivation may be unstable and thus have a risk of transformation, it is important to assess the stability of these cells.Chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in mouse RSC lines isolated from adult and from postnatal day (PN)1 mouse retinas. Moreover, selected cell lines were tested for anchorage-dependent proliferation, and SCs were transplanted into immunocompromised mice to assess the possibility of transformation.Marked aneuploidy occurred in all adult cell lines, albeit to different degrees, and neonatal RSCs were the most stable and displayed a normal karyotype until at least passage 9. Of interest, the level of aneuploidy of adult RSCs did not necessarily correlate with cell transformation. Only the adult RSC lines passaged for longer periods and with a higher dilution ratio underwent transformation. Furthermore, we identified several cell cycle proteins that might support the continuous proliferation and transformation of the cells.Adult RSCs rapidly accumulated severe chromosomal aberrations during cultivation, which led to cell transformation in some cell lines. The culture condition plays an important role in supporting the selection and growth of transformed cells.
|Ammonium alters creatine transport and synthesis in a 3D culture of developing brain cells, resulting in secondary cerebral creatine deficiency. |
Olivier Braissant, Laurène Cagnon, Florianne Monnet-Tschudi, Oliver Speer, Theo Wallimann, Paul Honegger, Hugues Henry
The European journal of neuroscience 27 1673-85 2008
Hyperammonemic disorders in pediatric patients lead to poorly understood irreversible effects on the developing brain that may be life-threatening. We showed previously that some of these NH4+-induced irreversible effects might be due to impairment of axonal growth that can be protected under ammonium exposure by creatine co-treatment. The aim of the present work was thus to analyse how the genes of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), allowing creatine synthesis, as well as of the creatine transporter SLC6A8, allowing creatine uptake into cells, are regulated in rat brain cells under NH4+ exposure. Reaggregated brain cell three-dimensional cultures exposed to NH4Cl were used as an experimental model of hyperammonemia in the developing central nervous system (CNS). We show here that NH4+ exposure differentially alters AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 regulation, in terms of both gene expression and protein activity, in a cell type-specific manner. In particular, we demonstrate that NH4+ exposure decreases both creatine and its synthesis intermediate, guanidinoacetate, in brain cells, probably through the inhibition of AGAT enzymatic activity. Our work also suggests that oligodendrocytes are major actors in the brain in terms of creatine synthesis, trafficking and uptake, which might be affected by hyperammonemia. Finally, we show that NH4+ exposure induces SLC6A8 in astrocytes. This suggests that hyperammonemia increases blood-brain barrier permeability for creatine. This is normally limited due to the absence of SLC6A8 from the astrocyte feet lining microcapillary endothelial cells, and thus creatine supplementation may protect the developing CNS of hyperammonemic patients.
|Functional expression of release-regulating glycine transporters GLYT1 on GABAergic neurons and GLYT2 on astrocytes in mouse spinal cord. |
Luca Raiteri,Sara Stigliani,Cesare Usai,Alberto Diaspro,Silvio Paluzzi,Marco Milanese,Maurizio Raiteri,Giambattista Bonanno
Neurochemistry international 52 2008
It is widely accepted that glycine transporters of the GLYT1 type are situated on astrocytes whereas GLYT2 are present on glycinergic neuronal terminals where they mediate glycine uptake. We here used purified preparations of mouse spinal cord nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and of astrocyte-derived subcellular particles (gliosomes) to characterize functionally and morphologically the glial versus neuronal distribution of GLYT1 and GLYT2. Both gliosomes and synaptosomes accumulated [3H]GABA through GAT1 transporters and, when exposed to glycine in superfusion conditions, they released the radioactive amino acid not in a receptor-dependent manner, but as a consequence of glycine penetration through selective transporters. The glycine-evoked release of [3H]GABA was exocytotic from synaptosomes but GAT1 carrier-mediated from gliosomes. Based on the sensitivity of the glycine effects to selective GLYT1 and GLYT2 blockers, the two transporters contributed equally to evoke [3H]GABA release from GABAergic synaptosomes; even more surprising, the 'neuronal' GLYT2 contributed more efficiently than the 'glial' GLYT1 to mediate the glycine effect in [3H]GABA releasing gliosomes. These functional results were largely confirmed by confocal microscopy analysis showing co-expression of GAT1 and GLYT2 in GFAP-positive gliosomes and of GAT1 and GLYT1 in MAP2-positive synaptosomes. To conclude, functional GLYT1 are present on neuronal axon terminals and functional GLYT2 are expressed on astrocytes, indicating not complete selectivity of glycine transporters in their glial versus neuronal localization in the spinal cord.
|Diacylglycerol kinase beta accumulates on the perisynaptic site of medium spiny neurons in the striatum. |
Yasukazu Hozumi,Masahiro Fukaya,Naoko Adachi,Naoaki Saito,Koichi Otani,Hisatake Kondo,Masahiko Watanabe,Kaoru Goto
The European journal of neuroscience 28 2008
Following activation of Gq protein-coupled receptors, phospholipase C yields a pair of second messengers, i.e. diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The former activates protein kinase C and the latter mobilizes Ca(2+) from intracellular store. DAG kinase (DGK) then phosphorylates DAG to produce another second messenger (phosphatidic acid). Of 10 mammalian DGK isozymes, DGKbeta is expressed in dopaminergic projection fields with the highest level in the striatum and its particular splice variant is differentially expressed in patients with bipolar disorder. To gain molecular anatomical evidence for its signaling role, we investigated the cellular expression and subcellular localization of DGKbeta in the striatum of rat brain. DGKbeta was expressed in medium spiny neurons constituting the striatonigral and striatopallidal pathways, whereas striatal interneurons were below the detection threshold. DGKbeta was distributed in somatodendritic elements of medium spiny neurons and localized in association with the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane or in the narrow cytoplasmic space between them. In particular, DGKbeta exhibited dense accumulation at perisynaptic sites on dendritic spines forming asymmetrical synapses. The characteristic anatomical localization was consistent with exclusive enrichment of DGKbeta in the microsomal and postsynaptic density fractions. Intriguingly, DGKbeta was very similar in immunohistochemical and immunochemical distribution to Gq-coupled receptors, such as metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 5, and also to other downstream molecules involving DAG metabolism, such as phospholipase C beta and DAG lipase. These findings suggest that abundant DGKbeta is provided to perisynaptic sites of medium spiny neurons so that it can effectively produce phosphatidic acid upon activation of Gq-coupled receptors and modulate the cellular state of striatal output neurons.
|Dynamics of somatostatin type 2A receptor cargoes in living hippocampal neurons. |
Lelouvier, B; Tamagno, G; Kaindl, AM; Roland, A; Lelievre, V; Le Verche, V; Loudes, C; Gressens, P; Faivre-Baumann, A; Lenkei, Z; Dournaud, P
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 4336-49 2008
Despite the large number of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) types expressed in the CNS, little is known about their dynamics in neuronal cells. Dynamic properties of the somatostatin type 2A receptor were therefore examined in resting conditions and after agonist activation in living hippocampal neurons. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments, we found that, in absence of ligand, the sst(2A) receptor is mobile and laterally and rapidly diffuse in neuronal membranes. We then observed by live-cell imaging that, after agonist activation, membrane-associated receptors induce the recruitment of beta-arrestin 1-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and beta-arrestin 2-EGFP to the plasma membrane. In addition, beta-arrestin 1-EGFP translocate to the nucleus, suggesting that this protein could serve as a nuclear messenger for the sst(2A) receptor in neurons. Receptors are then recruited to preexisting clathrin coated pits, form clusters that internalize, fuse, and move to a perinuclear compartment that we identified as the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and recycle. Receptor cargoes are transported through a microtubule-dependent process directly from early endosomes/recycling endosomes to the TGN, bypassing the late endosomal compartment. Together, these results provide a comprehensive description of GPCR trafficking in living neurons and provide compelling evidence that GPCR cargoes can recycle through the TGN after endocytosis, a phenomenon that has not been anticipated from studies of non-neuronal cells.
|A novel isolation technique of progenitor cells in human corneal epithelium using non-tissue culture dishes. |
Seiichi Yokoo, Satoru Yamagami, Takashi Shimada, Tomohiko Usui, Taka-aki Sato, Shiro Amano, Makoto Araie, Junji Hamuro
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 26 1743-8 2008
The existence of adult stem cells or progenitor cells in the human corneal epithelium (i.e., self-renewing squamous cells) has long been suggested, but these cells have not yet been isolated. Here we describe a novel isolation technique using non-tissue culture dishes to enrich progenitor cells, which are able to reconstitute a three-dimensional human corneal epithelial equivalent from single cells in serum-, feeder-, and bovine pituitary extract-free medium. These cells showed original tissue-committed differentiation, a high proliferative capacity, and limited self-renewal. Laminin-5 was measured by mass spectrometric analysis. Pretreatment of cells with anti-laminin-5 antibody demonstrated that laminin-5 was important in allowing corneal epithelial progenitor cells to adhere to non-tissue culture dishes. Hydrophilic tubes (used for cell collection throughout this study) are essential for efficient isolation of adherent corneal epithelial progenitor cells expressing laminin-5. These findings indicate that our new technique using non-tissue culture dishes allows the isolation of progenitor cells from human corneal limbal epithelium and that laminin-5 has a critical role in the adhesion of these cells.
|Protective effects of lipopolysaccharide preconditioning against nitric oxide neurotoxicity. |
Chia-Yen Huang, Hui-I Yang, Shang-Der Chen, Fu-Zen Shaw, Ding-I Yang
Journal of neuroscience research 86 1277-89 2008
We have characterized lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning-induced neuroprotective mechanisms against nitric oxide (NO) toxicity. Pretreatment of rat cortical cultures with LPS attenuated neurotoxicity of NO donors, including sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and diethylamine NONOate (NONOate). A transiently increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) accompanied by an increase in NO production was observed during LPS preconditioning. Application of NOS inhibitors including L-N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine (L-NIO) and L-nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME) abolished LPS-dependent protection against SNP toxicity. The LPS effect was also blocked by KT5823, an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Consistently, application of 8-bromo-cyclic GMP (8-Br-cGMP), a slowly degradable cGMP analogue capable of PKG activation, was neuroprotective. LPS preconditioning resulted in a heightened neuronal expression of Bcl-2 protein that was abolished by L-NAME and KT5823, the respective inhibitors of NOS and PKG. Together, our results reveal the signaling cascade of LPS --> eNOS --> NO --> cGMP/PKG --> Bcl-2 that might have contributed to the LPS protective effects in cortical neurons.
|Generation of Frizzled10-Cre transgenic mouse line: a useful tool for the study of dorsal telencephalic development. |
Xiaochun Gu, Dongyang He, Yiping Li, Chuanyin Hu, Yu-sheng Wei, Guang Liu, Depei Liu, Samuel J Pleasure, Wei Xie, Chunjie Zhao, Xiaochun Gu, Dongyang He, Yiping Li, Chuanyin Hu, Yu-sheng Wei, Guang Liu, Depei Liu, Samuel J Pleasure, Wei Xie, Chunjie Zhao
Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000) 46 523-9 2008
Wnt signaling plays an important role in regulating cortical and hippocampal development, but many of the other molecular mechanisms underlying dorsal telencephalic development are largely unknown. We are taking advantage of the highly regionalized expression patterns of signaling components of the Wnt pathway to generate new mouse lines that will be useful for studying forebrain development. Here, we describe a transgenic mouse line where Cre is driven by the promoter of the Wnt receptor, Frizzled10. In these mice, Cre activity is mainly detected in the dorsal telencephalon during development and is confined to the pyramidal cell fields in the adult hippocampus. The Cre recombinase has very high efficiency when assayed by crossing the transgenic line with the ROSA26 reporter line. Thus, this Cre line will be useful for the study of dorsal telencephalic development and conditional inactivation of target genes in the cortex and hippocampus.Artículo Texto completo
|Trafficking and fusion of neuropeptide Y-containing dense-core granules in astrocytes. |
Ramamoorthy, P; Whim, MD
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 13815-27 2008
It is becoming clear that astrocytes are active participants in synaptic functioning and exhibit properties, such as the secretion of classical transmitters, previously thought to be exclusively neuronal. Whether these similarities extend to the release of neuropeptides, the other major class of transmitters, is less clear. Here we show that cortical astrocytes can synthesize both native and foreign neuropeptides and can secrete them in a stimulation-dependent manner. Reverse transcription-PCR and mass spectrometry indicate that cortical astrocytes contain neuropeptide Y (NPY), a widespread neuronal transmitter. Immunocytochemical studies reveal NPY-immunoreactive (IR) puncta that colocalize with markers of the regulated secretory pathway. These NPY-IR puncta are distinct from the synaptic-like vesicles that contain classical transmitters, and the two types of organelles are differentially distributed. After activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors and the release of calcium from intracellular stores, the NPY-IR puncta fuse with the cell membrane, and the peptide-containing dense cores are displayed. To determine whether peptide secretion subsequently occurred, exocytosis was monitored from astrocytes expressing NPY-red fluorescent protein (RFP). In live cells, after activation of glutamate receptors, the intensity of the NPY-RFP-labeled puncta declined in a step-like manner indicating a regulated release of the granular contents. Because NPY is a widespread and potent regulator of synaptic transmission, these results suggest that astrocytes could play a role in the peptidergic modulation of synaptic signaling in the CNS.
|Glia protects neurons against extracellular human neuromelanin. |
Depboylu, Candan, et al.
Neuro-degenerative diseases, 4: 218-26 (2007) 2007
BACKGROUND: Neuromelanin-containing neurons of the substantia nigra are highly vulnerable to degenerate in Parkinson's disease. Inhibition of the respiratory chain or formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by intracellular neuromelanin and triggering of inflammatory processes by extracellular neuromelanin emanating from melanized neurons after their demise are thought to be causally implicated in the high vulnerability of melanized neurons. OBJECTIVE: We addressed the direct effect of purified neuromelanin on mitochondrial complex I activity, and its influence on ROS production and survival of primary mesencephalic neurons in the presence or absence of glia. METHODS: Neuromelanin was isolated from midbrain of postmortem human brains. The content in iron and other elements was measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The effect of neuromelanin on mitochondrial complex I activity was analyzed in post-nuclear extracts. Primary neuronal enriched and neuron-glia mixed cultures from midbrain were treated with different concentrations of neuromelanin. The generation of ROS was determined by fluorochrome detection. MAP2-positive and TH-positive neuronal viability was analyzed. RESULTS: Neuromelanin did not affect complex I activity, but concentration-dependently increased ROS production in neurons and reduced the number of MAP2-positive and TH-positive cultured neurons. Glia protected neurons against the neuromelanin toxicity. CONCLUSION: Extracellular neuromelanin is detrimental to neurons implicating a mechanism of intracellular ROS production, but not complex I inhibition. ROS formation may be catalyzed by iron, which was sensitively identified in purified neuromelanin (3.3 mg/g). Importantly, we demonstrate that glial cells have the potential to mitigate the neurotoxic effect of neuromelanin.
|Cryopreservation of granule cells from the postnatal rat hippocampus. |
Junya Ichikawa, Ryuji X Yamada, Rieko Muramatsu, Yuji Ikegaya, Norio Matsuki, Ryuta Koyama
Journal of pharmacological sciences 104 387-91 2007
Although primary cultures of neurons are essential methods for cell biological and pharmacological researches, many animals must be sacrificed for each experiment. Here we introduce a novel system to cryopreserve hippocampal granule cells (GCs) prepared from postnatal rats. Being thawed after as long as 60 days of cryopreservation, GCs expressed the mature neuronal marker MAP-2 and elongated single tau-1-positive axons and multiple tau-1-negative dendrites. These properties closely resembled intact GCs in primary cultures, providing the advantage of being able to repeatedly prepare stable cultures with a single sacrifice of animals.
|Expression of the mRNA and protein of serine racemase in primary cultures of rat neurons. |
Masanobu Yoshikawa, Kazuyuki Nakajima, Naoko Takayasu, Setsuko Noda, Yuichi Sato, Mitsuru Kawaguchi, Tetsuo Oka, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Atsushi Hashimoto
European journal of pharmacology 548 74-6 2006
Real-time quantitative PCR, Western blot and in situ hybridization techniques were employed to clarify the presence of serine racemase in the primary cultures of rat neurons. We have detected both serine racemase mRNA and protein in the cultured neurons. Both the mRNA and the protein levels in the neurons are higher than those in the astrocytes. Sequential detection of serine racemase mRNA and MAP2 immunoreactivity also revealed that serine racemase and MAP2 are co-localized in the cultured neurons. These data are the first to demonstrate that a substantial amount of serine racemase exists in the cultured neurons.
|Physiological mouse brain Abeta levels are not related to the phosphorylation state of threonine-668 of Alzheimer's APP. |
Sano, Y; Nakaya, T; Pedrini, S; Takeda, S; Iijima-Ando, K; Iijima, K; Mathews, PM; Itohara, S; Gandy, S; Suzuki, T
PloS one 1 e51 2006
Amyloid-beta peptide species ending at positions 40 and 42 (Abeta40, Abeta42) are generated by the proteolytic processing of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP). Abeta peptides accumulate in the brain early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially Abeta42. The cytoplasmic domain of APP regulates intracellular trafficking and metabolism of APP and its carboxyl-terminal fragments (CTFalpha, CTFbeta). The role of protein phosphorylation in general, and that of the phosphorylation state of APP at threonine-668 (Thr668) in particular, has been investigated in detail by several laboratories (including our own). Some investigators have recently proposed that the phosphorylation state of Thr668 plays a pivotal role in governing brain Abeta levels, prompting the current study.In order to evaluate whether the phosphorylation state of Thr668 controlled brain Abeta levels, we studied the levels and subcellular distributions of holoAPP, sAPPalpha, sAPPbeta, CTFalpha, CTFbeta, Abeta40 and Abeta42 in brains from "knock-in" mice in which a non-phosphorylatable alanyl residue had been substituted at position 668, replacing the threonyl residue present in the wild-type protein.The levels and subcellular distributions of holoAPP, sAPPalpha, sAPPbeta, CTFalpha, CTFbeta, Abeta40 and Abeta42 in the brains of Thr668Ala mutant mice were identical to those observed in wild-type mice. These results indicate that, despite speculation to the contrary, the phosphorylation state of APP at Thr668 does not play an obvious role in governing the physiological levels of brain Abeta40 or Abeta42 in vivo.
|Establishment and characterization of new human embryonic stem cell lines. |
Findikli, Necati, et al.
Reprod. Biomed. Online, 10: 617-27 (2005) 2005
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC), with their ability to differentiate into all cell types in the human body, are likely to play a very important therapeutic role in a variety of neurodegenerative and life-threatening disorders in the near future. Although more than 120 different human embryonic stem cell lines have been reported worldwide, only a handful are currently available for researchers, which limits the number of studies that can be performed. This study reports the isolation, establishment and characterization of new human embryonic stem cell lines, as well as their differentiation potential into variety of somatic cell types. Blastocyst-stage embryos donated for research after assisted reproductive techniques were used for embryonic stem cell isolation. A total of 31 blastocysts were processed either for immunosurgery or direct culture methods for inner cell mass isolation. A total of nine primary stem cell colonies were isolated and of these, seven cell lines were further expanded and passaged. Established lines were characterized by their cellular and colony morphology, karyotypes and immunocytochemical properties. They were also successfully cryopreserved/thawed and showed similar growth and cellular properties upon thawing. When induced to differentiate in vitro, these cells formed a variety of somatic cell lineages including cells of endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm origin. There is now an exponentially growing interest in stem cell biology as well as its therapeutic applications for life-threatening human diseases. However, limited availability of stem cell lines as well as financial or ethical limitations restrict the number of research projects. The establishment of new hESC lines may create additional potential sources for further worldwide and nationwide research on stem cells.
|Controlling bursting in cortical cultures with closed-loop multi-electrode stimulation. |
Wagenaar, DA; Madhavan, R; Pine, J; Potter, SM
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 680-8 2005
One of the major modes of activity of high-density cultures of dissociated neurons is globally synchronized bursting. Unlike in vivo, neuronal ensembles in culture maintain activity patterns dominated by global bursts for the lifetime of the culture (up to 2 years). We hypothesize that persistence of bursting is caused by a lack of input from other brain areas. To study this hypothesis, we grew small but dense monolayer cultures of cortical neurons and glia from rat embryos on multi-electrode arrays and used electrical stimulation to substitute for afferents. We quantified the burstiness of the firing of the cultures in spontaneous activity and during several stimulation protocols. Although slow stimulation through individual electrodes increased burstiness as a result of burst entrainment, rapid stimulation reduced burstiness. Distributing stimuli across several electrodes, as well as continuously fine-tuning stimulus strength with closed-loop feedback, greatly enhanced burst control. We conclude that externally applied electrical stimulation can substitute for natural inputs to cortical neuronal ensembles in transforming burst-dominated activity to dispersed spiking, more reminiscent of the awake cortex in vivo. This nonpharmacological method of controlling bursts will be a critical tool for exploring the information processing capacities of neuronal ensembles in vitro and has potential applications for the treatment of epilepsy.Artículo Texto completo
|Distribution and synaptic localization of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing a novel alpha7 subunit isoform in embryonic rat cortical neurons. |
Emily G Severance, Javier Cuevas
Neuroscience letters 372 104-9 2004
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the alpha7 subunit isoform, alpha7-2 (alpha7-2-nAChRs), have previously been found to form functional homopentameric channels that desensitize slowly and bind alpha-bungarotoxin (alphaBgt) in a rapidly reversible manner. This isoform incorporates a novel cassette exon in the extracellular, ligand binding domain of the native receptor. Although this alpha7 subunit isoform has been detected in peripheral ganglia as well as in the central nervous system, little is known about the cellular function of alpha7-2-nAChRs. Co-localization immunocytochemical studies were conducted in an embryonic rat cultured cortical neuron model using a polyclonal antibody (Ab 87) raised against the amino acid sequence of the cassette exon, in combination with (1) an antibody that recognizes all known alpha7-nAChRs, (2) alphaBgt, and (3) antibodies directed against multiple cellular markers. The pattern of alpha7-2-nAChR expression was consistent with alpha7 staining in general, based on co-distribution of mAb319 and alphaBgt signals. However, alpha7-2-nAChRs clearly represent a distinct subset of alpha7 receptors. The alpha7-2-nAChR subtype was found throughout the cell-soma surface and was localized to a subpopulation of dendrites. Punctate staining characteristic of synaptic alpha7-2 targeting was observed at post-synaptic densities and intermittently at pre-synaptic locations. The alpha7-2 subunit was expressed on both GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons. These studies reveal that receptors containing the alpha7-2 subunit constitute a subpopulation of alpha7-nAChRs and likely participate in cell-to-cell signaling in developing synapses of central neurons.
|Environmental control of the survival and differentiation of dentate granule neurons. |
Kim, JA; Koyama, R; Yamada, RX; Yamada, MK; Nishiyama, N; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 14 1358-64 2004
Dentate granule cells (DGCs) and their microcircuits have been implicated in hippocampus-dependent memory encoding and epileptogenesis. Little is known about how the proper maturation of DGCs is determined by their intrinsic programs or external factors during development. In order to explore this, we dispersed premature DGCs on living hippocampal slices. Here we report that the survival and network formation of DGCs are supported by local cues present in the dentate gyrus ex vivo. The density of surviving DGCs was almost uniform throughout the host slices 12 h after implantation but gradually became heterogenous across substrata, with the cells engrafted onto the stratum granulosum scoring the highest rate of survival. The mossy fiber axons arising from DGCs growing on this substratum were properly guided towards CA3, whereas other misplaced DGCs exhibited heterotopic axon projection. In particular, about half of the axons originating from the hilus were misguided into the molecular layer, which resembles the supragranular mossy fiber sprouting seen in epileptic disorders. These results suggest that local environmental factors influence the cell adhesion, neurite polarization and axon guidance of DGCs.
|Cell Death induced by a caspase-cleaved transmembrane fragment of the Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein |
Nishimura, I. et al
Cell. Death Differientiation, 9(2):199-208 (2002) 2002
|Necdin interacts with the ribonucleoprotein hnRNP U in the nuclear matrix. |
Hideo Taniura, Kazuaki Yoshikawa
Journal of cellular biochemistry 84 545-55 2002
Necdin is expressed predominantly in terminally differentiated neurons, and its ectopic expression suppresses cell proliferation. We screened a cDNA library from neurally differentiated embryonal carcinoma P19 cells for necdin-binding proteins by the yeast two-hybrid assay. One of the positive clones contained cDNA encoding a carboxyl-terminal portion of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), a nuclear matrix-associated protein that interacts with chromosomal DNA. We isolated cDNA encoding full-length mouse hnRNP U to analyze its physical and functional interactions with necdin. The necdin-binding site of hnRNP U was located near a carboxyl-terminal region that mediated the association between hnRNP U and the nuclear matrix. In postmitotic neurons, endogenously expressed necdin and hnRNP U were detected in the nuclear matrix and formed a stable complex. Ectopically expressed necdin was concentrated in the nucleoli, but coexpressed hnRNP U recruited necdin to the nucleoplasmic compartment of the nuclear matrix. Furthermore, under the same conditions necdin and hnRNP U cooperatively suppressed the colony formation of transfected SAOS-2 cells. These results suggest that necdin suppresses cell proliferation through its interaction with hnRNP U in the specific subnuclear structure.
|Histological and ultrastructural characterization of interfascicular neurons in the rat anterior commissure. |
Jorge Larriva-Sahd, Miguel Condés Lara, Gema Martínez-Cabrera, Alfredo Varela-Echavarria
Brain research 931 81-91 2002
The histological, connectional, and ultrastructural characteristics of a peculiar neuron type in the rat anterior commissure (AC) are described. Since these cells are located among the axonal fascicles of the rostral and caudal parts of the AC, they are termed interfascicular neurons (IFN). In rapid-Golgi sections IFNs appeared in two forms: internuncial (i.e., short axon) and projection neurons (i.e., long axon). The axon of the internuncial neurons terminates upon neighboring IFNs. The projection neurons give rise to an axon which is either incorporated into commissural fibers or ramifies into 12-26 collaterals running laterally in opposite directions along commissural axons. Immunohistochemistry to microtubule-associated protein 2 combined with confocal microscopy showed that IFNs display short varicose dendrites which remain confined to the domain of the AC. The neuronal nature of IFNs was confirmed with the electron microscope on the basis of distinctive organelles and the presence of synaptic inputs. Small areas of neuropil surround some IFNs. These areas are composed of proximal dendrites, terminal axons, axo-shaft and axo-spinous synapses. Because IFNs with their afferents and efferents constitute sufficient elements to integrate neural inputs, it is proposed that they may be involved in processing nerve impulses proceeding from the bilateral cerebral structures connected by the AC.
|The expression and distribution of the microtubule-associated proteins tau and microtubule-associated protein 2 in hippocampal neurons in the rat in situ and in cell culture. |
Dotti, C G, et al.
Neuroscience, 23: 121-30 (1987) 1987
Using a monoclonal antibody against the microtubule-associated protein tau we compared the distribution and the biochemical maturation of this protein in hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the rat in tau and in culture. In tissue sections from mature animals tau was localized heterogeneously within neurons. It was concentrated in axons; dendrites and somata showed little or no staining. In hippocampal cultures ranging from 12 h to 4 weeks in vitro tau was present in neurons but not in glial cells, as it is in situ. Within cultured neurons, however, tau was not compartmentalized but was present throughout the dendrites, axons and somata. Immunoblotting experiments showed that the biochemical maturation of tau that occurs in situ also failed to occur in culture. The young form of tau persisted, and the adult forms did not develop. In contrast the biochemical maturation and the compartmentalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 occurred normally in hippocampal cultures. These results show that the biochemical maturation and the intraneuronal compartmentalization of these two microtubule-associated proteins are independently controlled. Despite the non-restricted distribution of tau in hippocampal neurons in culture, and despite the presence of only the immature isoform which has a lessened stimulatory effect on microtubule polymerization, axons and dendrites appear to grow normally and to exhibit appropriate functional properties.
|Differential localization of MAP-2 and tau in mammalian neurons in situ. |
Binder, L I, et al.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 466: 145-66 (1986) 1986
|Immunocytochemical localization of tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2 during the development of hippocampal neurons in culture. |
Cáceres, A, et al.
J. Neurosci., 6: 714-22 (1986) 1986
In dissociated-cell cultures prepared from the embryonic rat hippocampus, neurons establish both axons and dendrites, which differ in geometry, in ultrastructure, and in synaptic polarity. We have used immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to study the regional distribution of beta-tubulin and micro-tubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in hippocampal cultures and their localization during early stages of axonal and dendritic development. After development for a week or more in culture, when axons and dendrites were well-differentiated, the distribution of these two proteins was quite different. Beta-tubulin was present throughout the nerve cell, in soma, dendrites, and axon. It was also present in all classes of non-neuronal cells, astrocytes, fibroblasts, and a presumptive glial progenitor cell. In contrast, MAP2 was preferentially localized to nerve cells; within neurons, MAP2 was present in soma and dendrites, but little or no immunostaining was detectable in axons. Both beta-tubulin and MAP2 were present in nerve cells at the time of plating. From the earliest stages of process extension, beta-tubulin was present in all neuronal processes, both axons and dendrites. Surprisingly, MAP2 was also initially present in both axons and dendrites, extending as far as the axonal growth cone. With subsequent development, MAP2 staining was selectively lost from the axon so that after 1 week in vitro little or no axonal staining remained. Taken together with earlier results (Cáceres et al., 1984a), these data indicate that the establishment of neuronal polarity, as manifested by the molecular differentiation of the axonal and dendritic cytoskeleton, occurs largely under endogenous control, even under culture conditions in which cell interactions are greatly restricted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
|Heterogeneity of microtubule-associated protein 2 during rat brain development. |
Binder, L I, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 81: 5613-7 (1984) 1984
The electrophoretic pattern of the large microtubule-associated protein, MAP2, changes during rat brain development. Immunoblots of NaDodSO4 extracts obtained from the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and thalamus at 10-15 days after birth reveal only a single electrophoretic species when probed with any of three MAP2 monoclonal antibodies. By contrast, adult MAP2 contains two immunoreactive species, MAP2a and MAP2b. The single band of MAP2 from immature brain electrophoretically comigrates with adult MAP2b. Between postnatal days 17 and 18, immature MAP2 simultaneously resolves into two species in both the cerebellum and cerebral cortex. Immunoblots of NaDodSO4 extracts from spinal cord demonstrate the adult complement of MAP2 by day 10, indicating that MAP2 does not change coordinately throughout the entire central nervous system. In vitro cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of immature MAP2 causes a band split reminiscent of that seen during brain development in vivo. The possibility that the developmentally regulated changes observed in MAP2 during brain maturation are due to timed phosphorylation events is discussed.
|Differential subcellular localization of tubulin and the microtubule-associated protein MAP2 in brain tissue as revealed by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal hybridoma antibodies. |
Caceres, A, et al.
J. Neurosci., 4: 394-410 (1984) 1984
The distribution and subcellular localization of tubulin and MAP2 in brain tissue were analyzed by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal hybridoma antibodies prepared against Chinese hamster brain tubulin and MAP2. We examined three anti-tubulin hybridoma antibodies (Tu3B, Tu9B, Tu12) specific for beta-tubulin, and two anti-MAP2 hybridoma antibodies (AP9,AP13). The specificity of each of the monoclonal antibodies was characterized by staining nitrocellulose electrophoretic blots of SDS-polyacrylamide gels of whole brain or hippocampal extracts. Each hybridoma antibody bound only its respective antigen in these preparations. Polyclonal antisera against tubulin were also examined. Sections reacted with antisera against tubulin or monoclonal antibodies against beta-tubulin revealed a wide variety of stained cellular compartments. The reaction product was found to decorate dendritic and axonal microtubles in neurons; glial cells were also stained. MAP2 immunoreactivity was found only in neurons. In the case of one of the monoclonal antibodies (AP9), staining was preferentially associated with dendritic processes. However, light but significant staining of axonal processes was seen with AP13. Within dendrites, MAP2 was found associated with dendritic microtubules and postsynaptic densities (psd), both in shaft and spine synapses. In addition, strong immunoreactivity for MAP2 was found within the cytoplasm of dendritic spines. There was little or no immunoreactivity for tubulin in the spine cytoplasm, although the psd was stained. The localization of MAP2 in dendritic spines and in the psd suggests that this protein may have a biological role independent of its association with microtubules. The observations on differential staining of the hybridoma antibodies against MAP2 suggest that there may be distinct subtypes or states of MAP2 within neurons.
|Anti-MAP2A, 2B - Data Sheet|