Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|M, R||ELISA, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Norepinephrine Transporter Antibody|
|Presentation||Affinity Purified immunoglobulin. Liquid in PBS with 0.1% BSA .|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||50 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|The mouse olfactory peduncle. 2.The anterior limb of the anterior commissure. |
Frontiers in neuroanatomy 6 51 2012
The central core of the olfactory peduncle [the tissue connecting the olfactory bulb (OB) to the forebrain] includes a white matter tract that extends caudally to the anterior commissure (AC). The purpose of the present study was to examine this "anterior limb of the anterior commissure" (ALAC) to determine if the axons that progress through it segregate on the basis of their point of origin, neurotransmitter type, size, or shape. While local differences in axon density were observed in the ALAC, they were not consistent between samples of the anterior and posterior peduncle, and no other compartmentalization within the tract was observed. The innervation of the caudal olfactory peduncle by neuromodulatory fibers was examined to determine if they enter the region via the ALAC. Cholinergic fibers (CHAT) densely filled the peduncle, followed in order by serotonergic, noradrenergic, histaminergic, and orexinergic processes. Differences in the distribution of the fibers were noted for each system. While each axon type could be observed in the ALAC, it is probable that they enter the peduncle though several routes. Data for axon caliber in the ALAC was compared to information previously collected on the peduncle's other white matter region, the lateral olfactory tract (LOT). Axons in the ALAC were smaller, suggesting that the olfactory system is organized with a fast system for distributing incoming sensory information and a more economical, distributed system for subsequent processing.
|Expression and distribution of dopamine transporter in cardiac tissues of the guinea pig. |
Alejandro Reynoso Palomar,Berenice Navarrete Larios,Victoria Chagoya De Sánchez,Lidia Martínez Pérez,Fidel De La Cruz López,Gonzalo Flores,Maria de Jesús Gómez-Villalobos
Neurochemical research 36 2011
Dopamine transporter (DAT) is a membrane protein that it is a marker for dopaminergic neurons. In the present work, throught Western blot and autoradiographic studies with a selective ligand for DAT ([(3)H] WIN-35428) and noradrenaline transporter (NET) ([(3)H] Nisoxetine), we search the expression and distribution of DAT in comparison with NET, in cardiac tissue of guinea pig in order to support the presence of dopaminergic nerve cells into the heart. Expression of DAT, and NET were evidenced by a bands of 75 and 54 kDa, respectively in the heart. Binding for DAT and NET were found in the four cardiac chambers. However, DAT show heterogeneous distribution with binding in right atria and in both ventricles, whereas NET show homogenous distribution in the four cardiac chambers. The results show the expression of DAT in cardiac tissues with a different distribution compared with NET, being an evidence for the presence of dopaminergic nerve cells into the heart.
|Sympathetic nervous dysregulation in the absence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model of insulin resistance with hyperglycemia. |
Thackeray, JT; Radziuk, J; Harper, ME; Suuronen, EJ; Ascah, KJ; Beanlands, RS; Dasilva, JN
Cardiovascular diabetology 10 75 2011
Diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with cardiovascular dysfunction, derived in part from impairment of sympathetic nervous system signaling. Glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids are potent stimulants of sympathetic activity and norepinephrine (NE) release. We hypothesized that sustained hyperglycemia in the high fat diet-fed streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of sustained hyperglycemia with insulin resistance would exhibit progressive sympathetic nervous dysfunction in parallel with deteriorating myocardial systolic and/or diastolic function.Cardiac sympathetic nervous integrity was investigated in vivo via biodistribution of the positron emission tomography radiotracer and NE analogue [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine ([11C]HED). Cardiac systolic and diastolic function was evaluated by echocardiography. Plasma and cardiac NE levels and NE reuptake transporter (NET) expression were evaluated as correlative measurements.The animal model displays insulin resistance, sustained hyperglycemia, and progressive hypoinsulinemia. After 8 weeks of persistent hyperglycemia, there was a significant 13-25% reduction in [11C]HED retention in myocardium of STZ-treated hyperglycemic but not euglycemic rats as compared to controls. There was a parallel 17% reduction in immunoblot density for NE reuptake transporter, a 1.2 fold and 2.5 fold elevation of cardiac and plasma NE respectively, and no change in sympathetic nerve density. No change in ejection fraction or fractional area change was detected by echocardiography. Reduced heart rate, prolonged mitral valve deceleration time, and elevated transmitral early to atrial flow velocity ratio measured by pulse-wave Doppler in hyperglycemic rats suggest diastolic impairment of the left ventricle.Taken together, these data suggest that sustained hyperglycemia is associated with elevated myocardial NE content and dysregulation of sympathetic nervous system signaling in the absence of systolic impairment.
|Neurotoxic catecholamine metabolite in nociceptors contributes to painful peripheral neuropathy. |
Olayinka A Dina, Sachia G Khasar, Nicole Alessandri-Haber, Oliver Bogen, Xiaojie Chen, Paul G Green, David B Reichling, Robert O Messing, Jon D Levine, Olayinka A Dina, Sachia G Khasar, Nicole Alessandri-Haber, Oliver Bogen, Xiaojie Chen, Paul G Green, David B Reichling, Robert O Messing, Jon D Levine, Olayinka A Dina, Sachia G Khasar, Nicole Alessandri-Haber, Oliver Bogen, Xiaojie Chen, Paul G Green, David B Reichling, Robert O Messing, Jon D Levine, Olayinka A Dina, Sachia G Khasar, Nicole Alessandri-Haber, Oliver Bogen, Xiaojie Chen, Paul G Green, David B Reichling, Robert O Messing, Jon D Levine
The European journal of neuroscience 28 1180-90 2008
The neurotoxic effects of catecholamine metabolites have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. As some sensory neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase (MAO), we investigated the potential contribution of catecholamine metabolites to neuropathic pain in a model of alcoholic neuropathy. The presence of catecholamines in sensory neurons is supported by capsaicin-stimulated epinephrine release, an effect enhanced in ethanol-fed rats. mRNA for enzymes in dorsal root ganglia involved in catecholamine uptake and metabolism, dopamine beta-hydroxylase and MAO-A, were decreased by neonatal administration of capsaicin. Ethanol-induced hyperalgesia was attenuated by systemic and local peripheral administration of inhibitors of MAO-A, reduction of norepinephrine transporter (NET) in sensory neurons and a NET inhibitor. Finally, intradermal injection of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde (DOPEGAL), a neurotoxic MAO-A catecholamine metabolite, produced robust mechanical hyperalgesia. These observations suggest that catecholamines in nociceptors are metabolized to neurotoxic products by MAO-A, which can cause neuronal dysfunction underlying neuropathic pain.Artículo Texto completo
|Effects of chronic unpredictable stress on monoamine transporter immunoreactivity and methamphetamine-induced dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell. |
Jamie Raudensky, Bryan K Yamamoto
Synapse (New York, N.Y.) 61 353-5 2007
|Functional coupling of serotonin and noradrenaline transporters. |
Sandra Horschitz, René Hummerich, Patrick Schloss
Journal of neurochemistry 86 958-65 2003
Re-uptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and noradrenaline out of the synaptic cleft is mediated by selective transporter proteins, the serotonin transporter and the noradrenaline transporter respectively. Both are integral membrane proteins that are have a high degree of homology and represent members of a larger neurotransmitter transporter superfamily. Several studies have indicated that the serotonin transporter has an an oligomeric structure. To determine whether monoamine transporters can also function in oligomeric structures in situ, we constructed a concatenate consisting of one molecule of serotonin transporter covalently linked to one molecule of noradrenaline transporter. Heterologous expression of this hybrid construct allowed us to analyse the function, i.e. transport activity, and the structure, i.e. the molecular weight of the total construct and of its single components, at the same time. We showed that serotonin-noradrenaline transporter fusion proteins are fully active and exhibit the pharmacological profile of both their individual components. These findings support the hypothesis that monoamine transporters are expressed and may function as oligomeric proteins composed of non-interacting monomers.
|Protein kinase C and intracellular calcium are required for amphetamine-mediated dopamine release via the norepinephrine transporter in undifferentiated PC12 cells. |
Kantor, L, et al.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 297: 1016-24 (2001) 2001
The role of protein kinase C and intracellular Ca(2+) on amphetamine-mediated dopamine release through the norepinephrine plasmalemmal transporter in undifferentiated PC12 cells was investigated. The selective protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine completely inhibited endogenous dopamine release elicited by 1 microM amphetamine. Direct activation of protein kinase C increased dopamine release in a Ca(2+)-insensitive, imipramine-sensitive manner and the release was not additive with amphetamine. Exocytosis was not involved since these events were not altered by either deletion of extracellular Ca(2+) or reserpine pretreatment. Down-regulation of protein kinase C activity by long-term phorbol ester treatment resulted in a dramatic decrease in amphetamine-mediated dopamine release with no apparent effect on [(3)H]dopamine uptake. To more completely examine a role for Ca(2+), intracellular Ca(2+) was chelated in the cells. Depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) considerably decreased dopamine release in response to 1 microM amphetamine compared with vehicle-treated cells, but had no effect on the [(3)H]dopamine uptake. Thus, our results suggest that amphetamine-mediated dopamine release through the plasmalemmal norepinephrine transporter is highly dependent on protein kinase C activity and intracellular but not extracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, protein kinase C and intracellular Ca(2+) appear to regulate [(3)H]dopamine inward transport and amphetamine-mediated outward transport of dopamine independently in PC12 cells.
|Functional characterization of the splicing variants of human norepinephrine transporter. |
S Kitayama, K Morita, T Dohi
Neuroscience letters 312 108-12 2001
Human norepinephrine transporter (NET) displays three splicing variants having different carboxy terminals, hNET, hNET C-t var1 and hNET C-t var2. Functional characterization of these isoforms was performed with transient expression system in COS-7 cells. Cells transfected with hNET C-t var2, but not hNET C-t var1, revealed a significant increase in [(3)H]norepinephrine (NE) uptake and [(3)H]nisoxetine binding as well as hNET, in association with their different cellular localization indicated by immunostaining using NET-specific antisera. Kinetic and pharmacological analyses of [(3)H]NE uptake revealed different characteristics between hNET and hNET C-t var2. These results suggest that hNET C-t var2 may participate in NE transport in a manner different from hNET at noradrenergic synapses or in other tissues including placenta where NET variants were found to exist.
|Antipeptide antibodies confirm the topology of the human norepinephrine transporter. |
Brüss, M, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 270: 9197-201 (1995) 1995
|Human norepinephrine transporter. Biosynthetic studies using a site-directed polyclonal antibody. |
Melikian, H E, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 269: 12290-7 (1994) 1994
Antibodies have been raised against synthetic peptides derived from the predicted primary sequence of the human cocaine- and antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine (NE) transporter (NET). One antibody (N430), raised and purified against a putative intracellular human norepinephrine transporter (hNET) epitope, detects hNET expression in a stably transfected cell line (LLC-NET) by indirect immunofluorescence only in the presence of detergent, while no immunoreactivity is observed in either the parental cells (LLC-PK1) or in LLC-NET cells incubated with preimmune sera or peptide absorbed antibody. N430 immunoblots of LLC-NET cell extracts reveal two major immunoreactive hNET species in these cells, migrating at 80 and 54 kDa, respectively. Pulse-chase N430 immunoprecipitation studies confirm that the 54-kDa species is a transient, glycosylated intermediate of a longer lived, more highly glycosylated protein with an apparent M(r) of 80,000. In contrast, a 54-kDa species is the primary hNET product in vaccinia virus T7-infected HeLa cells, transiently transfected with hNET cDNA. PNGase F digestion of extracts prepared from LLC-NET- and hNET-transfected HeLa cells convert all immunoreactive species to a 46-kDa form, equivalent to that observed following incubation of whole cells with the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. As transiently transfected HeLa and stable LLC-NET cells exhibit a pharmacologically similar NE transport activity, it appears likely that the additional glycosylation evident in the stable line does not contribute significantly to antagonist sensitivity. On the other hand, NE transport and antagonist ([125I]RTI-55) binding assays on whole LLC-NET cells treated with tunicamycin reveal a pronounced reduction in NE transport activity and hNET membrane density paralleled by an inability of NET proteins to replenish the higher M(r) hNET pool. These findings suggest an obligate role for N-linked glycosylation in hNET biosynthetic maturation, stability, and functional expression. In summary, N430 antibody is a useful tool for the visualization and characterization of hNET gene products and has permitted the first direct evaluation of biosynthetic steps leading to functional catecholamine transporter expression.
|RABBIT ANTI-RAT NOREPINEPHRINE TRANSPORTER (NET) AFFINITY PURIFIED POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY|