Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||ICC, IHC, IH(P), IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified rabbit polyclonal. Liquid in 100 mM Glycine, 200 mM Tris, pH 8.0.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8ºC from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2387441||2387441|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2397064||2397064|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2436305||2436305|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2458978||2458978|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2467174||2467174|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 1940104||1940104|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 1994653||1994653|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2020487||2020487|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2041106||2041106|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2060464||2060464|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2089856||2089856|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2165826||2165826|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2262616||2262616|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2276294||2276294|
|Anti-Olig-2 - 2325047||2325047|
|Anti-Olig-2 - JBC1780805||JBC1780805|
|Anti-Olig-2 - LV1538805||LV1538805|
|Anti-Olig-2 - LV1583533||LV1583533|
|Anti-Olig-2 - NG1722298||NG1722298|
|Anti-Olig-2 - NG1752075||NG1752075|
|Anti-Olig-2 - NG1848424||NG1848424|
Referencias bibliográficas | 105 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Characterization of the neural stem cell gene regulatory network identifies OLIG2 as a multifunctional regulator of self-renewal. |
Mateo, JL; van den Berg, DL; Haeussler, M; Drechsel, D; Gaber, ZB; Castro, DS; Robson, P; Crawford, GE; Flicek, P; Ettwiller, L; Wittbrodt, J; Guillemot, F; Martynoga, B
Genome research 25 41-56 2015
The gene regulatory network (GRN) that supports neural stem cell (NS cell) self-renewal has so far been poorly characterized. Knowledge of the central transcription factors (TFs), the noncoding gene regulatory regions that they bind to, and the genes whose expression they modulate will be crucial in unlocking the full therapeutic potential of these cells. Here, we use DNase-seq in combination with analysis of histone modifications to identify multiple classes of epigenetically and functionally distinct cis-regulatory elements (CREs). Through motif analysis and ChIP-seq, we identify several of the crucial TF regulators of NS cells. At the core of the network are TFs of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), nuclear factor I (NFI), SOX, and FOX families, with CREs often densely bound by several of these different TFs. We use machine learning to highlight several crucial regulatory features of the network that underpin NS cell self-renewal and multipotency. We validate our predictions by functional analysis of the bHLH TF OLIG2. This TF makes an important contribution to NS cell self-renewal by concurrently activating pro-proliferation genes and preventing the untimely activation of genes promoting neuronal differentiation and stem cell quiescence.
|Neuronal activity regulates remyelination via glutamate signalling to oligodendrocyte progenitors. |
Gautier, HO; Evans, KA; Volbracht, K; James, R; Sitnikov, S; Lundgaard, I; James, F; Lao-Peregrin, C; Reynolds, R; Franklin, RJ; Káradóttir, RT
Nature communications 6 8518 2015
Myelin regeneration can occur spontaneously in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the underlying mechanisms and causes of its frequent failure remain incompletely understood. Here we show, using an in-vivo remyelination model, that demyelinated axons are electrically active and generate de novo synapses with recruited oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), which, early after lesion induction, sense neuronal activity by expressing AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid)/kainate receptors. Blocking neuronal activity, axonal vesicular release or AMPA receptors in demyelinated lesions results in reduced remyelination. In the absence of neuronal activity there is a ∼6-fold increase in OPC number within the lesions and a reduced proportion of differentiated oligodendrocytes. These findings reveal that neuronal activity and release of glutamate instruct OPCs to differentiate into new myelinating oligodendrocytes that recover lost function. Co-localization of OPCs with the presynaptic protein VGluT2 in MS lesions implies that this mechanism may provide novel targets to therapeutically enhance remyelination.
|SOX2 reprograms resident astrocytes into neural progenitors in the adult brain. |
Niu, W; Zang, T; Smith, DK; Vue, TY; Zou, Y; Bachoo, R; Johnson, JE; Zhang, CL
Stem cell reports 4 780-94 2015
Glial cells can be in vivo reprogrammed into functional neurons in the adult CNS; however, the process by which this reprogramming occurs is unclear. Here, we show that a distinct cellular sequence is involved in SOX2-driven in situ conversion of adult astrocytes to neurons. This includes ASCL1(+) neural progenitors and DCX(+) adult neuroblasts (iANBs) as intermediates. Importantly, ASCL1 is required, but not sufficient, for the robust generation of iANBs in the adult striatum. These progenitor-derived iANBs predominantly give rise to calretinin(+) interneurons when supplied with neurotrophic factors or the small-molecule valproic acid. Patch-clamp recordings from the induced neurons reveal subtype heterogeneity, though all are functionally mature, fire repetitive action potentials, and receive synaptic inputs. Together, these results show that SOX2-mediated in vivo reprogramming of astrocytes to neurons passes through proliferative intermediate progenitors, which may be exploited for regenerative medicine.
|T396I mutation of mouse Sufu reduces the stability and activity of Gli3 repressor. |
Makino, S; Zhulyn, O; Mo, R; Puviindran, V; Zhang, X; Murata, T; Fukumura, R; Ishitsuka, Y; Kotaki, H; Matsumaru, D; Ishii, S; Hui, CC; Gondo, Y
PloS one 10 e0119455 2015
Hedgehog signaling is primarily transduced by two transcription factors: Gli2, which mainly acts as a full-length activator, and Gli3, which tends to be proteolytically processed from a full-length form (Gli3FL) to an N-terminal repressor (Gli3REP). Recent studies using a Sufu knockout mouse have indicated that Sufu is involved in regulating Gli2 and Gli3 activator and repressor activity at multiple steps of the signaling cascade; however, the mechanism of specific Gli2 and Gli3 regulation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we established an allelic series of ENU-induced mouse strains. Analysis of one of the missense alleles, SufuT396I, showed that Thr396 residue of Sufu played a key role in regulation of Gli3 activity. SufuT396I/T396I embryos exhibited severe polydactyly, which is indicative of compromised Gli3 activity. Concomitantly, significant quantitative reductions of unprocessed Gli3 (Gli3FL) and processed Gli3 (Gli3REP) were observed in vivo as well as in vitro. Genetic experiments showed that patterning defects in the limb buds of SufuT396I/T396I were rescued by a constitutive Gli3REP allele (Gli3∆699), strongly suggesting that SufuT396I reduced the truncated Gli3 repressor. In contrast, SufuT396I qualitatively exhibited no mutational effects on Gli2 regulation. Taken together, the results of this study show that the Thr396 residue of Sufu is specifically required for regulation of Gli3 but not Gli2. This implies a novel Sufu-mediated mechanism in which Gli2 activator and Gli3 repressor are differentially regulated.
|Oligodendrocyte birth and death following traumatic brain injury in adult mice. |
Dent, KA; Christie, KJ; Bye, N; Basrai, HS; Turbic, A; Habgood, M; Cate, HS; Turnley, AM
PloS one 10 e0121541 2015
Oligodendrocytes are responsible for producing and maintaining myelin throughout the CNS. One of the pathological features observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the progressive demyelination and degeneration of axons within white matter tracts. While the effect of TBI on axonal health has been well documented, there is limited information regarding the response of oligodendrocytes within these areas. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of both mature oligodendrocytes and immature proliferative oligodendrocyte lineage cells across a 3 month timecourse following TBI. A computer-controlled cortical impact model was used to produce a focal lesion in the left motor cortex of adult mice. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed at 48 hours, 7 days, 2 weeks, 5 weeks and 3 months following injury to assess the prevalence of mature CC-1+ oligodendrocyte cell death, immature Olig2+ cell proliferation and longer term survival in the corpus callosum and external capsule. Decreased CC-1 immunoreactivity was observed in white matter adjacent to the site of injury from 2 days to 2 weeks post TBI, with ongoing mature oligodendrocyte apoptosis after this time. Conversely, proliferation of Olig2+ cells was observed as early as 48 hours post TBI and significant numbers of these cells and their progeny survived and remained in the external capsule within the injured hemisphere until at least 3 months post injury. These findings demonstrate that immature oligodendrocyte lineage cells respond to TBI by replacing oligodendrocytes lost due to damage and that this process occurs for months after injury.
|GABAergic regulation of cerebellar NG2 cell development is altered in perinatal white matter injury. |
Zonouzi, M; Scafidi, J; Li, P; McEllin, B; Edwards, J; Dupree, JL; Harvey, L; Sun, D; Hübner, CA; Cull-Candy, SG; Farrant, M; Gallo, V
Nature neuroscience 18 674-82 2015
Diffuse white matter injury (DWMI), a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants, is characterized by reduced oligodendrocyte formation. NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (NG2 cells) are exposed to various extrinsic regulatory signals, including the neurotransmitter GABA. We investigated GABAergic signaling to cerebellar white matter NG2 cells in a mouse model of DWMI (chronic neonatal hypoxia). We found that hypoxia caused a loss of GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic input to NG2 cells, extensive proliferation of these cells and delayed oligodendrocyte maturation, leading to dysmyelination. Treatment of control mice with a GABAA receptor antagonist or deletion of the chloride-accumulating transporter NKCC1 mimicked the effects of hypoxia. Conversely, blockade of GABA catabolism or GABA uptake reduced NG2 cell numbers and increased the formation of mature oligodendrocytes both in control and hypoxic mice. Our results indicate that GABAergic signaling regulates NG2 cell differentiation and proliferation in vivo, and suggest that its perturbation is a key factor in DWMI.
|Localization of reelin signaling pathway components in murine midbrain and striatum. |
Sharaf, A; Rahhal, B; Spittau, B; Roussa, E
Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015
We investigated the distribution patterns of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and of crucial Reelin signaling components in murine midbrain and striatum. The cellular distribution of the Reelin receptors VLDLr and ApoER2, the intracellular downstream mediator Dab1, and the alternative Reelin receptor APP were analyzed at embryonic day 16, at postnatal stage 15 (P15), and in 3-month-old mice. Reelin was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in midbrain mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons of newborns. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+) neurons exhibited Reelin intracellularly at E16 and extracellularly at P15 and 3 months. ApoER2 and VLDLr were expressed in mDA neurons at E16 and P15 and in oligodendrocytes at 3 months, whereas Dab1 and APP immunoreactivity was observed in mDA at all stages analyzed. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+)/GAD67(+) inhibitory neurons expressed VLDLr, ApoER2, and Dab1 at P15, but only Dab1 at E16 and 3 months. APP was always expressed in mouse striatum in which it colocalized with Calbindin D-28k. Our data underline the importance of Reelin signalling during embryonic development and early postnatal maturation of the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system, and suggest that the striatum and not the midbrain is the primary source of Reelin for midbrain neurons. The loss of ApoER2 and VLDLr expression in the mature midbrain and striatum implies that Reelin functions are restricted to migratory events and early postnatal maturation and are dispensable for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons.
|Subset of early radial glial progenitors that contribute to the development of callosal neurons is absent from avian brain. |
García-Moreno, F; Molnár, Z
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 E5058-67 2015
The classical view of mammalian cortical development suggests that pyramidal neurons are generated in a temporal sequence, with all radial glial cells (RGCs) contributing to both lower and upper neocortical layers. A recent opposing proposal suggests there is a subgroup of fate-restricted RGCs in the early neocortex, which generates only upper-layer neurons. Little is known about the existence of fate restriction of homologous progenitors in other vertebrate species. We investigated the lineage of selected Emx2+ [vertebrate homeobox gene related to Drosophila empty spiracles (ems)] RGCs in mouse neocortex and chick forebrain and found evidence for both sequential and fate-restricted programs only in mouse, indicating that these complementary populations coexist in the developing mammalian but not avian brain. Among a large population of sequentially programmed RGCs in the mouse brain, a subset of self-renewing progenitors lack neurogenic potential during the earliest phase of corticogenesis. After a considerable delay, these progenitors generate callosal upper-layer neurons and glia. On the other hand, we found no homologous delayed population in any sectors of the chick forebrain. This finding suggests that neurogenic delay of selected RGCs may be unique to mammals and possibly associated with the evolution of the corpus callosum.
|Attenuation of Cerebral Ischemic Injury in Smad1 Deficient Mice. |
Wong, JK; Chen, L; Huang, Y; Sehba, FA; Friedel, RH; Zou, H
PloS one 10 e0136967 2015
Stroke results in brain tissue damage from ischemia and oxidative stress. Molecular regulators of the protective versus deleterious cellular responses after cerebral ischemia remain to be identified. Here, we show that deletion of Smad1, a conserved transcription factor that mediates canonical bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, results in neuroprotection in an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) stroke model. Uninjured mice with conditional deletion of Smad1 in the CNS (Smad1 cKO) displayed upregulation of the reactive astrocyte marker GFAP and hypertrophic morphological changes in astrocytes compared to littermate controls. Additionally, cultured Smad1(-/-) astrocytes exhibited an enhanced antioxidant capacity. When subjected to I/R injury by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), Smad1 cKO mice showed enhanced neuronal survival and improved neurological recovery at 7 days post-stroke. This neuroprotective phenotype is associated with attenuated reactive astrocytosis and neuroinflammation, along with reductions in oxidative stress, p53 induction, and apoptosis. Our data suggest that Smad1-mediated signaling pathway is involved in stroke pathophysiology and may present a new potential target for stroke therapy.
|Double minute amplification of mutant PDGF receptor α in a mouse glioma model. |
Zou, H; Feng, R; Huang, Y; Tripodi, J; Najfeld, V; Tsankova, NM; Jahanshahi, M; Olson, LE; Soriano, P; Friedel, RH
Scientific reports 5 8468 2015
In primary brain tumors, oncogenes are frequently amplified and maintained on extrachromosomal DNA as double minutes (DM), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have generated a mouse model of malignant glioma based on knock-in of a mutant PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) that is expressed in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) after activation by a Cre recombinase. In the tumor suppressor INK4/Arf(-/-) background, mutant animals frequently developed brain tumors resembling anaplastic human gliomas (WHO grade III). Besides brain tumors, most animals also developed aggressive fibrosarcomas, likely triggered by Cre activation of mutant PDGFRα in fibroblastic cell lineages. Importantly, in the brain tumors and cell lines derived from brain tumor tissues, we identified a high prevalence of DM Pdgfra gene amplification, suggesting its occurrence as an early mutational event contributing to the malignant transformation of OPCs. Amplicons extended beyond the Pdgfra locus and included in some cases neighboring genes Kit and Kdr. Our genetically defined mouse brain tumor model therefore supports OPC as a cell of origin for malignant glioma and offers an example of a defined temporal sequence of mutational events, thus providing an entry point for a mechanistic understanding of DM gene amplification and its functionality in gliomagenesis.
|Nuclear export inhibitors avert progression in preclinical models of inflammatory demyelination. |
Haines, JD; Herbin, O; de la Hera, B; Vidaurre, OG; Moy, GA; Sun, Q; Fung, HY; Albrecht, S; Alexandropoulos, K; McCauley, D; Chook, YM; Kuhlmann, T; Kidd, GJ; Shacham, S; Casaccia, P
Nature neuroscience 18 511-20 2015
Axonal damage has been associated with aberrant protein trafficking. We examined a newly characterized class of compounds that target nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling by binding to the catalytic groove of the nuclear export protein XPO1 (also known as CRM1, chromosome region maintenance protein 1). Oral administration of reversible CRM1 inhibitors in preclinical murine models of demyelination significantly attenuated disease progression, even when started after the onset of paralysis. Clinical efficacy was associated with decreased proliferation of immune cells, characterized by nuclear accumulation of cell cycle inhibitors, and preservation of cytoskeletal integrity even in demyelinated axons. Neuroprotection was not limited to models of demyelination, but was also observed in another mouse model of axonal damage (that is, kainic acid injection) and detected in cultured neurons after knockdown of Xpo1, the gene encoding CRM1. A proteomic screen for target molecules revealed that CRM1 inhibitors in neurons prevented nuclear export of molecules associated with axonal damage while retaining transcription factors modulating neuroprotection.
|Interneurons and oligodendrocyte progenitors form a structured synaptic network in the developing neocortex. |
Orduz, D; Maldonado, PP; Balia, M; Vélez-Fort, M; de Sars, V; Yanagawa, Y; Emiliani, V; Angulo, MC
eLife 4 2015
NG2 cells, oligodendrocyte progenitors, receive a major synaptic input from interneurons in the developing neocortex. It is presumed that these precursors integrate cortical networks where they act as sensors of neuronal activity. We show that NG2 cells of the developing somatosensory cortex form a transient and structured synaptic network with interneurons that follows its own rules of connectivity. Fast-spiking interneurons, highly connected to NG2 cells, target proximal subcellular domains containing GABAA receptors with γ2 subunits. Conversely, non-fast-spiking interneurons, poorly connected with these progenitors, target distal sites lacking this subunit. In the network, interneuron-NG2 cell connectivity maps exhibit a local spatial arrangement reflecting innervation only by the nearest interneurons. This microcircuit architecture shows a connectivity peak at PN10, coinciding with a switch to massive oligodendrocyte differentiation. Hence, GABAergic innervation of NG2 cells is temporally and spatially regulated from the subcellular to the network level in coordination with the onset of oligodendrogenesis.
|ATMIN is a transcriptional regulator of both lung morphogenesis and ciliogenesis. |
Goggolidou, P; Stevens, JL; Agueci, F; Keynton, J; Wheway, G; Grimes, DT; Patel, SH; Hilton, H; Morthorst, SK; DiPaolo, A; Williams, DJ; Sanderson, J; Khoronenkova, SV; Powles-Glover, N; Ermakov, A; Esapa, CT; Romero, R; Dianov, GL; Briscoe, J; Johnson, CA; Pedersen, LB; Norris, DP
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 3966-77 2014
Initially identified in DNA damage repair, ATM-interactor (ATMIN) further functions as a transcriptional regulator of lung morphogenesis. Here we analyse three mouse mutants, Atmin(gpg6/gpg6), Atmin(H210Q/H210Q) and Dynll1(GT/GT), revealing how ATMIN and its transcriptional target dynein light chain LC8-type 1 (DYNLL1) are required for normal lung morphogenesis and ciliogenesis. Expression screening of ciliogenic genes confirmed Dynll1 to be controlled by ATMIN and further revealed moderately altered expression of known intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein-encoding loci in Atmin mutant embryos. Significantly, Dynll1(GT/GT) embryonic cilia exhibited shortening and bulging, highly similar to the characterised retrograde IFT phenotype of Dync2h1. Depletion of ATMIN or DYNLL1 in cultured cells recapitulated the in vivo ciliogenesis phenotypes and expression of DYNLL1 or the related DYNLL2 rescued the effects of loss of ATMIN, demonstrating that ATMIN primarily promotes ciliogenesis by regulating Dynll1 expression. Furthermore, DYNLL1 as well as DYNLL2 localised to cilia in puncta, consistent with IFT particles, and physically interacted with WDR34, a mammalian homologue of the Chlamydomonas cytoplasmic dynein 2 intermediate chain that also localised to the cilium. This study extends the established Atmin-Dynll1 relationship into a developmental and a ciliary context, uncovering a novel series of interactions between DYNLL1, WDR34 and ATMIN. This identifies potential novel components of cytoplasmic dynein 2 and furthermore provides fresh insights into the molecular pathogenesis of human skeletal ciliopathies.
|Crosstalk between glioma-initiating cells and endothelial cells drives tumor progression. |
Jeon, HM; Kim, SH; Jin, X; Park, JB; Kim, SH; Joshi, K; Nakano, I; Kim, H
Cancer research 74 4482-92 2014
Glioma-initiating cells (GIC), which reside within the perivascular microenvironment to maintain self-renewal capacity, are responsible for glioblastoma initiation, progression, and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling crosstalk between GICs and endothelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we report that, in both GICs and endothelial cells, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-driven activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase increases NO-dependent inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) expression, which in turn promotes JAGGED1-NOTCH activity through suppression of miR129 that specifically represses JAGGED1 suppression. This signaling axis promotes tumor progression along with increased GIC self-renewal and growth of tumor vasculature in the xenograft tumors, which is dramatically suppressed by NOTCH inhibitor. ID4 levels correlate positively with NOS2 (NO synthase-2), HES1, and HEY1 and negatively with miR129 in primary GICs. Thus, targeting the PDGF-NOS-ID4-miR129 axis and NOTCH activity in the perivascular microenvironment might serve as an efficacious therapeutic modality for glioblastoma.
|Accelerated repair of demyelinated CNS lesions in the absence of non-muscle myosin IIB. |
Rusielewicz, T; Nam, J; Damanakis, E; John, GR; Raine, CS; Melendez-Vasquez, CV
Glia 62 580-91 2014
The oligodendrocyte (OL), the myelinating cell of the central nervous system, undergoes dramatic changes in the organization of its cytoskeleton as it differentiates from a precursor (oligodendrocyte precursor cells) to a myelin-forming cell. These changes include an increase in its branching cell processes, a phenomenon necessary for OL to myelinate multiple axon segments. We have previously shown that levels and activity of non-muscle myosin II (NMII), a regulator of cytoskeletal contractility, decrease as a function of differentiation and that inhibition of NMII increases branching and myelination of OL in coculture with neurons. We have also found that mixed glial cell cultures derived from NMIIB knockout mice display an increase in mature myelin basic protein-expressing OL compared with wild-type cultures. We have now extended our studies to investigate the role of NMIIB ablation on myelin repair following focal demyelination by lysolecithin. To this end, we generated an oligodendrocyte-specific inducible knockout model using a Plp-driven promoter in combination with a temporally activated CRE-ER fusion protein. Our data indicate that conditional ablation of NMII in adult mouse brain, expedites lesion resolution and remyelination by Plp+ oligodendrocyte-lineage cells when compared with that observed in control brains. Taken together, these data validate the function of NMII as that of a negative regulator of OL myelination in vivo and provide a novel target for promoting myelin repair in conditions such as multiple sclerosis.
|Ttyh1 protein is expressed in glia in vitro and shows elevated expression in activated astrocytes following status epilepticus. |
Wiernasz, E; Kaliszewska, A; Brutkowski, W; Bednarczyk, J; Gorniak, M; Kaza, B; Lukasiuk, K
Neurochemical research 39 2516-26 2014
In a previous study, we showed that Ttyh1 protein is expressed in neurons in vitro and in vivo in the form of punctuate structures, which are localized to neuropil and neuronal somata. Herein, we provide the first description of Ttyh1 protein expression in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia in vitro. Moreover, using double immunofluorescence, we show Ttyh1 protein expression in activated astrocytes in the hippocampus following amygdala stimulation-induced status epilepticus. We demonstrate that in migrating astrocytes in in vitro wound model Ttyh1 concentrates at the edges of extending processes. These data suggest that Ttyh1 not only participates in shaping neuronal morphology, as previously described, but may also play a role in the function of activated glia in brain pathology. To localize Ttyh1 expression in the cellular compartments of neurons and astrocytes, we performed in vitro double immunofluorescent staining using markers for the following subcellular structures: endoplasmic reticulum (GRP78), Golgi apparatus (GM130), clathrin-coated vehicles (clathrin), early endosomes (Rab5 and APPL2), recycling endosomes (Rab11), trans-Golgi network (TGN46), endoplasmic reticulum membrane (calnexin), late endosomes and lysosomes (LAMP1) and synaptic vesicles (synaptoporin and synaptotagmin 1). We found that Ttyh1 is present in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and clathrin-coated vesicles (clathrin) in both neurons and astrocytes and also in late endosomes or lysosomes in astrocytes. The presence of Ttyh1 was negligible in early endosomes, recycling endosomes, trans-Golgi network, endoplasmic reticulum membrane and synaptic vesicles.
|Restoration of oligodendrocyte pools in a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. |
McQueen, J; Reimer, MM; Holland, PR; Manso, Y; McLaughlin, M; Fowler, JH; Horsburgh, K
PloS one 9 e87227 2014
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, a sustained modest reduction in cerebral blood flow, is associated with damage to myelinated axons and cognitive decline with ageing. Oligodendrocytes (the myelin producing cells) and their precursor cells (OPCs) may be vulnerable to the effects of hypoperfusion and in some forms of injury OPCs have the potential to respond and repair damage by increased proliferation and differentiation. Using a mouse model of cerebral hypoperfusion we have characterised the acute and long term responses of oligodendrocytes and OPCs to hypoperfusion in the corpus callosum. Following 3 days of hypoperfusion, numbers of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes were significantly decreased compared to controls. However following 1 month of hypoperfusion, the OPC pool was restored and increased numbers of oligodendrocytes were observed. Assessment of proliferation using PCNA showed no significant differences between groups at either time point but showed reduced numbers of proliferating oligodendroglia at 3 days consistent with the loss of OPCs. Cumulative BrdU labelling experiments revealed higher numbers of proliferating cells in hypoperfused animals compared to controls and showed a proportion of these newly generated cells had differentiated into oligodendrocytes in a subset of animals. Expression of GPR17, a receptor important for the regulation of OPC differentiation following injury, was decreased following short term hypoperfusion. Despite changes to oligodendrocyte numbers there were no changes to the myelin sheath as revealed by ultrastructural assessment and fluoromyelin however axon-glial integrity was disrupted after both 3 days and 1 month hypoperfusion. Taken together, our results demonstrate the initial vulnerability of oligodendroglial pools to modest reductions in blood flow and highlight the regenerative capacity of these cells.
|MicroRNAs participate in the murine oligodendroglial response to perinatal hypoxia-ischemia. |
Birch, D; Britt, BC; Dukes, SC; Kessler, JA; Dizon, ML
Pediatric research 76 334-40 2014
Hypoxic-ischemic injury (HI) to preterm brain results in white matter loss. The endogenous oligodendroglial response to perinatal HI is characterized by increased oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). MicroRNAs (miRs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, and a few miRs have been shown to regulate differentiation of OPCs into mature oligodendroglia. We tested the hypothesis that miRs play a role in the increase in OPCs in response to perinatal HI.We inducibly deleted the miR-processing enzyme Dicer in OPCs using a tamoxifen-inducible NG2CreER(T2) transgene in Dicer(fl/fl) mice. After HI, mice were analyzed for OPC differentiation using immunofluorescence and for white matter formation by Luxol fast blue (LFB) staining. Functional recovery from injury was investigated using digital gait analysis. We also tested whether HI changed miRs known to regulate OPC differentiation using quantitative RT-PCR.Perinatal HI induced significant increases in miR-138 and miR-338, two miRs known to regulate OPC differentiation. Knockdown of Dicer increased myelin basic protein and LFB staining within the corpus callosum after HI. In addition, there was significant improvement in motor function 14 and 24 d post lesion.Changes in specific mature miRs expressed in OPCs following HI may contribute to white matter injury.
|Prominin-1 (CD133) defines both stem and non-stem cell populations in CNS development and gliomas. |
Holmberg Olausson, K; Maire, CL; Haidar, S; Ling, J; Learner, E; Nistér, M; Ligon, KL
PloS one 9 e106694 2014
Prominin-1 (CD133) is a commonly used cancer stem cell marker in central nervous system (CNS) tumors including glioblastoma (GBM). Expression of Prom1 in cancer is thought to parallel expression and function in normal stem cells. Using RNA in situ hybridization and antibody tools capable of detecting multiple isoforms of Prom1, we find evidence for two distinct Prom1 cell populations in mouse brain. Prom1 RNA is first expressed in stem/progenitor cells of the ventricular zone in embryonic brain. Conversely, in adult mouse brain Prom1 RNA is low in SVZ/SGZ stem cell zones but high in a rare but widely distributed cell population (Prom1(hi)). Lineage marker analysis reveals Prom1(hi) cells are Olig2+Sox2+ glia but Olig1/2 knockout mice lacking oligodendroglia retain Prom1(hi) cells. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling identifies Prom1(hi) as slow-dividing distributed progenitors distinct from NG2+Olig2+ oligodendrocyte progenitors. In adult human brain, PROM1 cells are rarely positive for OLIG2, but express astroglial markers GFAP and SOX2. Variability of PROM1 expression levels in human GBM and patient-derived xenografts (PDX) - from no expression to strong, uniform expression--highlights that PROM1 may not always be associated with or restricted to cancer stem cells. TCGA and PDX data show that high expression of PROM1 correlates with poor overall survival. Within proneural subclass tumors, high PROM1 expression correlates inversely with IDH1 (R132H) mutation. These findings support PROM1 as a tumor cell-intrinsic marker related to GBM survival, independent of its stem cell properties, and highlight potentially divergent roles for this protein in normal mouse and human glia.
|ALS-associated mutation FUS-R521C causes DNA damage and RNA splicing defects. |
Qiu, H; Lee, S; Shang, Y; Wang, WY; Au, KF; Kamiya, S; Barmada, SJ; Finkbeiner, S; Lui, H; Carlton, CE; Tang, AA; Oldham, MC; Wang, H; Shorter, J; Filiano, AJ; Roberson, ED; Tourtellotte, WG; Chen, B; Tsai, LH; Huang, EJ
The Journal of clinical investigation 124 981-99 2014
Autosomal dominant mutations of the RNA/DNA binding protein FUS are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS); however, it is not clear how FUS mutations cause neurodegeneration. Using transgenic mice expressing a common FALS-associated FUS mutation (FUS-R521C mice), we found that mutant FUS proteins formed a stable complex with WT FUS proteins and interfered with the normal interactions between FUS and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). Consequently, FUS-R521C mice exhibited evidence of DNA damage as well as profound dendritic and synaptic phenotypes in brain and spinal cord. To provide insights into these defects, we screened neural genes for nucleotide oxidation and identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) as a target of FUS-R521C-associated DNA damage and RNA splicing defects in mice. Compared with WT FUS, mutant FUS-R521C proteins formed a more stable complex with Bdnf RNA in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Stabilization of the FUS/Bdnf RNA complex contributed to Bdnf splicing defects and impaired BDNF signaling through receptor TrkB. Exogenous BDNF only partially restored dendrite phenotype in FUS-R521C neurons, suggesting that BDNF-independent mechanisms may contribute to the defects in these neurons. Indeed, RNA-seq analyses of FUS-R521C spinal cords revealed additional transcription and splicing defects in genes that regulate dendritic growth and synaptic functions. Together, our results provide insight into how gain-of-function FUS mutations affect critical neuronal functions.
|Integration of signals along orthogonal axes of the vertebrate neural tube controls progenitor competence and increases cell diversity. |
Sasai, N; Kutejova, E; Briscoe, J
PLoS biology 12 e1001907 2014
A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence-temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal-contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling.
|Mammalian target of rapamycin promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation, initiation and extent of CNS myelination. |
Wahl, SE; McLane, LE; Bercury, KK; Macklin, WB; Wood, TL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 4453-65 2014
Prior studies support a role for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Here we use Cre-recombinase driven by the CNP promoter to generate a mouse line with oligodendrocyte-specific knockdown of mTOR (mTOR cKO) in the CNS. We provide evidence that mTOR is necessary for proper oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in the spinal cord. Specifically, the number of mature oligodendrocytes was reduced, and the initiation and extent of myelination were impaired during spinal cord development. Consistent with these data, myelin protein expression, including myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and myelin-associated glycoprotein, was delayed in the spinal cord. Hypomyelination of the spinal cord persisted into adulthood, as did the reduction in numbers of mature oligodendrocytes. In the cortex, the structure of myelin appeared normal during development and in the adult; however, myelin protein expression was delayed during development and was abnormal in the adult. Myelin basic protein was significantly reduced in all regions at postnatal day 25. These data demonstrate that mTOR promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelination in vivo and show that the requirement for mTOR varies by region with the spinal cord most dependent on mTOR.
|Diverse behaviors of outer radial glia in developing ferret and human cortex. |
Gertz, CC; Lui, JH; LaMonica, BE; Wang, X; Kriegstein, AR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 2559-70 2014
The dramatic increase in neocortical size and folding during mammalian brain evolution has been attributed to the elaboration of the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the associated increase in neural progenitors. However, recent studies have shown that SVZ size and the abundance of resident progenitors do not directly predict cortical topography, suggesting that complex behaviors of the progenitors themselves may contribute to the overall size and shape of the adult cortex. Using time-lapse imaging, we examined the dynamic behaviors of SVZ progenitors in the ferret, a gyrencephalic carnivore, focusing our analysis on outer radial glial cells (oRGs). We identified a substantial population of oRGs by marker expression and their unique mode of division, termed mitotic somal translocation (MST). Ferret oRGs exhibited diverse behaviors in terms of division location, cleavage angle, and MST distance, as well as fiber orientation and dynamics. We then examined the human fetal cortex and found that a subset of human oRGs displayed similar characteristics, suggesting that diversity in oRG behavior may be a general feature. Similar to the human, ferret oRGs underwent multiple rounds of self-renewing divisions but were more likely to undergo symmetric divisions that expanded the oRG population, as opposed to producing intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). Differences in oRG behaviors, including proliferative potential and daughter cell fates, may contribute to variations in cortical structure between mammalian species.
|Neuronal activity promotes oligodendrogenesis and adaptive myelination in the mammalian brain. |
Gibson, EM; Purger, D; Mount, CW; Goldstein, AK; Lin, GL; Wood, LS; Inema, I; Miller, SE; Bieri, G; Zuchero, JB; Barres, BA; Woo, PJ; Vogel, H; Monje, M
Science (New York, N.Y.) 344 1252304 2014
Myelination of the central nervous system requires the generation of functionally mature oligodendrocytes from oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). Electrically active neurons may influence OPC function and selectively instruct myelination of an active neural circuit. In this work, we use optogenetic stimulation of the premotor cortex in awake, behaving mice to demonstrate that neuronal activity elicits a mitogenic response of neural progenitor cells and OPCs, promotes oligodendrogenesis, and increases myelination within the deep layers of the premotor cortex and subcortical white matter. We further show that this neuronal activity-regulated oligodendrogenesis and myelination is associated with improved motor function of the corresponding limb. Oligodendrogenesis and myelination appear necessary for the observed functional improvement, as epigenetic blockade of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin changes prevents the activity-regulated behavioral improvement.
|Stem cell factor Sox2 and its close relative Sox3 have differentiation functions in oligodendrocytes. |
Hoffmann, SA; Hos, D; Küspert, M; Lang, RA; Lovell-Badge, R; Wegner, M; Reiprich, S
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 39-50 2014
Neural precursor cells of the ventricular zone give rise to all neurons and glia of the central nervous system and rely for maintenance of their precursor characteristics on the closely related SoxB1 transcription factors Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3. We show in mouse spinal cord that, whereas SoxB1 proteins are usually downregulated upon neuronal specification, they continue to be expressed in glial precursors. In the oligodendrocyte lineage, Sox2 and Sox3 remain present into the early phases of terminal differentiation. Surprisingly, their deletion does not alter precursor characteristics but interferes with proper differentiation. Although a direct influence on myelin gene expression may be part of their function, we provide evidence for another mode of action. SoxB1 proteins promote oligodendrocyte differentiation in part by negatively controlling miR145 and thereby preventing this microRNA from inhibiting several pro-differentiation factors. This study presents one of the few cases in which SoxB1 proteins, including the stem cell factor Sox2, are associated with differentiation rather than precursor functions.
|Genetic labeling reveals novel cellular targets of schizophrenia susceptibility gene: distribution of GABA and non-GABA ErbB4-positive cells in adult mouse brain. |
Bean, JC; Lin, TW; Sathyamurthy, A; Liu, F; Yin, DM; Xiong, WC; Mei, L
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 13549-66 2014
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are schizophrenia risk genes. NRG1-ErbB4 signaling plays a critical role in neural development and regulates neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, its cellular targets remain controversial. ErbB4 was thought to express in excitatory neurons, although recent studies disputed this view. Using mice that express a fluorescent protein under the promoter of the ErbB4 gene, we determined in what cells ErbB4 is expressed and their identity. ErbB4 was widely expressed in the mouse brain, being highest in amygdala and cortex. Almost all ErbB4-positive cells were GABAergic in cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and most of amygdala in neonatal and adult mice, suggesting GABAergic transmission as a major target of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling in these regions. Non-GABAergic, ErbB4-positive cells were present in thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and hindbrain. In particular, ErbB4 is expressed in serotoninergic neurons of raphe nuclei but not in norepinephrinergic neurons of the locus ceruleus. In hypothalamus, ErbB4 is present in neurons that express oxytocin. Finally, ErbB4 is expressed in a group of cells in the subcortical areas that are positive for S100 calcium binding protein β. These results identify novel cellular targets of NRG1-ErbB4 signaling.
|Guiding brain tumor resection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner. |
Karabeber, H; Huang, R; Iacono, P; Samii, JM; Pitter, K; Holland, EC; Kircher, MF
ACS nano 8 9755-66 2014
The current difficulty in visualizing the true extent of malignant brain tumors during surgical resection represents one of the major reasons for the poor prognosis of brain tumor patients. Here, we evaluated the ability of a hand-held Raman scanner, guided by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, to identify the microscopic tumor extent in a genetically engineered RCAS/tv-a glioblastoma mouse model. In a simulated intraoperative scenario, we tested both a static Raman imaging device and a mobile, hand-held Raman scanner. We show that SERS image-guided resection is more accurate than resection using white light visualization alone. Both methods complemented each other, and correlation with histology showed that SERS nanoparticles accurately outlined the extent of the tumors. Importantly, the hand-held Raman probe not only allowed near real-time scanning, but also detected additional microscopic foci of cancer in the resection bed that were not seen on static SERS images and would otherwise have been missed. This technology has a strong potential for clinical translation because it uses inert gold-silica SERS nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner that can guide brain tumor resection in the operating room.
|Adeno-associated virus serotypes 9 and rh10 mediate strong neuronal transduction of the dog brain. |
Swain, GP; Prociuk, M; Bagel, JH; O'Donnell, P; Berger, K; Drobatz, K; Gurda, BL; Haskins, ME; Sands, MS; Vite, CH
Gene therapy 21 28-36 2014
Canine models have many advantages for evaluating therapy of human central nervous system (CNS) diseases. In contrast to nonhuman primate models, naturally occurring canine CNS diseases are common. In contrast to murine models, the dog's lifespan is long, its brain is large and the diseases affecting it commonly have the same molecular, pathological and clinical phenotype as the human diseases. We compared the ability of four intracerebrally injected adeno-associated virus vector (AAV) serotypes to transduce the dog brain with green fluorescent protein as the first step in using these vectors to evaluate both delivery and efficacy in naturally occurring canine homologs of human diseases. Quantitative measures of transduction, maximum diameter and area, identified both AAV2/9 and AAV2/rh10 as significantly more efficient than either AAV2/1 or AAV2/5 at transducing cerebral cortex, caudate nucleus, thalamus and internal capsule. Fluorescence co-labeling with cell-type-specific antibodies demonstrated that AAV2/9 and AAV2/rh10 were capable of primarily transducing neurons, although glial transduction was also identified and found to be more efficient with the AAV2/9 vector. These data are a prerequisite to evaluating the efficacy of recombinant AAV vectors carrying disease-modifying transgenes to treat naturally occurring canine models in preclinical studies of human CNS disease therapy.
|Lgr5 Marks Post-Mitotic, Lineage Restricted Cerebellar Granule Neurons during Postnatal Development. |
Miller, TE; Wang, J; Sukhdeo, K; Horbinski, C; Tesar, PJ; Wechsler-Reya, RJ; Rich, JN
PloS one 9 e114433 2014
Wnt signaling regulates self-renewal and fate commitment of stem and progenitor cells in development and homeostasis. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a co-receptor for Wnt signaling that marks highly proliferative stem and progenitor cells in many epithelial tissue types. Wnt signaling instructs neural developmental and homeostatic processes; however, Lgr5 expression in the developing and adult brain has not been characterized. Here we report that Lgr5 is expressed in the postnatal cerebellum during the maturation and synaptogenesis of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), processes controlled by Wnt signaling. Using a transgenic reporter mouse for in vivo Lgr5 expression analysis and lineage tracing, we reveal that Lgr5 specifically identified CGNs and was restricted temporally to the CGN maturation phase within the internal granule layer, but absent in the adult brain. Cells marked by Lgr5 were lineage restricted, post-mitotic and long-lived. The ligand for Lgr5, R-spondin, was secreted in a paracrine fashion that evolved during the maturation of CGNs, which coincided with the Lgr5 expression pattern. Our findings provide potential new insight into the critical regulation of Wnt signaling in the developing cerebellum and support a novel role for Lgr5 in the regulation of post-mitotic cells.
|Therapeutic laquinimod treatment decreases inflammation, initiates axon remyelination, and improves motor deficit in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. |
Moore, S; Khalaj, AJ; Yoon, J; Patel, R; Hannsun, G; Yoo, T; Sasidhar, M; Martinez-Torres, L; Hayardeny, L; Tiwari-Woodruff, SK
Brain and behavior 3 664-82 2013
Therapeutic strategies that induce effective neuroprotection and enhance intrinsic repair mechanisms are central goals for future treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as other diseases. Laquinimod (LQ) is an orally administered, central nervous system (CNS)-active immunomodulator with demonstrated efficacy in MS clinical trials and a favorable safety and tolerability profile.We aimed to explore the pathological, functional, and behavioral consequences of prophylactic and therapeutic (after presentation of peak clinical disease) LQ treatment in the chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS.Active EAE-induced 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were treated with 5 or 25 mg/kg/day LQ via oral gavage beginning on EAE post-immunization day 0, 8, or 21. Clinical scores and rotorod motor performance were assessed throughout the disease course. Immune analysis of autoantigen-stimulated splenocytes, electrophysiological conduction of callosal axons, and immunohistochemistry of white matter-rich corpus callosum and spinal cord were performed.Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with LQ significantly decreased mean clinical disease scores, inhibited Th1 cytokine production, and decreased the CNS inflammatory response. LQ-induced improvement in axon myelination and integrity during EAE was functional, as evidenced by significant recovery of callosal axon conduction and axon refractoriness and pronounced improvement in rotorod motor performance. These improvements correlate with LQ-induced attenuation of EAE-induced demyelination and axon damage, and improved myelinated axon numbers.Even when initiated at peak disease, LQ treatment has beneficial effects within the chronic EAE mouse model. In addition to its immunomodulatory effects, the positive effects of LQ treatment on oligodendrocyte numbers and myelin density are indicative of significant, functional neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects.Our results support a potential neuroprotective, in addition to immunomodulatory, effect of LQ treatment in inhibiting ongoing MS/EAE disease progression.
|Decitabine alters the expression of Mecp2 isoforms via dynamic DNA methylation at the Mecp2 regulatory elements in neural stem cells. |
Liyanage, VR; Zachariah, RM; Rastegar, M
Molecular autism 4 46 2013
Aberrant MeCP2 expression in brain is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism. In the brain of stressed mouse and autistic human patients, reduced MeCP2 expression is correlated with Mecp2/MECP2 promoter hypermethylation. Altered expression of MeCP2 isoforms (MeCP2E1 and MeCP2E2) is associated with neurological disorders, highlighting the importance of proper regulation of both isoforms. While known regulatory elements (REs) within the MECP2/Mecp2 promoter and intron 1 are involved in MECP2/Mecp2 regulation, Mecp2 isoform-specific regulatory mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that DNA methylation at these REs may impact the expression of Mecp2 isoforms.We used a previously characterized in vitro differentiating neural stem cell (NSC) system to investigate the interplay between Mecp2 isoform-specific expression and DNA methylation at the Mecp2 REs. We studied altered expression of Mecp2 isoforms, affected by global DNA demethylation and remethylation, induced by exposure and withdrawal of decitabine (5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine). Further, we performed correlation analysis between DNA methylation at the Mecp2 REs and the expression of Mecp2 isoforms after decitabine exposure and withdrawal.At different stages of NSC differentiation, Mecp2 isoforms showed reciprocal expression patterns associated with minor, but significant changes in DNA methylation at the Mecp2 REs. Decitabine treatment induced Mecp2e1/MeCP2E1 (but not Mecp2e2) expression at day (D) 2, associated with DNA demethylation at the Mecp2 REs. In contrast, decitabine withdrawal downregulated both Mecp2 isoforms to different extents at D8, without affecting DNA methylation at the Mecp2 REs. NSC cell fate commitment was minimally affected by decitabine under tested conditions. Expression of both isoforms negatively correlated with methylation at specific regions of the Mecp2 promoter, both at D2 and D8. The correlation between intron 1 methylation and Mecp2e1 (but not Mecp2e2) varied depending on the stage of NSC differentiation (D2: negative; D8: positive).Our results show the correlation between the expression of Mecp2 isoforms and DNA methylation in differentiating NSC, providing insights on the potential role of DNA methylation at the Mecp2 REs in Mecp2 isoform-specific expression. The ability of decitabine to induce Mecp2e1/MeCP2E1, but not Mecp2e2 suggests differential sensitivity of Mecp2 isoforms to decitabine and is important for future drug therapies for autism.
|Calreticulin and other components of endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat and human inflammatory demyelination. |
Ní Fhlathartaigh, M; McMahon, J; Reynolds, R; Connolly, D; Higgins, E; Counihan, T; Fitzgerald, U
Acta neuropathologica communications 1 37 2013
Calreticulin (CRT) is a chaperone protein, which aids correct folding of glycosylated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Under conditions of ER stress, CRT is upregulated and may be displayed on the surface of cells or be secreted. This 'ecto-CRT' may activate the innate immune response or it may aid clearance of apoptotic cells. Our and other studies have demonstrated upregulation of ER stress markers CHOP, BiP, ATF4, XBP1 and phosphorylated e-IF2 alpha (p-eIF2 alpha) in biopsy and post-mortem human multiple sclerosis (MS) samples. We extend this work by analysing changes in expression of CRT, BiP, CHOP, XBP1 and p-eIF2 alpha in a rat model of inflammatory demyelination. Demyelination was induced in the spinal cord by intradermal injection of recombinant mouse MOG mixed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) at the base of the tail. Tissue samples were analysed by semi-quantitative scoring of immunohistochemically stained frozen tissue sections. Data generated following sampling of tissue from animals with spinal cord lesions, was compared to that obtained using tissue derived from IFA- or saline-injected controls. CRT present in rat serum and in a cohort of human serum derived from 14 multiple sclerosis patients and 11 healthy controls was measured by ELISA.Stained tissue scores revealed significantly (pless than 0.05) increased amounts of CRT, CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha in the lesion, lesion edge and normal-appearing white matter when compared to controls. CHOP and p-eIF2 alpha were also significantly raised in regions of grey matter and the central canal (pless than 0.05). Immunofluorescent dual-label staining confirmed expression of these markers in astrocytes, microglia or neurons. Dual staining of rat and human spinal cord lesions with Oil Red O and CRT antibody showed co-localisation of CRT with the rim of myelin fragments. ELISA testing of sera from control and EAE rats demonstrated significant down-regulation (pless than 0.05) of CRT in the serum of EAE animals, compared to saline and IFA controls. This contrasted with significantly increased amounts of CRT detected in the sera of MS patients (pless than 0.05), compared to controls.This data highlights the potential importance of CRT and other ER stress proteins in inflammatory demyelination.
|LIN28A facilitates the transformation of human neural stem cells and promotes glioblastoma tumorigenesis through a pro-invasive genetic program. |
Mao, XG; Hütt-Cabezas, M; Orr, BA; Weingart, M; Taylor, I; Rajan, AK; Odia, Y; Kahlert, U; Maciaczyk, J; Nikkhah, G; Eberhart, CG; Raabe, EH
Oncotarget 4 1050-64 2013
The cellular reprogramming factor LIN28A promotes tumorigenicity in cancers arising outside the central nervous system, but its role in brain tumors is unknown. We detected LIN28A protein in a subset of human gliomas observed higher expression in glioblastoma (GBM) than in lower grade tumors. Knockdown of LIN28A using lentiviral shRNA in GBM cell lines inhibited their invasion, growth and clonogenicity. Expression of LIN28A in GBM cell lines increased the number and size of orthotopic xenograft tumors. LIN28A expression also enhanced the invasiveness of GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. Increasing LIN28A was associated with down-regulation of tumor suppressing microRNAs let-7b and let-7g and up-regulation of the chromatin modifying protein HMGA2. The increase in tumor cell aggressiveness in vivo and in vitro was accompanied by an upregulation of pro-invasive gene expression, including SNAI1. To further investigate the oncogenic potential of LIN28A, we infected hNSC with lentiviruses encoding LIN28A together with dominant negative R248W-TP53, constitutively active KRAS and hTERT. Resulting subclones proliferated at an increased rate and formed invasive GBM-like tumors in orthotopic xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Similar to LIN28A-transduced GBM neurosphere lines, hNSC-derived tumor cells showed increased expression of HMGA2. Taken together, these data suggest a role for LIN28A in high grade gliomas and illustrate an HMGA2-associated, pro-invasive program that can be activated in GBM by LIN28A-mediated suppression of let-7 microRNAs.
|Activation of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) promotes neurogenesis in murine subventricular zone cell cultures. |
Xapelli, S; Agasse, F; Sardà-Arroyo, L; Bernardino, L; Santos, T; Ribeiro, FF; Valero, J; Bragança, J; Schitine, C; de Melo Reis, RA; Sebastião, AM; Malva, JO
PloS one 8 e63529 2013
The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the modulation of adult neurogenesis. Here, we describe the effect of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) activation on self-renewal, proliferation and neuronal differentiation in mouse neonatal subventricular zone (SVZ) stem/progenitor cell cultures. Expression of CB1R was detected in SVZ-derived immature cells (Nestin-positive), neurons and astrocytes. Stimulation of the CB1R by (R)-(+)-Methanandamide (R-m-AEA) increased self-renewal of SVZ cells, as assessed by counting the number of secondary neurospheres and the number of Sox2+/+ cell pairs, an effect blocked by Notch pathway inhibition. Moreover, R-m-AEA treatment for 48 h, increased proliferation as assessed by BrdU incorporation assay, an effect mediated by activation of MAPK-ERK and AKT pathways. Surprisingly, stimulation of CB1R by R-m-AEA also promoted neuronal differentiation (without affecting glial differentiation), at 7 days, as shown by counting the number of NeuN-positive neurons in the cultures. Moreover, by monitoring intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in single cells following KCl and histamine stimuli, a method that allows the functional evaluation of neuronal differentiation, we observed an increase in neuronal-like cells. This proneurogenic effect was blocked when SVZ cells were co-incubated with R-m-AEA and the CB1R antagonist AM 251, for 7 days, thus indicating that this effect involves CB1R activation. In accordance with an effect on neuronal differentiation and maturation, R-m-AEA also increased neurite growth, as evaluated by quantifying and measuring the number of MAP2-positive processes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CB1R activation induces proliferation, self-renewal and neuronal differentiation from mouse neonatal SVZ cell cultures.
|Ciliary neurotrophic factor controls progenitor migration during remyelination in the adult rodent brain. |
Vernerey, J; Macchi, M; Magalon, K; Cayre, M; Durbec, P
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 3240-50 2013
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to be expressed after brain lesions and in particular after demyelination. Here, we addressed the role of this cytokine in the regulation of neural progenitor migration in the adult rodent brain. Using an acute model of demyelination, we show that CNTF is strongly re-expressed after lesion and is involved in the postlesional mobilization of endogenous progenitors that participate in the myelin regenerative process. We show that CNTF controls the migration of subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural progenitors toward the demyelinated corpus callosum. Furthermore, an ectopic source of CNTF in adult healthy brains changes SVZ-derived neural progenitors' migratory behavior that migrate toward the source by activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) pathway. Using various in vitro assays (Boyden chambers, explants, and video time-lapse imaging), we demonstrate that CNTF controls the directed migration of SVZ-derived progenitors and oligodendrocyte precursors. Altogether, these results demonstrate that in addition to its neuroprotective activity and its role in progenitor survival and maturation, CNTF acts as a chemoattractant and participates in the recruitment of endogenous progenitors during myelin repair.
|Dissociated expression of mitochondrial and cytosolic creatine kinases in the human brain: a new perspective on the role of creatine in brain energy metabolism. |
Lowe, MT; Kim, EH; Faull, RL; Christie, DL; Waldvogel, HJ
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 33 1295-306 2013
The phosphocreatine/creatine kinase (PCr/CK) system in the brain is defined by the expression of two CK isozymes: the cytosolic brain-type CK (BCK) and the ubiquitous mitochondrial CK (uMtCK). The system plays an important role in supporting cellular energy metabolism by buffering adenosine triphosphate (ATP) consumption and improving the flux of high-energy phosphoryls around the cell. This system is well defined in muscle tissue, but there have been few detailed studies of this system in the brain, especially in humans. Creatine is known to be important for neurologic function, and its loss from the brain during development can lead to mental retardation. This study provides the first detailed immunohistochemical study of the expression pattern of BCK and uMtCK in the human brain. A strikingly dissociated pattern of expression was found: uMtCK was found to be ubiquitously and exclusively expressed in neuronal populations, whereas BCK was dominantly expressed in astrocytes, with a low and selective expression in neurons. This pattern indicates that the two CK isozymes are not widely coexpressed in the human brain, but rather are selectively expressed depending on the cell type. These results suggest that the brain cells may use only certain properties of the PCr/CK system depending on their energetic requirements.
|Nf1 loss and Ras hyperactivation in oligodendrocytes induce NOS-driven defects in myelin and vasculature. |
Mayes, DA; Rizvi, TA; Titus-Mitchell, H; Oberst, R; Ciraolo, GM; Vorhees, CV; Robinson, AP; Miller, SD; Cancelas, JA; Stemmer-Rachamimov, AO; Ratner, N
Cell reports 4 1197-212 2013
Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Costello syndrome Rasopathy have behavioral deficits. In NF1 patients, these may correlate with white matter enlargement and aberrant myelin. To model these features, we induced Nf1 loss or HRas hyperactivation in mouse oligodendrocytes. Enlarged brain white matter tracts correlated with myelin decompaction, downregulation of claudin-11, and mislocalization of connexin-32. Surprisingly, non-cell-autonomous defects in perivascular astrocytes and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) developed, implicating a soluble mediator. Nitric oxide (NO) can disrupt tight junctions and gap junctions, and NO and NO synthases (NOS1-NOS3) were upregulated in mutant white matter. Treating mice with the NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine corrected cellular phenotypes. CNP-HRasG12V mice also displayed locomotor hyperactivity, which could be rescued by antioxidant treatment. We conclude that Nf1/Ras regulates oligodendrocyte NOS and that dysregulated NO signaling in oligodendrocytes can alter the surrounding vasculature. The data suggest that antioxidants may improve some behavioral deficits in Rasopathy patients.
|Cyclin dependent kinase 5 is required for the normal development of oligodendrocytes and myelin formation. |
Yang, Y; Wang, H; Zhang, J; Luo, F; Herrup, K; Bibb, JA; Lu, R; Miller, RH
Developmental biology 378 94-106 2013
The development of oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the vertebrate CNS, is regulated by a cohort of growth factors and transcription factors. Less is known about the signaling pathways that integrate extracellular signals with intracellular transcriptional regulators to control oligodendrocyte development. Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its co-activators play critical roles in the regulation of neuronal differentiation, cortical lamination, neuronal cell migration and axon outgrowth. Here we demonstrate a previously unrecognized function of Cdk5 in regulating oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination. During late embryonic development Cdk5 null animals displayed a reduction in the number of MBP+ cells in the spinal cord, but no difference in the number of OPCs. To determine whether the reduction of oligodendrocytes reflected a cell-intrinsic loss of Cdk5, it was selectively deleted from Olig1+ oligodendrocyte lineage cells. In Olig1(Cre/+); Cdk5(fl/fl) conditional mutants, reduced levels of expression of MBP and PLP mRNA were observed throughout the CNS and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the proportion of myelinated axons in the optic nerve and spinal cord. Pharmacological inhibition or RNAi knockdown of Cdk5 in vitro resulted in the reduction in oligodendrocyte maturation, but had no effect on OPC cell proliferation. Conversely, over-expression of Cdk5 promoted oligodendrocyte maturation and enhanced process outgrowth. Consistent with this data, Cdk5(-/-) oligodendrocytes developed significantly fewer primary processes and branches than control cells. Together, these findings suggest that Cdk5 function as a signaling integrator to regulate oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination.
|Transcription factor-mediated reprogramming of fibroblasts to expandable, myelinogenic oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. |
Najm, FJ; Lager, AM; Zaremba, A; Wyatt, K; Caprariello, AV; Factor, DC; Karl, RT; Maeda, T; Miller, RH; Tesar, PJ
Nature biotechnology 31 426-33 2013
Cell-based therapies for myelin disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, require technologies to generate functional oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we describe direct conversion of mouse embryonic and lung fibroblasts to induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (iOPCs) using sets of either eight or three defined transcription factors. iOPCs exhibit a bipolar morphology and global gene expression profile consistent with bona fide OPCs. They can be expanded in vitro for at least five passages while retaining the ability to differentiate into multiprocessed oligodendrocytes. When transplanted to hypomyelinated mice, iOPCs are capable of ensheathing host axons and generating compact myelin. Lineage conversion of somatic cells to expandable iOPCs provides a strategy to study the molecular control of oligodendrocyte lineage identity and may facilitate neurological disease modeling and autologous remyelinating therapies.
|Spatial distribution of prominin-1 (CD133)-positive cells within germinative zones of the vertebrate brain. |
Jászai, J; Graupner, S; Tanaka, EM; Funk, RH; Huttner, WB; Brand, M; Corbeil, D
PloS one 8 e63457 2013
In mammals, embryonic neural progenitors as well as adult neural stem cells can be prospectively isolated based on the cell surface expression of prominin-1 (CD133), a plasma membrane glycoprotein. In contrast, characterization of neural progenitors in non-mammalian vertebrates endowed with significant constitutive neurogenesis and inherent self-repair ability is hampered by the lack of suitable cell surface markers. Here, we have investigated whether prominin-1-orthologues of the major non-mammalian vertebrate model organisms show any degree of conservation as for their association with neurogenic geminative zones within the central nervous system (CNS) as they do in mammals or associated with activated neural progenitors during provoked neurogenesis in the regenerating CNS.We have recently identified prominin-1 orthologues from zebrafish, axolotl and chicken. The spatial distribution of prominin-1-positive cells--in comparison to those of mice--was mapped in the intact brain in these organisms by non-radioactive in situ hybridization combined with detection of proliferating neural progenitors, marked either by proliferating cell nuclear antigen or 5-bromo-deoxyuridine. Furthermore, distribution of prominin-1 transcripts was investigated in the regenerating spinal cord of injured axolotl.Remarkably, a conserved association of prominin-1 with germinative zones of the CNS was uncovered as manifested in a significant co-localization with cell proliferation markers during normal constitutive neurogenesis in all species investigated. Moreover, an enhanced expression of prominin-1 became evident associated with provoked, compensatory neurogenesis during the epimorphic regeneration of the axolotl spinal cord. Interestingly, significant prominin-1-expressing cell populations were also detected at distinct extraventricular (parenchymal) locations in the CNS of all vertebrate species being suggestive of further, non-neurogenic neural function(s).Collectively, our work provides the first data set describing a comparative analysis of prominin-1-positive progenitor cells across species establishing a framework for further functional characterization in the context of regeneration.
|Functional contribution of the transcription factor ATF4 to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. |
Matus, S; Lopez, E; Valenzuela, V; Nassif, M; Hetz, C
PloS one 8 e66672 2013
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress represents an early pathological event in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ATF4 is a key ER stress transcription factor that plays a role in both adaptation to stress and the activation of apoptosis. Here we investigated the contribution of ATF4 to ALS. ATF4 deficiency reduced the rate of birth of SOD1(G86R) transgenic mice. The fraction of ATF4(-/-)-SOD1(G85R) transgenic mice that were born are more resistant to develop ALS, leading to delayed disease onset and prolonged life span. ATF4 deficiency completely attenuated the induction of pro-apoptotic genes, including BIM and CHOP, and also led to quantitative changes in the ER protein homeostasis network. Unexpectedly, ATF4 deficiency enhanced mutant SOD1 aggregation at the end stage of the disease. Studies in the motoneuron cell line NSC34 demonstrated that knocking down ATF4 enhances mutant SOD1 aggregation possibly due to alteration in the redox status of the cell. Our results support a functional role of ATF4 in ALS, offering a novel target for disease intervention.
|Imaging-based chemical screening reveals activity-dependent neural differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. |
Sun, Y; Dong, Z; Jin, T; Ang, KH; Huang, M; Haston, KM; Peng, J; Zhong, TP; Finkbeiner, S; Weiss, WA; Arkin, MR; Jan, LY; Guo, S
eLife 2 e00508 2013
Mammalian pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an important venue for understanding basic principles regulating tissue-specific differentiation and discovering new tools that may facilitate clinical applications. Mechanisms that direct neural differentiation of PSCs involve growth factor signaling and transcription regulation. However, it is unknown whether and how electrical activity influences this process. Here we report a high throughput imaging-based screen, which uncovers that selamectin, an anti-helminthic therapeutic compound with reported activity on invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channels, promotes neural differentiation of PSCs. We show that selamectin's pro-neurogenic activity is mediated by γ2-containing GABAA receptors in subsets of neural rosette progenitors, accompanied by increased proneural and lineage-specific transcription factor expression and cell cycle exit. In vivo, selamectin promotes neurogenesis in developing zebrafish. Our results establish a chemical screening platform that reveals activity-dependent neural differentiation from PSCs. Compounds identified in this and future screening might prove therapeutically beneficial for treating neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative disorders. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00508.001.
|Rbfox3-regulated alternative splicing of Numb promotes neuronal differentiation during development. |
Kim, KK; Nam, J; Mukouyama, YS; Kawamoto, S
The Journal of cell biology 200 443-58 2013
Alternative premRNA splicing is a major mechanism to generate diversity of gene products. However, the biological roles of alternative splicing during development remain elusive. Here, we focus on a neuron-specific RNA-binding protein, Rbfox3, recently identified as the antigen of the widely used anti-NeuN antibody. siRNA-mediated loss-of-function studies using the developing chicken spinal cord revealed that Rbfox3 is required to promote neuronal differentiation of postmitotic neurons. Numb premRNA encoding a signaling adaptor protein was found to be a target of Rbfox3 action, and Rbfox3 repressed the inclusion of an alternative exon via binding to the conserved UGCAUG element in the upstream intron. Depleting a specific Numb splice isoform reproduced similar neuronal differentiation defects. Forced expression of the relevant Numb splice isoform was sufficient to rescue, in an isoform-specific manner, postmitotic neurons from defects in differentiation caused by Rbfox3 depletion. Thus, Rbfox3-dependent Numb alternative splicing plays an important role in the progression of neuronal differentiation during vertebrate development.
|Transgenic overexpression of Sox17 promotes oligodendrocyte development and attenuates demyelination. |
Ming, X; Chew, LJ; Gallo, V
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 12528-42 2013
We have previously demonstrated that Sox17 regulates cell cycle exit and differentiation in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Here we investigated its function in white matter (WM) development and adult injury with a newly generated transgenic mouse overexpressing Sox17 in the oligodendrocyte lineage under the CNPase promoter. Sox17 overexpression in CNP-Sox17 mice sequentially promoted postnatal oligodendrogenesis, increasing NG2 progenitor cells from postnatal day (P) 15, then O4+ and CC1+ cells at P30 and P120, respectively. Total Olig2+ oligodendrocyte lineage cells first decreased between P8 and P22 through Sox17-mediated increase in apoptotic cell death, and thereafter significantly exceeded WT levels from P30 when cell death had ceased. CNP-Sox17 mice showed increased Gli2 protein levels and Gli2+ cells in WM, indicating that Sox17 promotes the generation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells through Hedgehog signaling. Sox17 overexpression prevented cell loss after lysolecithin-induced demyelination by increasing Olig2+ and CC1+ cells in response to injury. Furthermore, Sox17 overexpression abolished the injury-induced increase in TCF7L2/TCF4+ cells, and protected oligodendrocytes from apoptosis by preventing decreases in Gli2 and Bcl-2 expression that were observed in WT lesions. Our study thus reveals a biphasic effect of Sox17 overexpression on cell survival and oligodendrocyte formation in the developing WM, and that its potentiation of oligodendrocyte survival in the adult confers resistance to injury and myelin loss. This study demonstrates that overexpression of this transcription factor might be a viable protective strategy to mitigate the consequences of demyelination in the adult WM.
|In vivo reprogramming of astrocytes to neuroblasts in the adult brain. |
Niu, W; Zang, T; Zou, Y; Fang, S; Smith, DK; Bachoo, R; Zhang, CL
Nature cell biology 15 1164-75 2013
Adult differentiated cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells or lineage-restricted proliferating precursors in culture; however, this has not been demonstrated in vivo. Here, we show that the single transcription factor SOX2 is sufficient to reprogram resident astrocytes into proliferative neuroblasts in the adult mouse brain. These induced adult neuroblasts (iANBs) persist for months and can be generated even in aged brains. When supplied with BDNF and noggin or when the mice are treated with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, iANBs develop into electrophysiologically mature neurons, which functionally integrate into the local neural network. Our results demonstrate that adult astrocytes exhibit remarkable plasticity in vivo, a feature that might have important implications in regeneration of the central nervous system using endogenous patient-specific glial cells.
|Direct and retrograde transduction of nigral neurons with AAV6, 8, and 9 and intraneuronal persistence of viral particles. |
Löw, K; Aebischer, P; Schneider, BL
Human gene therapy 24 613-29 2013
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors of serotypes 6, 8, and 9 were characterized as tools for gene delivery to dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra for future gene therapeutic applications in Parkinson's disease. While vectors of all three serotypes transduced nigral dopaminergic neurons with equal efficiency when directly injected to the substantia nigra, AAV6 was clearly superior to AAV8 and AAV9 for retrograde transduction of nigral neurons after striatal delivery. For sequential transduction of nigral dopaminergic neurons, the combination of AAV9 with AAV6 proved to be more powerful than AAV8 with AAV6 or repeated AAV6 administration. Surprisingly, single-stranded viral genomes persisted in nigral dopaminergic neurons within cell bodies and axon terminals in the striatum, and intact assembled AAV capsid was enriched in nuclei of nigral neurons, 4 weeks after virus injections to the substantia nigra. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra reduced the number of viral genomes in the striatum, in line with viral genome persistence in axon terminals. However, 6-OHDA-induced axonal degeneration did not induce any transsynaptic spread of AAV infection in the striatum. Therefore, the potential presence of viral particles in axons may not represent an important safety issue for AAV gene therapy applications in neurodegenerative diseases.
|From the Cover: Neutralization of terminal differentiation in gliomagenesis. |
Hu, J; Ho, AL; Yuan, L; Hu, B; Hua, S; Hwang, SS; Zhang, J; Hu, T; Zheng, H; Gan, B; Wu, G; Wang, YA; Chin, L; DePinho, RA
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 14520-7 2013
An immature state of cellular differentiation--characterized by stem cell-like tendencies and impaired differentiation--is a hallmark of cancer. Using glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as a model system, we sought to determine whether molecular determinants that drive cells toward terminal differentiation are also genetically targeted in carcinogenesis and whether neutralizing such genes also plays an active role to reinforce the impaired differentiation state and promote malignancy. To that end, we screened 71 genes with known roles in promoting nervous system development that also sustain copy number loss in GBM through antineoplastic assay and identified A2BP1 (ataxin 2 binding protein 1, Rbfox1), an RNA-binding and splicing regulator that is deleted in 10% of GBM cases. Integrated in silico analysis of GBM profiles to elucidate the A2BP1 pathway and its role in glioma identified myelin transcription factor 1-like (Myt1L) as a direct transcriptional regulator of A2BP1. Reintroduction of A2BP1 or Myt1L in GBM cell lines and glioma stem cells profoundly inhibited tumorigenesis in multiple assays, and conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of A2BP1 or Myt1L in premalignant neural stem cells compromised neuronal lineage differentiation and promoted orthotopic tumor formation. On the mechanistic level, with the top-represented downstream target TPM1 as an illustrative example, we demonstrated that, among its multiple functions, A2BP1 serves to regulate TPM1's alternative splicing to promote cytoskeletal organization and terminal differentiation and suppress malignancy. Thus, in addition to the activation of self-renewal pathways, the neutralization of genetic programs that drive cells toward terminal differentiation may also promote immature and highly plastic developmental states that contribute to the aggressive malignant properties of GBM.
|Striatal oligodendrogliogenesis and neuroblast recruitment are increased in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. |
McCollum, MH; Leon, RT; Rush, DB; Guthrie, KM; Wei, J
Brain research 1518 91-103 2013
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the two major neurogenic regions in the adult mammalian brain. Its close proximity to the striatum suggests that a cell-based therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Huntington's disease (HD) is possible. To achieve this, it is important to understand how adult cell production, migration and differentiation may be altered in the HD brain. In this study, we quantified the number of adult-born striatal cells and characterized their fate in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD. We found that the number of new striatal cells was approximately two-fold greater in R6/2 vs. wild type mice, while SVZ cell proliferation was not affected. Using cell-type specific markers, we demonstrated that the majority of new striatal cells were mature oligodendrocytes or oligodendroglial precursors that were intrinsic to the striatum. We also detected a significant increase in the number of migrating neuroblasts that appeared to be recruited from the SVZ to the striatum. However, these neuroblasts did not mature into neurons and most were lost between 1 and 2 weeks of cell age. Crossing the R6/2 mice with mice the over-expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the striatum increased the numbers of neuroblasts that survived to 2 weeks, but did not promote their differentiation. Together, our data indicate that the potential treatment of HD based on manipulating endogenous progenitor cells should take into consideration the apparent enhancement in striatal oligodendrogliogenesis and the limited ability of recruited SVZ neuroblasts to survive long-term and differentiate in the diseased striatum.
|Analysis of transduction efficiency, tropism and axonal transport of AAV serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 8 and 9 in the mouse brain. |
Aschauer, DF; Kreuz, S; Rumpel, S
PloS one 8 e76310 2013
Recombinant Adeno-associated virus vectors (rAAV) are widely used for gene delivery and multiple naturally occurring serotypes have been harnessed to target cells in different tissues and organs including the brain. Here, we provide a detailed and quantitative analysis of the transduction profiles of rAAV vectors based on six of the most commonly used serotypes (AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, AAV9) that allows systematic comparison and selection of the optimal vector for a specific application. In our studies we observed marked differences among serotypes in the efficiency to transduce three different brain regions namely the striatum, hippocampus and neocortex of the mouse. Despite the fact that the analyzed serotypes have the general ability to transduce all major cell types in the brain (neurons, microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), the expression level of a reporter gene driven from a ubiquitous promoter varies significantly for specific cell type / serotype combinations. For example, rAAV8 is particularly efficient to drive transgene expression in astrocytes while rAAV9 appears well suited for the transduction of cortical neurons. Interestingly, we demonstrate selective retrograde transport of rAAV5 along axons projecting from the ventral part of the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, we show that self-complementing rAAV can be used to significantly decrease the time required for the onset of transgene expression in the mouse brain.
|Brain and testicular tumors in mice with progenitor cells lacking BAX and BAK. |
Katz, SG; Fisher, JK; Correll, M; Bronson, RT; Ligon, KL; Walensky, LD
Oncogene 32 4078-85 2013
The proapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins BAX and BAK serve as essential gatekeepers of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and, when activated, transform into pore-forming homo-oligomers that permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane. Deletion of Bax and Bak causes marked resistance to death stimuli in a variety of cell types. Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) mice are predominantly non-viable and survivors exhibit multiple developmental abnormalities characterized by cellular excess, including accumulation of neural progenitor cells in the periventricular, hippocampal, cerebellar and olfactory bulb regions of the brain. To explore the long-term pathophysiological consequences of BAX/BAK deficiency in a stem cell niche, we generated Bak(-/-) mice with conditional deletion of Bax in Nestin-positive cells. Aged Nestin(Cre)Bax(fl/fl)Bak(-/-) mice manifest progressive brain enlargement with a profound accumulation of NeuN- and Sox2-positive neural progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ). One-third of the mice develop frank masses comprised of neural progenitors, and in 20% of these cases, more aggressive, hypercellular tumors emerged. Unexpectedly, 60% of Nestin(Cre)Bax(fl/fl)Bak(-/-) mice harbored high-grade tumors within the testis, a peripheral site of Nestin expression. This in vivo model of severe apoptotic blockade highlights the constitutive role of BAX/BAK in long-term regulation of Nestin-positive progenitor cell pools, with loss of function predisposing to adult-onset tumorigenesis.
|Sorafenib selectively depletes human glioblastoma tumor-initiating cells from primary cultures. |
Carra, E; Barbieri, F; Marubbi, D; Pattarozzi, A; Favoni, RE; Florio, T; Daga, A
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 12 491-500 2013
Glioblastomas are grade IV brain tumors characterized by high aggressiveness and invasiveness, giving patients a poor prognosis. We investigated the effects of the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib on six cultures isolated from human glioblastomas and maintained in tumor initiating cells-enriching conditions. These cell subpopulations are thought to be responsible for tumor recurrence and radio- and chemo-resistance, representing the perfect target for glioblastoma therapy. Sorafenib reduces proliferation of glioblastoma cultures, and this effect depends, at least in part, on the inhibition of PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, both involved in gliomagenesis. Sorafenib significantly induces apoptosis/cell death via downregulation of the survival factor Mcl-1. We provide evidence that sorafenib has a selective action on glioblastoma stem cells, causing enrichment of cultures in differentiated cells, downregulation of the expression of stemness markers required to maintain malignancy (nestin, Olig2 and Sox2) and reducing cell clonogenic ability in vitro and tumorigenic potential in vivo. The selectivity of sorafenib effects on glioblastoma stem cells is confirmed by the lower sensitivity of glioblastoma cultures after differentiation as compared with the undifferentiated counterpart. Since current GBM therapy enriches the tumor in cancer stem cells, the evidence of a selective action of sorafenib on these cells is therapeutically relevant, even if, so far, results from first phase II clinical trials did not demonstrate its efficacy.
|Oligodendroglial expression of TrkB independently regulates myelination and progenitor cell proliferation. |
Wong, AW; Xiao, J; Kemper, D; Kilpatrick, TJ; Murray, SS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 4947-57 2013
The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in regulating CNS myelination. BDNF mutant mice exhibit a hypomyelinating phenotype, and BDNF exerts distinct effects upon oligodendroglial proliferation, differentiation, and myelination in vitro. To investigate the precise influence that BDNF exerts in regulating CNS myelination in vivo, we have generated conditional knock-out mice in which TrkB has been deleted specifically in oligodendrocytes. Deletion of TrkB disrupted normal oligodendrocyte myelination, resulting in a significant reduction in myelin protein expression and myelination of CNS white matter tracts during development. Importantly, conditional knock-out mice exhibited normal numbers of mature oligodendrocytes and normal numbers of myelinated axons; however, myelin thickness was significantly reduced during development. These data indicate that while TrkB expression in oligodendrocytes plays no role in the initial contact with axons, it exerts an important influence in subsequent stages to promote myelin ensheathment. The conditional knock-out mice also exhibited an increased density of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in CNS white matter tracts. Concordant with these results, in vitro analyses using OPCs subjected to TrkB knockdown also revealed increased OPC proliferation. Our data suggested this effect was dependent upon TrkC and p75 expression. Thus, our data demonstrate that TrkB expression in oligodendroglia exerts a direct effect on oligodendrocytes to promote myelination and an indirect effect upon the OPC population, modifying their proliferative potential.
|Expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells following SIRT1 inactivation in the adult brain. |
Rafalski, VA; Ho, PP; Brett, JO; Ucar, D; Dugas, JC; Pollina, EA; Chow, LM; Ibrahim, A; Baker, SJ; Barres, BA; Steinman, L; Brunet, A
Nature cell biology 15 614-24 2013
Oligodendrocytes-the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system-can be regenerated during adulthood. In adults, new oligodendrocytes originate from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), but also from neural stem cells (NSCs). Although several factors supporting oligodendrocyte production have been characterized, the mechanisms underlying the generation of adult oligodendrocytes are largely unknown. Here we show that genetic inactivation of SIRT1, a protein deacetylase implicated in energy metabolism, increases the production of new OPCs in the adult mouse brain, in part by acting in NSCs. New OPCs produced following SIRT1 inactivation differentiate normally, generating fully myelinating oligodendrocytes. Remarkably, SIRT1 inactivation ameliorates remyelination and delays paralysis in mouse models of demyelinating injuries. SIRT1 inactivation leads to the upregulation of genes involved in cell metabolism and growth factor signalling, in particular PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα). Oligodendrocyte expansion following SIRT1 inactivation is mediated at least in part by AKT and p38 MAPK-signalling molecules downstream of PDGFRα. The identification of drug-targetable enzymes that regulate oligodendrocyte regeneration in adults could facilitate the development of therapies for demyelinating injuries and diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
|The antiaging protein Klotho enhances oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination of the CNS. |
Chen, CD; Sloane, JA; Li, H; Aytan, N; Giannaris, EL; Zeldich, E; Hinman, JD; Dedeoglu, A; Rosene, DL; Bansal, R; Luebke, JI; Kuro-o, M; Abraham, CR
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 1927-39 2013
We have previously shown that myelin abnormalities characterize the normal aging process of the brain and that an age-associated reduction in Klotho is conserved across species. Predominantly generated in brain and kidney, Klotho overexpression extends life span, whereas loss of Klotho accelerates the development of aging-like phenotypes. Although the function of Klotho in brain is unknown, loss of Klotho expression leads to cognitive deficits. We found significant effects of Klotho on oligodendrocyte functions, including induced maturation of rat primary oligodendrocytic progenitor cells (OPCs) in vitro and myelination. Phosphoprotein analysis indicated that Klotho's downstream effects involve Akt and ERK signal pathways. Klotho increased OPC maturation, and inhibition of Akt or ERK function blocked this effect on OPCs. In vivo studies of Klotho knock-out mice and control littermates revealed that knock-out mice have a significant reduction in major myelin protein and gene expression. By immunohistochemistry, the number of total and mature oligodendrocytes was significantly lower in Klotho knock-out mice. Strikingly, at the ultrastructural level, Klotho knock-out mice exhibited significantly impaired myelination of the optic nerve and corpus callosum. These mice also displayed severe abnormalities at the nodes of Ranvier. To decipher the mechanisms by which Klotho affects oligodendrocytes, we used luciferase pathway reporters to identify the transcription factors involved. Together, these studies provide novel evidence for Klotho as a key player in myelin biology, which may thus be a useful therapeutic target in efforts to protect brain myelin against age-dependent changes and promote repair in multiple sclerosis.
|Neural precursor cells cultured at physiologically relevant oxygen tensions have a survival advantage following transplantation. |
Stacpoole, SR; Webber, DJ; Bilican, B; Compston, A; Chandran, S; Franklin, RJ
Stem cells translational medicine 2 464-72 2013
Traditionally, in vitro stem cell systems have used oxygen tensions that are far removed from the in vivo situation. This is particularly true for the central nervous system, where oxygen (O2) levels range from 8% at the pia to 0.5% in the midbrain, whereas cells are usually cultured in a 20% O2 environment. Cell transplantation strategies therefore typically introduce a stress challenge at the time of transplantation as the cells are switched from 20% to 3% O2 (the average in adult organs). We have modeled the oxygen stress that occurs during transplantation, demonstrating that in vitro transfer of neonatal rat cortical neural precursor cells (NPCs) from a 20% to a 3% O2 environment results in significant cell death, whereas maintenance at 3% O2 is protective. This survival benefit translates to the in vivo environment, where culture of NPCs at 3% rather than 20% O2 approximately doubles survival in the immediate post-transplantation phase. Furthermore, NPC fate is affected by culture at low, physiological O2 tensions (3%), with particularly marked effects on the oligodendrocyte lineage, both in vitro and in vivo. We propose that careful consideration of physiological oxygen environments, and particularly changes in oxygen tension, has relevance for the practical approaches to cellular therapies.
|PDGF is required for remyelination-promoting IgM stimulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation. |
Watzlawik, JO; Warrington, AE; Rodriguez, M
PloS one 8 e55149 2013
Promotion of remyelination is a major goal in treating demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The recombinant human monoclonal IgM, rHIgM22, targets myelin and oligodendrocytes (OLs) and promotes remyelination in animal models of MS. It is unclear whether rHIgM22-mediated stimulation of lesion repair is due to promotion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation and survival, OPC differentiation into myelinating OLs or protection of mature OLs. It is also unknown whether astrocytes or microglia play a functional role in IgM-mediated lesion repair.We assessed the effect of rHIgM22 on cell proliferation in mixed CNS glial and OPC cultures by tritiated-thymidine uptake and by double-label immunocytochemistry using the proliferation marker, Ki-67. Antibody-mediated signaling events, OPC differentiation and OPC survival were investigated and quantified by Western blots.rHIgM22 stimulates OPC proliferation in mixed glial cultures but not in purified OPCs. There is no proliferative response in astrocytes or microglia. rHIgM22 activates PDGFαR in OPCs in mixed glial cultures. Blocking PDGFR-kinase inhibits rHIgM22-mediated OPC proliferation in mixed glia. We confirm in isolated OPCs that rHIgM22-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling and inhibition of OPC differentiation requires PDGF and FGF-2. We observed no IgM-mediated effect in mature OLs in the absence of PDGF and FGF-2.Stimulation of OPC proliferation by rHIgM22 depends on co-stimulatory astrocytic and/or microglial factors. We demonstrate that rHIgM22-mediated activation of PDGFαR is required for stimulation of OPC proliferation. We propose that rHIgM22 lowers the PDGF threshold required for OPC proliferation and protection, which can result in remyelination of CNS lesions.
|Intrinsic and extrinsic connections of Tet3 dioxygenase with CXXC zinc finger modules. |
Liu, N; Wang, M; Deng, W; Schmidt, CS; Qin, W; Leonhardt, H; Spada, F
PloS one 8 e62755 2013
Tet proteins are emerging as major epigenetic modulators of cell fate and plasticity. However, little is known about how Tet proteins are targeted to selected genomic loci in distinct biological contexts. Previously, a CXXC-type zinc finger domain in Tet1 was shown to bind CpG-rich DNA sequences. Interestingly, in human and mouse the Tet2 and Tet3 genes are adjacent to Cxxc4 and Cxxc10-1, respectively. The CXXC domains encoded by these loci, together with those in Tet1 and Cxxc5, identify a distinct homology group within the CXXC domain family. Here we provide evidence for alternative mouse Tet3 transcripts including the Cxxc10-1 sequence (Tet3(CXXC)) and for an interaction between Tet3 and Cxxc4. In vitro Cxxc4 and the isolated CXXC domains of Tet1 and Tet3(CXXC) bind DNA substrates with similar preference towards the modification state of cytosine at a single CpG site. In vivo Tet1 and Tet3 isoforms with and without CXXC domain hydroxylate genomic 5-methylcytosine with similar activity. Relative transcript levels suggest that distinct ratios of Tet3(CXXC) isoforms and Tet3-Cxxc4 complex may be present in adult tissues. Our data suggest that variable association with CXXC modules may contribute to context specific functions of Tet proteins.
|Act1 mediates IL-17-induced EAE pathogenesis selectively in NG2+ glial cells. |
Kang, Z; Wang, C; Zepp, J; Wu, L; Sun, K; Zhao, J; Chandrasekharan, U; DiCorleto, PE; Trapp, BD; Ransohoff, RM; Li, X
Nature neuroscience 16 1401-8 2013
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a signature cytokine of Th17 cells. We previously reported that deletion of NF-κB activator 1 (Act1), the key transducer of IL-17 receptor signaling, from the neuroectodermal lineage in mice (neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) results in attenuated severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we examined the cellular basis of this observation. EAE disease course was unaffected by deletion of Act1 in neurons or mature oligodendrocytes, and Act1 deletion in astrocytes only modestly affected disease course. Deletion of Act1 in NG2(+) glia resulted in markedly reduced EAE severity. Furthermore, IL-17 induced characteristic inflammatory mediator expression in NG2(+) glial cells. IL-17 also exhibited strong inhibitory effects on the maturation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells in vitro and reduced their survival. These data identify NG2(+) glia as the major CNS cellular target of IL-17 in EAE. The sensitivity of oligodendrocyte lineage cells to IL-17-mediated toxicity further suggests a direct link between inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis.
|Histone deacetylase activity is required for human oligodendrocyte progenitor differentiation. |
Conway, Gregory D, et al.
Glia, 60: 1944-53 (2012) 2012
The molecular mechanisms controlling human oligodendrocyte development are poorly characterized. Microarray analysis of human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and immature oligodendrocytes revealed that specific-class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) target genes were actively repressed during oligodendrocyte commitment. Although epigenetic regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation has been established in rodent development, the role of HDACs in human OPCs remains undefined. We used HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate to determine the importance of HDAC activity in human primary OPC differentiation. Treatment with either drug resulted in significant dose-dependent inhibition of O4(+) oligodendrocyte cell differentiation, reduction of oligodendrocyte morphological maturation, and downregulation of myelin basic protein mRNA. High dose TSA treatment was also associated with reduction in OPC proliferation. HDACi treatment prevented downregulation of SOX2, ID4, and TCF7L2 mRNAs but did not regulate HES5, suggesting that targets of HDAC repression may differ between species. These results predict that HDACi treatment would impair proliferation and differentiation by parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitors, and thereby degrade their potential for endogenous repair in human demyelinating disease. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
|Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling promotes oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro. |
Junhua Xiao,Anita H Ferner,Agnes W Wong,Mark Denham,Trevor J Kilpatrick,Simon S Murray
Journal of neurochemistry 122 2012
J. Neurochem. (2012) 122, 1167-1180. ABSTRACT: Multiple extracellular factors have been implicated in orchestrating myelination of the CNS; however, less is known about the intracellular signaling cascades that regulate this process. We have previously shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes oligodendrocyte myelination. Here, we screened for the activation of candidate signaling pathways in in vitro myelination assays and found that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling positively correlated with basal levels of oligodendrocyte myelination as well as BDNF-induced myelination in vitro. By selectively manipulating Erk1/2 activation in oligodendrocytes in vitro, we found that constitutive activation of Erk1/2 significantly increased myelination, mimicking the promyelinating effect of BDNF, and also caused myelination to occur earlier. Conversely, selective inhibition of Erk1/2 in oligodendrocytes significantly reduced the basal level of myelination and blocked the promyelinating effect of BDNF. Analysis of myelinating spinal cord and corpus callosum white matter tracts revealed that the majority of mature oligodendrocytes are co-labeled with phospho-Erk1/2, whereas phospho-Erk1/2 was rarely observed in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Finally, the total level of phospho-Erk1/2 correlated with myelin formation during the early postnatal period. Collectively, these data identify that Erk1/2 signaling within oligodendrocytes exerts an important and direct effect to promote myelination.
|Apoptosis of limb innervating motor neurons and erosion of motor pool identity upon lineage specific dicer inactivation. |
Chen, JA; Wichterle, H
Frontiers in neuroscience 6 69 2012
Diversification of mammalian spinal motor neurons into hundreds of subtypes is critical for the maintenance of body posture and coordination of complex movements. Motor neuron differentiation is controlled by extrinsic signals that regulate intrinsic genetic programs specifying and consolidating motor neuron subtype identity. While transcription factors have been recognized as principal regulators of the intrinsic program, the role of posttranscriptional regulations has not been systematically tested. MicroRNAs produced by Dicer mediated cleavage of RNA hairpins contribute to gene regulation by posttranscriptional silencing. Here we used Olig2-cre conditional deletion of Dicer gene in motor neuron progenitors to examine effects of miRNA biogenesis disruption on postmitotic spinal motor neurons. We report that despite the initial increase in the number of motor neuron progenitors, disruption of Dicer function results in a loss of many limb- and sympathetic ganglia-innervating spinal motor neurons. Furthermore, it leads to defects in motor pool identity specification. Thus, our results indicate that miRNAs are an integral part of the genetic program controlling motor neuron survival and acquisition of subtype specific properties.
|Chondroitinase and growth factors enhance activation and oligodendrocyte differentiation of endogenous neural precursor cells after spinal cord injury. |
Karimi-Abdolrezaee, S; Schut, D; Wang, J; Fehlings, MG
PloS one 7 e37589 2012
The adult spinal cord harbours a population of multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) with the ability to replace oligodendrocytes. However, despite this capacity, proliferation and endogenous remyelination is severely limited after spinal cord injury (SCI). In the post-traumatic microenvironment following SCI, endogenous spinal NPCs mainly differentiate into astrocytes which could contribute to astrogliosis that exacerbate the outcomes of SCI. These findings emphasize a key role for the post-SCI niche in modulating the behaviour of spinal NPCs after SCI. We recently reported that chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the glial scar restrict the outcomes of NPC transplantation in SCI by reducing the survival, migration and integration of engrafted NPCs within the injured spinal cord. These inhibitory effects were attenuated by administration of chondroitinase (ChABC) prior to NPC transplantation. Here, in a rat model of compressive SCI, we show that perturbing CSPGs by ChABC in combination with sustained infusion of growth factors (EGF, bFGF and PDGF-AA) optimize the activation and oligodendroglial differentiation of spinal NPCs after injury. Four days following SCI, we intrathecally delivered ChABC and/or GFs for seven days. We performed BrdU incorporation to label proliferating cells during the treatment period after SCI. This strategy increased the proliferation of spinal NPCs, reduced the generation of new astrocytes and promoted their differentiation along an oligodendroglial lineage, a prerequisite for remyelination. Furthermore, ChABC and GF treatments enhanced the response of non-neural cells by increasing the generation of new vascular endothelial cells and decreasing the number of proliferating macrophages/microglia after SCI. In conclusions, our data strongly suggest that optimization of the behaviour of endogenous spinal NPCs after SCI is critical not only to promote endogenous oligodendrocyte replacement, but also to reverse the otherwise detrimental effects of their activation into astrocytes which could negatively influence the repair process after SCI.
|Homozygous deletion of an EGR2 enhancer in congenital amyelinating neuropathy. |
Benoît Funalot,Piotr Topilko,Maria Antonia Ramos Arroyo,Abdelaziz Sefiani,E Tessa Hedley-Whyte,Maria E Yoldi,Laurence Richard,Estelle Touraille,Mathieu Laurichesse,Emmanuel Khalifa,Jasmine Chauzeix,Adama Ouedraogo,Didier Cros,Corinne Magdelaine,Franck G Sturtz,J Andoni Urtizberea,Patrick Charnay,Federico Garcia Bragado,Jean-Michel Vallat
Annals of neurology 71 2012
The transcription factor EGR2 is expressed in Schwann cells, where it controls peripheral nerve myelination. Mutations of EGR2 have been found in patients with congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1D. In a patient with congenital amyelinating neuropathy, we observed pathological abnormalities recapitulating the peripheral nervous system phenotype of homozygous Egr2-null mice. This patient, born from consanguineous parents, showed no EGR2 immunoreactivity in Schwann cells and harbored a homozygous 10.7-kilobase-long deletion encompassing a myelin-specific enhancer of EGR2. This regulatory mutation is the first genetic abnormality associated with congenital amyelinating neuropathy in humans.
|Combined effect of hypothermia and caspase-2 gene deficiency on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. |
Ylva Carlsson,Xiaoyang Wang,Leslie Schwendimann,Catherine I Rousset,Etienne Jacotot,Pierre Gressens,Marianne Thoresen,Carina Mallard,Henrik Hagberg
Pediatric research 71 2012
INTODUCTION: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) injury in term infants develops with a delay during the recovery phase, opening up a therapeutic window after the insult. Hypothermia is currently an established neuroprotective treatment in newborns with neonatal encephalopathy (NE), saving one in nine infants from developing neurological deficits. Caspase-2 is an initiator caspase, a key enzyme in the route to destruction and, therefore, theoretically a potential target for a pharmaceutical strategy to prevent HI brain damage.
|A subpopulation of dorsal lateral/caudal ganglionic eminence-derived neocortical interneurons expresses the transcription factor Sp8. |
Ma, T; Zhang, Q; Cai, Y; You, Y; Rubenstein, JL; Yang, Z
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 22 2120-30 2012
Cortical GABAergic interneurons in rodents originate from subpallial progenitors and tangentially migrate to the cortex. While the majority of mouse neocortical interneurons are derived from the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE and CGE, respectively), it remains unknown whether the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) also contributes to a subpopulation of cortical interneurons. Here, we show that the transcription factor Sp8 is expressed in one-fifth of adult cortical interneurons, which appear to be derived from both the dorsal LGE and the dorsal CGE (dLGE and dCGE, respectively). Compared with the MGE-derived cortical interneurons, dLGE/dCGE-derived Sp8-expressing (Sp8+) ones are born at later embryonic stages with peak production occurring at embryonic day 15.5. They tangentially migrate mainly along the subventricular/intermediate zone (SVZ/IZ) route; some continue to express mitotic markers (Ki67 and PH3) in the neonatal cortical SVZ/IZ. Sp8+ interneurons continue to radially migrate from the SVZ/IZ into the cortical layers at early postnatal stages. In contrast to MGE-derived interneurons, dLGE/dCGE-derived Sp8+ interneurons follow an outside-in layering pattern, preferentially occupying superficial cortical layers.
|Activation of the unfolded protein response enhances motor recovery after spinal cord injury. |
Valenzuela, V; Collyer, E; Armentano, D; Parsons, GB; Court, FA; Hetz, C
Cell death & disease 3 e272 2012
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major cause of paralysis, and involves multiple cellular and tissular responses including demyelination, inflammation, cell death and axonal degeneration. Recent evidence suggests that perturbation on the homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is observed in different SCI models; however, the functional contribution of this pathway to this pathology is not known. Here we demonstrate that SCI triggers a fast ER stress reaction (1-3 h) involving the upregulation of key components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that propagates through the spinal cord. Ablation of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) or activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) expression, two major UPR transcription factors, leads to a reduced locomotor recovery after experimental SCI. The effects of UPR inactivation were associated with a significant increase in the number of damaged axons and reduced amount of oligodendrocytes surrounding the injury zone. In addition, altered microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were observed in ATF4 deficient mice after SCI. Local expression of active XBP1 into the spinal cord using adeno-associated viruses enhanced locomotor recovery after SCI, and was associated with an increased number of oligodendrocytes. Altogether, our results demonstrate a functional role of the UPR in SCI, offering novel therapeutic targets to treat this invalidating condition.
|The homeobox gene Gsx2 regulates the self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells and the cell fate of postnatal progenitors. |
Méndez-Gómez, HR; Vicario-Abejón, C
PloS one 7 e29799 2012
The Genetic screened homeobox 2 (Gsx2) transcription factor is required for the development of olfactory bulb (OB) and striatal neurons, and for the regional specification of the embryonic telencephalon. Although Gsx2 is expressed abundantly by progenitor cells in the ventral telencephalon, its precise function in the generation of neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) is not clear. Similarly, the role of Gsx2 in regulating the self-renewal and multipotentiality of NSCs has been little explored. Using retroviral vectors to express Gsx2, we have studied the effect of Gsx2 on the growth of NSCs isolated from the OB and ganglionic eminences (GE), as well as its influence on the proliferation and cell fate of progenitors in the postnatal mouse OB. Expression of Gsx2 reduces proliferation and the self-renewal capacity of NSCs, without significantly affecting cell death. Furthermore, Gsx2 overexpression decreases the differentiation of NSCs into neurons and glia, and it maintains the cells that do not differentiate as cycling progenitors. These effects were stronger in GESCs than in OBSCs, indicating that the actions of Gsx2 are cell-dependent. In vivo, Gsx2 produces a decrease in the number of Pax6+ cells and doublecortin+ neuroblasts, and an increase in Olig2+ cells. In summary, our findings show that Gsx2 inhibits the ability of NSCs to proliferate and self-renew, as well as the capacity of NSC-derived progenitors to differentiate, suggesting that this transcription factor regulates the quiescent and undifferentiated state of NSCs and progenitors. Furthermore, our data indicate that Gsx2 negatively regulates neurogenesis from postnatal progenitor cells.Artículo Texto completo
|Regulation of glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells by inhibitor of DNA binding proteins and oligodendroglial lineage-associated transcription factors. |
Wu, Y; Richard, JP; Wang, SD; Rath, P; Laterra, J; Xia, S
Cancer science 103 1028-37 2012
Tumor-initiating stem cells (also referred to as cancer stem cells, CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells that play unique roles in tumor propagation, therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. It is increasingly important to understand how molecular signaling regulates the self-renewal and differentiation of CSCs. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are critical for the differentiation of normal stem cells, yet their roles in neoplastic stem cells are not well understood. In glioblastoma neurosphere cultures that contain cancer stem cells (GBM-CSCs), the bHLH family member inhibitors of DNA binding protein 2 and 4 (Id2 and Id4) were found to be upregulated during the differentiation of GBM-CSCs in response to histone deacetylase inhibitors. In this study, we examined the functions of Id2 and Id4 in GBM neurosphere cells and identified Id proteins as efficient differentiation regulators of GBM-CSCs. Overexpression of Id2 and Id4 promoted the lineage-specific differentiation of GBM neurosphere cells as evidenced by the induction of neuronal/astroglial differentiation markers Tuj1 and GFAP and the inhibition of the oligodendroglial marker GalC. Id protein overexpression also reduced both stem cell marker expression and neurosphere formation potential, a biological marker of cancer cell "stemness." We further showed that Id2 and Id4 regulated GBM neurosphere differentiation through downregulating of another bHLH family member, the oligodendroglial lineage-associated transcription factors (Olig) 1 and 2. Our results provide evidence for distinct functions of Id proteins in neoplastic stem cells, which supports Id proteins and their downstream targets as potential candidates for differentiation therapy in CSCs.
|Targeted delivery of self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype 9 to the brain, using magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound. |
Thévenot, E; Jordão, JF; O'Reilly, MA; Markham, K; Weng, YQ; Foust, KD; Kaspar, BK; Hynynen, K; Aubert, I
Human gene therapy 23 1144-55 2012
Noninvasive drug delivery to the brain remains a major challenge for the treatment of neurological disorders. Transcranial focused ultrasound combined with lipid-coated gas microspheres injected into the bloodstream has been shown to increase the permeability of the blood-brain barrier locally and transiently. Coupled with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound can be guided to allow therapeutics administered in the blood to reach brain regions of interest. Using this approach, we perform gene transfer from the blood to specific regions of the mouse brain. Focused ultrasound was targeted to the right hemisphere, at multiple foci, or restricted to one focal point of the hippocampus or the striatum. Doses from 5 × 10(8) to 1.25 × 10(10) vector genomes per gram (VG/g) of self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype 9 carrying the green fluorescent protein were injected into the tail vein. A dose of 2.5 × 10(9) VG/g was optimal to express the transgene, 12 days later, in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in brain regions targeted with ultrasound, while minimizing the infection of peripheral organs. In the hippocampus and striatum, predominantly neurons and astrocytes were infected, respectively. Transcranial focused ultrasound applications could fulfill a long-term goal of gene therapy: delivering vectors to diseased brain areas directly from the circulation, in a noninvasive manner.
|Regulation of prelamin A but not lamin C by miR-9, a brain-specific microRNA. |
Jung, HJ; Coffinier, C; Choe, Y; Beigneux, AP; Davies, BS; Yang, SH; Barnes, RH; Hong, J; Sun, T; Pleasure, SJ; Young, SG; Fong, LG
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 E423-31 2012
Lamins A and C, alternatively spliced products of the LMNA gene, are key components of the nuclear lamina. The two isoforms are found in similar amounts in most tissues, but we observed an unexpected pattern of expression in the brain. Western blot and immunohistochemistry studies showed that lamin C is abundant in the mouse brain, whereas lamin A and its precursor prelamin A are restricted to endothelial cells and meningeal cells and are absent in neurons and glia. Prelamin A transcript levels were low in the brain, but this finding could not be explained by alternative splicing. In lamin A-only knockin mice, where alternative splicing is absent and all the output of the gene is channeled into prelamin A transcripts, large amounts of lamin A were found in peripheral tissues, but there was very little lamin A in the brain. Also, in knockin mice expressing exclusively progerin (a toxic form of prelamin A found in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome), the levels of progerin in the brain were extremely low. Further studies showed that prelamin A expression, but not lamin C expression, is down-regulated by a brain-specific microRNA, miR-9. Expression of miR-9 in cultured cells reduced lamin A expression, and this effect was abolished when the miR-9-binding site in the prelamin A 3' UTR was mutated. The down-regulation of prelamin A expression in the brain could explain why mouse models of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome are free of central nervous system pathology.
|Temporal deletion of Arl13b reveals that a mispatterned neural tube corrects cell fate over time. |
Su, CY; Bay, SN; Mariani, LE; Hillman, MJ; Caspary, T
Development (Cambridge, England) 139 4062-71 2012
Cilia are necessary for sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, which is required to pattern the neural tube. We know that ventral neural cell fates are defined by a specific cohort of transcription factors that are induced by distinct thresholds of Shh activity mediated by opposing gradients of Gli activator (GliA) and Gli repressor (GliR). Despite this understanding, the role of Shh as an instructive morphogen is viewed as increasingly complex, with current models integrating positive inputs in terms of ligand concentration and time, along with negative feedback via the downstream gene regulatory network. To investigate the relative contributions of the positive and negative inputs from Shh signaling in neural patterning, we took advantage of a protein that uncouples the regulation of GliA and GliR: the cilia protein ADP-ribosylation factor-like 13b (Arl13b). By deleting Arl13b in mouse, we induced low-level constitutive GliA function at specific developmental stages and defined a crucial period prior to E10.5 when shifts in the level of GliA cause cells to change their fate. Strikingly, we found that improperly patterned cells in these mice converted to the wild-type pattern by E12.5. We further showed that the recovery of patterning did not occur when we also deleted Gli3, the primary GliR in the neural tube, revealing a crucial role of Gli3 in the maintenance of neural patterning.
|Identification of global alteration of translational regulation in glioma in vivo. |
Helmy, K; Halliday, J; Fomchenko, E; Setty, M; Pitter, K; Hafemeister, C; Holland, EC
PloS one 7 e46965 2012
Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression contributes to the protein output of a cell, however, methods for measuring translational regulation in complex in vivo systems are lacking. Here, we describe a sensitive method for measuring translational regulation in defined cell populations from heterogeneous tissue in vivo. We adapted the translating ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) methodology to measure the relative occupancy of individual mRNA transcripts in translating ribosomes in the Olig2-positive tumor cell population in a genetically engineered mouse model (GEM) of glioma. Global measurement of paired ribosome-bound and total cellular mRNA populations from tumor cells in vivo identified a broad distribution of relative ribosome occupancies amongst mRNA species that was highly reproducible across biological samples. Comparison of the translation state of glioma cells to non-transformed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in normal brain identified global alteration of translation in tumor, and specifically of genes involved in cell division and synthetic metabolism. Furthermore, investigation of alteration in steady state translational efficiencies upon loss of PTEN, one of the most frequently mutated and deleted tumor suppressors in glioma, identified differential translation of proteins involved in cellular respiration, canonically regulated by PI3K/Akt signaling, and cellular glycosylation profiles, deregulation of which is known to be associated with tumor progression. Application of the translation efficiency profiling method described here to other biological contexts and conditions would extend our knowledge of the scope and impact of this important mode of gene regulation in complex in vivo systems.
|PCP effector proteins inturned and fuzzy play nonredundant roles in the patterning but not convergent extension of mammalian neural tube. |
Heydeck W, Liu A.
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 240 1938-48 2011
PCP effector proteins Inturned (Intu) and Fuzzy (Fuz) play important roles in mammalian neural development and ciliogenesis, but the developmental defects in Intu and Fuz mutants are not the same as those with the complete loss of cilia. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether mouse Intu and Fuz play a role in convergent extension, a process regulated by PCP signaling. In the current study, we show that the functions of both Intu and Fuz in neural tube patterning are dependent on the presence of cilia. We further show that neither gene exhibits obvious genetic interaction with the core PCP regulator Vangl2 in convergent extension or patterning of the neural tube. Finally, we show in Intu; Fuz double mutants that the lack of convergent extension and more severe patterning defects in Intu and Fuz mutants does not result from a functional redundancy between these two proteins. Developmental Dynamics 240:1938-1948, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
|Brain abnormalities and glioma-like lesions in mice overexpressing the long isoform of PDGF-A in astrocytic cells. |
Nazarenko, I; Hedrén, A; Sjödin, H; Orrego, A; Andrae, J; Afink, GB; Nistér, M; Lindström, MS
PloS one 6 e18303 2011
Deregulation of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling is a hallmark of malignant glioma. Two alternatively spliced PDGF-A mRNAs have been described, corresponding to a long (L) and a short (S) isoform of PDGF-A. In contrast to PDGF-A(S), the PDGF-A(L) isoform has a lysine and arginine rich carboxy-terminal extension that acts as an extracellular matrix retention motif. However, the exact role of PDGF-A(L) and how it functionally differs from the shorter isoform is not well understood.We overexpressed PDGF-A(L) as a transgene under control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter in the mouse brain. This directs expression of the transgene to astrocytic cells and GFAP expressing neural stem cells throughout the developing and adult central nervous system. Transgenic mice exhibited a phenotype with enlarged skull at approximately 6-16 weeks of age and they died between 1.5 months and 2 years of age. We detected an increased number of undifferentiated cells in all areas of transgene expression, such as in the subependymal zone around the lateral ventricle and in the cerebellar medulla. The cells stained positive for Pdgfr-α, Olig2 and NG2 but this population did only partially overlap with cells positive for Gfap and the transgene reporter. Interestingly, a few mice presented with overt neoplastic glioma-like lesions composed of both Olig2 and Gfap positive cell populations and with microvascular proliferation, in a wild-type p53 background.Our findings show that PDGF-A(L) can induce accumulation of immature cells in the mouse brain. The strong expression of NG2, Pdgfr-α and Olig2 in PDGF-A(L) brains suggests that a fraction of these cells are oligodendrocyte progenitors. In addition, accumulation of fluid in the subarachnoid space and skull enlargement indicate that an increased intracranial pressure contributed to the observed lethality.
|Local and retrograde gene transfer into primate neuronal pathways via adeno-associated virus serotype 8 and 9. |
Masamizu Y, Okada T, Kawasaki K, Ishibashi H, Yuasa S, Takeda S, Hasegawa I, Nakahara K.
Neuroscience 193 249-58 2011
Viral vector-mediated gene transfer has become increasingly valuable for primate brain research, in particular for application of genetic methods (e.g. optogenetics) to study neuronal circuit functions. Neuronal cell tropisms and infection patterns are viable options for obtaining viral vector-mediated transgene delivery that is selective for particular neuronal pathways. For example, several types of viral vectors can infect axon terminals (retrograde infections), which enables targeted transgene delivery to neurons that directly project to a particular viral injection region. Although recent studies in rodents have demonstrated that adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) and 9 (AAV9) efficiently transduce neurons, the tropisms and infection patterns remain poorly understood in primate brains. Here, we constructed recombinant AAV8 or AAV9, which expressed an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene driven by a ubiquitous promoter (AAV8-EGFP and AAV9-EGFP, respectively), and stereotaxically injected it into several brain regions in marmosets and macaque monkeys. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed almost exclusive colocalization of EGFP fluorescence via AAV9-mediated gene transfer with a neuron-specific marker, indicating endogenous neuronal tropism of AAV9, which was consistent with our previous results utilizing AAV8. Injections of either AAV8-EGFP or AAV9-EGFP into the marmoset striatum resulted in EGFP expression in local striatal neurons as a result of local infection, as well as expression in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra via retrograde transport along nigrostriatal axonal projections. Retrograde infections were also observed in the frontal cortex and thalamus, which are known to have direct projections to the striatum. These local and retrograde gene transfers were further demonstrated in the geniculocortical pathway of the marmoset visual system. These findings indicate promising capabilities of AAV8 and AAV9 to deliver molecular tools into a range of primate neural systems in pathway-specific manners through their neuronal tropisms and infection patterns.
|Human glial-restricted progenitors survive, proliferate, and preserve electrophysiological function in rats with focal inflammatory spinal cord demyelination. |
Walczak, P; All, AH; Rumpal, N; Gorelik, M; Kim, H; Maybhate, A; Agrawal, G; Campanelli, JT; Gilad, AA; Kerr, DA; Bulte, JW
Glia 59 499-510 2011
Transplantation of glial progenitor cells results in transplant-derived myelination and improved function in rodents with genetic dysmyelination or chemical demyelination. However, glial cell transplantation in adult CNS inflammatory demyelinating models has not been well studied. Here we transplanted human glial-restricted progenitor (hGRP) cells into the spinal cord of adult rats with inflammatory demyelination, and monitored cell fate in chemically immunosuppressed animals. We found that hGRPs migrate extensively, expand within inflammatory spinal cord lesions, do not form tumors, and adopt a mature glial phenotype, albeit at a low rate. Human GRP-transplanted rats, but not controls, exhibited preserved electrophysiological conduction across the spinal cord, though no differences in behavioral improvement were noted between the two groups. Although these hGRPs myelinated extensively after implantation into neonatal shiverer mouse brain, only marginal remyelination was observed in the inflammatory spinal cord demyelination model. The low rate of transplant-derived myelination in adult rat spinal cord may reflect host age, species, transplant environment/location, and/or immune suppression regime differences. We conclude that hGRPs have the capacity to myelinate dysmyelinated neonatal rodent brain and preserve conduction in the inflammatory demyelinated adult rodent spinal cord. The latter benefit is likely dependent on trophic support and suggests further exploration of potential of glial progenitors in animal models of chronic inflammatory demyelination.
|Dorsally and ventrally derived oligodendrocytes have similar electrical properties but myelinate preferred tracts. |
Tripathi, Richa B, et al.
J. Neurosci., 31: 6809-19 (2011) 2011
In the developing spinal cord, most oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs) arise from the ventral ventricular zone (VZ) under the influence of Sonic Hedgehog, but a minority are generated from the dorsal VZ in a Hedgehog-independent manner. In the developing forebrain too, OLPs arise from both the ventral and the dorsal VZ. It is not known whether dorsally and ventrally derived oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells have different properties. We generated a dual reporter mouse line to color code ventrally and dorsally derived OLPs (vOLPs and dOLPs) and their differentiated oligodendrocyte progeny (vOLs and dOLs) for functional studies. We found that ∼80% of OL lineage cells in the postnatal spinal cord and ∼20% in the corpus callosum are ventrally derived. In both spinal cord and corpus callosum, vOLPs and dOLPs had indistinguishable electrical properties, as did vOLs and dOLs. However, vOLPs and dOLPs had different migration and settling patterns. In the spinal cord, vOLPs appeared early and spread uniformly throughout the cord, whereas dOLPs arrived later and remained mainly in the dorsal and dorsolateral funiculi. During adulthood, corticospinal and rubrospinal tracts became myelinated mainly by dOLs, even though vOLs dominated these tracts during early postnatal life. Thus, dOLPs are electrically similar to vOLPs but appear to outcompete them for dorsal axons.
|Protective effects of haloperidol and clozapine on energy-deprived OLN-93 oligodendrocytes. |
Johann Steiner,Zoltán Sarnyai,Sabine Westphal,Tomasz Gos,Hans-Gert Bernstein,Bernhard Bogerts,Gerburg Keilhoff
European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 261 2011
Magnetic resonance imaging and postmortem studies on schizophrenia provided evidence for compromised myelin integrity and reduced numbers of oligodendrocytes, which may worsen during the disease course. However, it is not clear whether these findings result from disease-inherent oligodendrocyte degeneration or side effects of antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, effects of haloperidol and clozapine on the viability and apoptosis of immature oligodendrocytes (OLN-93 cells, immunopositive for NG2, Olig1, Olig2) have been evaluated in the present study by labeling with propidium iodide and a caspase 3 assay. Given the indications for impaired cerebral energy supply in schizophrenia, a serum and glucose deprivation (SGD) model was chosen in comparison with the basal condition (BC). SGD led to increased necrotic and apoptotic cell death. Haloperidol and clozapine were partially protective in this model and reduced the percentage of propidium iodide-positive cells, while caspase 3 activity was not altered. No significant drug effects were observed under BC. The observed protective effects of haloperidol and clozapine on energy-deprived OLN-93 oligodendrocytes suggest that previously reported reductions in oligodendrocyte density in schizophrenia are rather disease related than a side effect of medication. A new mechanism of antipsychotic action is suggested, which may help to establish new oligodendrocyte-directed therapies of schizophrenia.
|Human neural progenitors from different foetal forebrain regions remyelinate the adult mouse spinal cord. |
Buchet, D; Garcia, C; Deboux, C; Nait-Oumesmar, B; Baron-Van Evercooren, A
Brain : a journal of neurology 134 1168-83 2011
Improving oligodendroglial differentiation from human foetal neural progenitor cells remains a primordial issue to accomplish successful cell-based therapies in myelin diseases. Here, we combined in situ, in vitro and in vivo approaches to assess the oligodendrogenic potential of different human foetal forebrain regions during the first trimester of gestation. We show for the first time that the initial wave of oligodendrocyte progenitor emergence in the ventral telencephalon onsets as early as 7.5 weeks into gestation. Interestingly, in vitro, isolation of ganglionic eminences yielded oligodendrocyte progenitor-enriched cultures, as compared with cortex and thalamus. Most importantly, single injection of human neural progenitors into rodent models of focal gliotoxic demyelination revealed the great capacity of these cells to survive, extensively migrate and successfully remyelinate the spinal cord, irrespective of their origin. Thus, our study brings novel insights into the biology of early human foetal neural progenitor cells and offers new support for the development of cellular therapeutics for myelin disorders.
|Effects of d-3-hydroxybutyrate treatment on hypoglycemic coma in rat pups. |
Peter W Schutz,Peter K H Wong,John O'Kusky,Sheila M Innis,Sylvia Stockler
Experimental neurology 227 2011
d-3-Hydroxybutyrate (3OHB) is an alternative energy substrate for the brain during hypoglycemia, especially in infancy. Knowledge of the capacity and limits of 3OHB to compensate for cerebral glucose depletion during hypoglycemia in developing brain is important for its potential clinical use, but is scarce. We studied the effect of 3OHB treatment during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in 13-day-old rat pups. 3OHB treatment resulted in increased 3OHB plasma levels in hypoglycemic animals (3-4mM vs. 0.5-1mM untreated), and delayed the onset of clinical coma by 70min and of burst-suppression coma by 90min. 3OHB treated animals did not survive after resuscitation with glucose, compared to 80% survival of untreated hypoglycemic pups. Cleaved-caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and double labeling studies demonstrated a 20-fold increase of apoptotic mature oligodendrocytes in white matter of 3OHB treated animals. 3OHB treatment delays the onset of clinical and burst-suppression coma during hypoglycemia, but the prolonged duration of hypoglycemia is associated with increased mortality after resuscitation and cellular white matter injury.
|BRAF activation induces transformation and then senescence in human neural stem cells: a pilocytic astrocytoma model. |
Raabe, EH; Lim, KS; Kim, JM; Meeker, A; Mao, XG; Nikkhah, G; Maciaczyk, J; Kahlert, U; Jain, D; Bar, E; Cohen, KJ; Eberhart, CG
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 17 3590-9 2011
BRAF is frequently activated by gene fusion or point mutation in pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common pediatric brain tumor. We investigated the functional effect of constitutive BRAF activation in normal human neural stem and progenitor cells to determine its role in tumor induction in the brain.The constitutively active BRAF(V600E) allele was introduced into human neurospheres, and its effects on MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) signaling, proliferation, soft agarose colony formation, stem cell phenotype, and induction of cellular senescence were assayed. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine p16(INK4a) levels in pilocytic astrocytoma.BRAF(V600E) expression initially strongly promoted colony formation but did not lead to significantly increased proliferation. BRAF(V600E)-expressing cells subsequently stopped proliferating and induced markers of oncogene-induced senescence including acidic β-galactosidase, PAI-1, and p16(INK4a) whereas controls did not. Onset of senescence was associated with decreased expression of neural stem cell markers including SOX2. Primary pilocytic astrocytoma cultures also showed induction of acidic β-galactosidase activity. Immunohistochemical examination of 66 pilocytic astrocytomas revealed p16(INK4a) immunoreactivity in the majority of cases, but patients with tumors negative for p16(INK4a) had significantly shorter overall survival.BRAF activation in human neural stem and progenitor cells initially promotes clonogenic growth in soft agarose, suggesting partial cellular transformation, but oncogene-induced senescence subsequently limits proliferation. Induction of senescence by BRAF may help explain the low-grade pathobiology of pilocytic astrocytoma, whereas worse clinical outcomes associated with tumors lacking p16(INK4a) expression could reflect failure to induce senescence or an escape from oncogene-induced senescence.
|Intrauterine growth restriction affects the maturation of myelin. |
Mary Tolcos,Elizabeth Bateman,Rachael O'Dowd,Rachel Markwick,Krijn Vrijsen,Alexandra Rehn,Sandra Rees
Experimental neurology 232 2011
Intrauterine growth-restriction (IUGR) can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae in postnatal life. Our objective was to determine whether IUGR, induced by chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) in the guinea pig results in long-term deficits in brain myelination and could therefore contribute to altered neural function. CPI was induced by unilateral ligation of the uterine artery at mid-gestation (term~67 days of gestation; dg), producing growth-restricted (GR) foetuses (60 dg), neonates (1 week) and young adults (8 week); controls were from the unligated horn or sham-operated animals. In GR foetuses (n=8) and neonates (n=7), white matter (WM) volume was reduced (p<0.05); this reduction did not persist in young adults (n=11) however the corpus callosum width was reduced (p<0.05). Immunoreactivity (IR) for myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and myelin proteolipid protein (PLP), all markers of myelinating oligodendrocytes (OL), was reduced in GR foetuses compared to controls. MBP was the most markedly affected with an abnormal retention of protein in the OL soma and a reduction of its incorporation into the myelin sheath. MAG-IR OL density was reduced (p<0.05), while the density of OLs immunoreactive for Olig-2, a transcription factor expressed throughout the entire OL lineage, was increased (p<0.05). MBP-, MAG- and PLP-IR recovered to control levels postnatally. These results suggest that IUGR transiently delays OL maturation and myelination in utero but that myelination and WM volume are restored to control levels postnatally. Long-term deficits in myelination are therefore unlikely to be the major factor underlying the altered neurological function which can be associated with IUGR.
|Rapid and robust generation of functional oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from epiblast stem cells. |
Najm, FJ; Zaremba, A; Caprariello, AV; Nayak, S; Freundt, EC; Scacheri, PC; Miller, RH; Tesar, PJ
Nature methods 8 957-62 2011
Myelin-related disorders such as multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, for which restoration of oligodendrocyte function would be an effective treatment, are poised to benefit greatly from stem cell biology. Progress in myelin repair has been constrained by difficulties in generating pure populations of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in sufficient quantities. Pluripotent stem cells theoretically provide an unlimited source of OPCs, but current differentiation strategies are poorly reproducible and generate heterogenous populations of cells. Here we provide a platform for the directed differentiation of pluripotent mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) through defined developmental transitions into a pure population of highly expandable OPCs in 10 d. These OPCs robustly differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that mouse pluripotent stem cells provide a pure population of myelinogenic oligodendrocytes and offer a tractable platform for defining the molecular regulation of oligodendrocyte development and drug screening.
|Overlapping roles and collective requirement for the coreceptors GAS1, CDO, and BOC in SHH pathway function. |
Allen, BL; Song, JY; Izzi, L; Althaus, IW; Kang, JS; Charron, F; Krauss, RS; McMahon, AP
Developmental cell 20 775-87 2011
Secreted Hedgehog (HH) ligands signal through the canonical receptor Patched (PTCH1). However, recent studies implicate three additional HH-binding, cell-surface proteins, GAS1, CDO, and BOC, as putative coreceptors for HH ligands. A central question is to what degree these coreceptors function similarly and what their collective requirement in HH signal transduction is. Here we provide evidence that GAS1, CDO, and BOC play overlapping and essential roles during HH-mediated ventral neural patterning of the mammalian neural tube. Specifically, we demonstrate two important roles for these molecules: an early role in cell fate specification of multiple neural progenitors and a later role in motor neuron progenitor maintenance. Most strikingly, genetic loss-of-function experiments indicate an obligatory requirement for GAS1, CDO, and BOC in HH pathway activity in multiple tissues.
|The probable cell of origin of NF1- and PDGF-driven glioblastomas. |
Hambardzumyan, D; Cheng, YK; Haeno, H; Holland, EC; Michor, F
PloS one 6 e24454 2011
Primary glioblastomas are subdivided into several molecular subtypes. There is an ongoing debate over the cell of origin for these tumor types where some suggest a progenitor while others argue for a stem cell origin. Even within the same molecular subgroup, and using lineage tracing in mouse models, different groups have reached different conclusions. We addressed this problem from a combined mathematical modeling and experimental standpoint. We designed a novel mathematical framework to identify the most likely cells of origin of two glioma subtypes. Our mathematical model of the unperturbed in vivo system predicts that if a genetic event contributing to tumor initiation imparts symmetric self-renewing cell division (such as PDGF overexpression), then the cell of origin is a transit amplifier. Otherwise, the initiating mutations arise in stem cells. The mathematical framework was validated with the RCAS/tv-a system of somatic gene transfer in mice. We demonstrated that PDGF-induced gliomas can be derived from GFAP-expressing cells of the subventricular zone or the cortex (reactive astrocytes), thus validating the predictions of our mathematical model. This interdisciplinary approach allowed us to determine the likelihood that individual cell types serve as the cells of origin of gliomas in an unperturbed system.
|Spatiotemporal fate map of neurogenin1 (Neurog1) lineages in the mouse central nervous system. |
Kim, EJ; Hori, K; Wyckoff, A; Dickel, LK; Koundakjian, EJ; Goodrich, LV; Johnson, JE
The Journal of comparative neurology 519 1355-70 2011
Neurog1 (Ngn1, Neurod3, neurogenin1) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor essential for neuronal differentiation and subtype specification during embryogenesis. Due to the transient expression of Neurog1 and extensive migration of neuronal precursors, it has been challenging to understand the full complement of Neurog1 lineage cells throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Here we labeled and followed Neurog1 lineages using inducible Cre-flox recombination systems with Neurog1-Cre and Neurog1-CreER(T2) BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mice. Neurog1 lineage cells are restricted to neuronal fates and contribute to diverse but discrete populations in each brain region. In the forebrain, Neurog1 lineages include mitral cells and glutamatergic interneurons in the olfactory bulb, pyramidal and granule neurons in the hippocampus, and pyramidal cells in the cortex. In addition, most of the thalamus, but not the hypothalamus, arises from Neurog1 progenitors. Although Neurog1 lineages are largely restricted to glutamatergic neurons, there are multiple exceptions including Purkinje cells and other GABAergic neurons in the cerebellum. This study provides the first overview of the spatiotemporal fate map of Neurog1 lineages in the CNS.
|A novel transient glutamatergic population migrating from the pallial-subpallial boundary contributes to neocortical development. |
Teissier, A; Griveau, A; Vigier, L; Piolot, T; Borello, U; Pierani, A
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 10563-74 2010
The generation of a precise number of neural cells and the determination of their laminar fate are tightly controlled processes during development of the cerebral cortex. Using genetic tracing in mice, we have identified a population of glutamatergic neurons generated by Dbx1-expressing progenitors at the pallial-subpallial boundary predominantly at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and subsequent to Cajal-Retzius cells. We show that these neurons migrate tangentially to populate the cortical plate (CP) at all rostrocaudal and mediolateral levels by E14.5. At birth, they homogeneously populate cortical areas and represent less than 5% of cortical cells. However, they are distributed into neocortical layers according to their birthdates and express the corresponding markers of glutamatergic differentiation (Tbr1, ER81, Cux2, Ctip2). Notably, this population dies massively by apoptosis at the completion of corticogenesis and represents 50% of dying neurons in the postnatal day 0 cortex. Specific genetic ablation of these transient Dbx1-derived CP neurons leads to a 20% decrease in neocortical cell numbers in perinatal animals. Our results show that a previously unidentified transient population of glutamatergic neurons migrates from extraneocortical regions over long distance from their generation site and participates in neocortical radial growth in a non-cell-autonomous manner.
|Hypoxia-ischemia induces an endogenous reparative response by local neural progenitors in the postnatal mouse telencephalon. |
Dizon, M; Szele, F; Kessler, JA
Developmental neuroscience 32 173-83 2010
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in the preterm neonate commonly results in white matter injury for which there is no specific therapy. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain harbors neural stem cells and more committed progenitors including oligodendroglial progenitor cells that might serve as replacement cells for treating white matter injury. Data from rodent models suggest limited replacement of mature oligodendroglia by endogenous cells. Rare newly born mature oligodendrocytes have been reported within the striatum, corpus callosum and infarcted cortex 1 month following hypoxia-ischemia. Whether these oligodendrocytes arise in situ or emigrate from the SVZ is unknown. We used a postnatal day 9 mouse model of hypoxia-ischemia, BrdU labeling of mitotic cells, immunofluorescence and time-lapse multiphoton microscopy to determine whether hypoxia-ischemia increases production of oligodendroglial progenitors within the SVZ with emigration toward injured areas. Although cells of the oligodendroglial lineage increased in the brain ipsilateral to hypoxic-ischemic injury, they did not originate from the SVZ but rather arose within the striatum and cortex. Furthermore, they resulted from proliferation within the striatum but not within the cortex. Thus, an endogenous regenerative oligodendroglial response to postnatal hypoxia-ischemia occurs locally, with minimal long-distance contribution by cells of the SVZ.Artículo Texto completo
|The HUDSEN Atlas: a three-dimensional (3D) spatial framework for studying gene expression in the developing human brain. |
Kerwin, J; Yang, Y; Merchan, P; Sarma, S; Thompson, J; Wang, X; Sandoval, J; Puelles, L; Baldock, R; Lindsay, S
Journal of anatomy 217 289-99 2010
We are developing a three-dimensional (3D) atlas of the human embryonic brain using anatomical landmarks and gene expression data to define major subdivisions through 12 stages of development [Carnegie Stages (CS) 12-23; approximately 26-56 days post conception (dpc)]. Virtual 3D anatomical models are generated from intact specimens using optical projection tomography (OPT). Using MAPAINT software, selected gene expression data, gathered using standard methods of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, are mapped to a representative 3D model for each chosen Carnegie stage. In these models, anatomical domains, defined on the basis of morphological landmarks and comparative knowledge of expression patterns in vertebrates, are linked to a developmental neuroanatomic ontology. Human gene expression patterns for genes with characteristic expression in different vertebrates (e.g. PAX6, GAD65 and OLIG2) are being used to confirm and/or refine the human anatomical domain boundaries. We have also developed interpolation software that digitally generates a full domain from partial data. Currently, the 3D models and a preliminary set of anatomical domains and ontology are available on the atlas pages along with gene expression data from approximately 100 genes in the HUDSEN Human Spatial Gene Expression Database (http://www.hudsen.org). The aim is that full 3D data will be generated from expression data used to define a more detailed set of anatomical domains linked to a more advanced anatomy ontology and all of these will be available online, contributing to the long-term goal of the atlas, which is to help maximize the effective use and dissemination of data wherever it is generated.Artículo Texto completo
|Erythropoietin is neuroprotective in a preterm ovine model of endotoxin-induced brain injury. |
Rees S, Hale N, De Matteo R, Cardamone L, Tolcos M, Loeliger M, Mackintosh A, Shields A, Probyn M, Greenwood D, Harding R
Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology 69 306-19 2010
Intrauterine infection and inflammation have been linked to preterm birth and brain damage. We hypothesized that recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) would ameliorate brain damage in anovine model of fetal inflammation. At 107 +/- 1 day of gestational age (DGA), chronically catheterized fetal sheep received on 3 consecutive days 1) an intravenous bolus dose of lipopolysaccharide ([LPS] approximately 0.9 mug/kg; n = 8); 2) an intravenous bolus dose of LPS, followed at 1 hour by 5,000 IU/kg of rhEPO (LPS + rhEPO, n = 8); or 3) rhEPO (n = 5). Untreated fetuses (n = 8) served as controls. Fetal physiological parameters were monitored, and fetal brains and optic nerves were histologically examined at 116 +/- 1 DGA. Exposure to LPS, but not to rhEPO alone or saline, resulted in fetal hypoxemia, hypotension (p < 0.05), brain damage, including white matter injury, and reductions in numbers of myelinating oligodendrocytes in the corticospinal tract and myelinated axons in the optic nerve (p < 0.05 for both). Treatment of LPS-exposed fetuses with rhEPO did not alter the physiological effects of LPS but reduced brain injury and was beneficial to myelination in the corticospinal tract and the optic nerve. This is the first study in a long-gestation species to demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of rhEPO in reducing fetal brain and optic nerve injury after LPS exposure.
|A common progenitor for retinal astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. |
Rompani, SB; Cepko, CL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 30 4970-80 2010
Developing neural tissue undergoes a period of neurogenesis followed by a period of gliogenesis. The lineage relationships among glial cell types have not been defined for most areas of the nervous system. Here we use retroviruses to label clones of glial cells in the chick retina. We found that almost every clone had both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In addition, we discovered a novel glial cell type, with features intermediate between those of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which we have named the diacyte. Diacytes also share a progenitor cell with both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
|Loss of ATM/Chk2/p53 pathway components accelerates tumor development and contributes to radiation resistance in gliomas. |
Squatrito, M; Brennan, CW; Helmy, K; Huse, JT; Petrini, JH; Holland, EC
Cancer cell 18 619-29 2010
Maintenance of genomic integrity is essential for adult tissue homeostasis and defects in the DNA-damage response (DDR) machinery are linked to numerous pathologies including cancer. Here, we present evidence that the DDR exerts tumor suppressor activity in gliomas. We show that genes encoding components of the DDR pathway are frequently altered in human gliomas and that loss of elements of the ATM/Chk2/p53 cascade accelerates tumor formation in a glioma mouse model. We demonstrate that Chk2 is required for glioma response to ionizing radiation in vivo and is necessary for DNA-damage checkpoints in the neuronal stem cell compartment. Finally, we observed that the DDR is constitutively activated in a subset of human GBMs, and such activation correlates with regions of hypoxia.
|Intra-operatively obtained human tissue: protocols and techniques for the study of neural stem cells. |
Chaichana, KL; Guerrero-Cazares, H; Capilla-Gonzalez, V; Zamora-Berridi, G; Achanta, P; Gonzalez-Perez, O; Jallo, GI; Garcia-Verdugo, JM; Quiñones-Hinojosa, A
Journal of neuroscience methods 180 116-25 2009
The discoveries of neural (NSCs) and brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) in the adult human brain and in brain tumors, respectively, have led to a new era in neuroscience research. These cells represent novel approaches to studying normal phenomena such as memory and learning, as well as pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, and brain tumors. This new paradigm stresses the importance of understanding how these cells behave in vitro and in vivo. It also stresses the need to use human-derived tissue to study human disease because animal models may not necessarily accurately replicate the processes that occur in humans. An important, but often underused, source of human tissue and, consequently, both NSCs and BTSCs, is the operating room. This study describes in detail both current and newly developed laboratory techniques, which in our experience are used to process and study human NSCs and BTSCs from tissue obtained directly from the operating room.Artículo Texto completo
|GFAP-Cre-mediated activation of oncogenic K-ras results in expansion of the subventricular zone and infiltrating glioma. |
Abel, TW; Clark, C; Bierie, B; Chytil, A; Aakre, M; Gorska, A; Moses, HL
Molecular cancer research : MCR 7 645-53 2009
A subset of neoplastic cells within human high-grade gliomas has features associated with stem cells. These cells may sustain glioma growth, and their stem-like properties may confer resistance to standard glioma treatments. Whether glioma stem cells derive from indigenous neural stem cells (NSC), or from tumor cells that have reacquired stem cell-like properties, is unknown. However, signaling pathways that are tightly regulated and central to NSC biology, including the Ras/Raf/Erk pathway, are hyperactive and pathogenic in gliomagenesis. Furthermore, data in animal models suggests that, in some cases, tumors are initiated in the subventricular zone (SVZ), a stem/progenitor cell niche in the mature brain. We activated oncogenic K-ras in mouse glioneuronal precursor cells and adult SVZ cells using GFAP-Cre. GFAP-Cre+/K-ras(G12D) mice showed a marked expansion of glial fibriallary acidic protein (GFAP)- and TUJ1-expressing cell populations in the SVZ. In addition, mice developed intermediate grade, infiltrating glioma with 100% penetrance. Tumors were consistently located in the amygdalohippocampal region and nearby cortex, often in association with the lateral ventricle and expanded SVZ. Tumor cells expressed markers associated with neural progenitor cells, including Olig2, Bmi-1, and PDGFR-alpha. These data suggest that infiltrating tumor cells may arise from NSC transformed by activation of oncogenic K-ras in vivo.
|Phosphorylation of the par polarity complex protein Par3 at serine 962 is mediated by aurora a and regulates its function in neuronal polarity. |
Khazaei MR, Puschel AW
The Journal of biological chemistry 284 33571-9 2009
The Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that perform important functions during the cell cycle. Recently, it was shown that Drosophila Aurora A also regulates the asymmetric localization of Numb to the basal and the partitioning-defective (Par) complex to the apical cortex of neuroblasts by phosphorylating Par6. Here, we show that Aurora A is required for neuronal polarity. Suppression of Aurora A by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity. Aurora A interacts directly with the atypical protein kinase C binding domain of Par3 and phosphorylates it at serine 962. The phosphorylation of Par3 at serine 962 contributes to its function in the establishment of neuronal polarity.Artículo Texto completo
|Glial clusters and perineuronal glial satellitosis in the basal ganglia of neurofibromatosis type 1. |
Osamu Yokota, Kuniaki Tsuchiya, Masaharu Hayashi, Akiyoshi Kakita, Kiyoshi Ohwada, Hideki Ishizu, Hitoshi Takahashi, Haruhiko Akiyama
Acta neuropathologica 116 57-66 2008
Recent biochemical studies demonstrated that astrocytic differentiation and growth regulation are impaired in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, non-neoplastic morphological abnormalities of glial cells in the NF1 brain have been hardly explored. We describe here characteristic glial lesions in the basal ganglia in three NF1 cases (age at death in cases 1-3: 77, 6.5, and 11 years). Clusters of 3-10 dysplastic cells similar to reactive astrocytes were observed in the amygdala, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus in cases 1 and 2. Gigantic astrocyte-like glial cells were noted in case 2. Perineuronal glial satellitosis was observed in the amygdala in case 1. Many glial clusters were encountered in case 3 as well, but the round nuclei of the glial cells were more hyperchromatic and showed more remarkable variation in size than those in the other cases. Glial clusters in all cases were glial fibrillary acidic protein- and/or vimentin-positive, but synaptophysin-, myelin basic protein-, and olig2-negative. The glial lesions in cases 1 and 3 were excitatory amino acid transporters 1 (EAAT1)- and EAAT2-negative, and those in case 2 EAAT1- and EAAT2-weakly positive. Proliferation markers Ki-67, proliferation cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 were not expressed in any lesion. Glial clusters in case 3 showed weak to intense immunoreactivity to nestin, a stem cell marker protein. The brains of 19 cases including 14 with various degenerative diseases and five normal brains used as controls lacked the glial lesions observed in NF1 cases. Given these findings, glial clusters and perineuronal glial satellitosis may be histopathological features of the NF1 brain and are probably associated with altered regulation of astrocyte growth in NF1.
|NMDA receptor blockade with memantine attenuates white matter injury in a rat model of periventricular leukomalacia. |
Manning, SM; Talos, DM; Zhou, C; Selip, DB; Park, HK; Park, CJ; Volpe, JJ; Jensen, FE
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 6670-8 2008
Hypoxia-ischemia (H/I) in the premature infant leads to white matter injury termed periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the leading cause of subsequent neurological deficits. Glutamatergic excitotoxicity in white matter oligodendrocytes (OLs) mediated by cell surface glutamate receptors (GluRs) of the AMPA subtype has been demonstrated as one factor in this injury. Recently, it has been shown that rodent OLs also express functional NMDA GluRs (NMDARs), and overactivation of these receptors can mediate excitotoxic OL injury. Here we show that preterm human developing OLs express NMDARs during the PVL period of susceptibility, presenting a potential therapeutic target. The expression pattern mirrors that seen in the immature rat. Furthermore, the uncompetitive NMDAR antagonist memantine attenuates NMDA-evoked currents in developing OLs in situ in cerebral white matter of immature rats. Using an H/I rat model of white matter injury, we show in vivo that post-H/I treatment with memantine attenuates acute loss of the developing OL cell surface marker O1 and the mature OL marker MBP (myelin basic protein), and also prevents the long-term reduction in cerebral mantle thickness seen at postnatal day 21 in this model. These protective doses of memantine do not affect normal myelination or cortical growth. Together, these data suggest that NMDAR blockade with memantine may provide an effective pharmacological prevention of PVL in the premature infant.Artículo Texto completo
|Normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis is in a subtle balance between inflammation and neuroprotection. |
Zeis, T; Graumann, U; Reynolds, R; Schaeren-Wiemers, N
Brain : a journal of neurology 131 288-303 2008
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS. Although progressive axonal injury and diffuse inflammatory damage has been shown in the chronic phase of the disease, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these pathological processes. In order to identify these mechanisms, we have studied the gene expression profile in non-lesion containing tissue, the so-called normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). We performed differential gene expression analysis and quantitative RT-PCR on subcortical white matter from 11 multiple sclerosis and 8 control cases. Differentially expressed genes were further analysed in detail by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence studies. We show that genes known to be involved in anti-inflammatory and protective mechanisms such as STAT6, JAK1, IL-4R, IL-10, Chromogranin C and Hif-1alpha are consistently upregulated in the multiple sclerosis NAWM. On the other hand, genes involved in pro-inflammatory mechanisms, such as STAT4, IL-1beta and MCSF, were also upregulated but less regularly. Immunofluorescence colocalization analysis revealed expression of STAT6, JAK1, IL-4R and IL-13R mainly in oligodendrocytes, whereas STAT4 expression was detected predominantly in microglia. In line with these data, in situ hybridization analysis showed an increased expression in multiple sclerosis NAWM of HIF-1alpha in oligodendrocytes and HLA-DRalpha in microglia cells. The consistency of the expression levels of STAT6, JAK1, JAK3 and IL-4R between the multiple sclerosis cases suggests an overall activation of the STAT6-signalling pathway in oligodendrocytes, whereas the expression of STAT4 and HLA-DRalpha indicates the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways in microglia. The upregulation of genes involved in anti-inflammatory mechanisms driven by oligodendrocytes may protect the CNS environment and thus limit lesion formation, whereas the activation of pro-inflammatory mechanisms in microglia may favour disease progression. Altogether, our data suggests an endogenous inflammatory reaction throughout the whole white matter of multiple sclerosis brain, in which oligodendrocytes actively participate. This reaction might further influence and to some extent facilitate lesion formation.
|Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to spinal motor neurons. |
Hynek Wichterle,Mirza Peljto
Current protocols in stem cell biology Chapter 1 2008
Controlled differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into clinically relevant cell types is a fundamental goal of stem cell research. This unit describes one of the most efficient protocols for conversion of mouse ES cells into a defined type of nerve cells, the spinal motor neurons. ES cells are separated from feeder mouse embryonic fibroblasts and aggregated to form embryoid bodies (EBs). Two days after the withdrawal of growth factors, EBs reach a stage at which they are responsive to patterning signals and can be effectively induced with retinoic acid (RA) to differentiate into spinal nerve cells. Nascent neural cells become responsive to the ventralizing signal sonic hedgehog (Hh) that controls expression of ventral spinal progenitor markers and initiates the genetic program of motor neuron differentiation.
|Recovery from chronic demyelination by thyroid hormone therapy: myelinogenesis induction and assessment by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. |
Harsan, LA; Steibel, J; Zaremba, A; Agin, A; Sapin, R; Poulet, P; Guignard, B; Parizel, N; Grucker, D; Boehm, N; Miller, RH; Ghandour, MS
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 14189-201 2008
The failure of the remyelination processes in multiple sclerosis contributes to the formation of chronic demyelinated plaques that lead to severe neurological deficits. Long-term cuprizone treatment of C57BL/6 mice resulted in pronounced white matter pathology characterized by oligodendrocyte depletion, irreversible demyelination and persistent functional deficits after cuprizone withdrawal. The use of a combination of in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) and histological analyses allowed for an accurate longitudinal assessment of demyelination. Injection of triiodothyronine (T(3)) hormone over a 3 week interval after cuprizone withdrawal progressively restored the normal DT-MRI phenotype accompanied by an improvement of clinical signs and remyelination. The effects of T(3) were not restricted to the later stages of remyelination but increased the expression of sonic hedgehog and the numbers of Olig2(+) and PSA-NCAM(+) precursors and proliferative cells. Our findings establish a role for T(3) as an inducer of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in adult mouse brain following chronic demyelination.
|PI3K pathway regulates survival of cancer stem cells residing in the perivascular niche following radiation in medulloblastoma in vivo. |
Hambardzumyan, D; Becher, OJ; Rosenblum, MK; Pandolfi, PP; Manova-Todorova, K; Holland, EC
Genes & development 22 436-48 2008
Medulloblastomas are brain tumors that arise in the cerebellum of children and contain stem cells in a perivascular niche thought to give rise to recurrence following radiation. We used several mouse models of medulloblastomas in parallel to better understand how the critical cell types in these tumors respond to therapy. In our models, the proliferating cells in the tumor bulk undergo radiation-induced, p53-dependent apoptotic cell death. Activation of Akt signaling via PTEN loss transforms these cells to a nonproliferating extensive nodularity morphology. By contrast, the nestin-expressing perivascular stem cells survive radiation, activate PI3K/Akt pathway, undergo p53-dependent cell cycle arrest, and re-enter the cell cycle at 72 h. Furthermore, the ability of these cells to induce p53 is dependent on the presence of PTEN. These cellular characteristics are similar to human medulloblastomas. Finally, inhibition of Akt signaling sensitizes cells in the perivascular region to radiation-induced apoptosis.
|p53 and Pten control neural and glioma stem/progenitor cell renewal and differentiation. |
Zheng, H; Ying, H; Yan, H; Kimmelman, AC; Hiller, DJ; Chen, AJ; Perry, SR; Tonon, G; Chu, GC; Ding, Z; Stommel, JM; Dunn, KL; Wiedemeyer, R; You, MJ; Brennan, C; Wang, YA; Ligon, KL; Wong, WH; Chin, L; DePinho, RA
Nature 455 1129-33 2008
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumour presenting as one of two subtypes with distinct clinical histories and molecular profiles. The primary GBM subtype presents acutely as a high-grade disease that typically harbours mutations in EGFR, PTEN and INK4A/ARF (also known as CDKN2A), and the secondary GBM subtype evolves from the slow progression of a low-grade disease that classically possesses PDGF and TP53 events. Here we show that concomitant central nervous system (CNS)-specific deletion of p53 and Pten in the mouse CNS generates a penetrant acute-onset high-grade malignant glioma phenotype with notable clinical, pathological and molecular resemblance to primary GBM in humans. This genetic observation prompted TP53 and PTEN mutational analysis in human primary GBM, demonstrating unexpectedly frequent inactivating mutations of TP53 as well as the expected PTEN mutations. Integrated transcriptomic profiling, in silico promoter analysis and functional studies of murine neural stem cells (NSCs) established that dual, but not singular, inactivation of p53 and Pten promotes an undifferentiated state with high renewal potential and drives increased Myc protein levels and its associated signature. Functional studies validated increased Myc activity as a potent contributor to the impaired differentiation and enhanced renewal of NSCs doubly null for p53 and Pten (p53(-/-) Pten(-/-)) as well as tumour neurospheres (TNSs) derived from this model. Myc also serves to maintain robust tumorigenic potential of p53(-/-) Pten(-/-) TNSs. These murine modelling studies, together with confirmatory transcriptomic/promoter studies in human primary GBM, validate a pathogenetic role of a common tumour suppressor mutation profile in human primary GBM and establish Myc as an important target for cooperative actions of p53 and Pten in the regulation of normal and malignant stem/progenitor cell differentiation, self-renewal and tumorigenic potential.
|Subretinal delivery of recombinant AAV serotype 8 vector in dogs results in gene transfer to neurons in the brain. |
Stieger, K; Colle, MA; Dubreil, L; Mendes-Madeira, A; Weber, M; Le Meur, G; Deschamps, JY; Provost, N; Nivard, D; Cherel, Y; Moullier, P; Rolling, F
Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy 16 916-23 2008
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are among the most efficient gene delivery vehicles for gene transfer to the retina. This study evaluates the behavior of the rAAV8 serotype vector with regard to intraocular delivery in rats and dogs. Subretinal delivery of an AAV2/8.gfp vector results in efficient gene transfer in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the photoreceptors and, surprisingly, in the cells of the inner nuclear layer as well as in ganglion cells. Most importantly, in dogs, gene transfer also occurred distal to the injection site in neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the brain. Because green fluorescent protein (GFP) was detected along the visual pathway within the brain, we analyzed total DNA extracted from various brain slices using PCR. Vector sequences were detected in many parts of the brain, but chiefly in the contralateral hemisphere.
|Genesis of neuronal and glial progenitors in the cerebellar cortex of peripuberal and adult rabbits. |
Ponti, G; Peretto, P; Bonfanti, L
PloS one 3 e2366 2008
Adult neurogenesis in mammals is restricted to some brain regions, in contrast with other vertebrates in which the genesis of new neurons is more widespread in different areas of the nervous system. In the mammalian cerebellum, neurogenesis is thought to be limited to the early postnatal period, coinciding with end of the granule cell genesis and disappearance of the external granule cell layer (EGL). We recently showed that in the rabbit cerebellum the EGL is replaced by a proliferative layer called 'subpial layer' (SPL) which persists beyond puberty on the cerebellar surface. Here we investigated what happens in the cerebellar cortex of peripuberal rabbits by using endogenous and exogenously-administered cell proliferation antigens in association with a cohort of typical markers for neurogenesis. We show that cortical cell progenitors extensively continue to be generated herein. Surprisingly, this neurogenic process continues to a lesser extent in the adult, even in the absence of a proliferative SPL. We describe two populations of newly generated cells, involving neuronal cells and multipolar, glia-like cells. The genesis of neuronal precursors is restricted to the molecular layer, giving rise to cells immunoreactive for GABA, and for the transcription factor Pax2, a marker for GABAergic cerebellar interneuronal precursors of neuroepithelial origin that ascend through the white matter during early postnatal development. The multipolar cells are Map5+, contain Olig2 and Sox2 transcription factors, and are detectable in all cerebellar layers. Some dividing Sox2+ cells are Bergmann glia cells. All the cortical newly generated cells are independent from the SPL and from granule cell genesis, the latter ending before puberty. This study reveals that adult cerebellar neurogenesis can exist in some mammals. Since rabbits have a longer lifespan than rodents, the protracted neurogenesis within its cerebellar parenchyma could be a suitable model for studying adult nervous tissue permissiveness in mammals.
|A dlx2- and pax6-dependent transcriptional code for periglomerular neuron specification in the adult olfactory bulb. |
Brill, MS; Snapyan, M; Wohlfrom, H; Ninkovic, J; Jawerka, M; Mastick, GS; Ashery-Padan, R; Saghatelyan, A; Berninger, B; Götz, M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 28 6439-52 2008
Distinct olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons are thought to become specified depending on from which of the different subregions lining the lateral ventricle wall they originate, but the role of region-specific transcription factors (TFs) in the generation of OB interneurons diversity is still poorly understood. Despite the crucial roles of the Dlx family of TFs for patterning and neurogenesis in the ventral telencephalon during embryonic development, their role in adult neurogenesis has not yet been addressed. Here we show that in the adult brain, Dlx 1 and Dlx2 are expressed in progenitors of the lateral but not the dorsal subependymal zone (SEZ), thus exhibiting a striking regional specificity. Using retroviral vectors to examine the function of Dlx2 in a cell-autonomous manner, we demonstrate that this TF is necessary for neurogenesis of virtually all OB interneurons arising from the lateral SEZ. Beyond its function in generic neurogenesis, Dlx2 also plays a crucial role in neuronal subtype specification in the OB, promoting specification of adult-born periglomerular neurons (PGNs) toward a dopaminergic fate. Strikingly, Dlx2 requires interaction with Pax6, because Pax6 deletion blocks Dlx2-mediated PGN specification. Thus, Dlx2 wields a dual function by first instructing generic neurogenesis from adult precursors and subsequently specifying PGN subtypes in conjunction with Pax6.
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|Derivation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from a human neural stem cell line|
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|Cellutions - The newsletter for Cell Biology Researchers Volume 3: 2011|