Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Po, R, Rb, Lz, M||IHC||R||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Serotonin Antibody, clone YC5/45|
|Presentation||UnPurified tissue culture supernatant containing 0.01% thimerosal as a perservative.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2420369||2420369|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2459042||2459042|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2521483||2521483|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2618326||2618326|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2707839||2707839|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2746554||2746554|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2757200||2757200|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN -2817172||2817172|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN 0 -2677897||2677897|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2061432||2061432|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY - 2168248||2168248|
|RAT ANTI-SEROTONIN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY -2502932||2502932|
Referencias bibliográficas | 27 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|3-D imaging and illustration of mouse intestinal neurovascular complex. |
Fu, YY; Peng, SJ; Lin, HY; Pasricha, PJ; Tang, SC
American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology 304 G1-11 2013
Because of the dispersed nature of nerves and blood vessels, standard histology cannot provide a global and associated observation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and vascular network. We prepared transparent mouse intestine and combined vessel painting and three-dimensional (3-D) neurohistology for joint visualization of the ENS and vasculature. Cardiac perfusion of the fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin (vessel painting) was used to label the ileal blood vessels. The pan-neuronal marker PGP9.5, sympathetic neuronal marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin, and glial markers S100B and GFAP were used as the immunostaining targets of neural tissues. The fluorescently labeled specimens were immersed in the optical clearing solution to improve photon penetration for 3-D confocal microscopy. Notably, we simultaneously revealed the ileal microstructure, vasculature, and innervation with micrometer-level resolution. Four examples are given: 1) the morphology of the TH-labeled sympathetic nerves: sparse in epithelium, perivascular at the submucosa, and intraganglionic at myenteric plexus; 2) distinct patterns of the extrinsic perivascular and intrinsic pericryptic innervation at the submucosal-mucosal interface; 3) different associations of serotonin cells with the mucosal neurovascular elements in the villi and crypts; and 4) the periganglionic capillary network at the myenteric plexus and its contact with glial fibers. Our 3-D imaging approach provides a useful tool to simultaneously reveal the nerves and blood vessels in a space continuum for panoramic illustration and analysis of the neurovascular complex to better understand the intestinal physiology and diseases.
|Presenilin1 regulates histamine neuron development and behavior in zebrafish, danio rerio. |
Sundvik, M; Chen, YC; Panula, P
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 1589-97 2013
Modulatory neurotransmitters, including the histaminergic system, are essential in mediating cognitive functions affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The roles of disease genes associated with AD, most importantly the presenilin1 gene (psen1), are poorly understood. We studied the role of psen1 in plasticity of the brain histaminergic system using a novel psen1 mutant zebrafish, Danio rerio. We found that in psen1(-/-) zebrafish, the histaminergic system is altered throughout life. At 7 d postfertilization (dpf) the histamine neuron number was reduced in psen1(-/-) compared with wild-type (WT) fish; at 2 months of age the histamine neuron number was at the same level as that in WT fish. In 1-year-old zebrafish, the histamine neuron number was significantly increased in psen1(-/-) fish compared with WT fish. These changes in histamine neuron number were accompanied by changes in histamine-driven behaviors. Treatment with DAPT, a γ-secretase inhibitor, similarly interfered with the development of the histaminergic neurons. We also assessed the expression of γ-secretase-regulated Notch1a mRNA and β-catenin at different time points. Notch1a mRNA level was reduced in psen1(-/-) compared with WT fish, whereas β-catenin was slightly upregulated in the hypothalamus of psen1(-/-) compared with WT fish at 7 dpf. The results reveal a life-long brain plasticity in both the structure of the histaminergic system and its functions induced by altered Notch1a activity as a consequence of psen1 mutation. The new histaminergic neurons in aging zebrafish brain may arise as a result of phenotypic plasticity or represent newly differentiated stem cells.
|Overexpression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors enhances neuronal differentiation of fetal human neural progenitor cells in various ways. |
Serre, A; Snyder, EY; Mallet, J; Buchet, D
Stem cells and development 21 539-53 2012
In a perspective of regenerative medicine, multipotent human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) offer a therapeutic advantage over pluripotent stem cells in that they are already invariantly "neurally committed" and lack tumorigenicity. However, some of their intrinsic properties, such as slow differentiation and uncontrolled multipotency, remain among the obstacles to their routine use for transplantation. Although rodent NPCs have been genetically modified in vitro to overcome some of these limitations, the translation of this strategy to human cells remains in its early stages. In the present study, we compare the actions of 4 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors on the proliferation, specification, and terminal differentiation of hNPCs isolated from the fetal dorsal telencephalon. Consistent with their proneural activity, Ngn1, Ngn2, Ngn3, and Mash1 prompted rapid commitment of the cells. The Ngns induced a decrease in proliferation, whereas Mash1 maintained committed progenitors in a proliferative state. As opposed to Ngn1 and Ngn3, which had no effect on glial differentiation, Ngn2 induced an increase in astrocytes in addition to neurons, whereas Mash1 led to both neuronal and oligodendroglial specification. GABAergic, cholinergic, and motor neuron differentiations were considerably increased by overexpression of Ngn2 and, to a lesser extent, of Ngn3 and Mash1. Thus, we provide evidence that hNPCs can be efficiently, rapidly, and safely expanded in vitro as well as rapidly differentiated toward mature neural (typically neuronal) lineages by the overexpression of select proneural genes.
|Organizational effects of oxytocin on serotonin innervation. |
Jennifer L Eaton,Laura Roache,Khanhbao N Nguyen,Bruce S Cushing,Emma Troyer,Eros Papademetriou,Mary Ann Raghanti
Developmental psychobiology 54 2012
Oxytocin (OT) has an organizational effect within the central nervous system and can have long-lasting effects on the expression of social behavior. OT has recently been implicated in modulating the release of serotonin through activation of receptors in the raphe nuclei. Here we test the hypothesis that OT can have an organizational effect on the serotonergic system. Male prairie voles received an intraperitoneal injection on postnatal day 1 with 3.0 or .3?µg OT, an OT antagonist, or a saline control. Brains were collected on day 21 and immunostained for serotonin. Serotonin axons were quantified in the anterior hypothalamus, cortical amygdala, medial amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and ventromedial hypothalamus. Males treated with 3.0?µg OT displayed significantly higher serotonin axon length densities in the anterior hypothalamus, cortical amygdala, and the ventromedial hypothalamus than control males. These results support the hypothesis that OT has an organizational effect on the serotonin system during the neonatal period, and that these effects are site-specific.
|Monoaminergic modulation of photoreception in ascidian: evidence for a proto-hypothalamo-retinal territory. |
Razy-Krajka, F; Brown, ER; Horie, T; Callebert, J; Sasakura, Y; Joly, JS; Kusakabe, TG; Vernier, P
BMC biology 10 45 2012
The retina of craniates/vertebrates has been proposed to derive from a photoreceptor prosencephalic territory in ancestral chordates, but the evolutionary origin of the different cell types making the retina is disputed. Except for photoreceptors, the existence of homologs of retinal cells remains uncertain outside vertebrates.The expression of genes expressed in the sensory vesicle of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis including those encoding components of the monoaminergic neurotransmission systems, was analyzed by in situ hybridization or in vivo transfection of the corresponding regulatory elements driving fluorescent reporters. Modulation of photic responses by monoamines was studied by electrophysiology combined with pharmacological treatments.We show that many molecular characteristics of dopamine-synthesizing cells located in the vicinity of photoreceptors in the sensory vesicle of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis are similar to those of amacrine dopamine cells of the vertebrate retina. The ascidian dopamine cells share with vertebrate amacrine cells the expression of the key-transcription factor Ptf1a, as well as that of dopamine-synthesizing enzymes. Surprisingly, the ascidian dopamine cells accumulate serotonin via a functional serotonin transporter, as some amacrine cells also do. Moreover, dopamine cells located in the vicinity of the photoreceptors modulate the light-off induced swimming behavior of ascidian larvae by acting on alpha2-like receptors, instead of dopamine receptors, supporting a role in the modulation of the photic response. These cells are located in a territory of the ascidian sensory vesicle expressing genes found both in the retina and the hypothalamus of vertebrates (six3/6, Rx, meis, pax6, visual cycle proteins).We propose that the dopamine cells of the ascidian larva derive from an ancestral multifunctional cell population located in the periventricular, photoreceptive field of the anterior neural tube of chordates, which also gives rise to both anterior hypothalamus and the retina in craniates/vertebrates. It also shows that the existence of multiple cell types associated with photic responses predates the formation of the vertebrate retina.
|The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish. |
Yokogawa, T; Hannan, MC; Burgess, HA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 15205-15 2012
During waking behavior, animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states, and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However, there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. After a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context.
|Organisation and chemical neuroanatomy of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) olfactory bulb. |
Ngwenya A, Patzke N, Ihunwo AO, Manger PR.
Brain structure & function 216 403-16 2011
The olfactory system of mammals can be divided into a main and accessory olfactory system with initial processing for each system occurring in the olfactory bulb. The main and accessory olfactory bulbs have similar structural features, even though they appear to be functionally independent. In mammals the main olfactory bulb (MOB) is also one of two established sites of lifelong generation of new cells. The present study describes the histological and immunohistochemical neuroanatomy of the olfactory bulb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). The morphology of MOB of the elephant does not differ significantly from that described in other mammals; however, it lacks the internal plexiform layer. In addition, the glomeruli of the glomerular layer are organised in 2-4 "honey-combed" layers, a feature not commonly observed. The cell types and structures revealed with immunohistochemical stains (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, tyrosine hydroxylase, orexin-A, glial fibrillary acidic protein) were similar to other mammals. Neurogenesis was examined using the neurogenic marker doublecortin. Migration of newly generated cells was observed in most layers of the MOB. No accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) was observed. Based on the general anatomy and the immunohistochemical observations, it is evident that the morphology of the African elephant MOB is, for the most part, similar to that of all mammals, although very large in absolute size.
|Locomotor-activated neurons of the cat. I. Serotonergic innervation and co-localization of 5-HT7, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT1A receptors in the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord. |
Brian R Noga,Dawn M G Johnson,Mirta I Riesgo,Alberto Pinzon
Journal of neurophysiology 102 2009
Monoamines are strong modulators and/or activators of spinal locomotor networks. Thus monoaminergic fibers likely contact neurons involved in generating locomotion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the serotonergic innervation of locomotor-activated neurons within the thoraco-lumbar spinal cord following induction of hindlimb locomotion. This was determined by immunohistochemical co-localization of serotonin (5-HT) fibers or 5-HT(7)/5-HT2A/5-HT1A receptors with cells expressing the activity-dependent marker c-fos. Experiments were performed on paralyzed, decerebrate cats in which locomotion was induced by electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region. Abundant c-fos immunoreactive cells were observed in laminae VII and VIII throughout the thoraco-lumbar segments of locomotor animals. Control sections from the same segments showed significantly fewer labeled neurons, mostly within the dorsal horn. Multiple serotonergic boutons were found in close apposition to the majority (80-100%) of locomotor cells, which were most abundant in lumbar segments L3-7. 5-HT7 receptor immunoreactivity was observed on cells across the thoraco-lumbar segments (T7-L7), in a dorsoventral gradient. Most locomotor-activated cells co-localized with 5-HT7, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT1A receptors, with largest numbers in laminae VII and VIII. Co-localization of c-fos and 5-HT7 receptor was highest in the L5-L7 segments (>90%) and decreased rostrally (to approximately 50%) due to the absence of receptors on cells within the intermediolateral nucleus. In contrast, 60-80 and 35-80% of c-fos immunoreactive cells stained positive for 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A receptors, respectively, with no rostrocaudal gradient. These results indicate that serotonergic modulation of locomotion likely involves 5-HT(7)/5-HT2A/5-HT1A receptors located on the soma and proximal dendrites of serotonergic-innervated locomotor-activated neurons within laminae VII and VIII of thoraco-lumbar segments.Artículo Texto completo
|Behavioral adaptation in C. elegans produced by antipsychotic drugs requires serotonin and is associated with calcium signaling and calcineurin inhibition. |
Dallas R Donohoe,Raymond A Jarvis,Kathrine Weeks,Eric J Aamodt,Donard S Dwyer
Neuroscience research 64 2009
Chronic administration of antipsychotic drugs produces adaptive responses at the cellular and molecular levels that may be responsible for both the main therapeutic effects and rebound psychosis, which is often observed upon discontinuation of these drugs. Here we show that some antipsychotic drugs produce significant functional changes in serotonergic neurons that directly impact feeding behavior in the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, antipsychotic drugs acutely suppress pharyngeal pumping, which is regulated by serotonin from the NSM neurons. By contrast, withdrawal from food and drug is accompanied by a striking recovery and overshoot in the rate of pharyngeal pumping. This rebound response is absent or diminished in mutant strains that lack tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH-1) or the serotonin receptors SER-7 and SER-1, and is blocked by serotonin antagonists, which implicates serotonergic mechanisms in this adaptive response. Consistent with this, continuous drug exposure stimulates an increase in serotonin and the number of varicosities along the NSM processes. Cyclosporin A and calcineurin mutant strains mimic the effects of the antipsychotic drugs and reveal a potential role for the calmodulin-calcineurin signaling pathway in the response of serotonergic neurons. Similar molecular and cellular changes may contribute to the long-term adaptive response to antipsychotic drugs in patients.Artículo Texto completo
|Source, topography and excitatory effects of GABAergic innervation in cockroach salivary glands. |
Rotte, C; Witte, J; Blenau, W; Baumann, O; Walz, B
The Journal of experimental biology 212 126-36 2009
Cockroach salivary glands are innervated by dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Both transmitters elicit saliva secretion. We studied the distribution pattern of neurons containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and their physiological role. Immunofluorescence revealed a GABA-immunoreactive axon that originates within the subesophageal ganglion at the salivary neuron 2 (SN2) and this extends within the salivary duct nerve towards the salivary gland. GABA-positive fibers form a network on most acinar lobules and a dense plexus in the interior of a minor fraction of acinar lobules. Co-staining with anti-synapsin revealed that some putative GABAergic terminals seem to make pre-synaptic contacts with GABA-negative release sites. Many putative GABAergic release sites are at some distance from other synapses and at distance from the acinar tissue. Intracellular recordings from isolated salivary glands have revealed that GABA does not affect the basolateral membrane potential of the acinar cells directly. When applied during salivary duct nerve stimulation, GABA enhances the electrical response of the acinar cells and increases the rates of fluid and protein secretion. The effect on electrical cell responses is mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonists baclofen and SKF97541, and blocked by the GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP52432 and CGP54626. These findings indicate that GABA has a modulatory role in the control of salivation, acting presynaptically on serotonergic and/or dopaminergic neurotransmission.
|Synaptic connections between GABAergic elements and serotonergic terminals or projecting neurons in the ventrolateral orbital cortex. |
Huo, FQ; Chen, T; Lv, BC; Wang, J; Zhang, T; Qu, CL; Li, YQ; Tang, JS
Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) 19 1263-72 2009
The ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) is part of an endogenous analgesic system, consisting of the spinal cord-thalamic nucleus submedius-VLO periaqueductal gray (PAG)-spinal cord loop. The present study examined morphological connections of GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acidergic) neurons and serotonergic projection terminals from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), as well as the relationship between GABAergic terminals and VLO neurons projecting to the PAG, by using anterograde and retrograde tracing combined with immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy methods. Results indicate that the majority (93%) of GABAergic neurons in the VLO also express the 5-HT(1A) (5-hydroxytryptamine 1A) receptor, and serotonergic terminals originating from the DR nucleus made symmetrical synapses with GABAergic neuronal cell bodies and dendrites within the VLO. GABAergic terminals also made symmetrical synapses with neurons expressing GABA(A) receptors and projecting to the PAG. These results suggest that a local neuronal circuit, consisting of 5-HTergic terminals, GABAergic interneurons, and projection neurons, exists in the VLO, and provides morphological evidence for the hypothesis that GABAergic modulation is involved in 5-HT(1A) receptor activation-evoked antinociception.
|Axonal projections originating from raphe serotonergic neurons in the developing and adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, using transgenics to visualize raphe-specific pet1 expression. |
Christina Lillesaar,Christian Stigloher,Birgit Tannhäuser,Mario F Wullimann,Laure Bally-Cuif
The Journal of comparative neurology 512 2009
Serotonin is a major central nervous modulator of physiology and behavior and plays fundamental roles during development and plasticity of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS). Understanding the developmental control and functions of serotonergic neurons is therefore an important task. In all vertebrates, prominent serotonergic neurons are found in the superior and inferior raphe nuclei in the hindbrain innervating most CNS regions. In addition, all vertebrates except for mammals harbor other serotonergic centers, including several populations in the diencephalon. This, in combination with the intricate and wide distribution of serotonergic fibers, makes it difficult to sort out serotonergic innervation originating from the raphe from that of other serotonergic cell populations. To resolve this issue, we isolated the regulatory elements of the zebrafish raphe-specific gene pet1 and used them to drive expression of an eGFP transgene in the raphe population of serotonergic neurons. With this approach together with retrograde tracing we 1) describe in detail the development, anatomical organization, and projection pattern of zebrafish pet1-positive neurons compared with their mammalian counterparts, 2) identify a new serotonergic population in the ventrolateral zebrafish hindbrain, and 3) reveal some extent of functional subdivisions within the zebrafish superior raphe complex. Together, our results reveal for the first time the specific innervation pattern of the zebrafish raphe and, thus, provide a new model and various tools to investigate further the role of raphe serotonergic neurons in vertebrates.
|The somatostatin 2A receptor is enriched in migrating neurons during rat and human brain development and stimulates migration and axonal outgrowth. |
Le Verche, V; Kaindl, AM; Verney, C; Csaba, Z; Peineau, S; Olivier, P; Adle-Biassette, H; Leterrier, C; Vitalis, T; Renaud, J; Dargent, B; Gressens, P; Dournaud, P
PloS one 4 e5509 2009
The neuropeptide somatostatin has been suggested to play an important role during neuronal development in addition to its established modulatory impact on neuroendocrine, motor and cognitive functions in adults. Although six somatostatin G protein-coupled receptors have been discovered, little is known about their distribution and function in the developing mammalian brain. In this study, we have first characterized the developmental expression of the somatostatin receptor sst2A, the subtype found most prominently in the adult rat and human nervous system. In the rat, the sst2A receptor expression appears as early as E12 and is restricted to post-mitotic neuronal populations leaving the ventricular zone. From E12 on, migrating neuronal populations immunopositive for the receptor were observed in numerous developing regions including the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and ganglionic eminences. Intense but transient immunoreactive signals were detected in the deep part of the external granular layer of the cerebellum, the rostral migratory stream and in tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin- positive neurons and axons. Activation of the sst2A receptor in vitro in rat cerebellar microexplants and primary hippocampal neurons revealed stimulatory effects on neuronal migration and axonal growth, respectively. In the human cortex, receptor immunoreactivity was located in the preplate at early development stages (8 gestational weeks) and was enriched to the outer part of the germinal zone at later stages. In the cerebellum, the deep part of the external granular layer was strongly immunoreactive at 19 gestational weeks, similar to the finding in rodents. In addition, migrating granule cells in the internal granular layer were also receptor-positive. Together, theses results strongly suggest that the somatostatin sst2A receptor participates in the development and maturation of specific neuronal populations during rat and human brain ontogenesis.
|Strong P2X4 purinergic receptor-like immunoreactivity is selectively associated with degenerating neurons in transgenic rodent models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. |
Anna Casanovas,Sara Hernández,Olga Tarabal,Jaume Rosselló,Josep E Esquerda
The Journal of comparative neurology 506 2008
The distribution of the P2X family of ATP receptors was analyzed in a rat model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) expressing mutated human superoxide dismutase (mSOD1(G93A)). We showed that strong P2X(4) immunoreactivity was selectively associated with degenerating motoneurons (MNs) in spinal cord ventral horn. Degenerating P2X(4)-positive MNs did not display apoptotic features such as chromatin condensation, positive TUNEL reaction, or active caspase 3 immunostaining. In contrast, these neurons showed other signs of abnormality, such as loss of the neuronal marker NeuN and recruitment of microglial cells with neuronophagic activity. Similar changes were observed in MNs from the cerebral cortex and brainstem in mSOD1(G93A) in both rat and mice. In addition, P2X(4) immunostaining demonstrated the existence of neuronal degeneration in the locus coeruleus, reticular formation, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex. It is suggested that abnormal trafficking and proteolytic processing of the P2X(4) receptor protein may underlie these changes.
|The collateral projection from the dorsal raphe nucleus to whisker-related, trigeminal sensory and facial motor systems in the rat. |
Sat-Byol Lee, Hyun S Lee, Barry D Waterhouse
Brain research 1214 11-22 2008
The primary goal of this study was to identify the collateral projection from the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus to whisker-related, trigeminal sensory and facial motor systems in the rat. Following the injections of two retrograde tracers, gold-conjugated and inactivated wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-apo-HRP-gold) and Fluorogold (FG) within vibrissae-related, sensory and motor areas at the cerebral cortical, thalamic, and medullary levels, the distribution of double-labeled neurons was examined within each subdivision of the DR. The major findings were: 1) the 5-HT-immunoreactive, DR neurons projecting to vibrissae-related, primary sensory and motor cortices were mainly observed in the ventromedial subdivision, with a few cells in the dorsomedial subdivision; 2) the DR neurons projecting to ventroposteromedial and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei were observed in the lateral wing subdivision ipsilateral to the injection sites; and 3) the DR neurons projecting to vibrissae-related, principal trigeminal and facial motor nuclei were also located mainly in the lateral wing subdivision ipsilateral to the injection sites. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that midline vs. lateral wing DR subdivisions have a differential functional organization with respect to their efferent projection systems and that individual DR neurons in each subdivision might preferentially send axon collaterals to sensory and motor whisker system targets, thus providing an anatomical substrate for coordination of whisker movement and tactile sensory coding.
|Vomeronasal inputs to the rodent ventral striatum. |
I Ubeda-Bañon, A Novejarque, A Mohedano-Moriano, P Pro-Sistiaga, R Insausti, F Martinez-Garcia, E Lanuza, A Martinez-Marcos
Brain research bulletin 75 467-73 2008
Vertebrates sense chemical signals through the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. In squamate reptiles, which possess the largest vomeronasal system of all vertebrates, the accessory olfactory bulb projects to the nucleus sphericus, which in turn projects to a portion of the ventral striatum known as olfactostriatum. Characteristically, the olfactostriatum is innervated by neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin immunoreactive fibers. In this study, the possibility that a structure similar to the reptilian olfactostriatum might be present in the mammalian brain has been investigated. Injections of dextran-amines have been aimed at the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus (the putative mammalian homologue of the reptilian nucleus sphericus) of rats and mice. The resulting anterograde labeling includes the olfactory tubercle, the islands of Calleja and sparse terminal fields in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. This projection has been confirmed by injections of retrograde tracers into the ventral striato-pallidum that render retrograde labeling in the posteromedial cortical amygdaloid nucleus. The analysis of the distribution of neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase, serotonin and substance P in the ventral striato-pallidum of rats, and the anterograde tracing of the vomeronasal amygdaloid input in the same material confirm that, similar to reptiles, the ventral striatum of mammals includes a specialized vomeronasal structure (olfactory tubercle and islands of Calleja) displaying dense neuropeptide Y-, tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive innervations. The possibility that parts of the accumbens shell and/or ventral pallidum could be included in the mammalian olfactostriatum cannot be discarded.
|Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT5A receptors are expressed by different motoneuron populations in rat Onuf's nucleus. |
Chen Xu, François Giuliano, X Q Sun, Marie-Jeanne Brisorgueil, Patrick Leclerc, Daniel Vergé, Marie Conrath, Chen Xu, François Giuliano, X Q Sun, Marie-Jeanne Brisorgueil, Patrick Leclerc, Daniel Vergé, Marie Conrath
The Journal of comparative neurology 502 620-34 2007
Motoneurons of Onuf's nucleus innervate the pelvic striated muscles, which play a crucial role in erection, ejaculation, and urinary continence. Serotonergic descending projections from the brain are involved in the modulation of Onuf's motoneuron activity. However, conflicting results regarding the effects of spinal serotonin (5-HT) on pelvi-perineal functions have been reported. They may be partly accounted for by the multiplicity of neuronal targets and receptor subtypes on which 5-HT is acting. In order to provide comparative data regarding 5-HT receptor expression in various groups of Onuf's motoneurons, we used retrograde tracing techniques from different pelvic muscles combined with immunocytochemistry of 5-HT2A and 5-HT5A receptors in male and female rats. In males, 5-HT2A receptor immunolabeling was very dense in motoneurons innervating the ischiocavernosus muscle. By contrast, in female rats, 5-HT2A receptor expression in Onuf's nucleus was very weak. In both genders, 5-HT5A receptor immunoreactivity was found in motoneurons innervating the external urethral sphincter. In males, a moderate or low 5-HT5A immunolabeling was observed in motoneurons innervating the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus muscles, respectively. These data show a preferential localization of 5-HT2A and 5-HT5A receptors to motoneurons controlling the striated muscles located at the penile crus and sphincter muscles, respectively, suggesting a specific serotoninergic control on different pelvic functions. In addition, the subcellular distribution of receptors suggests a different mode of action of 5-HT, paracrine at 5-HT2A receptors and synaptic at 5-HT5A receptors. This might have implications for pharmacological research targeting different pelvic functions e.g., micturition and ejaculation.
|Cellular pattern formation during retinal regeneration: a role for homotypic control of cell fate acquisition. |
Melinda J Tyler, David A Cameron
Vision research 47 501-11 2007
A dominant mechanism of cellular patterning in the growing fish retina is control of cell fate acquisition by negative feedback signals arising from differentiated cells. We tested the ability of a computational model of this pattern formation mechanism to simulate cellular patterns in regenerated goldfish retina. The model successfully simulated quantitative features of in vivo regenerated patterns, indicating that regenerating retina has access to and utilizes patterning mechanisms that are operational during normal growth. The atypical patterns of regenerated retina could arise in part from regenerative progenitors that, compared to normal growth progenitors, are less responsive to the feedback patterning signals.
|Breadth of tuning and taste coding in mammalian taste buds. |
Tomchik, SM; Berg, S; Kim, JW; Chaudhari, N; Roper, SD
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 10840-8 2007
A longstanding question in taste research concerns taste coding and, in particular, how broadly are individual taste bud cells tuned to taste qualities (sweet, bitter, umami, salty, and sour). Taste bud cells express G-protein-coupled receptors for sweet, bitter, or umami tastes but not in combination. However, responses to multiple taste qualities have been recorded in individual taste cells. We and others have shown previously there are two classes of taste bud cells directly involved in gustatory signaling: "receptor" (type II) cells that detect and transduce sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, and "presynaptic" (type III) cells. We hypothesize that receptor cells transmit their signals to presynaptic cells. This communication between taste cells could represent a potential convergence of taste information in the taste bud, resulting in taste cells that would respond broadly to multiple taste stimuli. We tested this hypothesis using calcium imaging in a lingual slice preparation. Here, we show that receptor cells are indeed narrowly tuned: 82% responded to only one taste stimulus. In contrast, presynaptic cells are broadly tuned: 83% responded to two or more different taste qualities. Receptor cells responded to bitter, sweet, or umami stimuli but rarely to sour or salty stimuli. Presynaptic cells responded to all taste qualities, including sour and salty. These data further elaborate functional differences between receptor cells and presynaptic cells, provide strong evidence for communication within the taste bud, and resolve the paradox of broad taste cell tuning despite mutually exclusive receptor expression.
|Serotonergic neurons activate chemosensitive retrotrapezoid nucleus neurons by a pH-independent mechanism. |
Mulkey, DK; Rosin, DL; West, G; Takakura, AC; Moreira, TS; Bayliss, DA; Guyenet, PG
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 27 14128-38 2007
Serotonin activates respiration and enhances the stimulatory effect of CO2 on breathing. The present study tests whether the mechanism involves the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of medullary glutamatergic neurons activated by extracellular brain pH and presumed to regulate breathing. We show that the RTN is innervated by both medullary and pontine raphe and receives inputs from thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and substance P-expressing neurons. Coexistence of serotonin and substance P in terminals within RTN confirmed that lower medullary serotonergic neurons innervate RTN. In vivo, unilateral injection of serotonin into RTN stimulated inspiratory motor activity, and pH-sensitive RTN neurons were activated by iontophoretic application of serotonin or substance P. In brain slices, pH-sensitive RTN neurons were activated by serotonin, substance P, and TRH. The effect of serotonin in slices was ketanserin sensitive and persisted in the presence of glutamate, GABA, glycine, and purinergic ionotropic receptor antagonists. Serotonin and pH had approximately additive effects on the discharge rate of RTN neurons, both in slices and in vivo. In slices, serotonin produced an inward current with little effect on conductance and had no effect on the pH-induced current. We conclude that (1) RTN receives input from multiple raphe nuclei, (2) serotonin, substance P, and TRH activate RTN chemoreceptors, and (3) excitatory effects of serotonin and pH are mediated by distinct ionic conductances. Thus, RTN neurons presumably contribute to the respiratory stimulation caused by serotonergic neurons, but serotonin seems without effect on the cellular mechanism by which RTN neurons detect pH.
|Retrograde study of projections from the tuberomammillary nucleus to the dorsal raphe and the locus coeruleus in the rat. |
Hyun S Lee, Beob Y Lee, Barry D Waterhouse
Brain research 1043 65-75 2005
In the first series of experiments, a retrograde tracer, WGA-apo-HRP-gold (WG), was injected into the dorsal raphe (DR) or the locus coeruleus (LC) and adenosine deaminase immunostaining was subsequently performed for the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) in order to investigate projections from the TMN to the two brainstem monoaminergic nuclei. Following rostral DR injections, the majority of retrogradely labeled cells were located in the dorsomedial and ventrolateral subdivisions of the TMN. At middle DR levels, midline injections resulted in labeling mainly in the ventrolateral subdivision, whereas lateral wing injections produced labeling mostly in ventral and caudal TMN subdivisions. When injections were made in the caudal DR, only a few cells were observed along the rostro-caudal extent of the TMN. On the other hand, following rostral LC injections, labeled neurons were observed mainly in ventrolateral and ventral subdivisions of TMN. For principal LC injections, labeled cells were observed mostly in ventrolateral, ventral, and caudal TMN subdivisions, whereas for injections at caudal pole of LC, only a few cells were located along the rostro-caudal extent of the TMN. In the second series of experiments, an iontophoretic injection of fluorogold (FG) into the DR was paired with a pressure injection of WG into the LC to investigate the collateral distribution of TMN axonal fibers to DR and LC. Double-labeled cells were observed in ventrolateral, ventral, and caudal TMN subdivisions. The present study indicated that there exists a robust projection from the TMN to the DR or the LC and that some TMN neurons have axon collaterals projecting to both DR and LC. The TMN neurons with such axon collaterals might provide simultaneous, possibly more efficient, way of controlling the brainstem monoaminergic nuclei, thus influencing various sleep and arousal states of the animal.
|Control of cellular pattern formation in the vertebrate inner retina by homotypic regulation of cell-fate decisions. |
Tyler, MJ; Carney, LH; Cameron, DA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 25 4565-76 2005
The vertebrate retina is composed of cellular arrays that are nonrandom across two-dimensional space. The determinants of these nonrandom two-dimensional cellular patterns in the inner nuclear layer of the retina were investigated using empirical and computational modeling techniques. In normal and experimental models of goldfish retinal growth, the patterns of tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-positive cells indicated that neither cell death nor lateral migration of differentiated cells were dominant mechanisms of cellular pattern formation. A computational model of cellular pattern formation that used a signaling mechanism arising from differentiated cells that inhibited homotypic cell-fate decisions generated accurate simulations of the empirically observed patterns in normal retina. This model also predicted the principal atypical cellular pattern characteristic, a transient cell-type-specific hyperplasia, which was empirically observed in the growing retina subsequent to selective ablation of differentiated retinal cells, either tyrosine hydroxylase positive or serotonin positive. The results support the hypothesis that inhibitory spatiotemporal regulation of homotypic cell-fate decisions is a dominant mechanistic determinant of nonrandom cellular patterns in the vertebrate retina.
|Reciprocal connections between subdivisions of the dorsal raphe and the nuclear core of the locus coeruleus in the rat. |
Myung-A Kim, Hyun S Lee, Beob Y Lee, Barry D Waterhouse
Brain research 1026 56-67 2004
The interconnection between two brainstem monoaminergic nuclei, the dorsal raphe (DR) and the locus coeruleus (LC), was analyzed in the rat using retrograde tracing and immunocytochemistry. Gold-conjugated and inactivated wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-apo-HRP-gold) was injected into subdivisions of the DR or rostro-caudal levels of the nuclear core of the LC, and labeled LC or DR neurons were identified by dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) immunostaining, respectively. Within the LC-DR projection, the caudal principal LC projected to the caudal, ventromedial, and interfascicular DR. Mid-LC as well as caudal LC projected with an ipsilateral predominance to the lateral wing subdivision of the DR. A few rostral LC neurons projected to caudal, dorsomedial, and ventromedial DR. Within the DR-LC projection, the rostral LC received inputs mainly from the caudal, dorsomedial, and ventromedial DR. Mid-LC to caudal LC received projections from mid-DR to caudal DR, with the heaviest projection from the ipsilateral lateral wing as well as caudal DR. The DR-LC projection was substantially more robust than LC-DR and included both serotonergic and nonserotonergic components. Thus, the data demonstrate topographically ordered, reciprocal connectivity between DR and LC with particularly strong projections from DR to LC. Communication between these two brainstem monoaminergic nuclei may be critical for a variety of functions including sleep-wake regulation, vigilance, analgesia, cognition, and stress responses.
|Analysis of gene function in the zebrafish retina. |
Jarema Malicki, Hakryul Jo, Xiangyun Wei, Monica Hsiung, Zac Pujic
Methods (San Diego, Calif.) 28 427-38 2002
Mutagenesis screens in zebrafish have uncovered several hundred mutant alleles affecting the development of the retina and established the zebrafish as one of the leading models of vertebrate eye development. In addition to forward genetic mutagenesis approaches, gene function in the zebrafish embryo is being studied using several reverse genetic techniques. Some of these rely on the overexpression of a gene product, others take advantage of antisense oligonucleotides to block function of selected loci. Here we describe these methods in the context of the developing eye.
|The identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 suggests novel modes of signaling by glutamate. |
Fremeau, RT; Burman, J; Qureshi, T; Tran, CH; Proctor, J; Johnson, J; Zhang, H; Sulzer, D; Copenhagen, DR; Storm-Mathisen, J; Reimer, RJ; Chaudhry, FA; Edwards, RH
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99 14488-93 2002
Quantal release of the principal excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate requires a mechanism for its transport into secretory vesicles. Within the brain, the complementary expression of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) 1 and 2 accounts for the release of glutamate by all known excitatory neurons. We now report the identification of VGLUT3 and its expression by many cells generally considered to release a classical transmitter with properties very different from glutamate. Remarkably, subpopulations of inhibitory neurons as well as cholinergic interneurons, monoamine neurons, and glia express VGLUT3. The dendritic expression of VGLUT3 by particular neurons also indicates the potential for retrograde synaptic signaling. The distribution and subcellular location of VGLUT3 thus suggest novel modes of signaling by glutamate.
|Morphology and histochemistry of the rabbit pancreatic innervation. |
Love, J A and Szebeni, K
Pancreas, 18: 53-64 (1999) 1999
Stimulation of extrinsic nerves markedly alters pancreatic endocrine and exocrine secretion, yet little is known of the neurochemical organization and physiologic roles of specific neural pathways within the pancreas. Here we report histochemical staining for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and several neuropeptides to identify the neurotransmitter content of rabbit pancreatic nerves. An extensive network of AChE-positive nerve fibers was found throughout the islets, acini, ducts, ganglia, and blood vessels. All pancreatic neurons were AChE positive, two thirds were NADPH-d positive, and many were NOS positive. Ganglia in the head/neck region were connected to the duodenal myenteric plexus by AChE- and NADPH-d-positive fibers, and NADPH-d-positive pancreatic neurons appeared to send processes toward both the duodenum and pancreas. Many pancreatic neurons were vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) positive, and VIP nerve terminals were abundant in ganglia, acini, islets, and ducts. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP-38)-positive fibers also were observed within acini and passing through ganglia. Substance P (SP)-, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH)-positive fibers were abundant along blood vessels and ducts, and varicose fibers were observed in pancreatic ganglia. Fine galanin-positive fibers were also occasionally observed running with blood vessels and through ganglia. Thus the rabbit pancreas receives a dense, diverse innervation by cholinergic, adrenergic, and peptidergic nerves and cholinergic pancreatic neurons, most also containing VIP or NOS or both, appear to innervate both endocrine and exocrine tissue, and may mediate local communication between the duodenum and pancreas.
|Neurons with 5-hydroxytryptamine-like immunoreactivity in the enteric nervous system: their visualization and reactions to drug treatment. |
Costa, M, et al.
Neuroscience, 7: 351-63 (1982) 1982
Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and fibres in the intestine have been examined using three antibody preparations raised against 5-hydroxytryptamine. Cross reactivity studies indicate that the substance localized was an hydroxylated indoleamine. In the guinea-pig small intestine, nerve cell bodies were located in the myenteric plexus and varicose fibres were found in the ganglia of the myenteric and submucous plexus. The nerve cell bodies had prominent short, broad processes and a single long process. Similar nerve cells and fibres were found in the guinea-pig stomach and large intestine and areas of intestine that were examined in mice, rabbits and rats. Properties of the neurons were examined in the small intestine of the guinea-pig. The immunoreactive material was depleted by treatment with reserpine, but not by guanethidine or 6-hydroxydopamine in dose sufficient to deplete noradrenaline stores in axons in the intestine. No depletion of 5-hydroxytryptamine by the neurotoxin 5, 7-dihydroxytryptamine was observed. After depletion by reserpine, immunoreactivity of the neurons could be restored by application in vitro of 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine or 5-hydroxytryptophan. The restoration by 5-hydroxytryptophan was prevented by the inhibitor of L-aminoacid decarboxylase, benserazide. After reserpine treatment, immunoreactivity was not restored by tryptophan. Uptake of 5, 7-dihydroxytryptamine into the nerves was antagonized by fluoxetine. The distribution of neurons with 5-hydroxytryptamine-like immunoreactivity was compared with the distribution of enteric amine-handling neurons that take up and decarboxylate L-dopa. This comparison indicated that there are two classes of aromatic amine neuron in the guinea-pig small intestine, the enteric 5-HT neurons and enteric, non-5-HT, amine handling neurons.
|Anti-Serotonin, clone YC5/45 - Data Sheet|