Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R||WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Protein A Purified immunoglobulin in 30% glycerol, 0.07M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.105 M NaCl, 0.035% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Application||Detect Spry2 using this Anti-Spry2 Antibody validated for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|Anti-Spry2 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2344655||2344655|
|Anti-Spry2 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2273957||2273957|
|Anti-Spry2 - 24668||24668|
|Anti-Spry2 - 31940||31940|
|AntiAnti -Spry2 -2792487||2792487|
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Expression and functional role of sprouty-2 in breast morphogenesis. |
Sigurdsson, V; Ingthorsson, S; Hilmarsdottir, B; Gustafsdottir, SM; Franzdottir, SR; Arason, AJ; Steingrimsson, E; Magnusson, MK; Gudjonsson, T
PloS one 8 e60798 2013
Branching morphogenesis is a mechanism used by many species for organogenesis and tissue maintenance. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the sprouty protein family are believed to be critical regulators of branching morphogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Sprouty-2 (SPRY2) in the mammary gland and study its role in branching morphogenesis. Human breast epithelial cells, breast tissue and mouse mammary glands were used for expression studies using immunoblotting, real rime PCR and immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of SPRY2 in the breast epithelial stem cell line D492 was done by lentiviral transduction of shRNA constructs targeting SPRY2. Three dimensional culture of D492 with or without endothelial cells was done in reconstituted basement membrane matrix. We show that in the human breast, SPRY2 is predominantly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of both ducts and lobuli. In the mouse mammary gland, SPRY2 expression is low or absent in the virgin state, while in the pregnant mammary gland SPRY2 is expressed at branching epithelial buds with increased expression during lactation. This expression pattern is closely associated with the activation of the EGFR pathway. Using D492 which generates branching structures in three-dimensional (3D) culture, we show that SPRY2 expression is low during initiation of branching with subsequent increase throughout the branching process. Immunostaining locates expression of phosphorylated SPRY2 and EGFR at the tip of lobular-like, branching ends. SPRY2 knockdown (KD) resulted in increased migration, increased pERK and larger and more complex branching structures indicating a loss of negative feedback control during branching morphogenesis. In D492 co-cultures with endothelial cells, D492 SPRY2 KD generates spindle-like colonies that bear hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These data indicate that SPRY2 is an important regulator of branching morphogenesis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the mammary gland.
|A novel cross-talk between endothelin and ErbB receptors controlling glutamate transporter expression in astrocytes. |
Darko Glisic,Claudia Lehmann,Maciej Figiel,Veysel Odemis,Ricco Lindner,Jürgen Engele,Veysel ,J Engele
Journal of neurochemistry 122 2012
The endothelin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) systems are central to the control of reactive brain processes and are thought to partly exert these tasks by endothelin-induced transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) Here we show that beyond EGFR transactivation, endothelins prevent the ligand-induced internalization of the EGFR. We unravel that endothelins abrogate internalization of the EGFR by either promoting the formation of internalization-deficient EGFR/ErB2-heterodimers or by activating c-Abl kinase, a negative regulator of EGFR internalization. We further provide evidence that this cross-talk is operational in the control of astrocytic glutamate transport. Specifically, we establish that the inhibitory effects exerted by endothelins on basal as well as EGF-induced expression of the major astroglial glutamate transporter subtype, glutamate transporter 1, are a direct consequence of the endothelin-dependent retention of the EGFR at the cell surface. Together our findings unravel a previously unknown cross-talk between endothelin and epidermal growth factor receptors, which may have implications for a variety of pathological conditions.
|Cathespin H is an Fgf10 target involved in Bmp4 degradation during lung branching morphogenesis. |
Lü, J; Qian, J; Keppler, D; Cardoso, WV
The Journal of biological chemistry 282 22176-84 2007
During lung development, signaling by Fgf10 (fibroblast growth factor 10) and its receptor Fgfr2b is critical for induction of a gene network that controls proliferation, differentiation, and branching of the epithelial tubules. The downstream events triggered by Fgf10-Fgfr2b signaling during this process are still poorly understood. In a global screen for transcriptional targets of Fgf10, we identified Ctsh (cathepsin H), a gene encoding a lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain family, highly up-regulated in the developing lung epithelium. Here we show that among other cathepsin genes present in the lung, Ctsh is the only family member selectively induced by Fgf10 in the lung epithelium. We provide evidence that, during branching morphogenesis, epithelial expression of Ctsh overlaps temporally and spatially with that of Bmp4 (bone morphogenetic protein 4), another target of Fgf10. Moreover, we show that Ctsh controls the availability of mature Bmp4 protein in the embryonic lung and that inhibiting Ctsh activity leads to a marked accumulation of Bmp4 protein and disruption of branching morphogenesis. Tightly controlled levels of Bmp4 signaling are critical for patterning of the distal lung epithelium. Our study suggests a potentially novel posttranscriptional mechanism in which Ctsh rapidly removes Bmp4 from forming buds to limit Bmp4 action. The presence of both Ctsh and Bmp4 or Bmp4 signaling activity in other developing structures, such as the kidney, yolk sac, and choroid plexus, suggests a possible general role of Ctsh in regulating Bmp4 proteolysis in different morphogenetic events.
|Concomitant down-regulation of SPRY1 and SPRY2 in prostate carcinoma. |
Fritzsche, S; Kenzelmann, M; Hoffmann, MJ; Müller, M; Engers, R; Gröne, HJ; Schulz, WA
Endocrine-related cancer 13 839-49 2006
Sprouty proteins encoded by the SPRY genes act as modulators and feedback inhibitors of signalling by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Overactivity of EGF and FGF signalling common in prostate cancer might therefore be exacerbated by Sprouty down-regulation. Indeed, down-regulation of SPRY1 and SPRY2 expression has been independently reported. We found both genes modestly down-regulated by microarray expression analysis of microdissected prostate cancers and by quantitative RT-PCR in macrodissected specimens compared with benign tissues. Importantly, the decreases paralleled each other and expression levels of both genes were significantly lower in cancers that recurred within the average follow-up period of 32 months. In contrast to a previous report, no hypermethylation was found to accompany down-regulation of SPRY2 in cancer tissues and cell lines. We additionally investigated the expression of an SPRY1 alternative transcript presumed to be specific for fetal tissues and found its expression moderately well correlated with expression of the standard transcript through diverse tissues and cell lines. The present study confirms and extends previous reports by demonstrating concomitant down-regulation and a significant association with recurrence of SPRY genes.
|Sprouty2 inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway by inhibiting the activation of Raf. |
Yusoff, Permeen, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 277: 3195-201 (2002) 2002
Several genetic studies in Drosophila have shown that the dSprouty (dSpry) protein inhibits the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway induced by various activated receptor tyrosine kinase receptors, most notably those of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). Currently, the mode of action of dSpry is unknown, and the point of inhibition remains controversial. There are at least four mammalian Spry isoforms that have been shown to co-express preferentially with FGFRs as compared with EGFRs. In this study, we investigated the effects of the various mammalian Spry isoforms on the Ras/MAP kinase pathway in cells overexpressing constitutively active FGFR1. hSpry2 was significantly more potent than mSpry1 or mSpry4 in inhibiting the Ras/MAP kinase pathway. Additional experiments indicated that full-length hSpry2 was required for its full potency. hSpry2 had no inhibitory effect on either the JNK or the p38 pathway and displayed no inhibition of FRS2 phosphorylation, Akt activation, and Ras activation. Constitutively active mutants of Ras, Raf, and Mek were employed to locate the prospective point of inhibition of hSpry2 downstream of activated Ras. Results from this study indicated that hSpry2 exerted its inhibitory effect at the level of Raf, which was verified in a Raf activation assay in an FGF signaling context.
|Sprouty1 and Sprouty2 provide a control mechanism for the Ras/MAPK signalling pathway. |
Hanafusa, Hiroshi, et al.
Nat. Cell Biol., 4: 850-8 (2002) 2002
Sprouty (Spry) inhibits signalling by receptor tyrosine kinases; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this function has not been defined. Here we show that after stimulation by growth factors Spry1 and Spry2 translocate to the plasma membrane and become phosphorylated on a conserved tyrosine. Next, they bind to the adaptor protein Grb2 and inhibit the recruitment of the Grb2-Sos complex either to the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) docking adaptor protein FRS2 or to Shp2. Membrane translocation of Spry is necessary for its phosphorylation, which is essential for its inhibitor activity. A tyrosine-phosphorylated octapeptide derived from mouse Spry2 inhibits Grb2 from binding FRS2, Shp2 or mouse Spry2 in vitro and blocks activation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in cells stimulated by growth factor. A non-phosphorylated Spry mutant cannot bind Grb2 and acts as a dominant negative, inducing prolonged activation of ERK in response to FGF and promoting the FGF-induced outgrowth of neurites in PC12 cells. Our findings suggest that Spry functions in a negative feedback mechanism in which its inhibitor activity is controlled rapidly and reversibly by post-translational mechanisms.
|sprouty encodes a novel antagonist of FGF signaling that patterns apical branching of the Drosophila airways. |
Hacohen, N, et al.
Cell, 92: 253-63 (1998) 1998
Antagonists of several growth factor signaling pathways play important roles in developmental patterning by limiting the range of the cognate inducer. Here, we describe an antagonist of FGF signaling that patterns apical branching of the Drosophila airways. In wild-type embryos, the Branchless FGF induces secondary branching by activating the Breathless FGF receptor near the tips of growing primary branches. In sprouty mutants, the FGF pathway is overactive and ectopic branches are induced on the stalks of primary branches. We show that FGF signaling induces sprouty expression in the nearby tip cells, and sprouty acts nonautonomously and in a competitive fashion to block signaling to the more distant stalk cells. sprouty encodes a novel cysteine-rich protein that defines a new family of putative signaling molecules that may similarly function as FGF antagonists in vertebrate development.