Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Rb||FC, ICC, IP, IHC, WB, Cell Function Assay||Rb||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Ubiquitin Antibody, Lys48-Specific, clone Apu2, rabbit monoclonal|
|Overview||DI-UBIQUITIN PROTEIN AVAILABLE!
Di-Ubiquitin (Lys48-linked) Recombinant Protein (17-10408)
|Background Information||Polyubiquitin chains linked through the Lys48 residue of ubiquitin are most commonly associated with proteins targeted for proteosomal degradation.
In contrast, polyubiquitin chains linked through the Lys63 residue of ubiquitin (Ub) are associated with nonproteolytic functions such as signal transduction. Lys63-linked polyUb chains connect components of NFκB signaling in a highly regulated manner, and genetic evidence indicates the involvement of Lys63-linked Ub chains in stress response and DNA repair. Research in yeast has suggested Lys63-linked Ub chains stimulate endocytosis.
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.
For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the vial prior to removing the cap.
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 31 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Pub Med ID|
|Differences in long-term memory stability and AmCREB level between forward and backward conditioned honeybees (Apis mellifera). |
Felsenberg, J; Dyck, Y; Feige, J; Ludwig, J; Plath, JA; Froese, A; Karrenbrock, M; Nölle, A; Heufelder, K; Eisenhardt, D
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 9 91 2015
In classical conditioning a predictive relationship between a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus; CS) and a meaningful stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US) is learned when the CS precedes the US. In backward conditioning the sequence of the stimuli is reversed. In this situation animals might learn that the CS signals the end or the absence of the US. In honeybees 30 min and 24 h following backward conditioning a memory for the excitatory and inhibitory properties of the CS could be retrieved, but it remains unclear whether a late long-term memory is formed that can be retrieved 72 h following backward conditioning. Here we examine this question by studying late long-term memory formation in forward and backward conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER). We report a difference in the stability of memory formed upon forward and backward conditioning with the same number of conditioning trials. We demonstrate a transcription-dependent memory 72 h after forward conditioning but do not observe a 72 h memory after backward conditioning. Moreover we find that protein degradation is differentially involved in memory formation following these two conditioning protocols. We report differences in the level of a transcription factor, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) known to induce transcription underlying long-term memory formation, following forward and backward conditioning. Our results suggest that these alterations in CREB levels might be regulated by the proteasome. We propose that the differences observed are due to the sequence of stimulus presentation between forward and backward conditioning and not to differences in the strength of the association of both stimuli.
|Sirt1-deficiency causes defective protein quality control. |
Tomita, T; Hamazaki, J; Hirayama, S; McBurney, MW; Yashiroda, H; Murata, S
Scientific reports 5 12613 2015
Protein quality control is an important mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Damaged proteins have to be restored or eliminated by degradation, which is mainly achieved by molecular chaperones and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase Sirt1 has been reported to play positive roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis in response to various stresses. However, its contribution to protein quality control remains unexplored. Here we show that Sirt1 is involved in protein quality control in both an Hsp70-dependent and an Hsp70-independent manner. Loss of Sirt1 led to the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in cells and tissues, especially upon heat stress, without affecting proteasome activities. This was partly due to decreased basal expression of Hsp70. However, this accumulation was only partially alleviated by overexpression of Hsp70 or induction of Hsp70 upon heat shock in Sirt1-deficient cells and tissues. These results suggest that Sirt1 mediates both Hsp70-dependent and Hsp70-independent protein quality control. Our findings cast new light on understanding the role of Sirt1 in maintaining cellular homeostasis.
|Stability of structured Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 protein is regulated by protein phosphorylation and homodimerization. |
Majerciak, V; Pripuzova, N; Chan, C; Temkin, N; Specht, SI; Zheng, ZM
Journal of virology 89 3256-74 2015
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 plays an essential role in KSHV lytic infection by promoting viral gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches, we determined that ORF57 contains two structurally and functionally distinct domains: a disordered nonstructural N-terminal domain (amino acids [aa] 1 to 152) and a structured α-helix-rich C-terminal domain (aa 153 to 455). The N-terminal domain mediates ORF57 interaction with several RNA-protein complexes essential for ORF57 to function. The N-terminal phosphorylation by cellular casein kinase II (CKII) at S21, T32, and S43, and other cellular kinases at S95 and S97 residues in proximity of the caspase-7 cleavage site, 30-DETD-33, inhibits caspase-7 digestion of ORF57. The structured C-terminal domain mediates homodimerization of ORF57, and the critical region for this function was mapped carefully to α-helices 7 to 9. Introduction of point mutations into α-helix 7 at ORF57 aa 280 to 299, a region highly conserved among ORF57 homologues from other herpesviruses, inhibited ORF57 homodimerization and led to proteasome-mediated degradation of ORF57 protein. Thus, homodimerization of ORF57 via its C terminus prevents ORF57 from degrading and allows two structure-free N termini of the dimerized ORF57 to work coordinately for host factor interactions, leading to productive KSHV lytic infection and pathogenesis.KSHV is a human oncogenic virus linked to the development of several malignancies. KSHV-mediated oncogenesis requires both latent and lytic infection. The KSHV ORF57 protein is essential for KSHV lytic replication, as it regulates the expression of viral lytic genes at the posttranscriptional level. This report provides evidence that the structural conformation of the ORF57 protein plays a critical role in regulation of ORF57 stability. Phosphorylation by CKII on the identified serine/threonine residues at the N-terminal unstructured domain of ORF57 prevents its digestion by caspase-7. The C-terminal domain of ORF57, which is rich in α-helices, contributes to homodimerization of ORF57 to prevent proteasome-mediated protein degradation. Elucidation of the ORF57 structure not only enables us to better understand ORF57 stability and functions but also provides an important tool for us to modulate ORF57's activity with the aim to inhibit KSHV lytic replication.
|Pharmacological targeting of valosin containing protein (VCP) induces DNA damage and selectively kills canine lymphoma cells. |
Nadeau, MÈ; Rico, C; Tsoi, M; Vivancos, M; Filimon, S; Paquet, M; Boerboom, D
BMC cancer 15 479 2015
Valosin containing protein (VCP) is a critical mediator of protein homeostasis and may represent a valuable therapeutic target for several forms of cancer. Overexpression of VCP occurs in many cancers, and often in a manner correlating with malignancy and poor outcome. Here, we analyzed VCP expression in canine lymphoma and assessed its potential as a therapeutic target for this disease.VCP expression in canine lymphomas was evaluated by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The canine lymphoma cell lines CLBL-1, 17-71 and CL-1 were treated with the VCP inhibitor Eeyarestatin 1 (EER-1) at varying concentrations and times and were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion, apoptosis by TUNEL and caspase activity assays, and proliferation by propidium iodide incorporation and FACS. The mechanism of EER-1 action was determined by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses of Lys48 ubiquitin and markers of ER stress (DDIT3), autophagy (SQSTM1, MAP1LC3A) and DNA damage (γH2AFX). TRP53/ATM-dependent signaling pathway activity was assessed by immunoblotting for TRP53 and phospho-TRP53 and real-time RT-PCR measurement of Cdkn1a mRNA.VCP expression levels in canine B cell lymphomas were found to increase with grade. EER-1 treatment killed canine lymphoma cells preferentially over control peripheral blood mononuclear cells. EER-1 treatment of CLBL-1 cells was found to both induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G1. Unexpectedly, EER-1 did not appear to act either by inducing ER stress or inhibiting the aggresome-autophagy pathway. Rather, a rapid and dramatic increase in γH2AFX expression was noted, indicating that EER-1 may act by promoting DNA damage accumulation. Increased TRP53 phosphorylation and Cdkn1a mRNA levels indicated an activation of the TRP53/ATM DNA damage response pathway in response to EER-1, likely contributing to the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.These results correlate VCP expression with malignancy in canine B cell lymphoma. The selective activity of EER-1 against lymphoma cells suggests that VCP will represent a clinically useful therapeutic target for the treatment of lymphoma. We further suggest a mechanism of EER-1 action centered on the DNA repair response that may be of central importance for the design and characterization of VCP inhibitory compounds for therapeutic use.
|Endocytic Adaptor Protein Tollip Inhibits Canonical Wnt Signaling. |
Toruń, A; Szymańska, E; Castanon, I; Wolińska-Nizioł, L; Bartosik, A; Jastrzębski, K; Miętkowska, M; González-Gaitán, M; Miaczynska, M
PloS one 10 e0130818 2015
Many adaptor proteins involved in endocytic cargo transport exhibit additional functions in other cellular processes which may be either related to or independent from their trafficking roles. The endosomal adaptor protein Tollip is an example of such a multitasking regulator, as it participates in trafficking and endosomal sorting of receptors, but also in interleukin/Toll/NF-κB signaling, bacterial entry, autophagic clearance of protein aggregates and regulation of sumoylation. Here we describe another role of Tollip in intracellular signaling. By performing a targeted RNAi screen of soluble endocytic proteins for their additional functions in canonical Wnt signaling, we identified Tollip as a potential negative regulator of this pathway in human cells. Depletion of Tollip potentiates the activity of β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcriptional reporter, while its overproduction inhibits the reporter activity and expression of Wnt target genes. These effects are independent of dynamin-mediated endocytosis, but require the ubiquitin-binding CUE domain of Tollip. In Wnt-stimulated cells, Tollip counteracts the activation of β-catenin and its nuclear accumulation, without affecting its total levels. Additionally, under conditions of ligand-independent signaling, Tollip inhibits the pathway after the stage of β-catenin stabilization, as observed in human cancer cell lines, characterized by constitutive β-catenin activity. Finally, the regulation of Wnt signaling by Tollip occurs also during early embryonic development of zebrafish. In summary, our data identify a novel function of Tollip in regulating the canonical Wnt pathway which is evolutionarily conserved between fish and humans. Tollip-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling may contribute not only to embryonic development, but also to carcinogenesis. Mechanistically, Tollip can potentially coordinate multiple cellular pathways of trafficking and signaling, possibly by exploiting its ability to interact with ubiquitin and the sumoylation machinery.
|TRIM30α Is a Negative-Feedback Regulator of the Intracellular DNA and DNA Virus-Triggered Response by Targeting STING. |
Wang, Y; Lian, Q; Yang, B; Yan, S; Zhou, H; He, L; Lin, G; Lian, Z; Jiang, Z; Sun, B
PLoS pathogens 11 e1005012 2015
Uncontrolled immune responses to intracellular DNA have been shown to induce autoimmune diseases. Homeostasis regulation of immune responses to cytosolic DNA is critical for limiting the risk of autoimmunity and survival of the host. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 30α (TRIM30α) was induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in dendritic cells (DCs). Knockdown or genetic ablation of TRIM30α augmented the type I IFNs and interleukin-6 response to intracellular DNA and DNA viruses. Trim30α-deficient mice were more resistant to infection by DNA viruses. Biochemical analyses showed that TRIM30α interacted with the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), which is a critical regulator of the DNA-sensing response. Overexpression of TRIM30α promoted the degradation of STING via K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys275 through a proteasome-dependent pathway. These findings indicate that E3 ligase TRIM30α is an important negative-feedback regulator of innate immune responses to DNA viruses by targeting STING.
|Coupled local translation and degradation regulate growth cone collapse. |
Deglincerti, A; Liu, Y; Colak, D; Hengst, U; Xu, G; Jaffrey, SR
Nature communications 6 6888 2015
Local translation mediates axonal responses to Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) and other guidance cues. However, only a subset of the axonal proteome is locally synthesized, whereas most proteins are trafficked from the soma. The reason why only specific proteins are locally synthesized is unknown. Here we show that local protein synthesis and degradation are linked events in growth cones. We find that growth cones exhibit high levels of ubiquitination and that local signalling pathways trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoA, a mediator of Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. Inhibition of RhoA degradation is sufficient to remove the protein-synthesis requirement for Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. In addition to RhoA, we find that locally translated proteins are the main targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in growth cones. Thus, local protein degradation is a major feature of growth cones and creates a requirement for local translation to replenish proteins needed to maintain growth cone responses.
|Differential roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy in the clearance of soluble and aggregated TDP-43 species. |
Scotter, EL; Vance, C; Nishimura, AL; Lee, YB; Chen, HJ; Urwin, H; Sardone, V; Mitchell, JC; Rogelj, B; Rubinsztein, DC; Shaw, CE
Journal of cell science 127 1263-78 2014
TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43, also known as TARDBP) is the major pathological protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Large TDP-43 aggregates that are decorated with degradation adaptor proteins are seen in the cytoplasm of remaining neurons in ALS and FTD patients post mortem. TDP-43 accumulation and ALS-linked mutations within degradation pathways implicate failed TDP-43 clearance as a primary disease mechanism. Here, we report the differing roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy in the clearance of TDP-43. We have investigated the effects of inhibitors of the UPS and autophagy on the degradation, localisation and mobility of soluble and insoluble TDP-43. We find that soluble TDP-43 is degraded primarily by the UPS, whereas the clearance of aggregated TDP-43 requires autophagy. Cellular macroaggregates, which recapitulate many of the pathological features of the aggregates in patients, are reversible when both the UPS and autophagy are functional. Their clearance involves the autophagic removal of oligomeric TDP-43. We speculate that, in addition to an age-related decline in pathway activity, a second hit in either the UPS or the autophagy pathway drives the accumulation of TDP-43 in ALS and FTD. Therapies for clearing excess TDP-43 should therefore target a combination of these pathways.
|Cancer cell death induced by novel small molecules degrading the TACC3 protein via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. |
Ohoka, N; Nagai, K; Hattori, T; Okuhira, K; Shibata, N; Cho, N; Naito, M
Cell death & disease 5 e1513 2014
The selective degradation of target proteins with small molecules is a novel approach to the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. We have developed a protein knockdown system with a series of hybrid small compounds that induce the selective degradation of target proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In this study, we designed and synthesized novel small molecules called SNIPER(TACC3)s, which target the spindle regulatory protein transforming acidic coiled-coil-3 (TACC3). SNIPER(TACC3)s induce poly-ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of TACC3 and reduce the TACC3 protein level in cells. Mechanistic analysis indicated that the ubiquitin ligase APC/C(CDH1) mediates the SNIPER(TACC3)-induced degradation of TACC3. Intriguingly, SNIPER(TACC3) selectively induced cell death in cancer cells expressing a larger amount of TACC3 protein than normal cells. These results suggest that protein knockdown of TACC3 by SNIPER(TACC3) is a potential strategy for treating cancers overexpressing the TACC3 protein.
|Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP)-mediated ubiquitination of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2) negatively regulates tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) cytotoxicity. |
Guicciardi, ME; Werneburg, NW; Bronk, SF; Franke, A; Yagita, H; Thomas, G; Gores, GJ
PloS one 9 e92124 2014
Lysosomal membrane permeabilization is an essential step in TRAIL-induced apoptosis of liver cancer cell lines. TRAIL-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization is mediated by the multifunctional sorting protein PACS-2 and repressed by the E3 ligases cIAP-1 and cIAP-2. Despite the opposing roles for PACS-2 and cIAPs in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, an interaction between these proteins has yet to be examined. Herein, we report that cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 confer TRAIL resistance to hepatobiliary cancer cell lines by reducing PACS-2 levels. Under basal conditions, PACS-2 underwent K48-linked poly-ubiquitination, resulting in PACS-2 proteasomal degradation. Biochemical assays showed cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 interacted with PACS-2 in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two cIAPs bound PACS-2 in vivo. More importantly, both cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 directly mediated PACS-2 ubiquitination in a cell-free assay. Single c-Iap-1 or c-Iap-2 gene knock-outs in mouse hepatocytes did not lead to PACS-2 accumulation. However, deletion of both cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 reduced PACS-2 ubiquitination, which increased PACS-2 levels and sensitized HuH-7 cells to TRAIL-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. Correspondingly, deletion of cIAPs sensitized wild-type, but not PACS-2-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells or Pacs-2-/- mouse hepatocytes to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together, these data suggest cIAPs constitutively downregulate PACS-2 by polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thereby restraining TRAIL-induced killing of liver cancer cells.
|Cell fate decisions regulated by K63 ubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1. |
Fritsch, J; Stephan, M; Tchikov, V; Winoto-Morbach, S; Gubkina, S; Kabelitz, D; Schütze, S
Molecular and cellular biology 34 3214-28 2014
Signaling by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNF-R1), a prototypic member of the death receptor family, mediates pleiotropic biological outcomes ranging from inflammation and cell proliferation to cell death. Although many elements of specific signaling pathways have been identified, the main question of how these selective cell fate decisions are regulated is still unresolved. Here we identified TNF-induced K63 ubiquitination of TNF-R1 mediated by the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 as an early molecular checkpoint in the regulation of the decision between cell death and survival. Downmodulation of RNF8 prevented the ubiquitination of TNF-R1, blocked the internalization of the receptor, prevented the recruitment of the death-inducing signaling complex and the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7, and reduced apoptotic cell death. Conversely, recruitment of the adaptor proteins TRADD, TRAF2, and RIP1 to TNF-R1, as well as activation of NF-κB, was unimpeded and cell growth and proliferation were significantly enhanced in RNF8-deficient cells. Thus, K63 ubiquitination of TNF-R1 can be sensed as a new level of regulation of TNF-R1 signaling at the earliest stage after ligand binding.
|Intramitochondrial recruitment of endolysosomes mediates Smac degradation and constitutes a novel intrinsic apoptosis antagonizing function of XIAP E3 ligase. |
Hamacher-Brady, A; Choe, SC; Krijnse-Locker, J; Brady, NR
Cell death and differentiation 21 1862-76 2014
Intrinsic apoptosis involves BH3-only protein activation of Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Consequently, cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria to activate caspases, and Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) to inhibit XIAP-mediated caspase suppression. Dysfunctional mitochondria can be targeted for lysosomal degradation via autophagy (mitophagy), or directly through mitochondria-derived vesicle transport. However, the extent of autophagy and lysosomal interactions with apoptotic mitochondria remains largely unknown. We describe here a novel pathway of endolysosomal processing of mitochondria, activated in response to canonical BH3-only proteins and mitochondrial depolarization. We report that expression of canonical BH3-only proteins, tBid, BimEL, Bik, Bad, and mitophagy receptor mutants of atypical BH3-only proteins, Bnip3 and Bnip3L/Nix, leads to prominent relocalization of endolysosomes into inner mitochondrial compartments, in a manner independent of mitophagy. As an upstream regulator, we identified the XIAP E3 ligase. In response to mitochondrial depolarization, XIAP actuates Bax-mediated MOMP, even in the absence of BH3-only protein signaling. Subsequently, in an E3 ligase-dependent manner, XIAP rapidly localizes inside all the mitochondria, and XIAP-mediated mitochondrial ubiquitylation catalyses interactions of Rab membrane targeting components Rabex-5 and Rep-1 (RFP-tagged Rab escort protein-1), and Rab5- and Rab7-positive endolysosomes, at and within mitochondrial membrane compartments. While XIAP-mediated MOMP permits delayed cytochrome c release, within the mitochondria XIAP selectively signals lysosome- and proteasome-associated degradation of its inhibitor Smac. These findings suggest a general mechanism to lower the mitochondrial apoptotic potential via intramitochondrial degradation of Smac.
|CaMKII, but not protein kinase A, regulates Rpt6 phosphorylation and proteasome activity during the formation of long-term memories. |
Jarome, TJ; Kwapis, JL; Ruenzel, WL; Helmstetter, FJ
Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 7 115 2013
CaMKII and Protein Kinase A (PKA) are thought to be critical for synaptic plasticity and memory formation through their regulation of protein synthesis. Consistent with this, numerous studies have reported that CaMKII, PKA and protein synthesis are critical for long-term memory formation. Recently, we found that protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system is also critical for long-term memory formation in the amygdala. However, the mechanism by which ubiquitin-proteasome activity is regulated during memory formation and how protein degradation interacts with known intracellular signaling pathways important for learning remain unknown. Recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that both CaMKII and PKA are capable of regulating proteasome activity in vitro through the phosphorylation of proteasome regulatory subunit Rpt6 at Serine-120, though whether they regulate Rpt6 phosphorylation and proteasome function in vivo remains unknown. In the present study we demonstrate for the first time that fear conditioning transiently modifies a proteasome regulatory subunit and proteasome catalytic activity in the mammalian brain in a CaMKII-dependent manner. We found increases in the phosphorylation of proteasome ATPase subunit Rpt6 at Serine-120 and an enhancement in proteasome activity in the amygdala following fear conditioning. Pharmacological manipulation of CaMKII, but not PKA, in vivo significantly reduced both the learning-induced increase in Rpt6 Serine-120 phosphorylation and the increase in proteasome activity without directly affecting protein polyubiquitination levels. These results indicate a novel role for CaMKII in memory formation through its regulation of protein degradation and suggest that CaMKII regulates Rpt6 phosphorylation and proteasome function both in vitro and in vivo.
|Unique insights into maternal mitochondrial inheritance in mice. |
Luo, SM; Ge, ZJ; Wang, ZW; Jiang, ZZ; Wang, ZB; Ouyang, YC; Hou, Y; Schatten, H; Sun, QY
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 13038-43 2013
In animals, mtDNA is always transmitted through the female and this is termed "maternal inheritance." Recently, autophagy was reported to be involved in maternal inheritance by elimination of paternal mitochondria and mtDNA in Caenorhabditis elegans; moreover, by immunofluorescence, P62 and LC3 proteins were also found to colocalize to sperm mitochondria after fertilization in mice. Thus, it has been speculated that autophagy may be an evolutionary conserved mechanism for paternal mitochondrial elimination. However, by using two transgenic mouse strains, one bearing GFP-labeled autophagosomes and the other bearing red fluorescent protein-labeled mitochondria, we demonstrated that autophagy did not participate in the postfertilization elimination of sperm mitochondria in mice. Although P62 and LC3 proteins congregated to sperm mitochondria immediately after fertilization, sperm mitochondria were not engulfed and ultimately degraded in lysosomes until P62 and LC3 proteins disengaged from sperm mitochondria. Instead, sperm mitochondria unevenly distributed in blastomeres during cleavage and persisted in several cells until the morula stages. Furthermore, by using single sperm mtDNA PCR, we observed that most motile sperm that had reached the oviduct for fertilization had eliminated their mtDNA, leaving only vacuolar mitochondria. However, if sperm with remaining mtDNA entered the zygote, mtDNA was not eliminated and could be detected in newborn mice. Based on these results, we conclude that, in mice, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is not an active process of sperm mitochondrial and mtDNA elimination achieved through autophagy in early embryos, but may be a passive process as a result of prefertilization sperm mtDNA elimination and uneven mitochondrial distribution in embryos.
|Dimerization and ubiquitin mediated recruitment of A20, a complex deubiquitinating enzyme. |
Lu, TT; Onizawa, M; Hammer, GE; Turer, EE; Yin, Q; Damko, E; Agelidis, A; Shifrin, N; Advincula, R; Barrera, J; Malynn, BA; Wu, H; Ma, A
Immunity 38 896-905 2013
A20 is an anti-inflammatory protein linked to multiple human autoimmune diseases and lymphomas. A20 possesses a deubiquitinating motif and a zinc finger, ZF4, that binds ubiquitin and supports its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. To understand how these activities mediate A20's physiological functions, we generated two lines of gene-targeted mice, abrogating either A20's deubiquitinating activity (Tnfaip3(OTU) mice) or A20's ZF4 (Tnfaip3(ZF4) mice). Both Tnfaip3(OTU) and Tnfaip3(ZF4) mice exhibited increased responses to TNF and sensitivity to colitis. A20's C103 deubiquitinating motif restricted both K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination of receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1). A20's ZF4 was required for recruiting A20 to ubiquitinated RIP1. A20(OTU) proteins and A20(ZF4) proteins complemented each other to regulate RIP1 ubiquitination and NFκB signaling normally in compound mutant Tnfaip3(OTU/ZF4) cells. This complementation involved homodimerization of A20 proteins, and we have defined an extensive dimerization interface in A20. These studies reveal how A20 proteins collaborate to restrict TNF signaling.
|Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box containing protein-10 is associated with ubiquitin-mediated degradation pathways in trabecular meshwork cells. |
Keller, KE; Yang, YF; Sun, YY; Sykes, R; Acott, TS; Wirtz, MK
Molecular vision 19 1639-55 2013
Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) box containing protein-10 (ASB10) was recently identified as a gene that causes primary open-angle glaucoma. Here, we investigated endogenous ASB10 protein expression in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells to provide the first clues to the biologic function of this protein.Primary HTM cells were cultured and immunostained with anti-ASB10 and various biomarkers of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal and autophagy-lysosomal degradation pathways. Cells were imaged with confocal and high-resolution structured illumination microscopy. Colocalization was quantified using Imaris Bitplane software, which generated a Pearson's correlation coefficient value. Coimmunoprecipitation of ASB10-transfected cells was performed.Immunofluorescence and confocal analysis showed that ASB10 was localized in intracellular structures in HTM cells. Two populations were observed: small, spherical vesicles and larger, less abundant structures. In the ASB10-silenced cells, the number of large structures was significantly decreased. ASB10 partially colocalized with biomarkers of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal pathway including ubiquitin and the α4 subunit of the 20S proteasome. However, ASB10 itself was not ubiquitinated. ASB10 also colocalized with numerous biomarkers of specific autophagic structures: aggresomes (histone deacetylase 6 [HDAC6] and heat shock protein 70 [HSP70]), autophagosomes (light chain 3 [LC3] and p62), amphisomes (Rab7), and lysosomes (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 [LAMP1]). Pearson coefficients indicated strong colocalization of large ASB10-stained structures with the α4 subunit of the 20S proteasome, K48 and K63-linked ubiquitin antibodies, p62, HSP70, and HDAC6 (Pearson's range, 0.59-0.82). Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed a positive interaction of ASB10 with HSP70 and with the α4 subunit of the 20S proteasome. Super-resolution structured illumination confocal microscopy suggested that the smaller ASB10-stained vesicles aggregated into the larger structures, which resembled aggresome-like induced structures. Treatment of HTM cells with an autophagy activator (MG132) or inhibitors (wortmannin, bafilomycin A1) significantly increased and decreased the number of small ASB10-stained vesicles, respectively. No discernible differences in the colocalization of large ASB10-stained structures with ubiquitin or HDAC6 were observed between dermal fibroblasts derived from a normal individual and a patient with primary open-angle glaucoma carrying a synonymous ASB10 mutation.Our evidence suggests that ASB10 may play a role in ubiquitin-mediated degradation pathways in TM cells.
|OTUB1 enhances TGFβ signalling by inhibiting the ubiquitylation and degradation of active SMAD2/3. |
Herhaus, L; Al-Salihi, M; Macartney, T; Weidlich, S; Sapkota, GP
Nature communications 4 2519 2013
SMAD transcription factors are key intracellular transducers of TGFβ cytokines. SMADs are tightly regulated to ensure balanced cellular responses to TGFβ signals. Ubiquitylation has a key role in regulating SMAD stability and activity. Several E3 ubiquitin ligases that regulate the turnover of SMADs are known; however, proteins that prevent the ubiquitylation or cause deubiquitylation of active SMADs remain undefined. Here we demonstrate that OTUB1 is recruited to the active phospho-SMAD2/3 complex only on TGFβ induction. Further, OTUB1 has a crucial role in TGFβ-mediated gene transcription and cellular migration. OTUB1 inhibits the ubiquitylation of phospho-SMAD2/3 by binding to and inhibiting the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes independent of its catalytic activity. Consequently, depletion of OTUB1 in cells causes a rapid loss in levels of TGFβ-induced phospho-SMAD2/3, which is rescued by the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib. Our findings uncover a signal-induced phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of OTUB1 to its target in the TGFβ pathway.
|The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM21 negatively regulates the innate immune response to intracellular double-stranded DNA. |
Zhang, Z; Bao, M; Lu, N; Weng, L; Yuan, B; Liu, YJ
Nature immunology 14 172-8 2013
DDX41 is a sensor of intracellular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) that triggers a type I interferon response via the signaling adaptor STING. We identified the E3 ligase TRIM21 as a DDX41-interacting protein and found that knockdown of or deficiency in TRIM21 resulted in enhanced type I interferon responses to intracellular dsDNA and DNA viruses. Overexpression of TRIM21 resulted in more degradation of DDX41 and less production of interferon-β (IFN-β) in response to intracellular dsDNA. The SPRY-PRY domain of TRIM21 interacted with the DEADc domain of DDX41. Lys9 and Lys115 of DDX41 were the targets of TRIM21-mediated ubiquitination. TRIM21 is therefore an interferon-inducible E3 ligase that induces the Lys48 (K48)-linked ubiquitination and degradation of DDX41 and negatively regulates the innate immune response to intracellular dsDNA.
|Regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling by NDP52-mediated selective autophagy is normally inactivated by A20. |
Inomata, M; Niida, S; Shibata, K; Into, T
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 69 963-79 2012
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is linked to autophagy that facilitates elimination of intracellular pathogens. However, it is largely unknown whether autophagy controls TLR signaling. Here, we report that poly(I:C) stimulation induces selective autophagic degradation of the TLR adaptor molecule TRIF and the signaling molecule TRAF6, which is revealed by gene silencing of the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20. This type of autophagy induced formation of autophagosomes and could be suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor and lysosomal inhibitors. However, this autophagy was not associated with canonical autophagic processes, including involvement of Beclin-1 and conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Through screening of TRIF-interacting 'autophagy receptors' in human cells, we identified that NDP52 mediated the selective autophagic degradation of TRIF and TRAF6 but not TRAF3. NDP52 was polyubiquitinated by TRAF6 and was involved in aggregation of TRAF6, which may result in the selective degradation. Intriguingly, only under the condition of A20 silencing, NDP52 could effectively suppress poly(I:C)-induced proinflammatory gene expression. Thus, this study clarifies a selective autophagic mechanism mediated by NDP52 that works downstream of TRIF-TRAF6. Furthermore, although A20 is known as a signaling fine-tuner to prevent excess TLR signaling, it paradoxically downregulates the fine-tuning effect of NDP52 on TLR signaling.
|CARMA1 controls Th2 cell-specific cytokine expression through regulating JunB and GATA3 transcription factors. |
Blonska, M; Joo, D; Zweidler-McKay, PA; Zhao, Q; Lin, X
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 188 3160-8 2012
The scaffold protein CARMA1 is required for the TCR-induced lymphocyte activation. In this study, we show that CARMA1 also plays an essential role in T cell differentiation. We have found that the adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells expressing constitutively active CARMA1 results in lung inflammation, eosinophilia, and elevated levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 in recipient mice. In contrast, CARMA1-deficient T cells are defective in TCR-induced expression of Th2 cytokines, suggesting that CARMA1 preferentially directs Th2 differentiation. The impaired cytokine production is due to reduced expression of JunB and GATA3 transcription factors. CARMA1 deficiency affects JunB stability resulting in its enhanced ubiquitination and degradation. In contrast, TCR-dependent induction of GATA3 is suppressed at the transcriptional level. We also found that supplementation with IL-4 partially restored GATA3 expression in CARMA1-deficient CD4(+) splenocytes and subsequently production of GATA3-dependent cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. Therefore, our work provides the mechanism by which CARMA1 regulates Th2 cell differentiation.
|RNF8- and RNF168-dependent degradation of KDM4A/JMJD2A triggers 53BP1 recruitment to DNA damage sites. |
Frédérick A Mallette,Francesca Mattiroli,Gaofeng Cui,Leah C Young,Michael J Hendzel,Georges Mer,Titia K Sixma,Stéphane Richard
The EMBO journal 31 2012
In response to DNA damage, cells initiate complex signalling cascades leading to growth arrest and DNA repair. The recruitment of 53BP1 to damaged sites requires the activation of the ubiquitination cascade controlled by the E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168, and methylation of histone H4 on lysine 20. However, molecular events that regulate the accessibility of methylated histones, to allow the recruitment of 53BP1 to DNA breaks, are unclear. Here, we show that like 53BP1, the JMJD2A (also known as KDM4A) tandem tudor domain binds dimethylated histone H4K20; however, JMJD2A is degraded by the proteasome following the DNA damage in an RNF8-dependent manner. We demonstrate that JMJD2A is ubiquitinated by RNF8 and RNF168. Moreover, ectopic expression of JMJD2A abrogates 53BP1 recruitment to DNA damage sites, indicating a role in antagonizing 53BP1 for methylated histone marks. The combined knockdown of JMJD2A and JMJD2B significantly rescued the ability of RNF8- and RNF168-deficient cells to form 53BP1 foci. We propose that the RNF8-dependent degradation of JMJD2A regulates DNA repair by controlling the recruitment of 53BP1 at DNA damage sites.
|Keap1 degradation by autophagy for the maintenance of redox homeostasis. |
Taguchi, K; Fujikawa, N; Komatsu, M; Ishii, T; Unno, M; Akaike, T; Motohashi, H; Yamamoto, M
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 13561-6 2012
The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system is essential for cytoprotection against oxidative and electrophilic insults. Under unstressed conditions, Keap1 serves as an adaptor for ubiquitin E3 ligase and promotes proteasomal degradation of Nrf2, but Nrf2 is stabilized when Keap1 is inactivated under oxidative/electrophilic stress conditions. Autophagy-deficient mice show aberrant accumulation of p62, a multifunctional scaffold protein, and develop severe liver damage. The p62 accumulation disrupts the Keap1-Nrf2 association and provokes Nrf2 stabilization and accumulation. However, individual contributions of p62 and Nrf2 to the autophagy-deficiency-driven liver pathogenesis have not been clarified. To examine whether Nrf2 caused the liver injury independent of p62, we crossed liver-specific Atg7::Keap1-Alb double-mutant mice into p62- and Nrf2-null backgrounds. Although Atg7::Keap1-Alb::p62(-/-) triple-mutant mice displayed defective autophagy accompanied by the robust accumulation of Nrf2 and severe liver injury, Atg7::Keap1-Alb::Nrf2(-/-) triple-mutant mice did not show any signs of such hepatocellular damage. Importantly, in this study we noticed that Keap1 accumulated in the Atg7- or p62-deficient mouse livers and the Keap1 level did not change by a proteasome inhibitor, indicating that the Keap1 protein is constitutively degraded through the autophagy pathway. This finding is in clear contrast to the Nrf2 degradation through the proteasome pathway. We also found that treatment of cells with tert-butylhydroquinone accelerated the Keap1 degradation. These results thus indicate that Nrf2 accumulation is the dominant cause to provoke the liver damage in the autophagy-deficient mice. The autophagy pathway maintains the integrity of the Keap1-Nrf2 system for the normal liver function by governing the Keap1 turnover.
|Interaction proteomics identify NEURL4 and the HECT E3 ligase HERC2 as novel modulators of centrosome architecture. |
Al-Hakim, AK; Bashkurov, M; Gingras, AC; Durocher, D; Pelletier, L
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 11 M111.014233 2012
Centrosomes are composed of a centriole pair surrounded by an intricate proteinaceous matrix referred to as pericentriolar material. Although the mechanisms underpinning the control of centriole duplication are now well understood, we know relatively little about the control of centrosome size and shape. Here we used interaction proteomics to identify the E3 ligase HERC2 and the neuralized homologue NEURL4 as novel interaction partners of the centrosomal protein CP110. Using high resolution imaging, we find that HERC2 and NEURL4 localize to the centrosome and that interfering with their function alters centrosome morphology through the appearance of aberrant filamentous structures that stain for a subset of pericentriolar material proteins including pericentrin and CEP135. Using an RNA interference-resistant transgene approach in combination with structure-function analyses, we show that the association between CP110 and HERC2 depends on nonoverlapping regions of NEURL4. Whereas CP110 binding to NEURL4 is dispensable for the regulation of pericentriolar material architecture, its association with HERC2 is required to maintain normal centrosome integrity. NEURL4 is a substrate of HERC2, and together these results indicate that the NEURL4-HERC2 complex participates in the ubiquitin-dependent regulation of centrosome architecture.
|E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif 38 negatively regulates TLR-mediated immune responses by proteasomal degradation of TNF receptor-associated factor 6 in macrophages. |
Zhao, W; Wang, L; Zhang, M; Yuan, C; Gao, C
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 188 2567-74 2012
Activation of TLR signaling in the innate immune cells is critical for the elimination of invading microorganisms. However, uncontrolled activation may lead to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In this article, we report the identification of tripartite motif (TRIM) 38 as a negative feedback regulator in TLR signaling by targeting TNFR-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). TRIM38 was induced by TLR stimulation in an NF-κB-dependent manner in macrophages. Knockdown of TRIM38 expression by small interfering RNA resulted in augmented activation of NF-κB and MAPKs, and enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines, whereas overexpression of TRIM38 has an opposite effect. As an E3 ligase, TRIM38 bound to TRAF6 and promoted K48-linked polyubiquitination, which led to the proteasomal degradation of TRAF6. Consistently, knockdown of TRIM38 expression resulted in higher protein level of TRAF6 in primary macrophages. Our findings defined a novel function for TRIM38 to prevent excessive TLR-induced inflammatory responses through proteasomal degradation of TRAF6.
|Bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, modulates BI-1 protein stability and function in ER Stress. |
Rong, J; Chen, L; Toth, JI; Tcherpakov, M; Petroski, MD; Reed, JC
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 1453-63 2011
Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1), among other ER-associated signaling proteins of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in mammalian cells. IRE1 signaling becomes attenuated under prolonged ER stress. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. An ER resident protein, Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), interacts with IRE1 and directly inhibits IRE1 activity. However, little is known about regulation of the BI-1 protein. We show here that bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR) functions as an ER-associated RING-type E3 ligase, interacts with BI-1, and promotes proteasomal degradation of BI-1. Overexpression of BAR reduced BI-1 protein levels in a RING-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous BAR increased BI-1 protein levels and enhanced inhibition of IRE1 signaling during ER stress. We also found that the levels of endogenous BAR were reduced under prolonged ER stress. Our findings suggest that post-translational regulation of the BI-1 protein by E3 ligase BAR contributes to the dynamic control of IRE1 signaling during ER stress.Artículo Texto completo
|Induction of the alternative NF-κB pathway by lymphotoxin αβ (LTαβ) relies on internalization of LTβ receptor. |
Ganeff, C; Remouchamps, C; Boutaffala, L; Benezech, C; Galopin, G; Vandepaer, S; Bouillenne, F; Ormenese, S; Chariot, A; Schneider, P; Caamaño, J; Piette, J; Dejardin, E
Molecular and cellular biology 31 4319-34 2011
Several tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB pathways. However, how a single receptor engages these two distinct pathways is still poorly understood. Using lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) as a prototype, we showed that activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway relied on internalization of the receptor. Further molecular analyses revealed a specific cytosolic region of LTβR essential for its internalization, TRAF3 recruitment, and p100 processing. Interestingly, we found that dynamin-dependent, but clathrin-independent, internalization of LTβR appeared to be required for the activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway. In vivo, ligand-induced internalization of LTβR in mesenteric lymph node stromal cells correlated with induction of alternative NF-κB target genes. Thus, our data shed light on LTβR cellular trafficking as a process required for specific biological functions of NF-κB.
|Assessing ubiquitination of viral proteins: Lessons from flavivirus NS5. |
Taylor RT, Best SM.
Methods (San Diego, Calif.) 55 166-71 2011
Ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation to a substrate protein is a widely used cellular mechanism for control of protein stability and function, modulation of signal transduction pathways and antiviral responses. Identification and characterization of ubiquitinated viral proteins is an important step in understanding novel mechanisms of viral protein regulation as well as elucidating cellular antiviral strategies. Here we describe a protocol to easily detect and characterize the ubiquitination status of a viral substrate protein expressed either during infection or ectopically expressed as a fusion with a biotinylatable epitope tag. This tag provides advantages over current immunoprecipitation techniques by making use of the extremely tight biotin-streptavidin interaction. We provide an example of this protocol using the nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) from Langat virus (LGTV), a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) serocomplex within the Flavivirus genus. Using the protocols outlined here, we describe some of the pitfalls inherent in determination of Ub linkage and demonstrate that NS5 is modified by at least two distinct ubiquitination types, multiubiquitination and K48-linked polyubiquitin chains.
|p62/SQSTM1 is required for Parkin-induced mitochondrial clustering but not mitophagy; VDAC1 is dispensable for both. |
Narendra, D; Kane, LA; Hauser, DN; Fearnley, IM; Youle, RJ
Autophagy 6 1090-106 2010
Mitochondria sustain damage with aging, and the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a number of diseases including Parkinson disease. We recently demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin, which is linked to recessive forms of parkinsonism, causes a dramatic increase in mitophagy and a change in mitochondrial distribution, following its translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria. Investigating how Parkin induces these changes may offer insight into the mechanisms that lead to the sequestration and elimination of damaged mitochondria. We report that following Parkin’s translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, Parkin (but not a pathogenic mutant) promotes the K63-linked polyubiquitination of mitochondrial substrate(s) and recruits the ubiquitin- and LC3-binding protein, p62/SQSTM1, to mitochondria. After its recruitment, p62/SQSTM1 mediates the aggregation of dysfunctional mitochondria through polymerization via its PB1 domain, in a manner analogous to its aggregation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Surprisingly and in contrast to what has been recently reported for ubiquitin-induced pexophagy and xenophagy, p62 appears to be dispensable for mitophagy. Similarly, mitochondrial-anchored ubiquitin is sufficient to recruit p62 and promote mitochondrial clustering, but does not promote mitophagy. Although VDAC1 (but not VDAC2) is ubiquitinated following mitochondrial depolarization, we find VDAC1 cannot fully account for the mitochondrial K63-linked ubiquitin immunoreactivity observed following depolarization, as it is also observed in VDAC1/3-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Additionally, we find VDAC1 and VDAC3 are dispensable for the recruitment of p62, mitochondrial clustering and mitophagy. These results demonstrate that mitochondria are aggregated by p62, following its recruitment by Parkin in a VDAC1-independent manner. They also suggest that proteins other than p62 are likely required for mitophagy downstream of Parkin substrates other than VDAC1.
|The RIDDLE syndrome protein mediates a ubiquitin-dependent signaling cascade at sites of DNA damage. |
Stewart, Grant S, et al.
Cell, 136: 420-34 (2009) 2009
The biological response to DNA double-strand breaks acts to preserve genome integrity. Individuals bearing inactivating mutations in components of this response exhibit clinical symptoms that include cellular radiosensitivity, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition. The archetype for such disorders is Ataxia-Telangiectasia caused by biallelic mutation in ATM, a central component of the DNA damage response. Here, we report that the ubiquitin ligase RNF168 is mutated in the RIDDLE syndrome, a recently discovered immunodeficiency and radiosensitivity disorder. We show that RNF168 is recruited to sites of DNA damage by binding to ubiquitylated histone H2A. RNF168 acts with UBC13 to amplify the RNF8-dependent histone ubiquitylation by targeting H2A-type histones and by promoting the formation of lysine 63-linked ubiquitin conjugates. These RNF168-dependent chromatin modifications orchestrate the accumulation of 53BP1 and BRCA1 to DNA lesions, and their loss is the likely cause of the cellular and developmental phenotypes associated with RIDDLE syndrome.
|Ubiquitin chain editing revealed by polyubiquitin linkage-specific antibodies. |
Newton, Kim, et al.
Cell, 134: 668-78 (2008) 2008
Posttranslational modification of proteins with polyubiquitin occurs in diverse signaling pathways and is tightly regulated to ensure cellular homeostasis. Studies employing ubiquitin mutants suggest that the fate of polyubiquitinated proteins is determined by which lysine within ubiquitin is linked to the C terminus of an adjacent ubiquitin. We have developed linkage-specific antibodies that recognize polyubiquitin chains joined through lysine 63 (K63) or 48 (K48). A cocrystal structure of an anti-K63 linkage Fab bound to K63-linked diubiquitin provides insight into the molecular basis for specificity. We use these antibodies to demonstrate that RIP1, which is essential for tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappaB activation, and IRAK1, which participates in signaling by interleukin-1beta and Toll-like receptors, both undergo polyubiquitin editing in stimulated cells. Both kinase adaptors initially acquire K63-linked polyubiquitin, while at later times K48-linked polyubiquitin targets them for proteasomal degradation. Polyubiquitin editing may therefore be a general mechanism for attenuating innate immune signaling.
|Atypical ubiquitin chains: new molecular signals. 'Protein Modifications: Beyond the Usual Suspects' review series. |
Ikeda, Fumiyo and Dikic, Ivan
EMBO Rep., 9: 536-42 (2008) 2008
Ubiquitin (Ub) is a small protein modifier that regulates many biological processes, including gene transcription, cell-cycle progression, DNA repair, apoptosis, virus budding and receptor endocytosis. Ub can be conjugated to target proteins either as a monomer or as Ub chains that vary in length and linkage type. The various types of Ub modification are linked to distinct physiological functions in cells. MonoUb, for example, regulates DNA repair and receptor endocytosis, whereas lysine 48-linked Ub chains label proteins for proteasomal degradation. More recently, the importance of chains conjugated through the other six lysines in Ub, known as atypical Ub chains, has been revealed. Atypical chains can be homotypic, sequentially using the same lysine residue in Ub for conjugation; mixed-linkage, utilizing several distinct lysines to connect consecutive Ub moieties; or heterologous, connecting Ub with other Ub-like modifiers. Here, we describe recent progress in the understanding of atypical Ub chain assembly and their recognition by Ub-binding domains, and we discuss further their functional roles in vivo.
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