Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R, Rb||Cell Function Assay, ICC, IP, IHC, WB||Rb||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Ubiquitin Antibody, Lys63-Specific, clone Apu3, rabbit monoclonal|
|Overview||DI-UBIQUITIN PROTEIN AVAILABLE!
Di-Ubiquitin (Lys63-linked) Recombinant Protein (17-10388)
|Background Information||Polyubiquitin chains linked through the Lys63 residue of ubiquitin (Ub) are associated with nonproteolytic functions such as signal transduction. Lys63-linked polyUb chains connect components of NFκB signaling in a highly regulated manner, and genetic evidence indicates the involvement of Lys63-linked Ub chains in stress response and DNA repair. Research in yeast has suggested Lys63-linked Ub chains stimulate endocytosis.
In contrast, polyubiquitin chains linked through the Lys48 residue of ubiquitin are most commonly associated with proteins targeted for proteosomal degradation.
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at 2-8°C from date of receipt.
For maximum recovery of product, centrifuge the vial prior to removing the cap.
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
Referencias bibliográficas | 23 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Pub Med ID|
|Sirt1-deficiency causes defective protein quality control. |
Tomita, T; Hamazaki, J; Hirayama, S; McBurney, MW; Yashiroda, H; Murata, S
Scientific reports 5 12613 2015
Protein quality control is an important mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Damaged proteins have to be restored or eliminated by degradation, which is mainly achieved by molecular chaperones and the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase Sirt1 has been reported to play positive roles in the regulation of cellular homeostasis in response to various stresses. However, its contribution to protein quality control remains unexplored. Here we show that Sirt1 is involved in protein quality control in both an Hsp70-dependent and an Hsp70-independent manner. Loss of Sirt1 led to the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in cells and tissues, especially upon heat stress, without affecting proteasome activities. This was partly due to decreased basal expression of Hsp70. However, this accumulation was only partially alleviated by overexpression of Hsp70 or induction of Hsp70 upon heat shock in Sirt1-deficient cells and tissues. These results suggest that Sirt1 mediates both Hsp70-dependent and Hsp70-independent protein quality control. Our findings cast new light on understanding the role of Sirt1 in maintaining cellular homeostasis.
|TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation. |
Greenfeld, H; Takasaki, K; Walsh, MJ; Ersing, I; Bernhardt, K; Ma, Y; Fu, B; Ashbaugh, CW; Cabo, J; Mollo, SB; Zhou, H; Li, S; Gewurz, BE
PLoS pathogens 11 e1004890 2015
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) signals through two C-terminal tail domains to drive cell growth, survival and transformation. The LMP1 membrane-proximal TES1/CTAR1 domain recruits TRAFs to activate MAP kinase, non-canonical and canonical NF-kB pathways, and is critical for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. TRAF1 is amongst the most highly TES1-induced target genes and is abundantly expressed in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. We found that TRAF1 expression enhanced LMP1 TES1 domain-mediated activation of the p38, JNK, ERK and canonical NF-kB pathways, but not non-canonical NF-kB pathway activity. To gain insights into how TRAF1 amplifies LMP1 TES1 MAP kinase and canonical NF-kB pathways, we performed proteomic analysis of TRAF1 complexes immuno-purified from cells uninduced or induced for LMP1 TES1 signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that LMP1 TES1 domain signaling induced an association between TRAF1 and the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), and stimulated linear (M1)-linked polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes. LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes isolated from EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) were highly modified by M1-linked polyubiqutin chains. The M1-ubiquitin binding proteins IKK-gamma/NEMO, A20 and ABIN1 each associate with TRAF1 in cells that express LMP1. TRAF2, but not the cIAP1 or cIAP2 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in LUBAC recruitment and M1-chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, implicating the TRAF1:TRAF2 heterotrimer in LMP1 TES1-dependent LUBAC activation. Depletion of either TRAF1, or the LUBAC ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit HOIP, markedly impaired LCL growth. Likewise, LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes purified from LCLs were decorated by lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiqutin chains. LMP1 TES1 signaling induced K63-polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, and TRAF2 was identified as K63-Ub chain target. Co-localization of M1- and K63-linked polyubiquitin chains on LMP1 complexes may facilitate downstream canonical NF-kB pathway activation. Our results highlight LUBAC as a novel potential therapeutic target in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.
|K63 polyubiquitination is a new modulator of the oxidative stress response. |
Silva, GM; Finley, D; Vogel, C
Nature structural & molecular biology 22 116-23 2015
Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that signals multiple processes, including protein degradation, trafficking and DNA repair. Polyubiquitin accumulates globally during the oxidative stress response, and this has been mainly attributed to increased ubiquitin conjugation and perturbations in protein degradation. Here we show that the unconventional Lys63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitin accumulates in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a highly sensitive and regulated manner as a result of exposure to peroxides. We demonstrate that hydrogen peroxide inhibits the deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp2, leading to accumulation of K63 conjugates assembled by the Rad6 ubiquitin conjugase and the Bre1 ubiquitin ligase. Using linkage-specific isolation methods and stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics, we identified greater than 100 new K63-polyubiquitinated targets, which were substantially enriched in ribosomal proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that impairment of K63 ubiquitination during oxidative stress affects polysome stability and protein expression, rendering cells more sensitive to stress, and thereby reveal a new redox-regulatory role for this modification.
|Endocytic Adaptor Protein Tollip Inhibits Canonical Wnt Signaling. |
Toruń, A; Szymańska, E; Castanon, I; Wolińska-Nizioł, L; Bartosik, A; Jastrzębski, K; Miętkowska, M; González-Gaitán, M; Miaczynska, M
PloS one 10 e0130818 2015
Many adaptor proteins involved in endocytic cargo transport exhibit additional functions in other cellular processes which may be either related to or independent from their trafficking roles. The endosomal adaptor protein Tollip is an example of such a multitasking regulator, as it participates in trafficking and endosomal sorting of receptors, but also in interleukin/Toll/NF-κB signaling, bacterial entry, autophagic clearance of protein aggregates and regulation of sumoylation. Here we describe another role of Tollip in intracellular signaling. By performing a targeted RNAi screen of soluble endocytic proteins for their additional functions in canonical Wnt signaling, we identified Tollip as a potential negative regulator of this pathway in human cells. Depletion of Tollip potentiates the activity of β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcriptional reporter, while its overproduction inhibits the reporter activity and expression of Wnt target genes. These effects are independent of dynamin-mediated endocytosis, but require the ubiquitin-binding CUE domain of Tollip. In Wnt-stimulated cells, Tollip counteracts the activation of β-catenin and its nuclear accumulation, without affecting its total levels. Additionally, under conditions of ligand-independent signaling, Tollip inhibits the pathway after the stage of β-catenin stabilization, as observed in human cancer cell lines, characterized by constitutive β-catenin activity. Finally, the regulation of Wnt signaling by Tollip occurs also during early embryonic development of zebrafish. In summary, our data identify a novel function of Tollip in regulating the canonical Wnt pathway which is evolutionarily conserved between fish and humans. Tollip-mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling may contribute not only to embryonic development, but also to carcinogenesis. Mechanistically, Tollip can potentially coordinate multiple cellular pathways of trafficking and signaling, possibly by exploiting its ability to interact with ubiquitin and the sumoylation machinery.
|Coupled local translation and degradation regulate growth cone collapse. |
Deglincerti, A; Liu, Y; Colak, D; Hengst, U; Xu, G; Jaffrey, SR
Nature communications 6 6888 2015
Local translation mediates axonal responses to Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) and other guidance cues. However, only a subset of the axonal proteome is locally synthesized, whereas most proteins are trafficked from the soma. The reason why only specific proteins are locally synthesized is unknown. Here we show that local protein synthesis and degradation are linked events in growth cones. We find that growth cones exhibit high levels of ubiquitination and that local signalling pathways trigger the ubiquitination and degradation of RhoA, a mediator of Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. Inhibition of RhoA degradation is sufficient to remove the protein-synthesis requirement for Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse. In addition to RhoA, we find that locally translated proteins are the main targets of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in growth cones. Thus, local protein degradation is a major feature of growth cones and creates a requirement for local translation to replenish proteins needed to maintain growth cone responses.
|Differential roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy in the clearance of soluble and aggregated TDP-43 species. |
Scotter, EL; Vance, C; Nishimura, AL; Lee, YB; Chen, HJ; Urwin, H; Sardone, V; Mitchell, JC; Rogelj, B; Rubinsztein, DC; Shaw, CE
Journal of cell science 127 1263-78 2014
TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43, also known as TARDBP) is the major pathological protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Large TDP-43 aggregates that are decorated with degradation adaptor proteins are seen in the cytoplasm of remaining neurons in ALS and FTD patients post mortem. TDP-43 accumulation and ALS-linked mutations within degradation pathways implicate failed TDP-43 clearance as a primary disease mechanism. Here, we report the differing roles of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy in the clearance of TDP-43. We have investigated the effects of inhibitors of the UPS and autophagy on the degradation, localisation and mobility of soluble and insoluble TDP-43. We find that soluble TDP-43 is degraded primarily by the UPS, whereas the clearance of aggregated TDP-43 requires autophagy. Cellular macroaggregates, which recapitulate many of the pathological features of the aggregates in patients, are reversible when both the UPS and autophagy are functional. Their clearance involves the autophagic removal of oligomeric TDP-43. We speculate that, in addition to an age-related decline in pathway activity, a second hit in either the UPS or the autophagy pathway drives the accumulation of TDP-43 in ALS and FTD. Therapies for clearing excess TDP-43 should therefore target a combination of these pathways.
|Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP)-mediated ubiquitination of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2) negatively regulates tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) cytotoxicity. |
Guicciardi, ME; Werneburg, NW; Bronk, SF; Franke, A; Yagita, H; Thomas, G; Gores, GJ
PloS one 9 e92124 2014
Lysosomal membrane permeabilization is an essential step in TRAIL-induced apoptosis of liver cancer cell lines. TRAIL-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization is mediated by the multifunctional sorting protein PACS-2 and repressed by the E3 ligases cIAP-1 and cIAP-2. Despite the opposing roles for PACS-2 and cIAPs in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, an interaction between these proteins has yet to be examined. Herein, we report that cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 confer TRAIL resistance to hepatobiliary cancer cell lines by reducing PACS-2 levels. Under basal conditions, PACS-2 underwent K48-linked poly-ubiquitination, resulting in PACS-2 proteasomal degradation. Biochemical assays showed cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 interacted with PACS-2 in vitro and co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two cIAPs bound PACS-2 in vivo. More importantly, both cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 directly mediated PACS-2 ubiquitination in a cell-free assay. Single c-Iap-1 or c-Iap-2 gene knock-outs in mouse hepatocytes did not lead to PACS-2 accumulation. However, deletion of both cIAP-1 and cIAP-2 reduced PACS-2 ubiquitination, which increased PACS-2 levels and sensitized HuH-7 cells to TRAIL-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. Correspondingly, deletion of cIAPs sensitized wild-type, but not PACS-2-deficient hepatocarcinoma cells or Pacs-2-/- mouse hepatocytes to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together, these data suggest cIAPs constitutively downregulate PACS-2 by polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thereby restraining TRAIL-induced killing of liver cancer cells.
|Cell fate decisions regulated by K63 ubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1. |
Fritsch, J; Stephan, M; Tchikov, V; Winoto-Morbach, S; Gubkina, S; Kabelitz, D; Schütze, S
Molecular and cellular biology 34 3214-28 2014
Signaling by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNF-R1), a prototypic member of the death receptor family, mediates pleiotropic biological outcomes ranging from inflammation and cell proliferation to cell death. Although many elements of specific signaling pathways have been identified, the main question of how these selective cell fate decisions are regulated is still unresolved. Here we identified TNF-induced K63 ubiquitination of TNF-R1 mediated by the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 as an early molecular checkpoint in the regulation of the decision between cell death and survival. Downmodulation of RNF8 prevented the ubiquitination of TNF-R1, blocked the internalization of the receptor, prevented the recruitment of the death-inducing signaling complex and the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7, and reduced apoptotic cell death. Conversely, recruitment of the adaptor proteins TRADD, TRAF2, and RIP1 to TNF-R1, as well as activation of NF-κB, was unimpeded and cell growth and proliferation were significantly enhanced in RNF8-deficient cells. Thus, K63 ubiquitination of TNF-R1 can be sensed as a new level of regulation of TNF-R1 signaling at the earliest stage after ligand binding.
|Intramitochondrial recruitment of endolysosomes mediates Smac degradation and constitutes a novel intrinsic apoptosis antagonizing function of XIAP E3 ligase. |
Hamacher-Brady, A; Choe, SC; Krijnse-Locker, J; Brady, NR
Cell death and differentiation 21 1862-76 2014
Intrinsic apoptosis involves BH3-only protein activation of Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Consequently, cytochrome c is released from the mitochondria to activate caspases, and Smac (second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases) to inhibit XIAP-mediated caspase suppression. Dysfunctional mitochondria can be targeted for lysosomal degradation via autophagy (mitophagy), or directly through mitochondria-derived vesicle transport. However, the extent of autophagy and lysosomal interactions with apoptotic mitochondria remains largely unknown. We describe here a novel pathway of endolysosomal processing of mitochondria, activated in response to canonical BH3-only proteins and mitochondrial depolarization. We report that expression of canonical BH3-only proteins, tBid, BimEL, Bik, Bad, and mitophagy receptor mutants of atypical BH3-only proteins, Bnip3 and Bnip3L/Nix, leads to prominent relocalization of endolysosomes into inner mitochondrial compartments, in a manner independent of mitophagy. As an upstream regulator, we identified the XIAP E3 ligase. In response to mitochondrial depolarization, XIAP actuates Bax-mediated MOMP, even in the absence of BH3-only protein signaling. Subsequently, in an E3 ligase-dependent manner, XIAP rapidly localizes inside all the mitochondria, and XIAP-mediated mitochondrial ubiquitylation catalyses interactions of Rab membrane targeting components Rabex-5 and Rep-1 (RFP-tagged Rab escort protein-1), and Rab5- and Rab7-positive endolysosomes, at and within mitochondrial membrane compartments. While XIAP-mediated MOMP permits delayed cytochrome c release, within the mitochondria XIAP selectively signals lysosome- and proteasome-associated degradation of its inhibitor Smac. These findings suggest a general mechanism to lower the mitochondrial apoptotic potential via intramitochondrial degradation of Smac.
|Unique insights into maternal mitochondrial inheritance in mice. |
Luo, SM; Ge, ZJ; Wang, ZW; Jiang, ZZ; Wang, ZB; Ouyang, YC; Hou, Y; Schatten, H; Sun, QY
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110 13038-43 2013
In animals, mtDNA is always transmitted through the female and this is termed "maternal inheritance." Recently, autophagy was reported to be involved in maternal inheritance by elimination of paternal mitochondria and mtDNA in Caenorhabditis elegans; moreover, by immunofluorescence, P62 and LC3 proteins were also found to colocalize to sperm mitochondria after fertilization in mice. Thus, it has been speculated that autophagy may be an evolutionary conserved mechanism for paternal mitochondrial elimination. However, by using two transgenic mouse strains, one bearing GFP-labeled autophagosomes and the other bearing red fluorescent protein-labeled mitochondria, we demonstrated that autophagy did not participate in the postfertilization elimination of sperm mitochondria in mice. Although P62 and LC3 proteins congregated to sperm mitochondria immediately after fertilization, sperm mitochondria were not engulfed and ultimately degraded in lysosomes until P62 and LC3 proteins disengaged from sperm mitochondria. Instead, sperm mitochondria unevenly distributed in blastomeres during cleavage and persisted in several cells until the morula stages. Furthermore, by using single sperm mtDNA PCR, we observed that most motile sperm that had reached the oviduct for fertilization had eliminated their mtDNA, leaving only vacuolar mitochondria. However, if sperm with remaining mtDNA entered the zygote, mtDNA was not eliminated and could be detected in newborn mice. Based on these results, we conclude that, in mice, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is not an active process of sperm mitochondrial and mtDNA elimination achieved through autophagy in early embryos, but may be a passive process as a result of prefertilization sperm mtDNA elimination and uneven mitochondrial distribution in embryos.
|Dimerization and ubiquitin mediated recruitment of A20, a complex deubiquitinating enzyme. |
Lu, TT; Onizawa, M; Hammer, GE; Turer, EE; Yin, Q; Damko, E; Agelidis, A; Shifrin, N; Advincula, R; Barrera, J; Malynn, BA; Wu, H; Ma, A
Immunity 38 896-905 2013
A20 is an anti-inflammatory protein linked to multiple human autoimmune diseases and lymphomas. A20 possesses a deubiquitinating motif and a zinc finger, ZF4, that binds ubiquitin and supports its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. To understand how these activities mediate A20's physiological functions, we generated two lines of gene-targeted mice, abrogating either A20's deubiquitinating activity (Tnfaip3(OTU) mice) or A20's ZF4 (Tnfaip3(ZF4) mice). Both Tnfaip3(OTU) and Tnfaip3(ZF4) mice exhibited increased responses to TNF and sensitivity to colitis. A20's C103 deubiquitinating motif restricted both K48- and K63-linked ubiquitination of receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1). A20's ZF4 was required for recruiting A20 to ubiquitinated RIP1. A20(OTU) proteins and A20(ZF4) proteins complemented each other to regulate RIP1 ubiquitination and NFκB signaling normally in compound mutant Tnfaip3(OTU/ZF4) cells. This complementation involved homodimerization of A20 proteins, and we have defined an extensive dimerization interface in A20. These studies reveal how A20 proteins collaborate to restrict TNF signaling.
|Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box containing protein-10 is associated with ubiquitin-mediated degradation pathways in trabecular meshwork cells. |
Keller, KE; Yang, YF; Sun, YY; Sykes, R; Acott, TS; Wirtz, MK
Molecular vision 19 1639-55 2013
Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) box containing protein-10 (ASB10) was recently identified as a gene that causes primary open-angle glaucoma. Here, we investigated endogenous ASB10 protein expression in human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells to provide the first clues to the biologic function of this protein.Primary HTM cells were cultured and immunostained with anti-ASB10 and various biomarkers of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal and autophagy-lysosomal degradation pathways. Cells were imaged with confocal and high-resolution structured illumination microscopy. Colocalization was quantified using Imaris Bitplane software, which generated a Pearson's correlation coefficient value. Coimmunoprecipitation of ASB10-transfected cells was performed.Immunofluorescence and confocal analysis showed that ASB10 was localized in intracellular structures in HTM cells. Two populations were observed: small, spherical vesicles and larger, less abundant structures. In the ASB10-silenced cells, the number of large structures was significantly decreased. ASB10 partially colocalized with biomarkers of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal pathway including ubiquitin and the α4 subunit of the 20S proteasome. However, ASB10 itself was not ubiquitinated. ASB10 also colocalized with numerous biomarkers of specific autophagic structures: aggresomes (histone deacetylase 6 [HDAC6] and heat shock protein 70 [HSP70]), autophagosomes (light chain 3 [LC3] and p62), amphisomes (Rab7), and lysosomes (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 [LAMP1]). Pearson coefficients indicated strong colocalization of large ASB10-stained structures with the α4 subunit of the 20S proteasome, K48 and K63-linked ubiquitin antibodies, p62, HSP70, and HDAC6 (Pearson's range, 0.59-0.82). Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed a positive interaction of ASB10 with HSP70 and with the α4 subunit of the 20S proteasome. Super-resolution structured illumination confocal microscopy suggested that the smaller ASB10-stained vesicles aggregated into the larger structures, which resembled aggresome-like induced structures. Treatment of HTM cells with an autophagy activator (MG132) or inhibitors (wortmannin, bafilomycin A1) significantly increased and decreased the number of small ASB10-stained vesicles, respectively. No discernible differences in the colocalization of large ASB10-stained structures with ubiquitin or HDAC6 were observed between dermal fibroblasts derived from a normal individual and a patient with primary open-angle glaucoma carrying a synonymous ASB10 mutation.Our evidence suggests that ASB10 may play a role in ubiquitin-mediated degradation pathways in TM cells.
|Toll-like receptor alterations in myelodysplastic syndrome. |
Wei, Y; Dimicoli, S; Bueso-Ramos, C; Chen, R; Yang, H; Neuberg, D; Pierce, S; Jia, Y; Zheng, H; Wang, H; Wang, X; Nguyen, M; Wang, SA; Ebert, B; Bejar, R; Levine, R; Abdel-Wahab, O; Kleppe, M; Ganan-Gomez, I; Kantarjian, H; Garcia-Manero, G
Leukemia 27 1832-40 2013
Recent studies have implicated the innate immunity system in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes encode key innate immunity signal initiators. We recently identified multiple genes, known to be regulated by TLRs, to be overexpressed in MDS bone marrow (BM) CD34+ cells, and hypothesized that TLR signaling is abnormally activated in MDS. We analyzed a large cohort of MDS cases and identified TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6 to be significantly overexpressed in MDS BM CD34+ cells. Deep sequencing followed by Sanger resequencing of TLR1, TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 genes uncovered a recurrent genetic variant, TLR2-F217S, in 11% of 149 patients. Functionally, TLR2-F217S results in enhanced activation of downstream signaling including NF-κB activity after TLR2 agonist treatment. In cultured primary BM CD34+ cells of normal donors, TLR2 agonists induced histone demethylase JMJD3 and interleukin-8 gene expression. Inhibition of TLR2 in BM CD34+ cells from patients with lower-risk MDS using short hairpin RNA resulted in increased erythroid colony formation. Finally, RNA expression levels of TLR2 and TLR6, as well as presence of TLR2-F217S, are associated with distinct prognosis and clinical characteristics. These findings indicate that TLR2-centered signaling is deregulated in MDS, and that its targeting may have potential therapeutic benefit in MDS.
|Proteomic identification and analysis of K63-linked ubiquitin conjugates. |
Cannon, Joe, et al.
Anal. Chem., 84: 10121-8 (2012) 2012
Post-translational modification of proteins by covalent attachment of ubiquitin or a polyubiquitin chain is involved in myriad of processes in eukaryotic cells. The particular outcome of ubiquitination is directed by the length of the ubiquitin conjugate and its linkage composition. Among seven possible isopeptide linkage sites in ubiquitin, K48 and K63 occur most commonly and act as distinct cellular signals. Strategies are reported here for analysis of linkage sites and complexity of K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, based on rapid chemical proteolysis at aspartate residues combined with immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Rapid chemical proteolysis at aspartate residues results in K63-linked peptides with truncated branches, which enable identification and characterization of stretches of consecutive K63 linkages on generally available instruments. A characteristic cleavage pattern and a characteristic fragmentation pattern allow recognition of K63 oligomers in proteolytic mixtures. Engineered K63-linked polyubiquitin chains of defined lengths were used to evaluate and demonstrate the method. In-gel microwave-supported acid hydrolysis was used to observe peptides specific to K63-linked ubiquitin dimers and trimers. Acid hydrolysis in solution, used in conjunction with linkage-specific immunoprecipitation, allowed more complex K63-linked branches to be characterized. Finally, a substrate protein, UbcH5b, was conjugated to monoubiquitin and to polyubiquitin chains containing only K63 linkages, and the sites of conjugation and chain lengths were characterized.
|Regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling by NDP52-mediated selective autophagy is normally inactivated by A20. |
Inomata, M; Niida, S; Shibata, K; Into, T
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 69 963-79 2012
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is linked to autophagy that facilitates elimination of intracellular pathogens. However, it is largely unknown whether autophagy controls TLR signaling. Here, we report that poly(I:C) stimulation induces selective autophagic degradation of the TLR adaptor molecule TRIF and the signaling molecule TRAF6, which is revealed by gene silencing of the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20. This type of autophagy induced formation of autophagosomes and could be suppressed by an autophagy inhibitor and lysosomal inhibitors. However, this autophagy was not associated with canonical autophagic processes, including involvement of Beclin-1 and conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Through screening of TRIF-interacting 'autophagy receptors' in human cells, we identified that NDP52 mediated the selective autophagic degradation of TRIF and TRAF6 but not TRAF3. NDP52 was polyubiquitinated by TRAF6 and was involved in aggregation of TRAF6, which may result in the selective degradation. Intriguingly, only under the condition of A20 silencing, NDP52 could effectively suppress poly(I:C)-induced proinflammatory gene expression. Thus, this study clarifies a selective autophagic mechanism mediated by NDP52 that works downstream of TRIF-TRAF6. Furthermore, although A20 is known as a signaling fine-tuner to prevent excess TLR signaling, it paradoxically downregulates the fine-tuning effect of NDP52 on TLR signaling.
|CARMA1 controls Th2 cell-specific cytokine expression through regulating JunB and GATA3 transcription factors. |
Blonska, M; Joo, D; Zweidler-McKay, PA; Zhao, Q; Lin, X
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 188 3160-8 2012
The scaffold protein CARMA1 is required for the TCR-induced lymphocyte activation. In this study, we show that CARMA1 also plays an essential role in T cell differentiation. We have found that the adoptive transfer of bone marrow cells expressing constitutively active CARMA1 results in lung inflammation, eosinophilia, and elevated levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 in recipient mice. In contrast, CARMA1-deficient T cells are defective in TCR-induced expression of Th2 cytokines, suggesting that CARMA1 preferentially directs Th2 differentiation. The impaired cytokine production is due to reduced expression of JunB and GATA3 transcription factors. CARMA1 deficiency affects JunB stability resulting in its enhanced ubiquitination and degradation. In contrast, TCR-dependent induction of GATA3 is suppressed at the transcriptional level. We also found that supplementation with IL-4 partially restored GATA3 expression in CARMA1-deficient CD4(+) splenocytes and subsequently production of GATA3-dependent cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. Therefore, our work provides the mechanism by which CARMA1 regulates Th2 cell differentiation.
|Keap1 degradation by autophagy for the maintenance of redox homeostasis. |
Taguchi, K; Fujikawa, N; Komatsu, M; Ishii, T; Unno, M; Akaike, T; Motohashi, H; Yamamoto, M
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 13561-6 2012
The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) system is essential for cytoprotection against oxidative and electrophilic insults. Under unstressed conditions, Keap1 serves as an adaptor for ubiquitin E3 ligase and promotes proteasomal degradation of Nrf2, but Nrf2 is stabilized when Keap1 is inactivated under oxidative/electrophilic stress conditions. Autophagy-deficient mice show aberrant accumulation of p62, a multifunctional scaffold protein, and develop severe liver damage. The p62 accumulation disrupts the Keap1-Nrf2 association and provokes Nrf2 stabilization and accumulation. However, individual contributions of p62 and Nrf2 to the autophagy-deficiency-driven liver pathogenesis have not been clarified. To examine whether Nrf2 caused the liver injury independent of p62, we crossed liver-specific Atg7::Keap1-Alb double-mutant mice into p62- and Nrf2-null backgrounds. Although Atg7::Keap1-Alb::p62(-/-) triple-mutant mice displayed defective autophagy accompanied by the robust accumulation of Nrf2 and severe liver injury, Atg7::Keap1-Alb::Nrf2(-/-) triple-mutant mice did not show any signs of such hepatocellular damage. Importantly, in this study we noticed that Keap1 accumulated in the Atg7- or p62-deficient mouse livers and the Keap1 level did not change by a proteasome inhibitor, indicating that the Keap1 protein is constitutively degraded through the autophagy pathway. This finding is in clear contrast to the Nrf2 degradation through the proteasome pathway. We also found that treatment of cells with tert-butylhydroquinone accelerated the Keap1 degradation. These results thus indicate that Nrf2 accumulation is the dominant cause to provoke the liver damage in the autophagy-deficient mice. The autophagy pathway maintains the integrity of the Keap1-Nrf2 system for the normal liver function by governing the Keap1 turnover.
|Interaction proteomics identify NEURL4 and the HECT E3 ligase HERC2 as novel modulators of centrosome architecture. |
Al-Hakim, AK; Bashkurov, M; Gingras, AC; Durocher, D; Pelletier, L
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 11 M111.014233 2012
Centrosomes are composed of a centriole pair surrounded by an intricate proteinaceous matrix referred to as pericentriolar material. Although the mechanisms underpinning the control of centriole duplication are now well understood, we know relatively little about the control of centrosome size and shape. Here we used interaction proteomics to identify the E3 ligase HERC2 and the neuralized homologue NEURL4 as novel interaction partners of the centrosomal protein CP110. Using high resolution imaging, we find that HERC2 and NEURL4 localize to the centrosome and that interfering with their function alters centrosome morphology through the appearance of aberrant filamentous structures that stain for a subset of pericentriolar material proteins including pericentrin and CEP135. Using an RNA interference-resistant transgene approach in combination with structure-function analyses, we show that the association between CP110 and HERC2 depends on nonoverlapping regions of NEURL4. Whereas CP110 binding to NEURL4 is dispensable for the regulation of pericentriolar material architecture, its association with HERC2 is required to maintain normal centrosome integrity. NEURL4 is a substrate of HERC2, and together these results indicate that the NEURL4-HERC2 complex participates in the ubiquitin-dependent regulation of centrosome architecture.
|Bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, modulates BI-1 protein stability and function in ER Stress. |
Rong, J; Chen, L; Toth, JI; Tcherpakov, M; Petroski, MD; Reed, JC
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 1453-63 2011
Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activates inositol-requiring protein-1 (IRE1), among other ER-associated signaling proteins of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in mammalian cells. IRE1 signaling becomes attenuated under prolonged ER stress. The mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. An ER resident protein, Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), interacts with IRE1 and directly inhibits IRE1 activity. However, little is known about regulation of the BI-1 protein. We show here that bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BAR) functions as an ER-associated RING-type E3 ligase, interacts with BI-1, and promotes proteasomal degradation of BI-1. Overexpression of BAR reduced BI-1 protein levels in a RING-dependent manner. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous BAR increased BI-1 protein levels and enhanced inhibition of IRE1 signaling during ER stress. We also found that the levels of endogenous BAR were reduced under prolonged ER stress. Our findings suggest that post-translational regulation of the BI-1 protein by E3 ligase BAR contributes to the dynamic control of IRE1 signaling during ER stress.Artículo Texto completo
|p62/SQSTM1 is required for Parkin-induced mitochondrial clustering but not mitophagy; VDAC1 is dispensable for both. |
Narendra, D; Kane, LA; Hauser, DN; Fearnley, IM; Youle, RJ
Autophagy 6 1090-106 2010
Mitochondria sustain damage with aging, and the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in a number of diseases including Parkinson disease. We recently demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin, which is linked to recessive forms of parkinsonism, causes a dramatic increase in mitophagy and a change in mitochondrial distribution, following its translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria. Investigating how Parkin induces these changes may offer insight into the mechanisms that lead to the sequestration and elimination of damaged mitochondria. We report that following Parkin’s translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria, Parkin (but not a pathogenic mutant) promotes the K63-linked polyubiquitination of mitochondrial substrate(s) and recruits the ubiquitin- and LC3-binding protein, p62/SQSTM1, to mitochondria. After its recruitment, p62/SQSTM1 mediates the aggregation of dysfunctional mitochondria through polymerization via its PB1 domain, in a manner analogous to its aggregation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Surprisingly and in contrast to what has been recently reported for ubiquitin-induced pexophagy and xenophagy, p62 appears to be dispensable for mitophagy. Similarly, mitochondrial-anchored ubiquitin is sufficient to recruit p62 and promote mitochondrial clustering, but does not promote mitophagy. Although VDAC1 (but not VDAC2) is ubiquitinated following mitochondrial depolarization, we find VDAC1 cannot fully account for the mitochondrial K63-linked ubiquitin immunoreactivity observed following depolarization, as it is also observed in VDAC1/3-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Additionally, we find VDAC1 and VDAC3 are dispensable for the recruitment of p62, mitochondrial clustering and mitophagy. These results demonstrate that mitochondria are aggregated by p62, following its recruitment by Parkin in a VDAC1-independent manner. They also suggest that proteins other than p62 are likely required for mitophagy downstream of Parkin substrates other than VDAC1.
|The RIDDLE syndrome protein mediates a ubiquitin-dependent signaling cascade at sites of DNA damage. |
Stewart, Grant S, et al.
Cell, 136: 420-34 (2009) 2009
The biological response to DNA double-strand breaks acts to preserve genome integrity. Individuals bearing inactivating mutations in components of this response exhibit clinical symptoms that include cellular radiosensitivity, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition. The archetype for such disorders is Ataxia-Telangiectasia caused by biallelic mutation in ATM, a central component of the DNA damage response. Here, we report that the ubiquitin ligase RNF168 is mutated in the RIDDLE syndrome, a recently discovered immunodeficiency and radiosensitivity disorder. We show that RNF168 is recruited to sites of DNA damage by binding to ubiquitylated histone H2A. RNF168 acts with UBC13 to amplify the RNF8-dependent histone ubiquitylation by targeting H2A-type histones and by promoting the formation of lysine 63-linked ubiquitin conjugates. These RNF168-dependent chromatin modifications orchestrate the accumulation of 53BP1 and BRCA1 to DNA lesions, and their loss is the likely cause of the cellular and developmental phenotypes associated with RIDDLE syndrome.
|Ubiquitin chain editing revealed by polyubiquitin linkage-specific antibodies. |
Newton, Kim, et al.
Cell, 134: 668-78 (2008) 2008
Posttranslational modification of proteins with polyubiquitin occurs in diverse signaling pathways and is tightly regulated to ensure cellular homeostasis. Studies employing ubiquitin mutants suggest that the fate of polyubiquitinated proteins is determined by which lysine within ubiquitin is linked to the C terminus of an adjacent ubiquitin. We have developed linkage-specific antibodies that recognize polyubiquitin chains joined through lysine 63 (K63) or 48 (K48). A cocrystal structure of an anti-K63 linkage Fab bound to K63-linked diubiquitin provides insight into the molecular basis for specificity. We use these antibodies to demonstrate that RIP1, which is essential for tumor necrosis factor-induced NF-kappaB activation, and IRAK1, which participates in signaling by interleukin-1beta and Toll-like receptors, both undergo polyubiquitin editing in stimulated cells. Both kinase adaptors initially acquire K63-linked polyubiquitin, while at later times K48-linked polyubiquitin targets them for proteasomal degradation. Polyubiquitin editing may therefore be a general mechanism for attenuating innate immune signaling.
|Atypical ubiquitin chains: new molecular signals. 'Protein Modifications: Beyond the Usual Suspects' review series. |
Ikeda, Fumiyo and Dikic, Ivan
EMBO Rep., 9: 536-42 (2008) 2008
Ubiquitin (Ub) is a small protein modifier that regulates many biological processes, including gene transcription, cell-cycle progression, DNA repair, apoptosis, virus budding and receptor endocytosis. Ub can be conjugated to target proteins either as a monomer or as Ub chains that vary in length and linkage type. The various types of Ub modification are linked to distinct physiological functions in cells. MonoUb, for example, regulates DNA repair and receptor endocytosis, whereas lysine 48-linked Ub chains label proteins for proteasomal degradation. More recently, the importance of chains conjugated through the other six lysines in Ub, known as atypical Ub chains, has been revealed. Atypical chains can be homotypic, sequentially using the same lysine residue in Ub for conjugation; mixed-linkage, utilizing several distinct lysines to connect consecutive Ub moieties; or heterologous, connecting Ub with other Ub-like modifiers. Here, we describe recent progress in the understanding of atypical Ub chain assembly and their recognition by Ub-binding domains, and we discuss further their functional roles in vivo.
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