Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, T, Eu||ICC, WB, ChIP||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Rabbit polyclonal antiserum IgG in buffer containing 30% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Genome wide mapping of UBF binding-sites in mouse and human cell lines.|
Diesch, J; Hannan, RD; Sanij, E
Genomics data 3 103-5 2015
The upstream binding transcription factor (UBTF, also called UBF) is thought to function exclusively in RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-specific transcription of the ribosomal genes. We recently reported in Sanij et al. (2014)  that the two isoforms of UBF (UBF1/2) are enriched at Pol II-transcribed genes throughout the mouse and human genomes. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) of UBF1/2, Pol I, Pol II, H3K9me3, H3K4me4, H3K9ac and H4 hyperacetylation, we reported a correlation of UBF1/2 binding with enrichments in Pol II and markers of active chromatin. In addition, we examined a functional role for UBF1/2 in mediating Pol II transcription by performing expression array analysis in control and UBF1/2 depleted NIH3T3 cells. Our data demonstrate that UBF1/2 bind highly active Pol II-transcribed genes and mediate their expression without recruiting Pol I. Furthermore, we reported ChIP-sequencing analysis of UBF1/2 in immortalized human epithelial cells and their isogenically matched transformed counterparts. Here we report the experimental design and the description of the ChIP-sequencing and microarray expression datasets uploaded to NCBI Sequence Research Archive (SRA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO).
|A balance between activating and repressive histone modifications regulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression in vivo.|
Bergougnoux, A; Rivals, I; Liquori, A; Raynal, C; Varilh, J; Magalhães, M; Perez, MJ; Bigi, N; Des Georges, M; Chiron, R; Squalli-Houssaini, AS; Claustres, M; De Sario, A
Epigenetics 9 1007-17 2014
The genetic mechanisms that regulate CFTR, the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis, have been widely investigated in cultured cells. However, mechanisms responsible for tissue-specific and time-specific expression are not completely elucidated in vivo. Through the survey of public databases, we found that the promoter of CFTR was associated with bivalent chromatin in human embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this work, we analyzed fetal (at different stages of pregnancy) and adult tissues and showed that, in digestive and lung tissues, which expressed CFTR, H3K4me3 was maintained in the promoter. Histone acetylation was high in the promoter and in two intronic enhancers, especially in fetal tissues. In contrast, in blood cells, which did not express CFTR, the bivalent chromatin was resolved (the promoter was labeled by the silencing mark H3K27me3). Cis-regulatory sequences were associated with lowly acetylated histones. We also provide evidence that the tissue-specific expression of CFTR is not regulated by dynamic changes of DNA methylation in the promoter. Overall, this work shows that a balance between activating and repressive histone modifications in the promoter and intronic enhancers results in the fine regulation of CFTR expression during development, thereby ensuring tissue specificity.
|Histone hypoacetylation-activated genes are repressed by acetyl-CoA- and chromatin-mediated mechanism.|
Mehrotra, S; Galdieri, L; Zhang, T; Zhang, M; Pemberton, LF; Vancura, A
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1839 751-63 2014
Transcriptional activation is typically associated with increased acetylation of promoter histones. However, this paradigm does not apply to transcriptional activation of all genes. In this study we have characterized a group of genes that are repressed by histone acetylation. These histone hypoacetylation-activated genes (HHAAG) are normally repressed during exponential growth, when the cellular level of acetyl-CoA is high and global histone acetylation is also high. The HHAAG are induced during diauxic shift, when the levels of acetyl-CoA and global histone acetylation decrease. The histone hypoacetylation-induced activation of HHAAG is independent of Msn2/Msn4. The repression of HSP12, one of the HHAAG, is associated with well-defined nucleosomal structure in the promoter region, while histone hypoacetylation-induced activation correlates with delocalization of positioned nucleosomes or with reduced nucleosome occupancy. Correspondingly, unlike the majority of yeast genes, HHAAG are transcriptionally upregulated when expression of histone genes is reduced. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which histone acetylation is required for proper positioning of promoter nucleosomes and repression of HHAAG.
|CHD5 is required for spermiogenesis and chromatin condensation.|
Zhuang, T; Hess, RA; Kolla, V; Higashi, M; Raabe, TD; Brodeur, GM
Mechanisms of development 131 35-46 2014
Haploid spermatids undergo extensive cellular, molecular and morphological changes to form spermatozoa during spermiogenesis. Abnormalities in these steps can lead to serious male fertility problems, from oligospermia to complete azoospermia. CHD5 is a chromatin-remodeling nuclear protein expressed almost exclusively in the brain and testis. Male Chd5 knockout (KO) mice have deregulated spermatogenesis, characterized by immature sloughing of spermatids, spermiation failure, disorganization of the spermatogenic cycle and abnormal head morphology in elongating spermatids. This results in the inappropriate placement and juxtaposition of germ cell types within the epithelium. Sperm that did enter the epididymis displayed irregular shaped sperm heads, and retained cytoplasmic components. These sperm also stained positively for acidic aniline, indicating improper removal of histones and lack of proper chromatin condensation. Electron microscopy showed that spermatids in the seminiferous tubules of Chd5 KO mice have extensive nuclear deformation, with irregular shaped heads of elongated spermatids, and lack the progression of chromatin condensation in an anterior-to-posterior direction. However, the mRNA expression levels of other important genes controlling spermatogenesis were not affected. Chd5 KO mice also showed decreased H4 hyperacetylation beginning at stage IX, step 9, which is vital for the histone-transition protein replacement in spermiogenesis. Our data indicate that CHD5 is required for normal spermiogenesis, especially for spermatid chromatin condensation.
|Elucidating combinatorial histone modifications and crosstalks by coupling histone-modifying enzyme with biotin ligase activity.|
Lau, PN; Cheung, P
Nucleic acids research 41 e49 2013
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) often form complex patterns of combinations and cooperate to specify downstream biological processes. In order to systemically analyse combinatorial PTMs and crosstalks among histone PTMs, we have developed a novel nucleosome purification method called Biotinylation-assisted Isolation of CO-modified Nucleosomes (BICON). This technique is based on physical coupling of the enzymatic activity of a histone-modifying enzyme with in vivo biotinylation by the biotin ligase BirA, and using streptavidin to purify the co-modified nucleosomes. Analysing the nucleosomes isolated by BICON allows the identification of PTM combinations that are enriched on the modified nucleosomes and function together within the nucleosome context. We used this new approach to study MSK1-mediated H3 phosphorylation and found that MSK1 not only directly phosphorylated H3, but also induced hyperacetylation of both histone H3 and H4 within the nucleosome. Moreover, we identified a novel crosstalk pathway between H3 phosphorylation and H4 acetylation on K12. Involvement of these acetyl marks in MSK1-mediated transcription was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, thus validating the biological relevance of the BICON results. These studies serve as proof-of-principle for this new technical approach, and demonstrate that BICON can be further adapted to study PTMs and crosstalks associated with other histone-modifying enzymes.
|Evidence for monomeric actin function in INO80 chromatin remodeling.|
Kapoor, P; Chen, M; Winkler, DD; Luger, K; Shen, X
Nature structural & molecular biology 20 426-32 2013
Actin has well-established functions in the cytoplasm, but its roles in the nucleus remain poorly defined. Here, by studying the nuclear actin-containing yeast INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence for a role of monomeric actin in INO80 chromatin remodeling. We demonstrate that, in contrast to cytoplasmic actin, nuclear actin is present as a monomer in the INO80 complex, and its barbed end is not accessible for polymerization. We identify an actin mutation in subdomain 2 affecting in vivo nuclear functions and reducing the chromatin remodeling activity of the INO80 complex in vitro. Notably, the highly conserved subdomain 2 at the pointed end of actin contributes to the interaction of INO80 with chromatin. Our results establish an evolutionarily conserved function of nuclear actin in its monomeric form and suggest that nuclear actin can utilize a fundamentally distinct mechanism from that of cytoplasmic actin.
|Genomic occupancy of HLH, AP1 and Runx2 motifs within a nuclease sensitive site of the Runx2 gene.|
Hovhannisyan, H; Zhang, Y; Hassan, MQ; Wu, H; Glackin, C; Lian, JB; Stein, JL; Montecino, M; Stein, GS; van Wijnen, AJ
Journal of cellular physiology 228 313-21 2013
Epigenetic mechanisms mediating expression of the Runt-related transcription factor Runx2 are critical for controlling its osteogenic activity during skeletal development. Here, we characterized bona fide regulatory elements within 120 kbp of the endogenous bone-related Runx2 promoter (P1) in osteoblasts by genomic DNase I footprinting and chromatin immuno-precipitations (ChIPs). We identified a ~10 kbp genomic domain spanning the P1 promoter that interacts with acetylated histones H3 and H4 reflecting an open chromatin conformation in MC3T3 osteoblasts. This large chromatin domain contains a single major DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS) region that defines a 0.4 kbp "basal core" promoter. This region encompasses two endogenous genomic protein/DNA interaction sites (i.e., footprints at Activating Protein 1 [AP1], E-box and Runx motifs). Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH)/E-box occupancy and presence of the DHS region persists in several mesenchymal cell types, but AP1 site occupancy occurs only during S phase when Runx2 expression is minimal. Point-mutation of the HLH/E box dramatically reduces basal promoter activity. Our results indicate that the Runx2 P1 promoter utilizes two stable principal protein/DNA interaction domains associated with AP1 and HLH factors. These sites function together with dynamic and developmentally responsive sites in a major DHS region to support epigenetic control of bone-specific transcription when osteoblasts transition into a quiescent or differentiated state.
|Yeast phospholipase C is required for normal acetyl-CoA homeostasis and global histone acetylation.|
Galdieri, L; Chang, J; Mehrotra, S; Vancura, A
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 27986-98 2013
Phospholipase C (Plc1p) is required for the initial step of inositol polyphosphate (InsP) synthesis, and yeast cells with deletion of the PLC1 gene are completely devoid of any InsPs and display aberrations in transcriptional regulation. Here we show that Plc1p is required for a normal level of histone acetylation; plc1Δ cells that do not synthesize any InsPs display decreased acetylation of bulk histones and global hypoacetylation of chromatin histones. In accordance with the role of Plc1p in supporting histone acetylation, plc1Δ mutation is synthetically lethal with mutations in several subunits of SAGA and NuA4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes. Conversely, the growth rate, sensitivity to multiple stresses, and the transcriptional defects of plc1Δ cells are partially suppressed by deletion of histone deacetylase HDA1. The histone hypoacetylation in plc1Δ cells is due to the defect in degradation of repressor Mth1p, and consequently lower expression of HXT genes and reduced conversion of glucose to acetyl-CoA, a substrate for HATs. The histone acetylation and transcriptional defects can be partially suppressed and the overall fitness improved in plc1Δ cells by increasing the cellular concentration of acetyl-CoA. Together, our data indicate that Plc1p and InsPs are required for normal acetyl-CoA homeostasis, which, in turn, regulates global histone acetylation.
|The yeast AMPK homolog SNF1 regulates acetyl coenzyme A homeostasis and histone acetylation.|
Zhang, M; Galdieri, L; Vancura, A
Molecular and cellular biology 33 4701-17 2013
Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key metabolite at the crossroads of metabolism, signaling, chromatin structure, and transcription. Concentration of acetyl-CoA affects histone acetylation and links intermediary metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Here we show that SNF1, the budding yeast ortholog of the mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), plays a role in the regulation of acetyl-CoA homeostasis and global histone acetylation. SNF1 phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the first and rate-limiting reaction in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. Inactivation of SNF1 results in a reduced pool of cellular acetyl-CoA, globally decreased histone acetylation, and reduced fitness and stress resistance. The histone acetylation and transcriptional defects can be partially suppressed and the overall fitness improved in snf1Δ mutant cells by increasing the cellular concentration of acetyl-CoA, indicating that the regulation of acetyl-CoA homeostasis represents another mechanism in the SNF1 regulatory repertoire.
|Putative molecular mechanism underlying sperm chromatin remodelling is regulated by reproductive hormones.|
Gill-Sharma, MK; Choudhuri, J; Ansari, MA; D'Souza, S
Clinical epigenetics 4 23 2012
The putative regulatory role of the male reproductive hormones in the molecular mechanism underlying chromatin condensation remains poorly understood. In the past decade, we developed two adult male rat models wherein functional deficits of testosterone or FSH, produced after treatments with 20 mg/Kg/d of cyproterone acetate (CPA) per os, for a period of 15 days or 3 mg/Kg/d of fluphenazine decanoate (FD) subcutaneously, for a period of 60 days, respectively, affected the rate of sperm chromatin decondensation in vitro. These rat models have been used in the current study in order to delineate the putative roles of testosterone and FSH in the molecular mechanism underlying remodelling of sperm chromatin.We report that deficits of both testosterone and FSH affected the turnover of polyubiquitylated histones and led to their accumulation in the testis. Functional deficits of testosterone reduced expression of MIWI, the 5-methyl cap binding RNA-binding protein (PIWIlike murine homologue of the Drosophila protein PIWI/P-element induced wimpy testis) containing a PAZ/Piwi-Argonaut-Zwille domain and levels of histone deacetylase1 (HDAC1), ubiquitin ligating enzyme (URE-B1/E3), 20S proteasome α1 concomitant with reduced expression of ubiquitin activating enzyme (ube1), conjugating enzyme (ube2d2), chromodomain Y like protein (cdyl), bromodomain testis specific protein (brdt), hdac6 (histone deacetylase6), androgen-dependent homeobox placentae embryonic protein (pem/RhoX5), histones h2b and th3 (testis-specific h3). Functional deficits of FSH reduced the expression of cdyl and brdt genes in the testis, affected turnover of ubiquitylated histones, stalled the physiological DNA repair mechanism and culminated in spermiation of DNA damaged sperm.We aver that deficits of both testosterone and FSH differentially affected the process of sperm chromatin remodelling through subtle changes in the 'chromatin condensation transcriptome and proteome', thereby stalling the replacement of 'dynamic' histones with 'inert' protamines, and altering the epigenetic state of condensed sperm chromatin. The inappropriately condensed chromatin affected the sperm chromatin cytoarchitecture, evident from subtle ultrastructural changes in the nuclei of immature caput epididymal sperm of CPA- or FD-treated rats, incubated in vitro with dithiothreitol.