|Presentation||Purified goat IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase in buffer containing 0.01 M Phosphate Buffered Saline, pH 7.1 with 15 mg/mL BSA and 0.01% Thimerosal. Lyophilized.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||2 mL|
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Referencias bibliográficas | 56 Disponible | Ver todas las referencias
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|Impacts of autophagy-inducing ingredient of areca nut on tumor cells. |
Yen, CY; Chiang, WF; Liu, SY; Lin, CC; Liao, KA; Lin, CY; Hsieh, WF; Cheng, YC; Hsu, KC; Lin, PY; Chen, TC; Lee, IL; Lin, MH; Liu, YC
PloS one 10 e0128011 2015
Areca nut (AN) is a popular carcinogen used by about 0.6-1.2 billion people worldwide. Although AN contains apoptosis-inducing ingredients, we previously demonstrated that both AN extract (ANE) and its 30-100 kDa fraction (ANE 30-100K) predominantly induce autophagic cell death in both normal and malignant cells. In this study, we further explored the action mechanism of ANE 30-100K-induced autophagy (AIA) in Jurkat T lymphocytes and carcinoma cell lines including OECM-1 (mouth), CE81T/VGH (esophagus), SCC25 (tongue), and SCC-15 (tongue). The results showed that chemical- and small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) resulted in the attenuation of AIA in Jurkat T but not in OECM-1 cells. Knockdown of Atg5 and Beclin 1 expressions ameliorated AIA in OECM-1/CE81T/VGH/Jurkat T and OECM-1/SCC25/SCC-15, respectively. Furthermore, ANE 30-100K could activate caspase-3 after inhibition of Beclin 1 expression in OECM-1/SCC25/SCC15 cells. Meanwhile, AMPK was demonstrated to be the upstream activator of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) in Jurkat T cells, and inhibition of MEK attenuated AIA in Jurkat T/OECM-1/CE81T/VGH cells. Finally, we also found that multiple myeloma RPMI8226, lymphoma U937, and SCC15 cells survived from long-term non-cytotoxic ANE 30-100K treatment exhibited stronger resistance against serum deprivation through upregulated autophagy. Collectively, our studies indicate that Beclin-1 and Atg5 but not AMPK are commonly required for AIA, and MEK/ERK pathway is involved in AIA. Meanwhile, it is also suggested that long-term AN usage might increase the resistance of survived tumor cells against serum-limited conditions.
|Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang induces autophagy in HepG2 cells via regulation of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. |
Chuang, WL; Su, CC; Lin, PY; Lin, CC; Chen, YL
Molecular medicine reports 12 1677-84 2015
Sann-Joong-Kuey-Jian-Tang (SJKJT), a traditional Chinese medicine, was previously reported to induce autophagy and inhibit the proliferation of the human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line via an extrinsic pathway. In the present study, the effects of SJKJT-induced autophagy and the cytotoxic mechanisms mediating these effects were investigated in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of SJKJT in the HepG2 cells was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The results demonstrated that the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of SJKJT was 2.91 mg/ml at 24 h, 1.64 mg/ml at 48 h and 1.26 mg/ml at 72 h. The results of confocal fluorescence microscopy indicated that SJKJT resulted in the accumulation of green fluorescent protein-LC3 and vacuolation of the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles. Furthermore, western blot analysis, used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins, demonstrated that the HepG2 cells treated with SJKJT exhibited LC3B-I/LC3B-II conversion, increased expression levels of Beclin, Atg-3 and Atg-5 and reduced expression levels of p62 and decreased signaling of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Taken together, these findings may assist in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant types of liver cancer.
|Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4) is highly expressed in human melanoma tissues and may function to restrict normal differentiation of melanoma cells. |
Peretz, Y; Wu, H; Patel, S; Bellacosa, A; Katz, RA
PloS one 10 e0116839 2015
Melanoma tissues and cell lines are heterogeneous, and include cells with invasive, proliferative, stem cell-like, and differentiated properties. Such heterogeneity likely contributes to the aggressiveness of the disease and resistance to therapy. One model suggests that heterogeneity arises from rare cancer stem cells (CSCs) that produce distinct cancer cell lineages. Another model suggests that heterogeneity arises through reversible cellular plasticity, or phenotype-switching. Recent work indicates that phenotype-switching may include the ability of cancer cells to dedifferentiate to a stem cell-like state. We set out to investigate the phenotype-switching capabilities of melanoma cells, and used unbiased methods to identify genes that may control such switching. We developed a system to reversibly synchronize melanoma cells between 2D-monolayer and 3D-stem cell-like growth states. Melanoma cells maintained in the stem cell-like state showed a striking upregulation of a gene set related to development and neural stem cell biology, which included SRY-box 2 (SOX2) and Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4). A gene set related to cancer cell motility and invasiveness was concomitantly downregulated. Intense and pervasive ID4 protein expression was detected in human melanoma tissue samples, suggesting disease relevance for this protein. SiRNA knockdown of ID4 inhibited switching from monolayer to 3D-stem cell-like growth, and instead promoted switching to a highly differentiated, neuronal-like morphology. We suggest that ID4 is upregulated in melanoma as part of a stem cell-like program that facilitates further adaptive plasticity. ID4 may contribute to disease by preventing stem cell-like melanoma cells from progressing to a normal differentiated state. This interpretation is guided by the known role of ID4 as a differentiation inhibitor during normal development. The melanoma stem cell-like state may be protected by factors such as ID4, thereby potentially identifying a new therapeutic vulnerability to drive differentiation to the normal cell phenotype.
|Hey bHLH Proteins Interact with a FBXO45 Containing SCF Ubiquitin Ligase Complex and Induce Its Translocation into the Nucleus. |
Salat, D; Winkler, A; Urlaub, H; Gessler, M
PloS one 10 e0130288 2015
The Hey protein family, comprising Hey1, Hey2 and HeyL in mammals, conveys Notch signals in many cell types. The helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain as well as the Orange domain, mediate homo- and heterodimerization of these transcription factors. Although distinct interaction partners have been identified so far, their physiological relevance for Hey functions is still largely unclear. Using a tandem affinity purification approach and mass spectrometry analysis we identified members of an ubiquitin E3-ligase complex consisting of FBXO45, PAM and SKP1 as novel Hey1 associated proteins. There is a direct interaction between Hey1 and FBXO45, whereas FBXO45 is needed to mediate indirect Hey1 binding to SKP1. Expression of Hey1 induces translocation of FBXO45 and PAM into the nucleus. Hey1 is a short-lived protein that is degraded by the proteasome, but there is no evidence for FBXO45-dependent ubiquitination of Hey1. On the contrary, Hey1 mediated nuclear translocation of FBXO45 and its associated ubiquitin ligase complex may extend its spectrum to additional nuclear targets triggering their ubiquitination. This suggests a novel mechanism of action for Hey bHLH factors.
|The role of CXC-chemokine receptor CXCR2 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3) in renal cell carcinoma. |
Stofas, A; Levidou, G; Piperi, C; Adamopoulos, C; Dalagiorgou, G; Bamias, A; Karadimou, A; Lainakis, GA; Papadoukakis, S; Stravodimos, K; Dimopoulos, MA; Patsouris, E; Gakiopoulou, H; Korkolopoulou, P
BMC cancer 14 149 2014
Chemokine receptor signaling pathways are implicated in the pathobiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the clinical relevance of CXCR2 receptor, mediating the effects of all angiogenic chemokines, remains unclear. SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling)-3 is a negative regulator of cytokine-driven responses, contributing to interferon-α resistance commonly used to treat advanced RCC with limited information regarding its expression in RCC.In this study, CXCR2 and SOCS-3 were immunohistochemically investigated in 118 RCC cases in relation to interleukin (IL)-6 and (IL)-8, their downstream transducer phosphorylated (p-)STAT-3, and VEGF expression, being further correlated with microvascular characteristics, clinicopathological features and survival. In 30 cases relationships with hypoxia-inducible factors, i.e. HIF-1a, p53 and NF-κΒ (p65/RelA) were also examined. Validation of immunohistochemistry and further investigation of downstream transducers, p-JAK2 and p-c-Jun were evaluated by Western immunoblotting in 5 cases.Both CXCR2 and IL-8 were expressed by the neoplastic cells their levels being interrelated. CXCR2 strongly correlated with the levels of HIF-1a, p53 and p65/RelA in the neoplastic cells. Although SOCS-3 was simultaneously expressed with p-STAT-3, its levels tended to show an inverse relationship with p-JAK-2 and p-c-Jun in Western blots and were positively correlated with HIF-1a, p53 and p65/p65/RelA expression. Neither CXCR2 nor SOCS-3 correlated with the extent of microvascular network. IL-8 and CXCR2 expression was associated with high grade, advanced stage and the presence/number of metastases but only CXCR2 adversely affected survival in univariate analysis. Elevated SOCS-3 expression was associated with progression, the presence/number of metastasis and shortened survival in both univariate and multivariate analysis.Our findings implicate SOCS-3 overexpression in RCC metastasis and biologic aggressiveness advocating its therapeutic targeting. IL-8/CXCR2 signaling also contributes to the metastatic phenotype of RCC cells but appears of lesser prognostic utility. Both CXCR2 and SOCS-3 appear to be related to transcription factors induced under hypoxia.
|Spatio-temporal expression and functional involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in diabetic mechanical allodynia in rats. |
Cui, YY; Xu, H; Wu, HH; Qi, J; Shi, J; Li, YQ
PloS one 9 e102052 2014
Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is one of the most common clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by prominent mechanical allodynia (DMA). However, the molecular mechanism underlying it has not fully been elucidated. In this study, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of a major nociceptive channel protein transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and analyzed its functional involvement by intrathecal (i.t.) application of TRPV1 antagonists in streptozocin (STZ)-induced DMA rat models. Western blot and immunofluorescent staining results showed that TRPV1 protein level was significantly increased in the soma of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on 14 days after STZ treatment (DMA 14 d), whereas those in spinal cord and skin (mainly from the central and peripheral processes of DRG neurons) had already been enhanced on DMA 7 d to peak on DMA 14 d. qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that TRPV1 mRNA level was significantly up-regulated in the DRG on DMA 7 d, indicating a preceding translation of TRPV1 protein in the soma but preferential distribution of this protein to the processes under the DMA conditions. Cell counting assay based on double immunostaining suggested that increased TRPV1-immunoreactive neurons were likely to be small-sized and CGRP-ergic. Finally, single or multiple intrathecal applications of non-specific or specific TRPV1 antagonists, ruthenium red and capsazepine, at varying doses, effectively alleviated DMA, although the effect of the former was more prominent and long-lasting. These results collectively indicate that TRPV1 expression dynamically changes during the development of DMA and this protein may play important roles in mechanical nociception in DRG neurons, presumably through facilitating the release of CGRP.
|Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes tumour growth and metastasis in colorectal cancer through binding to SFPQ and releasing oncogene PTBP2 from SFPQ/PTBP2 complex. |
Ji, Q; Zhang, L; Liu, X; Zhou, L; Wang, W; Han, Z; Sui, H; Tang, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, N; Ren, J; Hou, F; Li, Q
British journal of cancer 111 736-48 2014
Metastasis associated with lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT1) is a functional long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), which is highly expressed in several tumours, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Its biological function and mechanism in the prognosis of human CRC is still largely under investigation.This study aimed to investigate the new effect mechanism of MALAT1 on the proliferation and migration of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo, and detect the expression of MALAT1, SFPQ (also known as PSF (PTB-associated splicing factor)), and PTBP2 (also known as PTB (polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein)) in CRC tumour tissues, followed by correlated analysis with clinicopathological parameters.We found that overexpression of MALAT1 could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and promote tumour growth and metastasis in nude mice. The underlying mechanism was associated with tumour suppressor gene SFPQ and proto-oncogene PTBP2. In CRC, MALAT1 could bind to SFPQ, thus releasing PTBP2 from the SFPQ/PTBP2 complex. In turn, the increased SFPQ-detached PTBP2 promoted cell proliferation and migration. SFPQ critically mediated the regulatory effects of MALAT1. Moreover, in CRC tissues, MALAT1 and PTBP2 were overexpressed, both of which were associated closely with the invasion and metastasis of CRC. However, the SFPQ showed unchanged expression either in CRC tissues or adjacent normal tissues.Our findings implied that MALAT1 might be a potential predictor for tumour metastasis and prognosis. Furthermore, the interaction between MALAT1 and SFPQ could be a novel therapeutic target for CRC.
|Continuous taurocholic acid exposure promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma progression due to reduced cell loss resulting from enhanced vascular development. |
Sato, S; Yamamoto, H; Mukaisho, K; Saito, S; Hattori, T; Yamamoto, G; Sugihara, H
PloS one 9 e88831 2014
Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA) exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression.A squamous carcinoma cell line (ESCC-DR) was established from a tumor induced in a rat model of gastroduodenal reflux. ESCC-DR cells were incubated with 2 mM TCA for ≥2 months. The effects of continuous TCA exposure were evaluated in vitro on cell morphology, growth, and invasion and in vivo on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, the mean level of secreted transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins in cell culture supernatants and mRNA synthesis of TGF-β1 and VEGF-A of ESCC cells were measured. The angiogenic potential was further examined by a migration assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).Continuous TCA exposure induced marked formation of filopodia in vitro. Expression levels of angiogenic factors were significantly higher in the cells treated with TCA than in control cells. Tumor xenografts derived from cells pre-exposed to TCA were larger and more vascularized than those derived from control cells. In addition, TCA exposure increased HUVEC migration.Continuous TCA exposure enhanced ESCC progression due to reduced cell loss in vivo. Cell loss was inhibited by TCA-induced vascular endothelial cell migration, which was mediated by TGF-β1 and VEGF-A released from ESCC cells.
|Extensive post-translational modification of active and inactivated forms of endogenous p53. |
DeHart, CJ; Chahal, JS; Flint, SJ; Perlman, DH
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 13 1-17 2014
The p53 tumor suppressor protein accumulates to very high concentrations in normal human fibroblasts infected by adenovirus type 5 mutants that cannot direct assembly of the viral E1B 55-kDa protein-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation. Despite high concentrations of nuclear p53, the p53 transcriptional program is not induced in these infected cells. We exploited this system to examine select post-translational modifications (PTMs) present on a transcriptionally inert population of endogenous human p53, as well as on p53 activated in response to etoposide treatment of normal human fibroblasts. These forms of p53 were purified from whole cell lysates by means of immunoaffinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE, and peptides derived from them were subjected to nano-ultra-high-performance LC-MS and MS/MS analyses on a high-resolution accurate-mass MS platform (data available via ProteomeXchange, PXD000464). We identified an unexpectedly large number of PTMs, comprising phosphorylation of Ser and Thr residues, methylation of Arg residues, and acetylation, ubiquitinylation, and methylation of Lys residues-for example, some 150 previously undescribed modifications of p53 isolated from infected cells. These modifications were distributed across all functional domains of both forms of the endogenous human p53 protein, as well as those of an orthologous population of p53 isolated from COS-1 cells. Despite the differences in activity, including greater in vitro sequence-specific DNA binding activity exhibited by p53 isolated from etoposide-treated cells, few differences were observed in the location, nature, or relative frequencies of PTMs on the two populations of human p53. Indeed, the wealth of PTMs that we have identified is consistent with a far greater degree of complex, combinatorial regulation of p53 by PTM than previously anticipated.
|Dengue virus infection induces autophagy: an in vivo study. |
Lee, YR; Hu, HY; Kuo, SH; Lei, HY; Lin, YS; Yeh, TM; Liu, CC; Liu, HS
Journal of biomedical science 20 65 2013
We and others have reported that autophagy is induced by dengue viruses (DVs) in various cell lines, and that it plays a supportive role in DV replication. This study intended to clarify whether DV infection could induce autophagy in vivo. Furthermore, the effect of DV induced autophagy on viral replication and DV-related pathogenesis was investigated.The physiopathological parameters were evaluated after DV2 was intracranially injected into 6-day-old ICR suckling mice. Autophagy-related markers were monitored by immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting. Double-membrane autophagic vesicles were investigated by transmission-electron-microscopy. DV non-structural-protein-1 (NS1) expression (indicating DV infection) was detected in the cerebrum, medulla and midbrain of the infected mice. In these infected tissues, increased LC3 puncta formation, LC3-II expression, double-membrane autophagosome-like vesicles (autophagosome), amphisome, and decreased p62 accumulation were observed, indicating that DV2 induces the autophagic progression in vivo. Amphisome formation was demonstrated by colocalization of DV2-NS1 protein or LC3 puncta and mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR, endosome marker) in DV2-infected brain tissues. We further manipulated DV-induced autophagy by the inducer rapamycin and the inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3MA), which accordingly promoted or suppressed the disease symptoms and virus load in the brain of the infected mice.We demonstrated that DV2 infection of the suckling mice induces autophagy, which plays a promoting role in DV replication and pathogenesis.
|Altered fate of tendon-derived stem cells isolated from a failed tendon-healing animal model of tendinopathy. |
Rui, YF; Lui, PP; Wong, YM; Tan, Q; Chan, KM
Stem cells and development 22 1076-85 2013
We hypothesized that altered fate of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) might contribute to chondro-ossification and failed healing in the collagenase-induced (CI) tendon injury model. This study aimed to compare the yield, proliferative capacity, immunophenotypes, senescence, and differentiation potential of TDSCs isolated from healthy (HT) and CI tendons. TDSCs were isolated from CI and healthy Sprague-Dawley rat patellar tendons. The yield, proliferative capacity, immunophenotypes, and senescence of TDSCs (CI) and TDSCs (HT) were compared by colony-forming unit assay, BrdU assay, flow cytometry, and β-galactosidase activity assay, respectively. Their osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials and mRNA expression of tendon-related markers were compared using standard assays. More TDSCs, which showed a lower proliferative potential and a higher cellular senescence were present in the CI patellar tendons compared to HT tendons. There was a higher alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in TDSCs (CI) in both basal and osteogenic media. More chondrocyte-like cells and higher proteoglycan deposition, Sox9 and collagen type II expression were observed in TDSCs (CI) pellets upon chondrogenic induction. There was a higher protein expression of Sox9, but a lower mRNA expression of Col1a1, Scx, and Tnmd in TDSCs (CI) in a basal medium. In conclusion, TDSCs (CI) showed altered fate, a higher cellular senescence, but a lower proliferative capacity compared to TDSCs (HT), which might contribute to pathological chondro-ossification and failed tendon healing in this animal model.
|Mechanisms underlying cancer progression caused by ezrin overexpression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. |
Saito, S; Yamamoto, H; Mukaisho, K; Sato, S; Higo, T; Hattori, T; Yamamoto, G; Sugihara, H
PloS one 8 e54881 2013
Ezrin is a member of the ezrin, radixin, and moesin family that provides a functional link between the plasma membrane and the cortical actin cytoskeleton. A correlation between ezrin overexpression and aggressive cancer behavior has been recently reported in various tumor types. However, its roles in the mechanisms underlying progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are unclear.We used human tongue SCC and noncancerous tissue microarrays to immunohistochemically analyze the ezrin expression level and its relationship with proliferative activity. The human tongue SCC cell line HSC-3 was used to determine the effects of ezrin RNA interference (RNAi) on cancer cells during MTT; wound healing and invasion assays; immunofluorescence of the actin cytoskeleton; and western blotting of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, β-catenin, and the active and total RhoA/Rac1/cdc42.Ezrin was overexpressed in 46.4% of the tumors examined in human tongue SCC tissue microarrays. Ezrin expression was correlated with the Ki-67 index. Ezrin depletion by RNAi in the HSC-3 cells significantly reduced cell proliferation, migration, and invasiveness and disturbed actin reorganization during podia formation. Its effects on RhoA/Rac1/cdc42 expression were not significant, whereas it enhanced E-cadherin and β-catenin expression and decreased N-cadherin expression.Ezrin is often overexpressed in primary tongue SCCs and may have an important role in their growth, migration, and invasiveness possibly via its relationship with the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex and the cadherin switch. Thus, ezrin could be a therapeutic target in tongue SCC.
|Recovery of live virus after storage at ambient temperature using ViveST™. |
Barr, KL; Messenger, AM; Anderson, BD; Friary, JA; Heil, GL; Reece, K; Gray, GC
Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 56 57-61 2013
A major impediment to performing virological field studies in developing nations is the lack of ultra-low freezers as well as the expense and difficulty of shipping frozen samples. A commercially available product, ViveST™, was developed to preserve nucleic acids at ambient temperature for use in specimen storage and transportation. However, its applications as a viral storage, transport and recovery device have not been evaluated.To examine the ability of ViveST to preserve live virus following storage at ambient temperature.A panel of six viruses was stored at ambient temperature (~22°C) in ViveST with fetal bovine serum (FBS), or ViveST with minimal essential media (MEM) and compared with virus stored in universal transport media (M4RT), MEM, and FBS alone. Stored viruses included: human adenovirus (14p), dengue virus 2 (16608), echovirus 3 (Morrisey), human rhinovirus 15 (1734), Coxsackie virus B5 (Faulkner), and herpes simplex virus 1 (HF). After 7 days storage at ambient temperature, virus recovery was measured via titration using viral plaque assays or focus-forming unit assays.Viral titer studies indicate that ViveST with either FBS or M4RT preserved/recovered 5 different viruses for 1 week at ambient temperature. MEM preserved 4 viruses while FBS and ViveST with MEM preserved 3 viruses each. Statistical analyses indicate that M4RT and ViveST with FBS preserved significantly more virus than the other treatments.These data suggest that ViveST with either FBS or M4RT may be useful in field specimen collection scenarios where ultra-cold storage is not available.
|Heterologous viral promoters incorporated into the human cytomegalovirus genome are silenced during experimental latency. |
Qin, Q; Penkert, RR; Kalejta, RF
Journal of virology 87 9886-94 2013
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic phase gene expression is repressed upon entry into myeloid lineage cells where the virus establishes latency. Lytic infection is not initiated because the tegument-delivered transactivator protein pp71 fails to enter the nucleus and inactivate the Daxx-mediated cellular intrinsic defense that silences the viral genome. When pp71 is expressed de novo in THP-1 monocytes, it localizes to the nucleus, inactivates the Daxx defense, and initiates lytic infection. We speculated that replacing the native viral promoter that drives pp71 expression with one that is highly and constitutively active in myeloid cells would permit pp71 de novo expression upon infection and that this newly expressed pp71 would accumulate in the nucleus, inactivate the intrinsic defense, and initiate the cascade of lytic gene expression. Surprisingly, we found that this promoter was still subject to normal silencing mechanisms in THP-1 monocytes and primary CD34(+) cells, two independent myeloid lineage cells. A second constitutively active heterologous viral promoter located in a different region of the HCMV genome was also silenced in THP-1 and CD34(+) cells. Furthermore, these two independent heterologous viral promoters inserted into three different regions of the HCMV genome in three different viral strains all required prior expression of the viral immediate early proteins for activation in fibroblasts. From this, we conclude that incorporation within the HCMV genome impacts the proclivity of heterologous viral promoters to initiate transcription. These observations have mechanistic implications for the expression of viral genes and transgenes during both lytic infection and latency.
|PDGF is required for remyelination-promoting IgM stimulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation. |
Watzlawik, JO; Warrington, AE; Rodriguez, M
PloS one 8 e55149 2013
Promotion of remyelination is a major goal in treating demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The recombinant human monoclonal IgM, rHIgM22, targets myelin and oligodendrocytes (OLs) and promotes remyelination in animal models of MS. It is unclear whether rHIgM22-mediated stimulation of lesion repair is due to promotion of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) proliferation and survival, OPC differentiation into myelinating OLs or protection of mature OLs. It is also unknown whether astrocytes or microglia play a functional role in IgM-mediated lesion repair.We assessed the effect of rHIgM22 on cell proliferation in mixed CNS glial and OPC cultures by tritiated-thymidine uptake and by double-label immunocytochemistry using the proliferation marker, Ki-67. Antibody-mediated signaling events, OPC differentiation and OPC survival were investigated and quantified by Western blots.rHIgM22 stimulates OPC proliferation in mixed glial cultures but not in purified OPCs. There is no proliferative response in astrocytes or microglia. rHIgM22 activates PDGFαR in OPCs in mixed glial cultures. Blocking PDGFR-kinase inhibits rHIgM22-mediated OPC proliferation in mixed glia. We confirm in isolated OPCs that rHIgM22-mediated anti-apoptotic signaling and inhibition of OPC differentiation requires PDGF and FGF-2. We observed no IgM-mediated effect in mature OLs in the absence of PDGF and FGF-2.Stimulation of OPC proliferation by rHIgM22 depends on co-stimulatory astrocytic and/or microglial factors. We demonstrate that rHIgM22-mediated activation of PDGFαR is required for stimulation of OPC proliferation. We propose that rHIgM22 lowers the PDGF threshold required for OPC proliferation and protection, which can result in remyelination of CNS lesions.
|Suppression of extensive neurofilament phosphorylation rescues α-Internexin/peripherin-overexpressing PC12 cells from neuronal cell death. |
Lee, WC; Kan, D; Chen, YY; Han, SK; Lu, KS; Chien, CL
PloS one 7 e43883 2012
Intermediate filament (IF) overproduction induces abnormal accumulation of neuronal IF, which is a pathological indicator of some neurodegenerative disorders. In our study, α-Internexin- and peripherin-overexpressing PC12 cells (pINT-EGFP and pEGFP-peripherin) were used as models to study neuropathological pathways responsible for neurodegenerative diseases. Microarray data revealed that Cdk5-related genes were downregulated and Cdk5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 3 (GSK-3α and GSK-3β) were upregulated in pINT-EGFP cells. Increased expression of phosphorylated neurofilament and aberrant activation of Cdk5 and GSK-3β were detected in both pEGFP-peripherin and pINT-EGFP cells by Western blotting. In addition, pharmacological approaches to retaining viability of pINT-EGFP and pEGFP-peripherin cells were examined. Treatment with Cdk5 inhibitor and GSK-3β inhibitor significantly suppressed neuronal death. Dynamic changes of disaggregation of EGFP-peripherin and decrease in green fluorescence intensity were observed in pEGFP-peripherin and pINT-EGFP cells by confocal microscopy after GSK-3β inhibitor treatment. We conclude that inhibition of Cdk5 and GSK-3β suppresses neurofilament phosphorylation, slows down the accumulation of neuronal IF in the cytoplasm, and subsequently avoids damages to cell organelles. The results suggest that suppression of extensive neurofilament phosphorylation may be a potential strategy for ameliorating neuron death. The suppression of hyperphosphorylation of neuronal cytoskeletons with kinase inhibitors could be one of potential therapeutic treatments for neurodegenerative diseases.
|Characterization of multifunctional nanosystems based on the avidin-nucleic acid interaction as signal enhancers in immuno-detection. |
Margherita Morpurgo,Sonia Facchin,Mauro Pignatto,Davide Silvestri,Elisabetta Casarin,Nicola Realdon
Analytical chemistry 84 2012
The Avidin-Nucleic-Acids-Nano-Assembly (ANANAS) is a kind of soft poly avidin nanoparticle originating from the high affinity interaction between avidin and the nucleic acids. In this work we investigated the possibility of transforming ANANAS cores into stoichiometrically controlled multifunctional nanoparticles through a one-pot procedure, and we measured in a quantitative way their ability to work as reagents for enhanced immunodiagnostic detection. Initially, we measured the ANANAS loading capability for biotinylated proteins of different nature. About 200 molecules of biotin-horseradish-peroxidase (40KDa b-HRP) and 60 molecules of biotin-immunoglobulin-G (150KDa b-IgG) could be accommodated onto each nanoparticle, showing that steric limitations dictate the number of loadable entities. Stoichiometrically controlled functional assemblies were generated by mixing core particles with subsaturating amounts of b-HRP and b-IgG. When applied as detection reagents in an Enzyme-Linked-ImmunoSorbed-Assay (ELISA), these assemblies were up to two-orders of magnitude more sensitive than commercial HRP-based reagents. Assemblies of different composition displayed different efficacy, indicating that the system functionality can be fine-tuned. Within-assay variability (CV%), measured to assess if the assembly procedure is reproducible, was within 10%. Stability experiments demonstrated that the functionalyzed assemblies are stable in solution for more than one week. In principle, any biotinylated function can be loaded onto the core particle, whose high loading capacity and tunability may open the way toward further application in biomedicine.
|A neuronal death model: overexpression of neuronal intermediate filament protein peripherin in PC12 cells. |
Lee, WC; Chen, YY; Kan, D; Chien, CL
Journal of biomedical science 19 8 2012
Abnormal accumulation of neuronal intermediate filament (IF) is a pathological indicator of some neurodegenerative disorders. However, the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of neuronal IF accumulation remain unclear. A stable clone established from PC12 cells overexpressing a GFP-Peripherin fusion protein (pEGFP-Peripherin) was constructed for determining the pathway involved in neurodegeneration by biochemical, cell biology, and electronic microscopy approaches. In addition, pharmacological approaches to preventing neuronal death were also examined.Results of this study showed that TUNEL positive reaction could be detected in pEGFP-Peripherin cells. Swollen mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were seen by electron microscopy in pEGFP-Peripherin cells on day 8 of nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment. Peripherin overexpression not only led to the formation of neuronal IF aggregate but also causes aberrant neuronal IF phosphorylation and mislocation. Western blots showed that calpain, caspase-12, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activity was upregulated. Furthermore, treatment with calpain inhibitor significantly inhibited cell death.These results suggested that the cytoplasmic neuronal IF aggregate caused by peripherin overexpression may induce aberrant neuronal IF phosphorylation and mislocation subsequently trapped and indirectly damaged mitochondria and ER. We suggested that the activation of calpain, caspase-12, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were correlated to the dysfunction of the ER and mitochondria in our pEGFP-Peripherin cell model. The present study suggested that pEGFP-Peripherin cell clones could be a neuronal death model for future studies in neuronal IFs aggregate associated neurodegeneration.
|Six-month partial suppression of Huntingtin is well tolerated in the adult rhesus striatum. |
Grondin, R; Kaytor, MD; Ai, Y; Nelson, PT; Thakker, DR; Heisel, J; Weatherspoon, MR; Blum, JL; Burright, EN; Zhang, Z; Kaemmerer, WF
Brain : a journal of neurology 135 1197-209 2012
Huntington's disease is caused by expression of a mutant form of Huntingtin protein containing an expanded polyglutamine repeat. One possible treatment for Huntington's disease may be to reduce expression of mutant Huntingtin in the brain via RNA interference. Unless the therapeutic molecule is designed to be allele-specific, both wild-type and mutant protein will be suppressed by an RNA interference treatment. A key question is whether suppression of wild-type as well as mutant Huntingtin in targeted brain regions can be tolerated and result in a net benefit to patients with Huntington's disease. Whether Huntingtin performs essential functions in the adult brain is unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the adult primate brain can tolerate moderately reduced levels of wild-type Huntingtin protein for an extended period of time. A serotype 2 adeno-associated viral vector encoding for a short hairpin RNA targeting rhesus huntingtin messenger RNA (active vector) was bilaterally injected into the striatum of four adult rhesus monkeys. Four additional animals received a comparable vector encoding a scrambled control short hairpin RNA (control vector). General health and motor behaviour were monitored for 6 months. Upon termination, brain tissues were sampled and assessed blindly for (i) huntingtin messenger RNA knockdown; (ii) Huntingtin protein expression; and (iii) neuropathological changes. Reduction in wild-type huntingtin messenger RNA levels averaging ∼30% was measured in the striatum of active vector recipients 6 months post-injection. A widespread reduction in Huntingtin protein levels was also observed by immunohistochemistry in these animals, with an average protein reduction of ∼45% relative to controls measured by western blot analysis in the putamen of active vector recipients. As with control vector recipients, no adverse effects were observed behaviourally, and no neurodegeneration was found on histological examination of active vector recipients. Our results suggest that long-term partial suppression of wild-type Huntingtin may be safe, and thus if a comparable level of suppression of mutant Huntingtin is beneficial, then partial suppression of both wild-type and mutant Huntingtin may result in a net benefit in patients with heterozygous Huntington's disease.
|Rescue of the genetically engineered Cul4b mutant mouse as a potential model for human X-linked mental retardation. |
Chen, CY; Tsai, MS; Lin, CY; Yu, IS; Chen, YT; Lin, SR; Juan, LW; Chen, YT; Hsu, HM; Lee, LJ; Lin, SW
Human molecular genetics 21 4270-85 2012
Mutation in CUL4B, which encodes a scaffold protein of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, has been found in patients with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). However, early deletion of Cul4b in mice causes prenatal lethality, which has frustrated attempts to characterize the phenotypes in vivo. In this report, we successfully rescued Cul4b mutant mice by crossing female mice in which exons 4-5 of Cul4b were flanked by loxP sequences with Sox2-Cre male mice. In Cul4b-deficient (Cul4b(Δ)/Y) mice, no CUL4B protein was detected in any of the major organs, including the brain. In the hippocampus, the levels of CUL4A, CUL4B substrates (TOP1, β-catenin, cyclin E and WDR5) and neuronal markers (MAP2, tau-1, GAP-43, PSD95 and syn-1) were not sensitive to Cul4b deletion, whereas the number of parvalbumin (PV)-positive GABAergic interneurons was decreased in Cul4b(Δ)/Y mice, especially in the dentate gyrus (DG). Some dendritic features, including the complexity, diameter and spine density in the CA1 and DG hippocampal neurons, were also affected by Cul4b deletion. Together, the decrease in the number of PV-positive neurons and altered dendritic properties in Cul4b(Δ)/Y mice imply a reduction in inhibitory regulation and dendritic integration in the hippocampal neural circuit, which lead to increased epileptic susceptibility and spatial learning deficits. Our results identify Cul4b(Δ)/Y mice as a potential model for the non-syndromic model of XLMR that replicates the CUL4B-associated MR and is valuable for the development of a therapeutic strategy for treating MR.
|The enhanced host-cell permissiveness of human cytomegalovirus is mediated by the Ras signaling pathway. |
Filippakis H, Dimitropoulou P, Eliopoulos AG, Spandidos DA, Sourvinos G.
Biochimica et biophysica acta 1813 1872-82 2011
Human cytomegalovirus utilizes cellular signal transduction pathways to activate viral or cellular transcription factors involved in the control of viral gene expression and DNA replication. In the present study, we demonstrate that Harvey-ras-transformed cells show increased permissiveness to human cytomegalovirus when compared to their parental non-transformed cells. Both the progeny viral yield and the protein levels were elevated in the human cytomegalovirus-infected Harvey-ras-transformed cells requiring active viral gene replication, as shown by the infection with UV-inactivated human cytomegalovirus. Inhibition of Ras or of key molecules of the Ras pathway, effectively suppressed viral infection in the Harvey-ras-transformed cells. On a cellular level, the human cytomegalovirus-infected Harvey-ras-transformed cells formed larger cellular foci, which were significantly higher in number, compared to the uninfected cells and preferentially recruited human cytomegalovirus virions, thereby incriminating human cytomegalovirus infection for the increased transformation of these cells. Furthermore, proliferation assays revealed a higher rate for the human cytomegalovirus-infected Harvey-ras-transformed cells compared to mock-infected cells, whereas human cytomegalovirus infection had no considerable effect on the proliferation of the non-transformed cells. Higher susceptibility to apoptosis was also detected in the human cytomegalovirus-infected ras-transformed cells, which in combination with the higher progeny virus reveals a mode by which human cytomegalovirus achieves efficient spread of infection in the cells expressing the oncogenic Harvey-ras (12V) gene. Collectively, our data suggest that human cytomegalovirus employs the host-cell Ras signaling pathway to ensue viral expression and ultimately successful propagation. Transformed cells with an activated Ras signaling pathway are therefore particularly susceptible to human cytomegalovirus infection.
|Oxygen regulation of the epithelial Na channel in the collecting duct. |
Husted, RF; Lu, H; Sigmund, RD; Stokes, JB
American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 300 F412-24 2011
The PO(2) within the kidney changes dramatically from cortex to medulla. The present experiments examined the effect of changing PO(2) on epithelial Na channel (ENaC)-mediated Na transport in the collecting duct using the mpkCCD-c14 cell line. Decreasing ambient O(2) concentration from 20 to 8% decreased ENaC activity by 40%; increasing O(2) content to 40% increased ENaC activity by 50%. The O(2) effect required several hours to develop and was not mimicked by the acid pH that developed in monolayers incubated in low-O(2) medium. Corticosteroids increased ENaC activity at each O(2) concentration; there was no interaction. The pathways for O(2) and steroid regulation of ENaC are different since O(2) did not substantially affect Sgk1, α-ENaC, Gilz, or Usp2-45 mRNA levels, genes involved in steroid-mediated ENaC regulation. The regulation of ENaC activity by these levels of O(2) appears not to be mediated by changes in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α or -2α activity or a change in AMP kinase activity. Changes in O(2) concentration had minimal effect on α- or γ-ENaC mRNA and protein levels; there were moderate effects on β-ENaC levels. However, 40% O(2) induced substantially greater total β- and γ-ENaC on the apical surface compared with 8% O(2); both subunits demonstrated a greater increase in the mature forms. The α-ENaC subunit was difficult to detect on the apical surface, perhaps because our antibodies do not recognize the major mature form. These results identify a mechanism of ENaC regulation that may be important in different regions of the kidney and in responses to changes in dietary NaCl.
|Caveolin 1 is a Marker of poor differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma. |
Rossi S, Poliani PL, Cominelli M, Bozzato A, Vescovi R, Monti E, Fanzani A
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 47 761-72. Epub 2010 Nov 22. 2011
Caveolins consist of three different membrane scaffolding proteins that play a variety of processes in different tissues. In skeletal muscle caveolins are differentially distributed, with Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) being uniquely expressed in satellite cells and Caveolin 3 (Cav-3) in mature myofibers. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents the most common childhood soft-tissue sarcoma arising from mesenchimal precursors which fail to undergo proper commitment to muscle lineage. Cav-3 has been proposed as a marker of RMS with a high degree of differentiation, while biological significance of Cav-1 expression in RMS is still a matter of debate. In the present study we show that Cav-1 is predominantly expressed in the embryonal RMS histotype, as further confirmed by transcript and protein analysis in different in vitro human RMS cell lines. Immature cell phenotype of human embryonal RD line, carrying spontaneous activating RAS mutations, was significantly associated to ERK MAPK signalling pathway and featured by high Cav-1 levels, whereas pharmacological attenuation of the ERK pathway, improving cell differentiation, lead to Cav-1 down-regulation. Overall, these data place Cav-1 as a valuable marker of diagnosis for RMS characterised by low degree of differentiation.Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|The lipid sulfatide is a novel myelin-associated inhibitor of CNS axon outgrowth. |
Winzeler, AM; Mandemakers, WJ; Sun, MZ; Stafford, M; Phillips, CT; Barres, BA
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 31 6481-92 2011
CNS myelin is strongly inhibitory to growing axons and is thought to be a major contributor to CNS axon regenerative failure. Although a number of proteins present in myelin, including Nogo, MAG, and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), have been identified as myelin-associated inhibitors, studies of mice lacking these genes suggest that additional inhibitors present in CNS myelin remain to be identified. Here we have investigated the hypothesis that myelin lipids contribute to CNS regenerative failure. We identified sulfatide, a major constituent of CNS myelin, as a novel myelin-associated inhibitor of neurite outgrowth. Sulfatide, but not galactocerebroside or ceramide, strongly inhibited the neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) when used as a purified lipid substrate. The mechanism involved in sulfatide-mediated inhibition may share features with other known inhibitors, because the Rho inhibitor C3 transferase lessened these effects. Myelin in which sulfatide was lacking or blocked using specific antibodies was significantly less inhibitory to RGC neurite outgrowth in vitro than was wild-type myelin, indicating that sulfatide is a major component of the inhibitory activity of CNS myelin. Mice unable to make sulfatide did not regenerate RGC axons more robustly after optic nerve crush than wild-type littermates under normal conditions but did exhibit a small but significant enhancement in the extent of zymosan-induced regeneration. These results demonstrate that specific lipids can powerfully inhibit axon growth, identify sulfatide as a novel myelin-associated axon growth inhibitor, and provide evidence that sulfatide inhibition contributes to axon regenerative failure in vivo.
|Calpain activation by Wingless-type murine mammary tumor virus integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) promotes axonal growth. |
Yang GY, Liang B, Zhu J, Luo ZG
J Biol Chem 286 6566-76. Epub 2010 Dec 22. 2011
Axon development involves spatial-temporal cytoskeletal reorganization. However, how the cytoskeleton remodeling is modulated by extracellular cues is unclear. Here, we report a role of Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling in regulating actin and growth cone dynamics. We found that treatment of cultured cortical neurons with Wnt5a, a non-canonical Wnt, either globally or locally, caused an increase in the activity of calpain, a calcium-dependent protease responsible for the cleavage of several actin binding proteins, including spectrin. Treatment with Wnt5a promoted growth cone advance, as well as axonal growth, and these effects were prevented by chelating intracellular calcium, inhibition or down-regulation of calpain, or blockade of spectrin cleavage by competitive peptides. Interestingly, both Wnt5a and activated calpain were found to be mainly distributed in the axon-rich intermediate zone of neocortex. Down-regulating calpain expression interfered with the growth of callosal axons in vivo. Thus, Wnt5a serves as a physiological cue to stimulate localized calpain activity, which in turn promotes growth cone advance and axonal growth.Artículo Texto completo
|Sex-specific neuroendocrine and behavioral phenotypes in hypomorphic Type II Neuregulin 1 rats. |
Taylor, SB; Markham, JA; Taylor, AR; Kanaskie, BZ; Koenig, JI
Behavioural brain research 224 223-32 2011
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is an important growth factor involved in the development and plasticity of the central nervous system. Since its identification as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, several transgenic mouse models have been employed to elucidate the role NRG1 may play in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disease. Unfortunately very few studies have included females, despite the fact that some work suggests that the consequences of disrupted NRG1 expression may be sex-specific. Here, we used Nrg1 hypomorphic (Nrg1(Tn)) Fischer rats to demonstrate sex-specific changes in neuroendocrine and behavioral phenotypes as a consequence of reduced Type II NRG1 expression. We have previously shown that male Nrg1(Tn) rats have increased basal corticosterone levels, and fail to habituate to an open field despite normal overall levels of locomotor activity. The current studies show that, in contrast, female Nrg1(Tn) rats exhibit enhanced suppression of corticosterone levels following an acute stress, reduced locomotor activity, and enhanced habituation to novel environments. Furthermore, we also show that female, but not male, Nrg1(Tn) rats have impaired prepulse inhibition. Finally, we provide evidence that sex-specific changes are not likely attributable to major disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, as measures of pubertal onset, estrous cyclicity, and reproductive capacity were unaltered in female Nrg1(Tn) rats. Our results provide further support for both the involvement of NRG1 in the control of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and the sex-specific nature of this relationship.
|Disruption of the neuregulin 1 gene in the rat alters HPA axis activity and behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. |
Taylor, SB; Taylor, AR; Markham, JA; Geurts, AM; Kanaskie, BZ; Koenig, JI
Physiology & behavior 104 205-14 2011
Exposure to stress can result in an increased risk for psychiatric disorders, especially among genetically predisposed individuals. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and is also associated with psychotic bipolar disorder. In the rat, the neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus show strong expression of Nrg1 mRNA. In patients with schizophrenia, a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' region of NRG1 interacts with psychosocial stress to affect reactivity to expressed emotion. However, there is virtually no information on the role of NRG1 in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, and whether the protein is expressed in the paraventricular nucleus is unknown. The present studies utilize a unique line of Nrg1 hypomorphic rats (Nrg1(Tn)) generated by gene trapping with the Sleeping Beauty transposon. We first established that the Nrg1(Tn) rats displayed reduced expression of both the mRNA and protein corresponding to the Type II NRG1 isoform. After confirming, using wild type animals, that Type II NRG1 is expressed in the neurocircuitry involved in regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to environmental stimuli, the Nrg1(Tn) rats were then used to test the hypothesis that altered expression of Type II NRG1 disrupts stress regulation and reactivity. In support of this hypothesis, Nrg1(Tn) rats have disrupted basal and acute stress recovery corticosterone secretion, differential changes in expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the pituitary, paraventricular nucleus and hippocampus, and a failure to habituate to an open field. Together, these findings point to NRG1 as a potential novel regulator of neuroendocrine responses to stress as well as behavioral reactivity.
|Retinoic acid pathway activity in Wilms tumors and characterization of biological responses in vitro. |
Wegert, J; Bausenwein, S; Kneitz, S; Roth, S; Graf, N; Geissinger, E; Gessler, M
Molecular cancer 10 136 2011
Wilms tumor (WT) is one of the most common malignancies in childhood. With current therapy protocols up to 90% of patients can be cured, but there is still a need to improve therapy for patients with aggressive WT and to reduce treatment intensity where possible. Prior data suggested a deregulation of the retinoic acid (RA) signaling pathway in high-risk WT, but its mode of action remained unclear.The association of retinoid signaling and clinical parameters could be validated in a large independent tumor set, but its relevance in primary nephrectomy tumors from very young children may be different. Reduced RA pathway activity and MYCN overexpression were found in high risk tumors as opposed to tumors with low/intermediate risk, suggesting a beneficial impact of RA especially on advanced WT. To search for possible modes of action of retinoids as novel therapeutic options, primary tumor cell cultures were treated in vitro with all-trans-RA (ATRA), 9cis-RA, fenretinide and combinations of retinoids and a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Genes deregulated in high risk tumors showed opposite changes upon treatment suggesting a positive effect of retinoids. 6/7 primary cultures tested reduced proliferation, irrespective of prior RA signaling levels. The only variant culture was derived from mesoblastic nephroma, a distinct childhood kidney neoplasm. Retinoid/HDAC inhibitor combinations provided no synergistic effect. ATRA and 9cis-RA induced morphological changes suggestive of differentiation, while fenretinide induced apoptosis in several cultures tested. Microarray analysis of ATRA treated WT cells revealed differential expression of many genes involved in extracellular matrix formation and osteogenic, neuronal or muscle differentiation. The effects documented appear to be reversible upon drug withdrawal, however.Altered retinoic acid signaling has been validated especially in high risk Wilms tumors. In vitro testing of primary tumor cultures provided clear evidence of a potential utility of retinoids in Wilms tumor treatment based on the analysis of gene expression, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.
|HPV16E6-dependent c-fos expression contributes to AP-1 complex formation in SiHa cells. |
Liang, F; Kina, S; Takemoto, H; Matayoshi, A; Phonaphonh, T; Sunagawa, N; Arakaki, K; Arasaki, A; Kuang, H; Sunakawa, H
Mediators of inflammation 2011 263216 2011
To date, the major role of HPV16E6 in cancer has been considered to be its ability to inhibit the p53 tumor-suppressor protein, thereby thwarting p53-mediated cytotoxic responses to cellular stress signals. Here, we show that HPV16E6-dependent c-fos oncogenic protein expression contributes to AP-1 complex formation under oxidative stress in SiHa cells (HPV16-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix). In addition, we examined the role of HPV16E6 in TGF-α-induced c-fos expression and found that the c-fos protein expression induced by TGF-α is HPV16E6 dependent. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that HPV16E6 contributes to AP-1 complex formation after both ligand-dependent and independent EGFR activation, suggesting a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of HPV-associated tumors.
|Isoproterenol and cAMP block ERK phosphorylation and enhance [Ca2+]i increases and oxygen consumption by muscarinic receptor stimulation in rat parotid and submandibular acinar cells. |
SP Soltoff, L Hedden
The Journal of biological chemistry 2010
Salivary glands are innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons, which release neurotransmitters that promote fluid secretion and exocytosis when they bind to muscarinic and beta-adrenergic receptors, respectively. Signaling pathways downstream of these receptors are mainly distinct, but there is cross talk that affects receptor-dependent events. Here we report that the beta-adrenergic ligand isoproterenol blocks the increases in extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, a PKC-dependent event, promoted by the muscarinic receptor ligand carbachol in freshly dispersed rat parotid acinar cells. The inhibitory action of isoproterenol was reproduced by cAMP stimuli (forskolin) and mimetics (dibutyryl-cAMP, 8-CPT-cAMP), including one highly selective for PKA (6-Bnz-cAMP). In contrast, Epac-selective activators did not mimic the blockade of ERK by isoproterenol, suggesting that inhibition involved Protein Kinase A. Isoproterenol also blocked ERK downstream of PMA and the P2X(7) and EGF receptors. Isoproterenol and forskolin blocked MEK phosphorylation, reduced RAF phosphorylation on a stimulatory site (Ser338), and increased RAF phosphorylation on an inhibitory site (Ser259). Inhibitory effects on ERK were also observed in freshly dispersed rat submandibular acinar cells, but not in three immortalized/cancer salivary cell lines (Par-C10, HSY, HSG), indicating significant differences between native cells and cell lines. Notably, in native parotid cells isoproterenol enhanced the carbachol-promoted increases in [Ca(2+)(]i) and oxygen consumption, events that initiate and accompany, respectively, the stimulation of fluid secretion by muscarinic ligands. Thus, isoproterenol produces opposite effects on prominent events downstream of the muscarinic receptor second messengers diacylglycerol (decrease in ERK phosphorylation) and InsP(3) (increase in [Ca(2+)(]i) and fluid secretion).,
|Moderate postnatal hyperoxia accelerates lung growth and attenuates pulmonary hypertension in infant rats after exposure to intra-amniotic endotoxin. |
Tang, JR; Seedorf, GJ; Muehlethaler, V; Walker, DL; Markham, NE; Balasubramaniam, V; Abman, SH
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 299 L735-48 2010
To determine the separate and interactive effects of fetal inflammation and neonatal hyperoxia on the developing lung, we hypothesized that: 1) antenatal endotoxin (ETX) causes sustained abnormalities of infant lung structure; and 2) postnatal hyperoxia augments the adverse effects of antenatal ETX on infant lung growth. Escherichia coli ETX or saline (SA) was injected into amniotic sacs in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 20 days of gestation. Pups were delivered 2 days later and raised in room air (RA) or moderate hyperoxia (O₂, 80% O₂ at Denver's altitude, ∼65% O₂ at sea level) from birth through 14 days of age. Heart and lung tissues were harvested for measurements. Intra-amniotic ETX caused right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and decreased lung vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) protein contents at birth. In ETX-exposed rats (ETX-RA), alveolarization and vessel density were decreased, pulmonary vascular wall thickness percentage was increased, and RVH was persistent throughout the study period compared with controls (SA-RA). After antenatal ETX, moderate hyperoxia increased lung VEGF and VEGFR-2 protein contents in ETX-O₂ rats and improved their alveolar and vascular structure and RVH compared with ETX-RA rats. In contrast, severe hyperoxia (≥95% O₂ at Denver's altitude) further reduced lung vessel density after intra-amniotic ETX exposure. We conclude that intra-amniotic ETX induces fetal pulmonary hypertension and causes persistent abnormalities of lung structure with sustained pulmonary hypertension in infant rats. Moreover, moderate postnatal hyperoxia after antenatal ETX restores lung growth and prevents pulmonary hypertension during infancy.
|Magnetic-nanoparticle-modified paclitaxel for targeted therapy for prostate cancer. |
Hua MY, Yang HW, Chuang CK, Tsai RY, Chen WJ, Chuang KL, Chang YH, Chuang HC, Pang ST
Biomaterials 31 7355-63. Epub 2010 Jul 6. 2010
A nontoxic drug nanocarrier containing carboxyl groups was successfully developed by mixing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) of Fe(3)O(4) with the water-soluble polyaniline derivative poly[aniline-co-sodium N-(1-one-butyric acid) aniline] (SPAnNa) and doping with HCl aqueous solution to form SPAnH/MNPs shell/core. SPAnH/MNPs could be used to effectively immobilize the hydrophobic drug paclitaxel (PTX), thus enhancing the drug's thermal stability and water solubility. Up to 302.75 mug of PTX could be immobilized per mg of SPAnH/MNPs. SPAnH/MNPs-bound-PTX (bound-PTX) was more stable than free-PTX at both 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Furthermore, bound-PTX was more cytotoxic to human prostate carcinoma cells (PC3 and CWR22R) than free-PTX at 37 degrees C, and the inhibition of cellular growth was even more pronounced when magnetic targeting was applied to the bound-PTX. These data indicate that this magnetically targeted drug delivery system provides more effective treatment of prostate cancer cells using lower therapeutic doses and thus with potentially fewer side-effects.
|Expression of parvin-beta is a prognostic factor for patients with urothelial cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. |
Wu, CF; Ng, KF; Chen, CS; Chang, PL; Chuang, CK; Weng, WH; Liao, SK; Pang, ST
British journal of cancer 103 852-60 2010
Parvin-beta (ParvB), a potential tumour suppressor gene, is a focal adhesion protein. We evaluated the role of ParvB in the upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma (UUT-UC).ParvB mRNA and proteins levels in UUT-UC tissue were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. In addition, the expression of ParvB in tissues from patients with UUT-UC at different stages was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, biological functions of ParvB in urothelial cancer cells were investigated using a doxycycline-inducible overexpression system and siRNA.Western blot and mRNA analysis showed downregulation of ParvB expression in frozen UUT-UC tissue. Immunohistochemistry revealed high staining intensity of ParvB in normal urothelium, which decreased markedly at advanced stages of UUT-UC (P=0.0000). Moreover, ParvB was an independent prognostic indicator for disease-specific survival of patients with UUT-UC. Functional assays indicated that overexpression of ParvB in an urothelial cancer cell line resulted in decreased cell growth rate and ability to migrate. In contrast, knockdown of ParvB expression increased cell migration ability.Downregulation of ParvB expression significantly increased urothelial cancer cell growth and migration. Downexpression of ParvB level in UUT-UC correlated with tumour stage, and was an independent unfavourable prognostic factor for disease-specific survival of patients with UUT-UC.Artículo Texto completo
|Regulation and identification of Na,K-ATPase alpha1 subunit phosphorylation in rat parotid acinar cells. |
Stephen P Soltoff,John M Asara,Lee Hedden
The Journal of biological chemistry 285 2010
The stimulation of fluid and electrolyte secretion in salivary cells results in ionic changes that promote rapid increases in the activity of the Na,K-ATPase. In many cell systems, there are conflicting findings concerning the regulation of the phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase ? subunit, which is the catalytic moiety. Initially, we investigated the phosphorylation sites on the ?1 subunit in native rat parotid acinar cells using tandem mass spectrometry and identified two new phosphorylation sites (Ser(222), Ser(407)), three sites (Ser(217), Tyr(260), Ser(47)) previously found from large scale proteomic screens, and two sites (Ser(23), Ser(16)) known to be phosphorylated by PKC. Subsequently, we used phospho-specific antibodies to examine the regulation of phosphorylation on Ser(23) and Ser(16) and measured changes in ERK phosphorylation in parallel. The G-protein-coupled muscarinic receptor mimetic carbachol, the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin, and the serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A increased Ser(23) ?1 phosphorylation. Inhibition of classical PKC proteins blocked carbachol-stimulated Ser(23) ?1 subunit phosphorylation but not ERK phosphorylation, which was blocked by an inhibitor of novel PKC proteins. The carbachol-initiated phosphorylation of Ser(23) ?1 subunit was not modified by ERK or PKA activity. The Na,K-ATPase inhibitor ouabain reduced and enhanced the carbachol-promoted phosphorylation of Ser(23) and Ser(16), respectively, the latter because ouabain itself increased Ser(16) phosphorylation; thus, both sites display conformational-dependent phosphorylation changes. Ouabain-initiated phosphorylation of Ser(16) ?1 was not blocked by PKC inhibitors, unlike carbachol- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-initiated phosphorylations, suggesting that this site was also a substrate for a kinase other than PKC.Artículo Texto completo
|Alpha-synuclein mediates alterations in membrane conductance: a potential role for alpha-synuclein oligomers in cell vulnerability. |
Feng, LR; Federoff, HJ; Vicini, S; Maguire-Zeiss, KA
The European journal of neuroscience 32 10-7 2010
alpha-Synuclein has been linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies through its propensity to form toxic oligomers. The exact mechanism for oligomeric synuclein-directed cell vulnerability has not been fully elucidated, but one hypothesis portends the formation of synuclein-containing pores within cell membranes leading to leak channel-mediated calcium influx and subsequent cell death. Here we demonstrate synuclein-induced formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-stable oligomers, intracellular synuclein-positive aggregates, alterations in membrane conductance reminiscent of leak channels and subsequent cytotoxicity in a dopaminergic-like cell line. Furthermore we demonstrate that the synuclein-induced membrane conductance changes are blocked by direct extracellular application of an anti-synuclein antibody. The work presented here confirms that synuclein overexpression leads to membrane conductance changes and demonstrates for the first time through antibody-blocking studies that synuclein plays a direct role in the formation of leak channels.Artículo Texto completo
|Involvement of Notch1 inhibition in serum-stimulated glia and oligodendrocyte differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells. |
Lee, YJ; Hung, SC; Chu, MS
Stem cells and cloning : advances and applications 3 165-73 2010
The use of in vitro oligodendrocyte differentiation for transplantation of stem cells to treat demyelinating diseases is an important consideration. In this study, we investigated the effects of serum on glia and oligodendrocyte differentiation from human mesenchymal stem cells (KP-hMSCs). We found that serum deprivation resulted in a reversible downregulation of glial- and oligodendrocyte-specific markers. Serum stimulated expression of oligodendrocyte markers, such as galactocerebroside, as well as Notch1 and JAK1 transcripts. Inhibition of Notch1 activation by the Notch inhibitor, MG132, led to enhanced expression of a serum-stimulated oligodendrocyte marker. This marker was undetectable in serum-deprived KP-hMSCs treated with MG132, suggesting that inhibition of Notch1 function is additive to serum-stimulated oligodendrocyte differentiation. Furthermore, a dominant-negative mutant RBP-J protein also inhibited Notch1 function and led to upregulation of oligodendrocyte-specific markers. Our results demonstrate that serum-stimulated oligodendrocyte differentiation is enhanced by the inhibition of Notch1-associated functions.
|Widespread enzymatic correction of CNS tissues by a single intracerebral injection of therapeutic lentiviral vector in leukodystrophy mouse models. |
Lattanzi, A; Neri, M; Maderna, C; di Girolamo, I; Martino, S; Orlacchio, A; Amendola, M; Naldini, L; Gritti, A
Human molecular genetics 19 2208-27 2010
Leukodystrophies are rare diseases caused by defects in the genes coding for lysosomal enzymes that degrade several glycosphingolipids. Gene therapy for leukodystrophies requires efficient distribution of the missing enzymes in CNS tissues to prevent demyelination and neurodegeneration. In this work, we targeted the external capsule (EC), a white matter region enriched in neuronal projections, with the aim of obtaining maximal protein distribution from a single injection site. We used bidirectional (bd) lentiviral vectors (LV) (bdLV) to ensure coordinate expression of a therapeutic gene (beta-galactocerebrosidase, GALC; arylsulfatase A, ARSA) and of a reporter gene, thus monitoring simultaneously transgene distribution and enzyme reconstitution. A single EC injection of bdLV.GALC in early symptomatic twitcher mice (a murine model of globoid cell leukodystrophy) resulted in rapid and robust expression of a functional GALC protein in the telencephalon, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. This led to global rescue of enzymatic activity, significant reduction of tissue storage and decrease of activated astroglia and microglia. Widespread protein distribution and complete metabolic correction were also observed after EC injection of bdLV.ARSA in a mouse model of metachromatic leukodystrophy. Our data indicated axonal transport, distribution through cerebrospinal fluid flow and cross-correction as the mechanisms contributing to widespread bioavailability of GALC and ARSA proteins in CNS tissues. LV-mediated gene delivery of lysosomal enzymes by targeting highly interconnected CNS regions is a potentially effective strategy that, combined with a treatment able to target the PNS and peripheral organs, may provide significant therapeutic benefit to patients affected by leukodystrophies.
|Hyperoxia disrupts vascular endothelial growth factor-nitric oxide signaling and decreases growth of endothelial colony-forming cells from preterm infants. |
Hideshi Fujinaga,Christopher D Baker,Sharon L Ryan,Neil E Markham,Gregory J Seedorf,Vivek Balasubramaniam,Steven H Abman
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 297 2009
Exposure of preterm infants to hyperoxia impairs vascular growth, contributing to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and retinopathy of prematurity. Disruption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-nitric oxide (NO) signaling impairs vascular growth. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may play an important role in vascular growth. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), a type of EPC, from human preterm cord blood are more susceptible to hyperoxia-induced growth impairment than term ECFCs. Therefore, we hypothesized that hyperoxia disrupts VEGF-NO signaling and impairs growth in preterm ECFCs and that exogenous VEGF or NO preserves growth in hyperoxia. Growth kinetics of preterm cord blood-derived ECFCs (gestational ages, 27-34 wk) were assessed in room air (RA) and hyperoxia (40-50% oxygen) with or without VEGF, NO, or N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine. VEGF, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein expression and NO production were compared. Compared with RA controls, hyperoxia significantly decreased growth, VEGFR-2 and eNOS expression, and NO production. VEGF treatment restored growth in hyperoxia to values measured in RA controls and significantly increased eNOS expression in hyperoxia. NO treatment also increased growth in hyperoxia. N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine treatment inhibited VEGF-augmented growth in RA and hyperoxia. We conclude that hyperoxia decreases growth and disrupts VEGF-NO signaling in human preterm ECFCs. VEGF treatment restores growth in hyperoxia by increasing NO production. NO treatment also increases growth during hyperoxia. Exogenous VEGF or NO may protect preterm ECFCs from the adverse effects of hyperoxia and preservation of ECFC function may improve outcomes of preterm infants.Artículo Texto completo
|A novel calpastatin-based inhibitor improves postischemic neurological recovery. |
John Anagli, Yuxia Han, Laura Stewart, Dongmei Yang, Ashkhen Movsisyan, Kadija Abounit, Donald Seyfried
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 385 94-9 2009
Calpastatin, a naturally occurring protein, is the only inhibitor that is specific for calpain. A novel blood-brain barrier (BBB)-permeant calpastatin-based calpain inhibitor, named B27-HYD, was developed and used to assess calpain's contribution to neurological dysfunction after stroke in rats. Postischemic administration of B27-HYD reduced infarct volume and neurological deficits by 35% and 44%, respectively, compared to untreated animals. We also show that the pharmacologic intervention has engaged the intended biologic target. Our data further demonstrates the potential utility of SBDP145, a signature biomarker of acute brain injury, in evaluating possible mechanisms of calpain in the pathogenesis of stroke and as an adjunct in guiding therapeutic decision making.
|High expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor predict poor prognosis in alpha-fetoprotein-negative hepatocellular carcinoma patients after curative resection. |
Jie Hu, Yang Xu, Zao-Zhuo Shen, Zheng Wang, Qing Lu, Guo-Huan Yang, Zheng-Bin Ding, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou
Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology 135 1359-67 2009
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognosis value of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after curative resection. METHODS: Tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs) were used to detect the expressions of VEGF and PD-ECGF in consecutive 162 AFP-negative HCC patients undergoing curative resection between 1997 and 2000 in our institute. Clinicopathologic data for these patients were evaluated. The prognostic significance was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank tests. Multivariate study with Cox's proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the prognosis-related aspects. RESULTS: The positive rates of VEGF and PD-ECGF in tumor tissues were 59.9% (97/162) and 62.3% (101/162), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that VEGF and PD-ECGF were prognostic factors for relapse-free survival (P = 0.034 and P = 0.033, respectively). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the co-index (VEGF/PD-ECGF) was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival and relapse-free survival (P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively). CONCLUSION: The co-index of VEGF and PD-ECGF is a promising independent predictor for recurrence and survival of AFP-negative HCC patients after curative resection.
|Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Hyperthyroidism Induced Hepatic Damage via an Antioxidant and Antiapoptotic Pathway. |
M Giris, Y Erbil, B Depboylu, O Mete, U Turkoglu, SD Abbasoglu, M Uysal
The Journal of surgical research 2009
BACKGROUND: The exact pathogenesis of hepatic dysfunction in hyperthyroidism is still unknown. We aimed to investigate the pathogenesis of liver dysfunction caused by hyperthyroidism through inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, which has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. METHODS: Rats were divided into six groups: untreated (group 1), treated with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) (group 2), treated with hemin (group 3), treated with tri-iodothyronine (T3) (group 4), treated with T3 and ZnPP (group 5), and treated with T3 and hemin (group 6). After 22 d, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes and the expression of HO-1, mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-3 activity, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay were examined. RESULTS: Hyperthyroidism induced oxidative stress of liver tissue was ameliorated by HO-1 induction. Administration of hemin (HO-1 inducer) increased Bcl-2 expression. Decreased expression of cytochrome c was accompanied by a decrease in caspase-3, caspase-8, Bax expression, and caspase-3 activity. The apoptotic activity and oxidative damage were found to be increased by the administration of ZnPP (HO-1 inhibitor). Immunohistochemistry findings supported these results. CONCLUSION: HO-1 induction plays a protective role in the pathogenesis of the liver dysfunction in hyperthyroidism. This effect is dependent on modulation of the antiapoptotic and antioxidative pathways by HO-1 expression.,
|The effect of gonadectomy on prepulse inhibition and fear-potentiated startle in adolescent rhesus macaques. |
RW Morris, SJ Fung, DA Rothmond, B Richards, S Ward, PL Noble, RA Woodward, CS Weickert, JT Winslow
Sex steroids, such as testosterone, can regulate brain development, cognition and modify psychiatric conditions. However, the role of adolescent testosterone in the emergence of cognitive deficits relevant to psychiatric illness has not been directly studied in primates. We examined whether removing testosterone during adolescence in rhesus macaques would affect prepulse inhibition (PPI) and fear-potentiated startle (FPS), which are translational tests of cognition affected in psychiatric disorders. Prepubertal macaques (30 months old) were castrated (n=6) or sham operated (n=6), and PPI and (FPS) were tested before the onset of puberty (34 months old) and after the pubertal surge in sex hormones 16 months later (50 months old). As expected there were no differences between the gonadectomized and intact groups' level of startle amplitude, PPI or (FPS) before puberty. After puberty, the intact group displayed substantially less PPI than the gonadectomized group, consistent with evidence that PPI is attenuated by endogenous increases in sex hormones. At the end of the study, testosterone among the intact monkeys was also correlated with tyrosine hydroxylase levels in the putamen, suggesting the attenuation of PPI by gonadal sex hormones may be influenced by subcortical dopamine. Thus, puberty involves significant increases in sex hormones, which in turn may modulate subcortical dopamine synthesis and affect cognitive functions impaired in psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia.,
|Involvement of the PRKCB1 gene in autistic disorder: significant genetic association and reduced neocortical gene expression. |
C Lintas, R Sacco, K Garbett, K Mirnics, R Militerni, C Bravaccio, P Curatolo, B Manzi, C Schneider, R Melmed, M Elia, T Pascucci, S Puglisi-Allegra, K-L Reichelt, A M Persico
Molecular psychiatry 14 705-18 2009
Protein kinase C enzymes play an important role in signal transduction, regulation of gene expression and control of cell division and differentiation. The fsI and betaII isoenzymes result from the alternative splicing of the PKCbeta gene (PRKCB1), previously found to be associated with autism. We performed a family-based association study in 229 simplex and 5 multiplex families, and a postmortem study of PRKCB1 gene expression in temporocortical gray matter (BA41/42) of 11 autistic patients and controls. PRKCB1 gene haplotypes are significantly associated with autism (P0.05) and have the autistic endophenotype of enhanced oligopeptiduria (P0.05). Temporocortical PRKCB1 gene expression was reduced on average by 35 and 31% for the PRKCB1-1 and PRKCB1-2 isoforms (P0.01 and 0.05, respectively) according to qPCR. Protein amounts measured for the PKCbetaII isoform were similarly decreased by 35% (P=0.05). Decreased gene expression characterized patients carrying the 'normal' PRKCB1 alleles, whereas patients homozygous for the autism-associated alleles displayed mRNA levels comparable to those of controls. Whole genome expression analysis unveiled a partial disruption in the coordinated expression of PKCbeta-driven genes, including several cytokines. These results confirm the association between autism and PRKCB1 gene variants, point toward PKCbeta roles in altered epithelial permeability, demonstrate a significant downregulation of brain PRKCB1 gene expression in autism and suggest that it could represent a compensatory adjustment aimed at limiting an ongoing dysreactive immune process. Altogether, these data underscore potential PKCbeta roles in autism pathogenesis and spur interest in the identification and functional characterization of PRKCB1 gene variants conferring autism vulnerability.
|Chondrocyte phenotype and ectopic ossification in collagenase-induced tendon degeneration. |
Lui, PP; Fu, SC; Chan, LS; Hung, LK; Chan, KM
The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 57 91-100 2009
We report chondrocyte phenotype and ectopic ossification in a collagenase-induced patellar tendon injury model. Collagenase or saline was injected intratendinously in one limb. The patella tendon was harvested for assessment at different times. There was an increase in cellularity, vascularity, and loss of matrix organization with time after collagenase injection. The tendon did not heal histologically until week 32. Ectopic mineralization as indicated by von Kossa staining started from week 8. Tendon calcification was mediated by endochondral ossification, as shown by expression of type X collagen. viva CT imaging and polarization microscopy showed characteristic bony porous structures and collagen fiber arrangement, respectively, in the calcific regions. Marrow-like cells and blood vessels were observed inside calcific deposits. Chondrocyte-like cells as indicated by morphology, expression of type II collagen, and sox 9 were seen around and embedded inside the calcific deposits. Fibroblast-like cells expressed type II collagen and sox 9 at earlier times, suggesting that erroneous differentiation of healing tendon fibroblasts may account for failed healing and ossification in collagenase-induced tendon degeneration. Because this animal model replicates key histopathological changes in calcific tendinopathy, it can be used as a model for the study of its pathogenesis at the patellar tendon.Artículo Texto completo
|MicroRNA Mirn140 modulates Pdgf signaling during palatogenesis. |
Eberhart, JK; He, X; Swartz, ME; Yan, YL; Song, H; Boling, TC; Kunerth, AK; Walker, MB; Kimmel, CB; Postlethwait, JH
Nature genetics 40 290-8 2008
Disruption of signaling pathways such as those mediated by sonic hedgehog (Shh) or platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf) causes craniofacial abnormalities, including cleft palate. The role that microRNAs play in modulating palatogenesis, however, is completely unknown. We show that, in zebrafish, the microRNA Mirn140 negatively regulates Pdgf signaling during palatal development, and we provide a mechanism for how disruption of Pdgf signaling causes palatal clefting. The pdgf receptor alpha (pdgfra) 3' UTR contained a Mirn140 binding site functioning in the negative regulation of Pdgfra protein levels in vivo. pdgfra mutants and Mirn140-injected embryos shared a range of facial defects, including clefting of the crest-derived cartilages that develop in the roof of the larval mouth. Concomitantly, the oral ectoderm beneath where these cartilages develop lost pitx2 and shha expression. Mirn140 modulated Pdgf-mediated attraction of cranial neural crest cells to the oral ectoderm, where crest-derived signals were necessary for oral ectodermal gene expression. Mirn140 loss of function elevated Pdgfra protein levels, altered palatal shape and caused neural crest cells to accumulate around the optic stalk, a source of the ligand Pdgfaa. These results suggest that the conserved regulatory interactions of mirn140 and pdgfra define an ancient mechanism of palatogenesis, and they provide candidate genes for cleft palate.Artículo Texto completo
|Expression of glioma-associated antigens in pediatric brain stem and non-brain stem gliomas. |
Okada, H; Low, KL; Kohanbash, G; McDonald, HA; Hamilton, RL; Pollack, IF
Journal of neuro-oncology 88 245-50 2008
We investigated the protein expression of three glioma-associated antigens (GAAs) in pediatric brain stem glioma (BSG) and non-brain stem glioma (NBSG) cases with a view to their possible use in immunotherapy. Expression of EphA2, IL-13Ralpha2 and Survivin were studied by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissues using a series of 15 BSG cases and 12 NBSG cases. Thirteen of 15 BSGs and all 12 NBSGs expressed at least one of GAAs; and 7 BSGs and 9 NBSGs expressed at least two of these GAAs at higher levels than non-neoplastic brain. There was no association between the tumor grade and levels of GAA expression. Although many cases demonstrated diffuse expression of GAAs throughout specimens, partial or patchy expression was noted in a small number of cases, suggesting a need for targeting multiple GAAs in immunotherapy. These results suggest that EphA2, IL-13Ralpha2 and Survivin are suitable targets for developing vaccine strategies for pediatric glioma.Artículo Texto completo
|Regulation of ERK1/2 by ouabain and Na-K-ATPase-dependent energy utilization and AMPK activation in parotid acinar cells. |
Soltoff, SP; Hedden, L
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 295 C590-9 2008
We previously found that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by submaximal concentrations of the muscarinic receptor ligand carbachol was potentiated in rat parotid acinar cells exposed to ouabain, a cardiac glycoside that inhibits the Na-K-ATPase. We now report that this signaling phenomenon involves the prevention of negative regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) that is normally mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Carbachol increases the turnover of the ATP-consuming Na-K-ATPase, reducing intracellular ATP and promoting the phosphorylation/activation of the energy sensor AMPK. Ouabain blocks the reduction in ATP and subsequent AMPK phosphorylation, which is regulated by the AMP-to-ATP ratio. The ouabain-promoted enhancement of ERK1/2 phosphorylation was not reproduced in Par-C10 cells, an immortalized rat parotid cell line that did not respond to carbachol with an ATP reduction and that employs an upstream AMPK kinase (Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase, CaMKK) different from that (LKB1) in native cells. In native parotid cells, inhibitory effects of AMPK on ERK1/2 signaling were examined by activating AMPK with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), which is converted to an AMP mimetic but does not alter parotid ATP levels. AICAR-treated cells display increases in AMPK phosphorylation and a reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 subsequent to activation of muscarinic and P2X(7) receptors, which promote increases in Na-K-ATPase turnover, but not upon epidermal growth factor receptor activation. These results suggest that carbachol-initiated AMPK activation can produce a negative feedback on ERK1/2 signaling in response to submaximal muscarinic receptor activation and that increases in fluid secretion can modulate receptor-initiated signaling events indirectly by producing ion transport-dependent decreases in ATP.Artículo Texto completo
|Age-dependent increase in oxidative stress in gastrocnemius muscle with unloading. |
Siu, PM; Pistilli, EE; Alway, SE
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 105 1695-705 2008
Oxidative stress increases during unloading in muscle from young adult rats. The present study examined the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme gene and protein expressions in medial gastrocnemius muscles of aged and young adult (30 and 6 mo of age) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats after 14 days of hindlimb suspension. Medial gastrocnemius muscle weight was decreased by approximately 30% in young adult and aged rats following suspension. When muscle weight was normalized to animal body weight, it was reduced by 12% and 22% in young adult and aged rats, respectively, after suspension. Comparisons between young adult and aged control animals demonstrated a 25% and 51% decline in muscle mass when expressed as absolute muscle weight and muscle weight normalized to the animal body weight, respectively. H(2)O(2) content was elevated by 43% while Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein content was reduced by 28% in suspended muscles compared with control muscles exclusively in the aged animals. Suspended muscles had greater content of malondialdehyde (MDA)/4-hydroxyalkenals (4-HAE) (29% and 58% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), nitrotyrosine (76% and 65% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively), and catalase activity (69% and 43% increase in young adult and aged rats, respectively) relative to control muscles. Changes in oxidative stress markers MDA/4-HAE, H(2)O(2), and MnSOD protein contents in response to hindlimb unloading occurred in an age-dependent manner. These findings are consistent with the hypotheses that oxidative stress has a role in mediating disuse-induced and sarcopenia-associated muscle losses. Our data suggest that aging may predispose skeletal muscle to increased levels of oxidative stress both at rest and during unloading.Artículo Texto completo
|Identification of cellular proteins that maintain retroviral epigenetic silencing: evidence for an antiviral response. |
Poleshko, A; Palagin, I; Zhang, R; Boimel, P; Castagna, C; Adams, PD; Skalka, AM; Katz, RA
Journal of virology 82 2313-23 2008
Integrated retroviral DNA is subject to epigenetic gene silencing, resulting in loss of expression of viral genes as well as reporter or therapeutic genes transduced by retroviral vectors. Possible mediators of such silencing include the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family of cellular proteins. We previously isolated HeLa cell populations that harbored silent avian sarcoma virus-based green fluorescent protein (GFP) vectors that could be reactivated by treatment with HDAC inhibitors. Here, we developed a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based approach to identify specific host factors that participate in the maintenance of silencing. Knockdown of HDAC1, the transcriptional repressor Daxx (a binding partner of HDAC1), or heterochromatin protein 1 gamma resulted in robust and specific GFP reporter gene reactivation. Analyses of cell clones and diverse GFP vector constructs revealed that the roles of HDAC1 and Daxx in retroviral silencing are largely independent of the integration site or the promoter controlling the silent GFP reporter gene. Previous findings from our laboratory and those of others have suggested that Daxx and HDAC proteins may act broadly as part of an antiviral response to repress viral gene transcription. Expression of presumptive viral "countermeasure" proteins that are known to inhibit Daxx or HDACs (pp71, IE2, and Gam1) resulted in the reactivation of GFP reporter gene expression. This study has identified individual host factors that maintain retroviral silencing and supports the proposal that these factors participate in an antiviral response. Furthermore, our results indicate that siRNAs can be used as specific reagents to interrupt the maintenance of epigenetic silencing.
|Hyperoxia reduces bone marrow, circulating, and lung endothelial progenitor cells in the developing lung: implications for the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. |
Balasubramaniam, V; Mervis, CF; Maxey, AM; Markham, NE; Abman, SH
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 292 L1073-84 2007
Hyperoxia disrupts vascular and alveolar growth of the developing lung and contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) have been implicated in repair of the vasculature, but their role in lung vascular development is unknown. Since disruption of vascular growth impairs lung structure, we hypothesized that neonatal hyperoxia impairs EPC mobilization and homing to the lung, contributing to abnormalities in lung structure. Neonatal mice (1-day-old) were exposed to 80% O(2) at Denver's altitude (= 65% at sea level) or room air for 10 days. Adult mice were also exposed for comparison. Blood, lung, and bone marrow were harvested after hyperoxia. Hyperoxia decreased pulmonary vascular density by 72% in neonatal but not adult mice. In contrast to the adult, hyperoxia simplified distal lung structure neonatal mice. Moderate hyperoxia reduced EPCs (CD45-/Sca-1+/CD133+/VEGFR-2+) in the blood (55%; P less than 0.03), bone marrow (48%; P less than 0.01), and lungs (66%; P less than 0.01) of neonatal mice. EPCs increased in bone marrow (2.5-fold; P less than 0.01) and lungs (2-fold; P less than 0.03) of hyperoxia-exposed adult mice. VEGF, nitric oxide (NO), and erythropoietin (Epo) contribute to mobilization and homing of EPCs. Lung VEGF, VEGF receptor-2, endothelial NO synthase, and Epo receptor expression were reduced by hyperoxia in neonatal but not adult mice. We conclude that moderate hyperoxia decreases vessel density, impairs lung structure, and reduces EPCs in the circulation, bone marrow, and lung of neonatal mice but increases EPCs in adults. This developmental difference may contribute to the increased susceptibility of the developing lung to hyperoxia and may contribute to impaired lung vascular and alveolar growth in BPD.
|Pioglitazone inhibits in-stent restenosis in atherosclerotic rabbits by targeting transforming growth factor-beta and MCP-1. |
Michael Joner, Andrew Farb, Qi Cheng, Aloke V Finn, Eduardo Acampado, Allen P Burke, Kristi Skorija, Wendy Creighton, Frank D Kolodgie, Herman K Gold, Renu Virmani
Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 27 182-9 2007
OBJECTIVE: Although emerging data from preclinical and clinical studies suggests a reduction of in-stent restenosis with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists, the reduction of neointimal growth via anti-inflammatory mechanisms has not been explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbits (n=45) received bilateral balloon-expandable stents implanted into atherosclerotic iliac arteries. Animals were randomized to oral pioglitazone 3 (low dose) or 10 mg/kg per day (high dose) started on the day of stent implantation; control rabbits received placebo. Tissue harvest was performed 28 days after stenting, and stented segments underwent histology, morphometry, immunostaining for macrophages, and scanning electron microscopy. In selected animals, stented arterial segments were placed in organoid culture for 48 hours, and the conditioned media was assayed for 23 different cytokines. There was a 21% reduction in neointimal area for high-dose pioglitazone treated versus placebo rabbits (P0.005), which was associated with a significant reduction of neointimal macrophages. Analysis of conditioned media revealed an 82% and 74% reduction in the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (P0.007) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 (P0.01), respectively, in stented segments from animals treated with 10 mg/kg per day pioglitazone versus placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Oral pioglitazone suppresses in-stent neointimal growth by limiting local inflammatory pathways and may be useful as an adjunctive therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous interventions.
|Identification of genes co-upregulated with Arc during BDNF-induced long-term potentiation in adult rat dentate gyrus in vivo. |
Karin Wibrand, Elhoucine Messaoudi, Bjarte Håvik, Vibeke Steenslid, Roger Løvlie, Vidar M Steen, Clive R Bramham
The European journal of neuroscience 23 1501-11 2006
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a critical regulator of transcription-dependent adaptive neuronal responses, such as long-term potentiation (LTP). Brief infusion of BDNF into the dentate gyrus of adult anesthetized rats triggers stable LTP at medial perforant path-granule synapses that is transcription-dependent and requires induction of the immediate early gene Arc. Rather than acting alone, Arc is likely to be part of a larger BDNF-induced transcriptional program. Here, we used cDNA microarray expression profiling to search for genes co-upregulated with Arc 3 h after BDNF-LTP induction. Of nine cDNAs encoding for known genes and up-regulated more than four-fold, we selected five genes, Narp, neuritin, ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein-4 (ARL4L), TGF-beta-induced immediate early gene-1 (TIEG1) and CARP, for further validation. Real-time PCR confirmed robust up-regulation of these genes in an independent set of BDNF-LTP experiments, whereas infusion of the control protein cytochrome C had no effect. In situ hybridization histochemistry further revealed up-regulation of all five genes in somata of post-synaptic granule cells following both BDNF-LTP and high-frequency stimulation-induced LTP. While Arc synthesis is critical for local actin polymerization and stable LTP formation, several of the co-upregulated genes have known functions in excitatory synaptogenesis, axon guidance and glutamate receptor clustering. These results provide novel insight into gene expression responses underlying BDNF-induced synaptic consolidation in the adult brain in vivo.
|Redistribution of GFAP and alphaB-crystallin after thermal stress in C6 glioma cell line. |
Tseng, WC; Lu, KS; Lee, WC; Chien, CL
Journal of biomedical science 13 681-94 2006
Some intermediate filament (IF) proteins expressed in the development of glia include nestin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, GFAP is the major intermediate filament protein of mature astrocytes. To determine the organization of GFAP in glial cells, rat GFAP cDNA tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was transfected into the rat C6 glioma cell line. After selection, two stable C6-EGFP-GFAP cell lines were established. Stable C6-EGFP-GFAP cell lines with or without heat shock treatment were analyzed by immunocytochemistry, electron microscopy, and Western blot analysis. In the transient transfection study, EGFP-GFAP transiently expressed in C6 cells formed punctate aggregations in the cytoplasm right after transfection, but gradually a filamentous structure of EGFP-GFAP was observed. The protein level of nestin in the C6-EGFP-GFAP stable clone was similar to that in the pEGFP-C1 transfected C6 stable clones and non-transfected C6 cells, whereas the level of vimentin was reduced in Western blotting. Interestingly, the expression level of small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin in C6-EGFP-GFAP cells was also enhanced after transfection. Immunostaining patterns of C6-EGFP-GFAP cells showed that GFAP was dispersed as a fine filamentous structure. However, after heat shock treatment, GFAP formed IF bundles in C6-EGFP-GFAP cells. In the meantime, alphaB-crystallin also colocalized with IF bundles of GFAP in C6-EGFP-GFAP cells. The heat-induced GFAP reorganization we found suggested that small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin may play a functional role regulating the cytoarchitecture of GFAP.
|Apoptotic adaptations from exercise training in skeletal and cardiac muscles. |
Siu, PM; Bryner, RW; Martyn, JK; Alway, SE
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 18 1150-2 2004
The effect of exercise on apoptosis in postmitotic tissues is not known. In this study, we investigated the effect of regular moderate physical activity (i.e., exercise training) on the extent of apoptosis in rat skeletal and cardiac muscles. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were trained (TR) 5 days weekly for 8 wk on treadmill. Sedentary rats served as controls (CON). An ELISA was used to detect mono- and oligonucleosome fragmentation as an indicator of apoptosis. Bcl-2, Bax, Apaf-1, AIF, cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved/active caspase-9, heat shock protein (HSP)70, Cu/Zn-SOD, and Mn-SOD protein levels were determined by Western analyses. Bcl-2 and Bax transcript contents were estimated by RT-PCR. A spectrofluorometric assay was used to determine caspase-3 activity. DNA fragmentation in ventricles of the TR group decreased by 15% whereas that in soleus of the TR group tended to decrease (P=0.058) when compared with CON group. Protein contents of Bcl-2, HSP70, and Mn-SOD increased in both soleus and ventricle muscles of TR animals when compared with CON animals. Apaf-1 protein content in the soleus of TR animals was lower than that of CON animals. Bcl-2 mRNA levels increased in both ventricle and soleus muscles of TR animals, and Bax mRNA levels decreased in the soleus of TR animals when compared with CON animals. Furthermore, HSP70 protein content was negatively correlated to Bax mRNA content and was positively correlated to Bcl-2 protein and mRNA contents. Mn-SOD protein content was negatively correlated to the apoptotic index, and caspase-3 activity and was positively correlated to Bcl-2 transcript content and HSP70 protein content. These data suggest that exercise training attenuates the extent of apoptosis in cardiac and skeletal muscles.
|In vitro differentiation of size-sieved stem cells into electrically active neural cells. |
Shih-Chieh Hung, Henrich Cheng, Chien-Yuan Pan, May J Tsai, Lung-Sen Kao, Hsiao-Li Ma
Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 20 522-9 2002
Size-sieved stem (SS) cells isolated from human bone marrow and propagated in vitro are a population of cells with consistent marker typing, and can form bone, fat, and cartilage. In this experiment, we demonstrated that SS cells could be induced to differentiate into neural cells under experimental cell culture conditions. Five hours after exposure to antioxidant agents (beta-mercaptoethanol +/- retinoic acid) in serum-free conditions, SS cells expressed the protein for nestin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), neuron-specific nuclear protein (NeuN), and neuron-specific tubulin-1 (TuJ-1), and the mRNA for NSE and Tau. Immunofluorescence showed that almost all the cells (>98%) expressed NeuN and TuJ-1. After 5 days of beta-mercaptoethanol treatment, the SS cells expressed neurofilament high protein but not mitogen-activated protein-2, glial filament acidic protein, and galactocerebroside. For such long-term-treated cells, voltage-sensitive ionic current could be detected by electrophysiological recording, and the intracellular calcium ion, Ca(2+), concentration can be elevated by high potassium (K(+)) buffer and glutamate. These findings suggest that SS cells may be an alternative source of undifferentiated cells for cell therapy and gene therapy in neural dysfunction.
|On the mechanism of thrombin-induced angiogenesis: involvement of alphavbeta3-integrin. |
Tsopanoglou, Nikos E, et al.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol., 283: C1501-10 (2002) 2002
Thrombin has been reported to be a potent angiogenic factor both in vitro and in vivo, and many of the cellular effects of thrombin may contribute to activation of angiogenesis. In this report we show that thrombin-treatment of human endothelial cells increases mRNA and protein levels of alphavbeta3-integrin. This thrombin-mediated effect is specific, dose dependent, and requires the catalytic site of thrombin. In addition, thrombin interacts with alphavbeta3 as demonstrated by direct binding of alphavbeta3 protein to immobilized thrombin. This interaction of thrombin with alphavbeta3-integrin, which is an angiogenic marker in vascular tissue, is of functional significance. Immobilized thrombin promotes endothelial cells attachment, migration, and survival. Antibody to alphavbeta3 or a specific peptide antagonist to alphavbeta3 can abolish all these alphavbeta3-mediated effects. Furthermore, in the chick chorioallantoic membrane system, the antagonist peptide to alphavbeta3 diminishes both basal and the thrombin-induced angiogenesis. These results support the pivotal role of thrombin in activation of endothelial cells and angiogenesis and may be related to the clinical observation of neovascularization within thrombi.
|Goat anti-Mouse IgG, Peroxidase Conjugated, H+L - Data Sheet|