Tabla espec. clave
|Analytes Available||Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Description||Rat Leptin ELISA|
|Background Information||Leptin is synthesized in adipocytes as a 16 kDa molecule and the circulating level is directly proportional to the total amount of fat in the body.|
|Detection method||Fluorescent Colorimetric|
|Application||This Rat Leptin ELISA is used to measure & quantify Leptin levels in Metabolism & Endocrine research.|
|Application Notes||Room temperature, 4 hour assay 10 µL sample size|
|Linearity of Dilution||87–100%|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Material Size||96-well strip plate|
|Protocol: Rat Leptin - 96-Well Plate|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Visión general referencias||Pub Med ID|
|Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress. |
Charlotte Laloux,Jérôme Mairesse,Gilles Van Camp,Angela Giovine,Igor Branchi,Sebastien Bouret,Sara Morley-Fletcher,Gabriela Bergonzelli,Marithé Malagodi,Roberto Gradini,Ferdinando Nicoletti,Muriel Darnaudéry,Stefania Maccari
Psychoneuroendocrinology 37 2012
Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress (PRS rats) represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was assessed in pups under different behavioural paradigms. After weaning, anxiety was measured by conventional tests. Expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors was assessed by immunoblotting. Plasma leptin levels were measured using a LINCOplex bead assay kit. The offspring of stressed dams emitted more USVs in response to isolation from their mothers and showed a later suppression of USV production when exposed to an unfamiliar male odour, indicating a pronounced anxiety-like profile. Anxiety like behaviour in PRS pups persisted one day after weaning. PRS pups did not show the plasma peak in leptin levels that is otherwise seen at PND14. In addition, PRS pups showed a reduced expression of the γ2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors in the amygdala at PND14 and PND22, an increased expression of mGlu5 receptors in the amygdala at PND22, a reduced expression of mGlu5 receptors in the hippocampus at PND14 and PND22, and a reduced expression of mGlu2/3 receptors in the hippocampus at PND22. These data offer a clear-cut demonstration that the early programming triggered by PRS could be already translated into anxiety-like behaviour during early postnatal life.
|Postnatal growth after intrauterine growth restriction alters central leptin signal and energy homeostasis. |
Coupé, Bérengère, et al.
PLoS ONE, 7: e30616 (2012) 2012
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is closely linked with metabolic diseases, appetite disorders and obesity at adulthood. Leptin, a major adipokine secreted by adipose tissue, circulates in direct proportion to body fat stores, enters the brain and regulates food intake and energy expenditure. Deficient leptin neuronal signalling favours weight gain by affecting central homeostatic circuitry. The aim of this study was to determine if leptin resistance was programmed by perinatal nutritional environment and to decipher potential cellular mechanisms underneath.We clearly demonstrated that 5 months old IUGR rats develop a decrease of leptin sentivity, characterized by no significant reduction of food intake following an intraperitoneal injection of leptin.Apart from the resistance to leptin injection, results obtained from IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up growth differed from those of IUGR rats with no catch-up since we observed, for the first group only, fat accumulation, increased appetite for food rich in fat and increased leptin synthesis. Centrally, the leptin resistant state of both groups was associated with a complex and not always similar changes in leptin receptor signalling steps. Leptin resistance in IUGR rats submitted to rapid catch-up was associated with alteration in AKT and mTOR pathways. Alternatively, in IUGR rats with no catch-up, leptin resistance was associated with low hypothalamic expression of LepRa and LepRb. This study reveals leptin resistance as an early marker of metabolic disorders that appears before any evidence of body weight increase in IUGR rats but whose mechanisms could depend of nutritional environment of the perinatal period.
|Effects of a maternal diet supplemented with chocolate and fructose beverage during gestation and lactation on rat dams and their offspring. |
Zhi-Yun Zhang,Jin-Jing Zeng,Marina Kjaergaard,Ni Guan,Kirsten Raun,Cecilia Nilsson,Ming-Wei Wang
Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology 38 2011
1. Consumption of a high-fat and high-energy diet during pregnancy leads to a risk of long-term consequences on fetal development, as well as on the postnatal health of offspring. To investigate the effects of such a diet on fetal programming, we established a high-energy intake pregnant rat model using chocolate and fructose beverage as supplements to a normal chow diet. 2. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either chow (control) or a diet supplemented with chocolate and fructose beverage throughout gestation and lactation. The male F(1) pups received normal chow diet after weaning. Physiological or pathological changes in dams and pups (e.g. glucose and lipid metabolism) were evaluated. 3. The results showed that dams offered the high-fat (mainly from chocolate) and high-calorie diet during gestation consumed more energy and gained more weight than chow-fed dams. Over-consumption of chocolate reduced chow intake in dams, leading to low maternal protein supply. As a result, pups from these dams exhibited reduced birth weight that lasted until adulthood. The high-energy diet during lactation led to increased total body fat, as well as impaired liver function, in offspring; thus, the lactational diet is suggested to be a stronger determinant of offspring fat metabolism than gestational diet. 4. The results of the study suggest that over-supply of carbohydrates, such as chocolate and fructose, either during gestation or lactation has a negative impact on the well-being of offspring.
|Phosphodiesterase 11A in brain is enriched in ventral hippocampus and deletion causes psychiatric disease-related phenotypes. |
Kelly MP, Logue SF, Brennan J, Day JP, Lakkaraju S, Jiang L, Zhong X, Tam M, Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Platt BJ, Dwyer JM, Neal S, Pulito VL, Agostino MJ, Grauer SM, Navarra RL, Kelley C, Comery TA, Murrills RJ, Houslay MD, Brandon NJ.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010
Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) is the most recently identified family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs), the only known enzymes to break down cyclic nucleotides. The tissue expression profile of this dual specificity PDE is controversial, and little is understood of its biological function, particularly in the brain. We seek here to determine if PDE11A is expressed in the brain and to understand its function, using PDE11A(-/-) knockout (KO) mice. We show that PDE11A mRNA and protein are largely restricted to hippocampus CA1, subiculum, and the amygdalohippocampal area, with a two- to threefold enrichment in the ventral vs. dorsal hippocampus, equal distribution between cytosolic and membrane fractions, and increasing levels of protein expression from postnatal day 7 through adulthood. Interestingly, PDE11A KO mice show subtle psychiatric-disease-related deficits, including hyperactivity in an open field, increased sensitivity to the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801, as well as deficits in social behaviors (social odor recognition memory and social avoidance). In addition, PDE11A KO mice show enlarged lateral ventricles and increased activity in CA1 (as per increased Arc mRNA), phenotypes associated with psychiatric disease. The increased sensitivity to MK-801 exhibited by PDE11A KO mice may be explained by the biochemical dysregulation observed around the glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isozazolepropionic (AMPA) receptor, including decreased levels of phosphorylated-GluR1 at Ser845 and the prototypical transmembrane AMPA-receptor-associated proteins stargazin (gamma2) and gamma8. Together, our data provide convincing evidence that PDE11A expression is restricted in the brain but plays a significant role in regulating brain function.
|Enduring consequences of maternal obesity for brain inflammation and behavior of offspring. |
Bilbo SD, Tsang V
The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of 2010
Obesity is well characterized as a systemic inflammatory condition, and is also associated with cognitive disruption, suggesting a link between the two. We assessed whether peripheral inflammation in maternal obesity may be transferred to the offspring brain, in particular, the hippocampus, and thereby result in cognitive dysfunction. Rat dams were fed a high-saturated-fat diet (SFD), a high-trans-fat diet (TFD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 wk prior to mating, and remained on the diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. SFD/TFD exposure significantly increased body weight in both dams and pups compared to controls. Microglial activation markers were increased in the hippocampus of SFD/TFD pups at birth. At weaning and in adulthood, proinflammatory cytokine expression was strikingly increased in the periphery and hippocampus following a bacterial challenge [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] in the SFD/TFD groups compared to controls. Microglial activation within the hippocampus was also increased basally in SFD rats, suggesting a chronic priming of the cells. Finally, there were marked changes in anxiety and spatial learning in SFD/TFD groups. These effects were all observed in adulthood, even after the pups were placed on standard chow at weaning, suggesting these outcomes were programmed early in life.-Bilbo, S. D., Tsang, V. Enduring consequences of maternal obesity for brain inflammation and behavior of offspring.
|Beneficial metabolic effects of the Malaysian herb Labisia pumila var. alata in a rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome. |
L Mannerås,M Fazliana,W M Wan Nazaimoon,M Lönn,H F Gu,C G Ostenson,E Stener-Victorin
Journal of ethnopharmacology 127 2010
New options are needed to prevent and treat metabolic disorders associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Labisia pumila var. alata (LPva)-a Malaysian herb thought to have phytoestrogenic effects-has shown promise in reducing body weight gain in ovariectomized rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of LPva on body composition and metabolic features in female rats treated continuously with dihydrotestosterone, starting before puberty, to induce PCOS.
|Effects of high-fat high-sucrose feeding, energy restriction, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on visfatin and apelin in hamsters. |
Arrate Lasa,Itziar Churruca,Edurne Simón,María Teresa Macarulla,Alfredo Fernández-Quintela,Víctor M Rodríguez,María Puy Portillo
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 28 2009
To analyze the effects of high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) feeding, energy restriction, and trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on visfatin and apelin.
|Low-frequency electro-acupuncture and physical exercise improve metabolic disturbances and modulate gene expression in adipose tissue in rats with dihydrotestosterone-induced polycystic ovary syndrome. |
Louise Mannerås, Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir, Agneta Holmäng, Malin Lönn, Elisabet Stener-Victorin
Endocrinology 149 3559-68 2008
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, abdominal obesity, and insulin resistance. Pharmacotherapy is often unsatisfactory. This study evaluates the effects of low-frequency electro-acupuncture (EA) and physical exercise on metabolic disturbances and adipose tissue mRNA expression of selected genes in a rat PCOS model characterized by insulin resistance and adiposity. Dihydrotestosterone (inducing PCOS) or vehicle (control) was administrated continuously, beginning before puberty. At age 10 wk, PCOS rats were randomly divided into three groups; PCOS, PCOS EA, and PCOS exercise. PCOS EA rats received 2-Hz EA (evoking muscle twitches) three times/wk during 4-5 wk. PCOS exercise rats had free access to a running wheel for 4-5 wk. EA and exercise improved insulin sensitivity, measured by clamp, in PCOS rats. Exercise also reduced adiposity, visceral adipocyte size, and plasma leptin. EA increased plasma IGF-I. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased expression of leptin and IL-6 and decreased expression of uncoupling protein 2 in visceral adipose tissue of PCOS rats compared with controls. EA restored the expression of leptin and uncoupling protein 2, whereas exercise normalized adipose tissue leptin and IL-6 expression in PCOS rats. Thus, EA and exercise ameliorate insulin resistance in rats with PCOS. This effect may involve regulation of adipose tissue metabolism and production because EA and exercise each partly restore divergent adipose tissue gene expression associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and inflammation. In contrast to exercise, EA improves insulin sensitivity and modulates adipose tissue gene expression without influencing adipose tissue mass and cellularity.
Licencias necesarias e Información técnica
|96 well Template 2 Up|
|96 well Template Single|
|QUALITY CONTROL RANGES - Rat Leptin ELISA|
|Full Service Custom-built Assays|
|Multiplex Assays of Fifteen Human Complement Factors|