Titrimetry is one of the oldest analytical methods that remains in use due to its advantages such as ease of use, speed, versatility, accuracy, precision, and relatively low cost compared to many newer analytical methods. In titrimetric methods, the amount of an analyte is determined by gradually adding (titrating) a standard reagent (the titrant) to it until the reaction is stoichiometrically complete (the end point). Titration analyses is carried out across a wide range of industries and applications, including chemicals, materials, environmental, foods, quality control, process monitoring, and regulatory requirements.
Titrations require an indicator to signal that the reaction has reached its end point. There are many types of indicators, the common ones include colorimetric indicators for varying pH ranges, color changes in redox titrations, and precipitation. Other types of titration use instruments to detect end points, such as changes in conductivity, heat absorption, and the appearance of UV absorbing species.
Titrators are instruments that perform titrimetric procedures (titration) with minimal operator intervention. They can be operated manually or automatically. Titrators are usually composed of a central unit, to which one or various types of sensors and electrodes can be connected, and some reagent reservoirs.
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