|PI3K, ERK, p38 MAPK and integrins regulate CCR3-mediated secretion of mouse and human eosinophil-associated RNases.|
Shamri, R; Young, KM; Weller, PF
Eosinophils have the capacity to secrete varied cytotoxic proteins. Among the proteins are the eosinophil-associated RNases (EARs): the human eosinophil-derived neurotoxin and eosinophilic cationic protein, and their murine ortholog EARs, which have been shown to be involved in host defense, tissue remodeling, and immunity regulation. However, the signal transduction that regulates EARs secretion in response to physiological stimuli, such as chemokines, has been little studied in human and scarcely in mouse eosinophils, the foremost animal model for eosinophil-associated human diseases.In this study, we aimed to understand the signal transduction involved in the secretion of enzymatically active EARs following chemokine stimulation.Fresh mouse and human eosinophils were stimulated with CCL11 and CCL24, and the secretion of enzymatically active EARs was detected using an RNase activity assay. The involvement of signaling factors or integrins was probed using specific inhibitors and blocking antibodies. Adhesion was evaluated by microscopy.We found that secretion of mouse EARs in response to CCL11 and CCL24 was Gαi -dependent. Both mouse and human eosinophils required the activation of PI3K, ERK, and p38 MAPK. In addition, the adhesion molecules β1 and β2 integrins were found to be crucial for EAR secretion, and we suggest a mechanism in which spreading is obligatory for EAR secretion.Collectively, these data suggest a common CCR3-mediated signaling pathway that leads to EAR secretion in both mouse and human eosinophils. These findings are applicable for eosinophil-mediated host defense and eosinophil-associated diseases.
|Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein inhibits toll-like receptor 2 activation by lipoteichoic acid in human odontoblast-like cells.|
Carrouel, F; Staquet, MJ; Keller, JF; Baudouin, C; Msika, P; Bleicher, F; Alliot-Licht, B; Farges, JC
Journal of Endodontics
Previous studies have suggested that odontoblasts sense gram-positive bacteria components through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and trigger dental pulp immunity by producing proinflammatory cytokines. Currently, the factors that modulate odontoblast TLR2 activation are unknown. Our aim was to investigate lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) effects on the TLR2-mediated odontoblast response.Human odontoblast-like cells were stimulated with lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (a TLR2 ligand), LBP, CD14 (a TLR2 cofactor), or various combinations of LTA/LBP, LTA/CD14, or LTA/CD14/LBP. CXCL8, IL6, and TLR2 gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CXCL8 and interleukin (IL)-6 production was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in culture supernatants of cells stimulated with LTA, LTA/CD14, or LTA/CD14/LBP. LBP effects on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38, JNK, ERK, STAT3, and p70S6 signaling pathways were determined in LTA-stimulated odontoblast-like cells with a multiplex biometric immunoassay. LBP effects were compared with specific inhibitors of these signaling pathways. LBP transcript and protein were investigated in vivo in healthy and inflamed dental pulps by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.Activation of CXCL8, IL6, and TLR2 gene expression and CXCL8 and IL-6 secretion in LTA- and LTA/CD14-stimulated odontoblast-like cells was significantly decreased by LBP. LBP inhibited NF-κB and p38 signaling pathways in LTA-stimulated cells in a similar way to NF-κB and p38 inhibitors. LBP transcript and protein were detected in vivo in inflamed dental pulps but not in healthy ones.These results demonstrate that LBP reduces TLR2-dependent production of inflammatory cytokines by odontoblast-like cells. We suggest that in this way it could modulate host defense in human dental pulp.