|Replacement Information||AB1541 is a recommended replacement for AB1556|
Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R||IHC, WB||Sh||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Purified sheep polyclonal liquid in 150 mM NaCl, 10 mM HEPES (pH 7.5), 100 μg/mL BSA and 50% glycerol.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - 2142152||2142152|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - 2387423||2387423|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - 2453653||2453653|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - NG1848352||NG1848352|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - 1956379||1956379|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - 1972784||1972784|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - 1994652||1994652|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - 2018056||2018056|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - 2039760||2039760|
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - 2065979||2065979|
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in adolescent and adult rats.|
Klomp, A; Václavů, L; Meerhoff, GF; Reneman, L; Lucassen, PJ
PloS one 9 e97603 2014
The antidepressant drug fluoxetine (Prozac) has been increasingly prescribed to children and adolescents with depressive disorders despite a lack of thorough understanding of its therapeutic effects in the paediatric population and of its putative neurodevelopmental effects. Within the framework of PRIOMEDCHILD ERA-NET, we investigated; a) effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a structural readout relevant for antidepressant action and hippocampal development; b) effects on tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) expression, a measure of serotonin synthesis; c) whether treatment effects during adolescence differed from treatment at an adult age, and d) whether they were subregion-specific. Stereological quantification of the number of proliferating (Ki-67+) cells and of the number of young migratory neurons (doublecortin+), revealed a significant age-by-treatment interaction effect, indicating that fluoxetine affects both proliferation and neurogenesis in adolescent-treated rats differently than it does in adult-treated rats. In terms of subregional differences, fluoxetine enhanced proliferation mainly in the dorsal parts of the hippocampus, and neurogenesis in both the suprapyramidal and infrapyramidal blades of the dentate gyrus in adolescent-treated rats, while no such differences were seen in adult-treated rats. Fluoxetine exerted similar age-by-treatment interaction effects on TPH cells mainly in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe nucleus. We conclude that fluoxetine exerts divergent effects on structural plasticity and serotonin synthesis in adolescent versus adult-treated rats. These preliminary data indicate a differential sensitivity of the adolescent brain to this drug and thus warrant further research into their behavioural and translational aspects. Together with recent related findings, they further call for caution in prescribing these drugs to the adolescent population.
|Dorsal raphe neuroinflammation promotes dramatic behavioral stress dysregulation.|
Howerton, AR; Roland, AV; Bale, TL
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 34 7113-23 2014
Impulsivity, risk-taking behavior, and elevated stress responsivity are prominent symptoms of mania, a behavioral state common to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Though inflammatory processes activated within the brain are involved in the pathophysiology of both disorders, the specific mechanisms by which neuroinflammation drives manic behavior are not well understood. Serotonin cell bodies originating within the dorsal raphe (DR) play a major role in the regulation of behavioral features characteristic of mania. Therefore, we hypothesized that the link between neuroinflammation and manic behavior may be mediated by actions on serotonergic neurocircuitry. To examine this, we induced local neuroinflammation in the DR by viral delivery of Cre recombinase into interleukin (IL)-1β(XAT) transgenic male and female mice, resulting in overexpressing of the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β. For assertion of brain-region specificity of these outcomes, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as a downstream target of DR serotonergic projections, was also infused. Inflammation within the DR, but not the PFC, resulted in a profound display of manic-like behavior, characterized by increased stress-induced locomotion and responsivity, and reduced risk-aversion/fearfulness. Microarray analysis of the DR revealed a dramatic increase in immune-related genes, and dysregulation of genes important in GABAergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic neurotransmission. Behavioral and physiological changes were driven by a loss of serotonergic neurons and reduced output as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, demonstrating inflammation-induced serotonergic hypofunction. Behavioral changes were rescued by acute selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment, supporting the hypothesis that serotonin dysregulation stemming from neuroinflammation in the DR underlies manic-like behaviors.
|Extrasynaptic glycine receptors of rodent dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons: a sensitive target for ethanol.|
Maguire, EP; Mitchell, EA; Greig, SJ; Corteen, N; Balfour, DJ; Swinny, JD; Lambert, JJ; Belelli, D
Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 39 1232-44 2014
Alcohol abuse is a significant medical and social problem. Several neurotransmitter systems are implicated in ethanol's actions, with certain receptors and ion channels emerging as putative targets. The dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus is associated with the behavioral actions of alcohol, but ethanol actions on these neurons are not well understood. Here, using immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology we characterize DR inhibitory transmission and its sensitivity to ethanol. DR neurons exhibit inhibitory 'phasic' post-synaptic currents mediated primarily by synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR) and, to a lesser extent, by synaptic glycine receptors (GlyR). In addition to such phasic transmission mediated by the vesicular release of neurotransmitter, the activity of certain neurons may be governed by a 'tonic' conductance resulting from ambient GABA activating extrasynaptic GABAARs. However, for DR neurons extrasynaptic GABAARs exert only a limited influence. By contrast, we report that unusually the GlyR antagonist strychnine reveals a large tonic conductance mediated by extrasynaptic GlyRs, which dominates DR inhibition. In agreement, for DR neurons strychnine increases their input resistance, induces membrane depolarization, and consequently augments their excitability. Importantly, this glycinergic conductance is greatly enhanced in a strychnine-sensitive fashion, by behaviorally relevant ethanol concentrations, by drugs used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and by taurine, an ingredient of certain 'energy drinks' often imbibed with ethanol. These findings identify extrasynaptic GlyRs as critical regulators of DR excitability and a novel molecular target for ethanol.
|Central circuits regulating the sympathetic outflow to lumbar muscles in spinally transected mice by retrograde transsynaptic transport.|
Xiang, HB; Liu, C; Liu, TT; Xiong, J
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 7 2987-97 2014
Despite considerable interest in the mechanisms that control the hyperalgesia associated with muscle inflammation, the CNS descending pathways that coordinate autonomic circuits regulating lumbar muscles are not adequately understood. Here we used both pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 retrograde transsynaptic tracing and spinally transected method in 33 C57BL/6J mice to map the polysynaptic pathways between lumbar muscle and CNS. Tissues were processed for dual-label immunocytochemical detection between PRV-614 and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) or tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing neurons in CNS. In intact mice, PRV-614 was transported to the intermediolateral column (IML) and ventral horn (VH) of spinal cord, with subsequent transport to many brain regions, including the medullary raphe nuclei, rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), A5 cell group regions (A5), locus coeruleus (LC), the medullary and pontine reticular formation nucleus (MRN and PRN), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and other central sites. However, PRV-614 in spinally transected mice produced retrograde infection of IML, with subsequent transport to main brain regions that have been shown to contribute to regulating sympathetic circuits, including RVLM, Lateral paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (LPGi), A5, LC, and PVN, whereas PRV-614 labeling in VH and MRN was eliminated in almost every case. In above five brain regions, dual-labeling immunocytochemistry showed coexpression of PRV-614/TPH and PRV-614/TH immunoreactive (IR) neurons involved in these regulatory circuits. Our results reveal a hierarchical organization of central autonomic circuits controlling the lumbar muscles, thus providing neuroanatomical substrates for the central catecholaminergic and serotonergic system to regulate the lumbar muscles.
|Raphe GABAergic neurons mediate the acquisition of avoidance after social defeat.|
Challis, C; Boulden, J; Veerakumar, A; Espallergues, J; Vassoler, FM; Pierce, RC; Beck, SG; Berton, O
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 33 13978-88, 13988a 2013
Serotonin (5-HT) modulates neural responses to socioaffective cues and can bias approach or avoidance behavioral decisions, yet the cellular mechanisms underlying its contribution to the regulation of social experiences remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) may participate in socioaffective regulation by controlling serotonergic tone during social interaction. We tested this hypothesis using whole-cell recording techniques in genetically identified DRN GABA and 5-HT neurons in mice exposed to social defeat, a model that induces long-lasting avoidance behaviors in a subset of mice responsive to serotonergic antidepressants. Our results revealed that social defeat engaged DRN GABA neurons and drove GABAergic sensitization that strengthened inhibition of 5-HT neurons in mice that were susceptible, but not resilient to social defeat. Furthermore, optogenetic silencing of DRN GABA neurons disinhibited neighboring 5-HT neurons and prevented the acquisition of social avoidance in mice exposed to a social threat, but did not affect a previously acquired avoidance phenotype. We provide the first characterization of GABA neurons in the DRN that monosynaptically inhibit 5-HT neurons and reveal their key role in neuroplastic processes underlying the development of social avoidance.
|Identification of unique release kinetics of serotonin from guinea-pig and human enterochromaffin cells.|
Raghupathi, R; Duffield, MD; Zelkas, L; Meedeniya, A; Brookes, SJ; Sia, TC; Wattchow, DA; Spencer, NJ; Keating, DJ
The Journal of physiology 591 5959-75 2013
The major source of serotonin (5-HT) in the body is the enterochromaffin (EC) cells lining the intestinal mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the fact that EC cells synthesise ∼95% of total body 5-HT, and that this 5-HT has important paracrine and endocrine roles, no studies have investigated the mechanisms of 5-HT release from single primary EC cells. We have developed a rapid primary culture of guinea-pig and human EC cells, allowing analysis of single EC cell function using electrophysiology, electrochemistry, Ca(2+) imaging, immunocytochemistry and 3D modelling. Ca(2+) enters EC cells upon stimulation and triggers quantal 5-HT release via L-type Ca(2+) channels. Real time amperometric techniques reveal that EC cells release 5-HT at rest and this release increases upon stimulation. Surprisingly for an endocrine cell storing 5-HT in large dense core vesicles (LDCVs), EC cells release 70 times less 5-HT per fusion event than catecholamine released from similarly sized LDCVs in endocrine chromaffin cells, and the vesicle release kinetics instead resembles that observed in mammalian synapses. Furthermore, we measured EC cell density along the gastrointestinal tract to create three-dimensional (3D) simulations of 5-HT diffusion using the minimal number of variables required to understand the physiological relevance of single cell 5-HT release in the whole-tissue milieu. These models indicate that local 5-HT levels are likely to be maintained around the activation threshold for mucosal 5-HT receptors and that this is dependent upon stimulation and location within the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first study demonstrating single cell 5-HT release in primary EC cells. The mode of 5-HT release may represent a unique mode of exocytosis amongst endocrine cells and is functionally relevant to gastrointestinal sensory and motor function.
|Activation patterns of cells in selected brain stem nuclei of more and less stress responsive rats in two animal models of PTSD - predator exposure and submersion stress.|
Robert Adamec,Mate Toth,Jozsef Haller,Jozsef Halasz,Jacqueline Blundell
Neuropharmacology 62 2012
This study had two purposes. First: compare predator and water submersion stress cFos activation patterns in dorsal raphe (DR), locus coeruleus (LC) and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Second: identify markers of vulnerability to stressors within these areas. Rats were either predator or submersion stressed and tested 1.75 h later for anxiety-like behavior. Immediately thereafter, rats were sacrificed and cFos expression examined. In DR, serotonergic cells expressing or not expressing cFos were also counted. Predator and submersion stress increased anxiety-like behavior (in the elevated plus maze- EPM) equally over controls. Moreover, stressed rats spent equally less time in the center of the hole board than handled controls, another indication of increased anxiety-like behavior. To examine vulnerability, rats which were less anxious (LA) and more (highly) anxious (MA) in the EPM were selected from among handled control and stressed animals. LA rats in the stressed groups were considered stress non-responsive and MA stressed rats were considered stress responsive. LA and MA rats did not differ in cFos expression in any brain area, though stressors did increase cFos cell counts in all areas over controls. Intriguingly, the number of serotonergic DR neurons not activated by stress predicted degree of anxiety response to submersion stress only. LA submersion stressed rats had more serotonergic cells than all other groups, and MA submersion stressed rats had fewer serotonergic cells than all other groups, which did not differ. Moreover, these cell counts correlated with EPM anxiety. We conclude that a surplus of such cells protects against anxiogenic effects of submersion, while a paucity of such cells enhances vulnerability to submersion stress. Other data suggest serotonergic cells may exert their effects via inhibition of dorsolateral PAG cells during submersion stress. Findings are discussed with respect to serotonergic transmission in vulnerability to predator stress and relevance of findings for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.
|Reduction of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe due to chronic prenatal administration of a tryptophan-free diet.|
Guadalupe M Flores-Cruz,Alfonso Escobar
International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 30 2012
Serotonin (5-HT) is a widely studied neurotransmitter which plays an important role in the development and proper functioning of the organism throughout life. The appearance of 5-HT system early in ontogeny suggests the hypothesis that 5-HT plays a regulatory role in neurodevelopment. This study investigated the effect of administration of a tryptophan deficient diet during prenatal development on the morphology and cell population of the dorsal raphe. The experimental diet, containing balanced amounts of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, was provided to a time-mated group of rats from gestational day 5 until delivery. Control groups were fed with (i) the experimental diet formulation with 0.2% tryptophan added to the mixture, or (ii) a regular chow diet. At delivery, five pups per dam were euthanized. Body and brain weight was measured and brain sections were processed for immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH) and whole brain 5-HT analysis. Sections containing dorsal raphe were photographed with a light microscope and TrpH positive neurons quantified. Brain weights in the tryptophan deprived group showed no difference as compared with controls while body weights were reduced by 25%. Total numbers of serotonergic neurons at the dorsal raphe in the prenatal tryptophan deficient pups were reduced by 35%. A regional analysis of the dorsal raphe indicated a marked cellular reduction in the medial and caudal sections of the nucleus, which contains the majority of serotonergic neurons, in the tryptophan deprived condition. Quantitative 5-HT analysis showed that the brain concentration was similar among conditions. In conclusion, gestational tryptophan deprivation exerts adverse effects on the development of the 5-HT system, particularly in the dorsal raphe, manifested by decreased numbers of serotonergic neurons as well as altered topography in this important nucleus.
|Effect of fluoxetine on the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase and 14-3-3 protein in the dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus of rat.|
Mi Ran Choi,Sejin Hwang,Geu Meum Park,Kyung Hwa Jung,Seok Hyeon Kim,Nando Dulal Das,Young Gyu Chai
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 43 2012
The serotonergic system is one of the major systems targeted in the pharmacological treatment of mood disorders including depression. Fluoxetine, one of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), has been reported to induce the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. The 14-3-3 protein family not only activates neuronal enzymes, including TPH, but also plays a role in a wide variety of cell signaling. The aim of the present study was to determine whether fluoxetine regulates both the interaction of TPH and 14-3-3 proteins as well as the increase of those proteins in the dorsal raphe nucleus and the hippocampus. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered fluoxetine or vehicle for 5 and 14 days and sacrificed at 5 and 14 days after initial treatment. The intensity of immunoreactivity for TPH and 14-3-3 proteins in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the midbrain and in the hippocampus was measured, and the colocalization of both proteins was observed with double-labeling immunofluorescence. At 5 days after initial treatment with fluoxetine, immunoreactivity of 14-3-3 protein increased in both the dorsal raphe nucleus and the hippocampus, while that of TPH did not change in either region. In addition, at 14 days after initial treatment with fluoxetine, immunoreactivity of 14-3-3 protein significantly increased in both the dorsal raphe nucleus and hippocampus, while that of TPH showed few changes in either region. Colocalization of TPH and 14-3-3 proteins was observed in the cell bodies of dorsal raphe nucleus, whereas it was not observed in the hippocampus. These results suggest that the time-dependent regulation of 14-3-3 protein may be one of the various factors associated with delayed pharmacological effects of SSRIs.
|HDAC6 regulates glucocorticoid receptor signaling in serotonin pathways with critical impact on stress resilience.|
Espallergues, J; Teegarden, SL; Veerakumar, A; Boulden, J; Challis, C; Jochems, J; Chan, M; Petersen, T; Deneris, E; Matthias, P; Hahn, CG; Lucki, I; Beck, SG; Berton, O
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 32 4400-16 2012
Genetic variations in certain components of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) chaperone complex have been associated with the development of stress-related affective disorders and individual variability in therapeutic responses to antidepressants. Mechanisms that link GR chaperoning and stress susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we show that the effects of glucocorticoid hormones on socioaffective behaviors are critically regulated via reversible acetylation of Hsp90, a key component of the GR chaperone complex. We provide pharmacological and genetic evidence indicating that the cytoplasmic lysine deacetylase HDAC6 controls Hsp90 acetylation in the brain, and thereby modulates Hsp90-GR protein-protein interactions, as well as hormone- and stress-induced GR translocation, with a critical impact on GR downstream signaling and behavior. Pet1-Cre-driven deletion of HDAC6 in serotonin neurons, the densest HDAC6-expressing cell group in the mouse brain, dramatically reduced acute anxiogenic effects of the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone in the open-field, elevated plus maze, and social interaction tests. Serotonin-selective depletion of HDAC6 also blocked the expression of social avoidance in mice exposed to chronic social defeat and concurrently prevented the electrophysiological and morphological changes induced, in serotonin neurons, by this murine model of traumatic stress. Together, these results identify HDAC6 inhibition as a potential new strategy for proresilience and antidepressant interventions through regulation of the Hsp90-GR heterocomplex and focal prevention of GR signaling in serotonin pathways. Our data thus uncover an alternate mechanism by which pan-HDAC inhibitors may regulate stress-related behaviors independently of their action on histones.
|Anti-Tryptophan Hydroxylase - Data Sheet|