Key Spec Table
|Key Applications||Format||Host||Detection Methods|
|Description||LIGHT DIAGNOSTICS™ Influenza A Antibody Reagent, ~50 tests, included in kit #3105|
|Presentation||2 mL dropper vial containing Anti-Influenza A in PBS with Tween 20 and Sodium Azide as a preservative.|
|Application Notes||Use undiluted. Refer to Kit Package Insert for directions.|
|Antibody Type||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Product Usage Statements|
|Material Size||2 mL|
References | 14 Available | See All References
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the development of diabetic retinopathy and its regulation by H-Ras. |
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51 4320-6. Epub 2010 Mar 10. 2010
PURPOSE: Diabetes activates a small molecular weight G-protein, H-Ras, in the retina and its capillary cells, and H-Ras activation is implicated in the apoptosis of retinal capillary cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is regulated by H-Ras, and in diabetes its activation is associated with increased vascular permeability. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of sustained activation of MMP-9 in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and to illustrate the mechanism through which it is upregulated in diabetes.
|Adipose differentiation-related protein regulates lipids and insulin in pancreatic islets. |
Faleck DM, Ali K, Roat R, Graham MJ, Crooke RM, Battisti R, Garcia E, Ahima RS, Imai Y
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299 E249-57. Epub 2010 May 18. 2010
The excess accumulation of lipids in islets is thought to contribute to the development of diabetes in obesity by impairing beta-cell function. However, lipids also serve a nutrient function in islets, and fatty acids acutely increase insulin secretion. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in islets will shed light on complex effects of lipids on beta-cells. Adipose differentiation-related protein (ADFP) is localized on the surface of lipid droplets in a wide range of cells and plays an important role in intracellular lipid metabolism. We found that ADFP was highly expressed in murine beta-cells. Moreover, islet ADFP was increased in mice on a high-fat diet (3.5-fold of control) and after fasting (2.5-fold of control), revealing dynamic changes in ADFP in response to metabolic cues. ADFP expression was also increased by addition of fatty acids in human islets. The downregulation of ADFP in MIN6 cells by antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) suppressed the accumulation of triglycerides upon fatty acid loading (56% of control) along with a reduction in the mRNA levels of lipogenic genes such as diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-2 and fatty acid synthase. Fatty acid uptake, oxidation, and lipolysis were also reduced by downregulation of ADFP. Moreover, the reduction of ADFP impaired the ability of palmitate to increase insulin secretion. These findings demonstrate that ADFP is important in regulation of lipid metabolism and insulin secretion in beta-cells.
|Early growth response-1 induces and enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-a expression in lung cancer cells. |
Shimoyamada H, Yazawa T, Sato H, Okudela K, Ishii J, Sakaeda M, Kashiwagi K, Suzuki T, Mitsui H, Woo T, Tajiri M, Ohmori T, Ogura T, Masuda M, Oshiro H, Kitamura H
Am J Pathol 177 70-83. Epub 2010 May 20. 2010
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is crucial for angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and metastasis during tumor development. We demonstrate here that early growth response-1 (EGR-1), which is induced by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, activates VEGF-A in lung cancer cells. Increased EGR-1 expression was found in adenocarcinoma cells carrying mutant K-RAS or EGFR genes. Hypoxic culture, siRNA experiment, luciferase assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and quantitative RT-PCR using EGR-1-inducible lung cancer cells demonstrated that EGR-1 binds to the proximal region of the VEGF-A promoter, activates VEGF-A expression, and enhances hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha)-mediated VEGF-A expression. The EGR-1 modulator, NAB-2, was rapidly induced by increased levels of EGR-1. Pathology samples of human lung adenocarcinomas revealed correlations between EGR-1/HIF-1alpha and VEGF-A expressions and relative elevation of EGR-1 and VEGF-A expression in mutant K-RAS- or EGFR-carrying adenocarcinomas. Both EGR-1 and VEGF-A expression increased as tumors dedifferentiated, whereas HIF-1alpha expression did not. Although weak correlation was found between EGR-1 and NAB-2 expressions on the whole, NAB-2 expression decreased as tumors dedifferentiated, and inhibition of DNA methyltransferase/histone deacetylase increased NAB-2 expression in lung cancer cells despite no epigenetic alteration in the NAB-2 promoter. These findings suggest that EGR-1 plays important roles on VEGF-A expression in lung cancer cells, and epigenetic silencing of transactivator(s) associated with NAB-2 expression might also contribute to upregulate VEGF-A expression.Full Text Article
|Dihydropteridine reductase activity in the brainstem of intrauterine growth-restricted rats. |
Manjarrez-Gutierrez G, Gonzalez-Ramirez M, Boyzo-Montes de Oca A, Hernandez-Rodriguez J
Int J Dev Neurosci 2010
The aim of this study was to determine whether intrauterine growth restriction produces an increase of dihydropteridine reductase activity as a compensatory mechanism that maintains the necessary concentration of cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin, during accelerated brain serotonin biosynthesis. Intrauterine growth-restricted offspring and controls were used. On days 1, 10, 15 and 21 of life, the brainstem was dissected and l-tryptophan, serotonin, tryptophan-5-hydroxylase and dihydropteridine reductase activities were determined. Intrauterine growth-restricted pups showed a significant increase of l-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine, tryptophan-5-hydroxylase and also dihydropteridine activity in the brainstem in comparison to normal pups. These results confirm that intrauterine growth restriction produces an increase of serotonin biosynthesis in the brainstem. This is accompanied by an increase in dihydropteridine activity that appears to be a compensatory mechanism to maintain sufficient tetrahydrobiopterin for the donation of electrons during the accelerated synthesis of brain serotonin in intrauterine growth-restricted rats.
|Broadly targeted triplex real-time PCR detection of influenza A, B and C viruses based on the nucleoprotein gene and a novel "MegaBeacon" probe strategy. |
Muradrasoli S, Mohamed N, Belak S, Czifra G, Herrmann B, Berencsi G, Blomberg J
Journal of virological methods 163 313-322 2010
A PCR assay that covers animal and human influenza A, B and C viruses, i.e., most of Orthomyxoviridae, is needed. Influenza types are distinguished based on differences in the nucleoprotein (NP) present in the virus. Conserved NP regions were therefore used to design a TaqMan-based triplex reverse transcription real-time PCR method. Variability of influenza A within the probe target region mandated the development of a novel molecular beacon, the "Mega" molecular beacon (MegaBeacon; MegB), for the detection of influenza A with this method. MegaBeacon is a mismatch-tolerant molecular beacon that is also a TaqMan probe. The triplex method (3QPCR-MegB) was evaluated with influenza A isolates covering 18 HxNx combinations, two influenza B isolates, and five Japanese influenza C isolates, as well as influenza A, B and C synthetic DNA targets. One to ten viral RNA and cDNA genome equivalents were detected per PCR reaction for influenza A, B and C. Seventy-one human nasopharyngeal aspirates from respiratory infections yielded 30 influenza A, 11 influenza B and 0 influenza C with 3QPCR-MegB, where immunofluorescence (IF) found 28 influenza A and 10 influenza B. 3QPCR-MegB was more mismatch-tolerant than a variant PCR with an influenza A TaqMan probe (3QPCR) and is a sensitive and rational method to detect influenza viruses of animal and human origin. MegaBeacon probes hold promise for variable target nucleic acids.
|Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Virus Prior to Pandemic Spread. |
Metzgar D, Baynes D, Myers CA, Kammerer P, Unabia M, Faix DJ, Blair PJ
J Clin Microbiol 2010
Two cases of febrile respiratory illness associated with untypeable influenza A were identified in Southern California in March 2009. One was initially detected as influenza virus using an experimental diagnostic device in a clinical trial, while the other was detected at a local reference lab using a diagnostic PCR assay. In both cases, analyses yielded negative results for strain-specific tests targeting circulating strains of influenza A (seasonal H1 and H3). These two samples became the first reported cases of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 influenza virus. The first reportable characterization was made from the second collected specimen on April 15 at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention central lab using traditional culture and sequencing methods. The novel nature of the strain and its apparent zoonotic origins were initially characterized using the first collected specimen at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, California, on April 13 using an experimental molecular analysis tool, PCR/ESI-MS, designed to amplify PCR products from any strain of influenza and to generate informative (phylogenetic) strain identifications through mass spectrometry of PCR amplicons. The ability of this high-throughput tool to correctly identify both well-characterized and novel influenza strains offers the possibility to integrate surveillance for emerging strains with on-site rapid diagnosis used for patient management, shortening the time between the emergence of new strains, their detection and identification, and appropriate public health response activities. Here we describe the initial characterization of the pandemic 2009/H1N1 influenza strain and discuss the possible roles of diagnostic tools with discovery potential.
|Synaptic input organization of the melanocortin system predicts diet-induced hypothalamic reactive gliosis and obesity. |
Horvath TL, Sarman B, García-Cáceres C, Enriori PJ, Sotonyi P, Shanabrough M, Borok E, Argente J, Chowen JA, Perez-Tilve D, Pfluger PT, Brönneke HS, Levin BE, Diano S, Cowley MA, Tschöp MH
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 14875-80. Epub 2010 Aug 2. 2010
The neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy expenditure are soft-wired, reflecting the relative activity of the postsynaptic neuronal system, including the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing cells of the arcuate nucleus. We analyzed the synaptic input organization of the melanocortin system in lean rats that were vulnerable (DIO) or resistant (DR) to diet-induced obesity. We found a distinct difference in the quantitative and qualitative synaptology of POMC cells between DIO and DR animals, with a significantly greater number of inhibitory inputs in the POMC neurons in DIO rats compared with DR rats. When exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD), the POMC cells of DIO animals lost synapses, whereas those of DR rats recruited connections. In both DIO rats and mice, the HFD-triggered loss of synapses on POMC neurons was associated with increased glial ensheathment of the POMC perikarya. The altered synaptic organization of HFD-fed animals promoted increased POMC tone and a decrease in the stimulatory connections onto the neighboring neuropeptide Y (NPY) cells. Exposure to HFD was associated with reactive gliosis, and this affected the structure of the blood-brain barrier such that the POMC and NPY cell bodies and dendrites became less accessible to blood vessels. Taken together, these data suggest that consumption of an HFD has a major impact on the cytoarchitecture of the arcuate nucleus in vulnerable subjects, with changes that might be irreversible due to reactive gliosis.
|Discovery of drug mode of action and drug repositioning from transcriptional responses. |
Iorio F, Bosotti R, Scacheri E, Belcastro V, Mithbaokar P, Ferriero R, Murino L, Tagliaferri R, Brunetti-Pierri N, Isacchi A, di Bernardo D
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 14621-6. Epub 2010 Aug 2. 2010
A bottleneck in drug discovery is the identification of the molecular targets of a compound (mode of action, MoA) and of its off-target effects. Previous approaches to elucidate drug MoA include analysis of chemical structures, transcriptional responses following treatment, and text mining. Methods based on transcriptional responses require the least amount of information and can be quickly applied to new compounds. Available methods are inefficient and are not able to support network pharmacology. We developed an automatic and robust approach that exploits similarity in gene expression profiles following drug treatment, across multiple cell lines and dosages, to predict similarities in drug effect and MoA. We constructed a "drug network" of 1,302 nodes (drugs) and 41,047 edges (indicating similarities between pair of drugs). We applied network theory, partitioning drugs into groups of densely interconnected nodes (i.e., communities). These communities are significantly enriched for compounds with similar MoA, or acting on the same pathway, and can be used to identify the compound-targeted biological pathways. New compounds can be integrated into the network to predict their therapeutic and off-target effects. Using this network, we correctly predicted the MoA for nine anticancer compounds, and we were able to discover an unreported effect for a well-known drug. We verified an unexpected similarity between cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitors and Topoisomerase inhibitors. We discovered that Fasudil (a Rho-kinase inhibitor) might be "repositioned" as an enhancer of cellular autophagy, potentially applicable to several neurodegenerative disorders. Our approach was implemented in a tool (Mode of Action by NeTwoRk Analysis, MANTRA, http://mantra.tigem.it).
|Greater superficial petrosal nerve transection in rats does not change unconditioned licking responses to putatively sweet taste stimuli. |
Enshe Jiang, Ginger Blonde, Mircea Garcea, Alan C Spector
Chemical senses 33 709-23 2008
The greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSP), innervating taste buds in the palate, is known to be exceptionally responsive to sucrose, especially compared with the responsiveness of the chorda tympani nerve (CT). However, whereas transection of the CT (CTX) alone has little or no effect on unconditioned licking responses to many "sweet" stimuli, the impact of GSP transection (GSPX) alone is equivocal. To further examine the role of the GSP on licking responses to putatively sweet-tasting substances, brief-access taste tests were conducted in nondeprived rats before and after sham surgery (SHAM) or CTX or GSPX. A range of concentrations of sucrose, L-alanine, glycine, and L-serine, with and without 1.0 mM inosine monophosphate (IMP) added, were used. All groups showed significant concentration-dependent increases in licking to all stimuli presurgically and postsurgically. CTX decreased licking responses relative to SHAM rats in the first sucrose test. There was also a group x concentration interaction for L-alanine, but post hoc tests did not reveal its basis. Other than this, there were no significant differences among the surgical groups. Interestingly, rats with GSPX tended to initiate fewer trials than SHAM rats. Overall, after GSPX, the remaining gustatory nerves are apparently sufficient to maintain concentration-dependent licking responses to all stimuli tested here. The disparity between our results and others in the literature where GSPX reduced licking responses to sucrose is possibly related to differences in surgical technique or test trial duration.Full Text Article
|A psychophysical and electrophysiological analysis of salt taste in Trpv1 null mice. |
Yada Treesukosol, Vijay Lyall, Gerard L Heck, John A DeSimone, Alan C Spector
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 292 R1799-809 2007
Current evidence suggests salt taste transduction involves at least two mechanisms, one that is amiloride sensitive and appears to use apically located epithelial sodium channels relatively selective for Na(+) and a second that is amiloride insensitive and uses a variant of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) that serves as a nonspecific cation channel. To provide a functional context for these findings, we trained Trpv1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice (n = 9 or 10/group) in a two-response operant discrimination procedure and measured detection thresholds to NaCl and KCl with and without amiloride. The KO and WT mice had similar detection thresholds for NaCl and KCl. Amiloride shifted the NaCl sensitivity curve to the same degree in both groups and had virtually no effect on KCl thresholds. In addition, a more detailed analysis of chorda tympani nerve (CT) responses to NaCl, with and without benzamil (Bz, an amiloride analog) treatment revealed that the tonic portion of the CT response of KO mice to NaCl + Bz was absent, but both KO and WT mice displayed some degree of a phasic response to NaCl with and without Bz. Because these transients constitute the entire CT response to NaCl + Bz in Trpv1 KO mice, it is possible that these signals are sufficient to maintain normal NaCl detectabilty in the behavioral task used here. Additionally, there may be other amiloride-insensitive salt transduction mechanisms in taste receptor fields other than the anterior tongue that maintain normal salt detection performance in the KO mice.
|Taste discrimination between NaCl and KCl is disrupted by amiloride in inbred mice with amiloride-insensitive chorda tympani nerves. |
Shachar Eylam, Alan C Spector
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 288 R1361-8 2005
The amiloride-sensitive salt transduction pathway is thought to be critical for the discrimination between sodium and nonsodium salts in rodents. In rats, lingual application of amiloride appears to render NaCl qualitatively indistinguishable from KCl. In this study, we tested four strains of mice for salt discriminability. In one strain (C57BL/6J), chorda tympani nerve (CT) responses to NaCl are attenuated by amiloride, and in the other three strains (BALB/cByJ, 129P3/J, DBA/2J) they are not. Under water-restriction conditions, these mice (7 mice/strain) were trained in a gustometer to lick for water from one reinforcement spout in response to a five-lick presentation of NaCl and to lick from another in response to KCl [salt concentration was varied (0.1-1 M) to render intensity irrelevant]. Mice were then tested with the stimuli dissolved in amiloride hydrochloride, and the latter was used as the reinforcer as well. Each concentration of amiloride (0.1-100 microM) was used on 2 separate days with control sessions interposed. Mice from all four strains were able to discriminate NaCl from KCl reliably. Amiloride impaired this discrimination in a dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, performance on NaCl trials appeared to be more affected by amiloride than that on KCl trials in all four strains. Thus, in contrast to the predictions based on CT recordings, discrimination in all four strains appeared to depend on the amiloride-sensitive transduction pathway, which, in the case of BALB/cByJ, 129P3/J, and DBA/2J (and perhaps C57BL/6 as well), may exist in taste buds innervated by nerves other than the CT.
|Melanocortin-4 receptor-null mice display normal affective licking responses to prototypical taste stimuli in a brief-access test. |
Shachar Eylam, Marcus Moore, Carrie Haskell-Luevano, Alan C Spector
Peptides 26 1712-9 2005
We tested whether MC4R null mice display altered gustatory function relative to wild-type controls that may contribute to the characteristic hyperphagia and obesity associated with this gene deletion. Mice were tested for their licking responses to prototypical taste solutions (sucrose, NaCl, quinine, citric acid) in series of daily 30-min sessions in which a range of concentrations of each tastant was available in randomized blocks of 5-s trials. Notwithstanding some minor deviations, the concentration-response functions of the MC4R null and wild-type mice were basically the same for all of the prototypical compounds tested here. Thus, taste-based appetitive and avoidance behavior is expressed in the absence of the MC4 receptor, demonstrating that this critical component in the melanocortin system is not required for normal affective gustatory function to be maintained.
|Nitroxide tempo, a small molecule, induces apoptosis in prostate carcinoma cells and suppresses tumor growth in athymic mice. |
Simeng Suy,James B Mitchell,Ayelet Samuni,Susette Mueller,Usha Kasid
Cancer 103 2005
In previous studies, nitroxide tempo (2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl), a small molecule, induced cell death in cancer cells. The current study examined the antineoplastic properties of tempo in the human hormone-dependent/hormone-independent prostate carcinoma models (LNCaP, DU-145, and PC-3).
|Expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), and Bcl-2 protooncogene protein by Müller (glial) cells in retinal light damage of rats. |
J Grosche, W Härtig, A Reichenbach
Neuroscience letters 185 119-22 1995
In retinal light damage, degeneration of photoreceptors may cause alterations of glial (Müller) cells. We performed immunocytochemical studies on Müller cells isolated from retinae of rats exposed to enhanced illumination for 24 months, a procedure which leads to complete loss of photoreceptor cells. One group of rats was fed daily with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761, an established free radical-scavenger) during the last 8 months of life when the remaining photoreceptors (about 50%) die. We found that (1) Müller cells respond to photoreceptor damage by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, (2) Müller cells reduce expression of glutamine synthetase when the major glutamate-releasing neurons are lost, and (3) the application of exogenous free radical scavengers prevents the expression by Müller cells of the protooncogene protein Bcl-2, a molecule assumed to activate endogenous free radical-scavenging activities.
|LIGHT DIAGNOSTICS INFLUENZA A|