Tabla espec. clave
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||ICC, IHC, IH(P), WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
Ficha datos de seguridad (MSDS)
|Cargo||Número de lote|
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - 2136603||2136603|
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - 2387432||2387432|
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - 2390391||2390391|
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - 2430324||2430324|
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - 1940143||1940143|
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - 1990896||1990896|
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - 2010643||2010643|
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - 2040376||2040376|
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - 2224382||2224382|
|Visión general referencias||Aplicación||Especie||Pub Med ID|
|Neurovascular crosstalk between interneurons and capillaries is required for vision.|
Usui, Y; Westenskow, PD; Kurihara, T; Aguilar, E; Sakimoto, S; Paris, LP; Wittgrove, C; Feitelberg, D; Friedlander, MS; Moreno, SK; Dorrell, MI; Friedlander, M
The Journal of clinical investigation 125 2335-46 2015
Functional interactions between neurons, vasculature, and glia within neurovascular units are critical for maintenance of the retina and other CNS tissues. For example, the architecture of the neurosensory retina is a highly organized structure with alternating layers of neurons and blood vessels that match the metabolic demand of neuronal activity with an appropriate supply of oxygen within perfused blood. Here, using murine genetic models and cell ablation strategies, we have demonstrated that a subset of retinal interneurons, the amacrine and horizontal cells, form neurovascular units with capillaries in 2 of the 3 retinal vascular plexuses. Moreover, we determined that these cells are required for generating and maintaining the intraretinal vasculature through precise regulation of hypoxia-inducible and proangiogenic factors, and that amacrine and horizontal cell dysfunction induces alterations to the intraretinal vasculature and substantial visual deficits. These findings demonstrate that specific retinal interneurons and the intraretinal vasculature are highly interdependent, and loss of either or both elicits profound effects on photoreceptor survival and function.
|Neurite Mistargeting and Inverse Order of Intraretinal Vascular Plexus Formation Precede Subretinal Vascularization in Vldlr Mutant Mice.|
Johnson, V; Xiang, M; Chen, Z; Junge, HJ
PloS one 10 e0132013 2015
In the retina blood vessels are required to support a high metabolic rate, however, uncontrolled vascular growth can lead to impaired vision and blindness. Subretinal vascularization (SRV), one type of pathological vessel growth, occurs in retinal angiomatous proliferation and proliferative macular telangiectasia. In these diseases SRV originates from blood vessels within the retina. We use mice with a targeted disruption in the Vldl-receptor (Vldlr) gene as a model to study SRV with retinal origin. We find that Vldlr mRNA is strongly expressed in the neuroretina, and we observe both vascular and neuronal phenotypes in Vldlr-/- mice. Unexpectedly, horizontal cell (HC) neurites are mistargeted prior to SRV in this model, and the majority of vascular lesions are associated with mistargeted neurites. In Foxn4-/- mice, which lack HCs and display reduced amacrine cell (AC) numbers, we find severe defects in intraretinal capillary development. However, SRV is not suppressed in Foxn4-/-;Vldlr-/- mice, which reveals that mistargeted HC neurites are not required for vascular lesion formation. In the absence of VLDLR, the intraretinal capillary plexuses form in an inverse order compared to normal development, and subsequent to this early defect, vascular proliferation is increased. We conclude that SRV in the Vldlr-/- model is associated with mistargeted neurites and that SRV is preceded by altered retinal vascular development.
|Kruppel-Like Factor 4 Regulates Granule Cell Pax6 Expression and Cell Proliferation in Early Cerebellar Development.|
Zhang, P; Ha, T; Larouche, M; Swanson, D; Goldowitz, D
PloS one 10 e0134390 2015
Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a transcription factor that regulates many important cellular processes in stem cell biology, cancer, and development. We used histological and molecular methods to study the expression of Klf4 in embryonic development of the normal and Klf4 knockout cerebellum. We find that Klf4 is expressed strongly in early granule cell progenitor development but tails-off considerably by the end of embryonic development. Klf4 is also co-expressed with Pax6 in these cells. In the Klf4-null mouse, which is perinatal lethal, Klf4 positively regulates Pax6 expression and regulates the proliferation of neuronal progenitors in the rhombic lip, external granular layer and the neuroepithelium. This paper is the first to describe a role for Klf4 in the cerebellum and provides insight into this gene's function in neuronal development.
|Localization of reelin signaling pathway components in murine midbrain and striatum.|
Sharaf, A; Rahhal, B; Spittau, B; Roussa, E
Cell and tissue research 359 393-407 2015
We investigated the distribution patterns of the extracellular matrix protein Reelin and of crucial Reelin signaling components in murine midbrain and striatum. The cellular distribution of the Reelin receptors VLDLr and ApoER2, the intracellular downstream mediator Dab1, and the alternative Reelin receptor APP were analyzed at embryonic day 16, at postnatal stage 15 (P15), and in 3-month-old mice. Reelin was expressed intracellularly and extracellularly in midbrain mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons of newborns. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+) neurons exhibited Reelin intracellularly at E16 and extracellularly at P15 and 3 months. ApoER2 and VLDLr were expressed in mDA neurons at E16 and P15 and in oligodendrocytes at 3 months, whereas Dab1 and APP immunoreactivity was observed in mDA at all stages analyzed. In the striatum, Calbindin D-28k(+)/GAD67(+) inhibitory neurons expressed VLDLr, ApoER2, and Dab1 at P15, but only Dab1 at E16 and 3 months. APP was always expressed in mouse striatum in which it colocalized with Calbindin D-28k. Our data underline the importance of Reelin signalling during embryonic development and early postnatal maturation of the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic system, and suggest that the striatum and not the midbrain is the primary source of Reelin for midbrain neurons. The loss of ApoER2 and VLDLr expression in the mature midbrain and striatum implies that Reelin functions are restricted to migratory events and early postnatal maturation and are dispensable for the maintenance of dopaminergic neurons.
|Somatic CRISPR/Cas9-mediated tumour suppressor disruption enables versatile brain tumour modelling.|
Zuckermann, M; Hovestadt, V; Knobbe-Thomsen, CB; Zapatka, M; Northcott, PA; Schramm, K; Belic, J; Jones, DT; Tschida, B; Moriarity, B; Largaespada, D; Roussel, MF; Korshunov, A; Reifenberger, G; Pfister, SM; Lichter, P; Kawauchi, D; Gronych, J
Nature communications 6 7391 2015
In vivo functional investigation of oncogenes using somatic gene transfer has been successfully exploited to validate their role in tumorigenesis. For tumour suppressor genes this has proven more challenging due to technical aspects. To provide a flexible and effective method for investigating somatic loss-of-function alterations and their influence on tumorigenesis, we have established CRISPR/Cas9-mediated somatic gene disruption, allowing for in vivo targeting of TSGs. Here we demonstrate the utility of this approach by deleting single (Ptch1) or multiple genes (Trp53, Pten, Nf1) in the mouse brain, resulting in the development of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma, respectively. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) we characterized the medulloblastoma-driving Ptch1 deletions in detail and show that no off-targets were detected in these tumours. This method provides a fast and convenient system for validating the emerging wealth of novel candidate tumour suppressor genes and the generation of faithful animal models of human cancer.
|Intravenous AAV9 efficiently transduces myenteric neurons in neonate and juvenile mice.|
Gombash, SE; Cowley, CJ; Fitzgerald, JA; Hall, JC; Mueller, C; Christofi, FL; Foust, KD
Frontiers in molecular neuroscience 7 81 2014
Gene therapies for neurological diseases with autonomic or gastrointestinal involvement may require global gene expression. Gastrointestinal complications are often associated with Parkinson's disease and autism. Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's brains, are routinely identified in the neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) following colon biopsies from patients. The ENS is the intrinsic nervous system of the gut, and is responsible for coordinating the secretory and motor functions of the gastrointestinal tract. ENS dysfunction can cause severe patient discomfort, malnourishment, or even death as in intestinal pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie syndrome). Importantly, ENS transduction following systemic vector administration has not been thoroughly evaluated. Here we show that systemic injection of AAV9 into neonate or juvenile mice results in transduction of 25-57% of ENS myenteric neurons. Transgene expression was prominent in choline acetyltransferase positive cells, but not within vasoactive intestinal peptide or neuronal nitric oxide synthase cells, suggesting a bias for cells involved in excitatory signaling. AAV9 transduction in enteric glia is very low compared to CNS astrocytes. Enteric glial transduction was enhanced by using a glial specific promoter. Furthermore, we show that AAV8 results in comparable transduction in neonatal mice to AAV9 though AAV1, 5, and 6 are less efficient. These data demonstrate that systemic AAV9 has high affinity for peripheral neural tissue and is useful for future therapeutic development and basic studies of the ENS.
|Mouse model reveals the role of RERE in cerebellar foliation and the migration and maturation of Purkinje cells.|
Kim, BJ; Scott, DA
PloS one 9 e87518 2014
Nuclear receptors and their coregulators play a critical role in brain development by regulating the spatiotemporal expression of their target genes. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats gene (Rere) encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator previously known as Atrophin 2. In the developing cerebellum, RERE is expressed in the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer and the granule cell layer but not in granule cell precursors. To study RERE's role in cerebellar development, we used RERE-deficient embryos bearing a null allele (om) and a hypomorphic allele (eyes3) of Rere (Rere(om/eyes3)). In contrast to wild-type embryos, formation of the principal fissures in these RERE-deficient embryos was delayed and the proliferative activity of granule cell precursors (GCPs) was reduced at E18.5. This reduction in proliferation was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of sonic hedgehog (SHH), which is secreted from Purkinje cells and is required for normal GCP proliferation. The maturation and migration of Purkinje cells in Rere(om/eyes3) embryos was also delayed with decreased numbers of post-migratory Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. During the postnatal period, RERE depletion caused incomplete division of lobules I/II and III due to truncated development of the precentral fissure in the cerebellar vermis, abnormal development of lobule crus I and lobule crus II in the cerebellar hemispheres due to attenuation of the intercrural fissure, and decreased levels of Purkinje cell dendritic branching. We conclude that RERE-deficiency leads to delayed development of the principal fissures and delayed maturation and migration of Purkinje cells during prenatal cerebellar development and abnormal cerebellar foliation and Purkinje cell maturation during postnatal cerebellar development.
|Diversity among principal and GABAergic neurons of the anterior olfactory nucleus.|
Kay, RB; Brunjes, PC
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience 8 111 2014
Understanding the cellular components of neural circuits is an essential step in discerning regional function. The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) is reciprocally connected to both the ipsi- and contralateral olfactory bulb (OB) and piriform cortex (PC), and, as a result, can broadly influence the central processing of odor information. While both the AON and PC are simple cortical structures, the regions differ in many ways including their general organization, internal wiring and synaptic connections with other brain areas. The present work used targeted whole-cell patch clamping to investigate the morphological and electrophysiological properties of the AON's two main neuronal populations: excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Retrograde fluorescent tracers placed into either the OB or PC identified projection neurons. Two classes were observed with different physiological signatures and locations (superficial and deep pyramidal neurons), suggesting the AON contains independent efferent channels. Transgenic mice in which GABA-containing cells expressed green fluorescent protein were used to assess inhibitory neurons. These cells were further identified as containing one or more of seven molecular markers including three calcium-binding proteins (calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin) or four neuropeptides (somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin). The proportion of GABAergic cells containing these markers varied across subregions reinforcing notions that the AON has local functional subunits. At least five classes of inhibitory cells were observed: fast-spiking multipolar, regular-spiking multipolar, superficial neurogliaform, deep neurogliaform, and horizontal neurons. While some of these cell types are similar to those reported in the PC and other cortical regions, the AON also has unique populations. These studies provide the first examination of the cellular components of this simple cortical system.
|Detailed expression pattern of aldolase C (Aldoc) in the cerebellum, retina and other areas of the CNS studied in Aldoc-Venus knock-in mice.|
Fujita, H; Aoki, H; Ajioka, I; Yamazaki, M; Abe, M; Oh-Nishi, A; Sakimura, K; Sugihara, I
PloS one 9 e86679 2014
Aldolase C (Aldoc, also known as "zebrin II"), a brain type isozyme of a glycolysis enzyme, is expressed heterogeneously in subpopulations of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) that are arranged longitudinally in a complex striped pattern in the cerebellar cortex, a pattern which is closely related to the topography of input and output axonal projections. Here, we generated knock-in Aldoc-Venus mice in which Aldoc expression is visualized by expression of a fluorescent protein, Venus. Since there was no obvious phenotypes in general brain morphology and in the striped pattern of the cerebellum in mutants, we made detailed observation of Aldoc expression pattern in the nervous system by using Venus expression in Aldoc-Venus heterozygotes. High levels of Venus expression were observed in cerebellar PCs, cartwheel cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, sensory epithelium of the inner ear and in all major types of retinal cells, while moderate levels of Venus expression were observed in astrocytes and satellite cells in the dorsal root ganglion. The striped arrangement of PCs that express Venus to different degrees was carefully traced with serial section alignment analysis and mapped on the unfolded scheme of the entire cerebellar cortex to re-identify all individual Aldoc stripes. A longitudinally striped boundary of Aldoc expression was first identified in the mouse flocculus, and was correlated with the climbing fiber projection pattern and expression of another compartmental marker molecule, heat shock protein 25 (HSP25). As in the rat, the cerebellar nuclei were divided into the rostrodorsal negative and the caudoventral positive portions by distinct projections of Aldoc-positive and negative PC axons in the mouse. Identification of the cerebellar Aldoc stripes in this study, as indicated in sample coronal and horizontal sections as well as in sample surface photos of whole-mount preparations, can be referred to in future experiments.
|Spontaneous hair cell regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea in vivo.|
Cox, BC; Chai, R; Lenoir, A; Liu, Z; Zhang, L; Nguyen, DH; Chalasani, K; Steigelman, KA; Fang, J; Rubel, EW; Cheng, AG; Zuo, J
Development (Cambridge, England) 141 816-29 2014
Loss of cochlear hair cells in mammals is currently believed to be permanent, resulting in hearing impairment that affects more than 10% of the population. Here, we developed two genetic strategies to ablate neonatal mouse cochlear hair cells in vivo. Both Pou4f3(DTR/+) and Atoh1-CreER™; ROSA26(DTA/+) alleles allowed selective and inducible hair cell ablation. After hair cell loss was induced at birth, we observed spontaneous regeneration of hair cells. Fate-mapping experiments demonstrated that neighboring supporting cells acquired a hair cell fate, which increased in a basal to apical gradient, averaging over 120 regenerated hair cells per cochlea. The normally mitotically quiescent supporting cells proliferated after hair cell ablation. Concurrent fate mapping and labeling with mitotic tracers showed that regenerated hair cells were derived by both mitotic regeneration and direct transdifferentiation. Over time, regenerated hair cells followed a similar pattern of maturation to normal hair cell development, including the expression of prestin, a terminal differentiation marker of outer hair cells, although many new hair cells eventually died. Hair cell regeneration did not occur when ablation was induced at one week of age. Our findings demonstrate that the neonatal mouse cochlea is capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration after damage in vivo. Thus, future studies on the neonatal cochlea might shed light on the competence of supporting cells to regenerate hair cells and on the factors that promote the survival of newly regenerated hair cells.
|Anti-Calbindin D-28K - Data Sheet|