Key Spec Table
|Key Applications||Detection Methods|
|Application||The BrdU Cell Proliferation Assay Kit is a non-isotopic assay for the in vitro quantitative detection of newly synthesized DNA of actively proliferating cells.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||1000 assays|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Gene expression profiles of human melanoma cells with different invasive potential reveal TSPAN8 as a novel mediator of invasion.|
Berthier-Vergnes, O, et al.
Br. J. Cancer, 104: 155-65 (2011) 2011
BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma requires early detection, being treatment resistant. However, the earliest events of melanoma metastasis, and especially of dermal invasion, remain ill defined. RESULTS AND METHODS: Gene expression profiles of two clonal subpopulations, selected from the same human melanoma cell line, but differing in ability to cross the dermal-epidermal junction in skin reconstructs, were compared by oligonucleotide microarray. Of 26 496 cDNA probes, 461 were differentially expressed (>2-fold; P< 0.001), only 71 genes being upregulated in invasive cells. Among them, TSPAN8, a tetraspanin not yet described in melanoma, was upregulated at mRNA and protein levels in melanoma cells from the invasive clone, as assessed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Interestingly, TSPAN8 was the only tetraspanin in which overexpression correlated with invasive phenotype. Flow cytometry of well-defined melanoma cell lines confirmed that TSPAN8 was exclusively expressed by invasive, but not non-invasive melanoma cells or normal melanocytes. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TSPAN8 was expressed by melanoma cells in primary melanomas and metastases, but not epidermal cells in healthy skin. The functional role of TSPAN8 was demonstrated by silencing endogenous TSPAN8 with siRNA, reducing invasive outgrowth from tumour spheroids within matrigel without affecting cell proliferation or survival. CONCLUSION: TSPAN8 expression may enable melanoma cells to cross the cutaneous basement membrane, leading to dermal invasion and progression to metastasis. TSPAN8 could be a promising target in early detection and treatment of melanoma.
|Pharmacokinetic evaluation of doxorubicin plasma levels in normal and overweight patients with breast cancer and simulation of dose adjustment by different indexes of body mass.|
Barpe DR, Rosa DD, Froehlich PE
Eur J Pharm Sci 41 458-63. Epub 2010 Aug 3. 2010
Although being used for decades in the treatment of several types of cancer, either alone or in association, only a few data about the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin (DOX) in humans are available. DOX is frequently used in association with other anticancer drugs in the management of breast cancer. Pharmacokinetic data available in the literature show that after i.v. administration DOX follows a two-compartment open model, with a fast distribution phase followed by a very slow elimination phase. The objective of this work is to perform a pilot study in order to verify if the usual dose adjustment based on body surface area (BSA) would be producing the same plasma concentration-time profiles in patients with normal (<25) and above normal (>25) body mass index (BMI). In order to assess the pharmacokinetics of DOX after a short-term i.v. infusion of 60mg/m(2) of BSA, an experimental design using only five plasma samples of each patient was applied. Samples were collected at 0.00, 0.66 (right after the end of infusion), 1.66, 8.66, and 24.66h. DOX pharmacokinetic profiles were evaluated after quantification of DOX using a new HPLC method developed and validated. Pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-24.66) and C(max)) were analyzed by non-compartmental and compartmental approaches. Significant differences (α=0.05) between overweight and normal weight groups were found with respect to AUC and C(max). After adjustment of dose by weight and by BMI, the compartmental model was used to simulate plasma concentrations and new values for C(max) and AUC(0-24.66) were calculated. The new values obtained using both body weight (BW) and BMI were closer to the normal group than those obtained with BSA. According to the simulation, the differences of AUC and C(max) between the overweight group and the group of patients with normal weight were lower when the dose was adjusted by BW and BMI. These results suggest that more studies must be conducted, with more patients, in order to evaluate the best dose adjustment for DOX in women with breast cancer and overweight.
|Pre-clinical pharmacokinetics evaluation of an anticonvulsant candidate benzaldehyde semicarbazone free and included in beta-cyclodextrin.|
Kaiser M, Azeredo FJ, Uchôa Fde T, Beraldo Hde O, Dalla Costa T
Eur J Pharm Sci 39 355-62. Epub 2010 Jan 20. 2010
The study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of the benzaldehyde semicarbazone (BS) a potential antiepileptic drug, administered as a free drug or complexed beta-cyclodextrin (BS/beta-CD). Free BS and BS/beta-CD were administered to male Wistar rats as a 10mg/kg intravenous bolus dose. For the oral route, 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg doses of the free drug and 50mg/kg of the complex were administrated and plasma concentrations were determinated by a validated HPLC-UV method. Individual profiles were evaluated by non-compartmental and compartmental analysis using Excel and Scientist, respectively. Free BS plasma protein binding was 34+/-5%. A one-compartmental model adequately described all the plasma profiles for both formulations. After intravenous (10mg/kg) and oral (50mg/kg) administration, the V(d) (1.6+/-0.5 and 2.2+/-0.8L/kg, respectively) and the Cl(tot) (1.4+/-0.5 and 1.8+/-0.5L/hkg, respectively) determinated for the BS/beta-CD complex were higher than those obtained for the free drug, but the t(1/2) (0.8+/-0.1h) was similar (p<0.05). The oral bioavailability of the BS/beta-CD complex (approximately 37%) was approximately 2-fold of the free BS ( approximately 20%). The higher drug brain penetration (2.8) after BS/beta-CD dosing and the longer mean residence time in this organ, regardless of the administration route, reveals that the complex may be a potential drug carrier for the central nervous system delivery of BS.
|Functional interaction of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) with the E3 ligase NEDD4-1 during neuronal response to zinc.|
Kwak YD, Wang B, Pan W, Xu H, Jiang X, Liao FF
J Biol Chem 285 9847-57 Epub 2010 Jan 25 2010
The contribution of zinc-mediated neuronal death in the process of both acute and chronic neurodegeneration has been increasingly appreciated. Phosphatase and tensin homologue, deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), the major tumor suppressor and key regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, plays a critical role in neuronal death in response to various insults. NEDD4-1-mediated PTEN ubiquitination and subsequent degradation via the ubiquitin proteosomal system have recently been demonstrated to be the important regulatory mechanism for PTEN in several cancer types. We now demonstrate that PTEN is also the key mediator of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the neuronal response to zinc insult. We used primary cortical neurons and neuroblastoma N2a cells to show that zinc treatment results in a reduction of the PTEN protein level in parallel with increased NEDD4-1 gene/protein expression. The reduced PTEN level is associated with an activated PI3K pathway as determined by elevated phosphorylation of both Akt and GSK-3 as well as by the attenuating effect of a specific PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin). The reduction of PTEN can be attributed to increased protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteosomal system, as we show NEDD4-1 to be the major E3 ligase responsible for PTEN ubiquitination in neurons. Moreover, PTEN and NEDD4-1 appear to be able to counter-regulate each other to mediate the neuronal response to zinc. This reciprocal regulation requires the PI3K signaling pathway, suggesting a feedback loop mechanism. This study demonstrates that NEDD4-1-mediated PTEN ubiquitination is crucial in the regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling by PTEN during the neuronal response to zinc, which may represent a common mechanism in neurodegeneration.Full Text Article
|The utilization of pathogen-like cellular trafficking by single chain block copolymer.|
Sahay G, Gautam V, Luxenhofer R, Kabanov AV
Biomaterials 31 1757-64. Epub 2009 Dec 5. 2010
Amphiphilic triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide), Pluronic P85, is unexpectedly shown to utilize sophisticated cellular trafficking mechanisms and enter brain microvessel endothelial cells and primary neurons that are poorly penetrable. Though caveolae serve as a primary entry site for the copolymer single chains, in cells devoid of caveolae, the copolymer can still exploit caveolae- and clathrin-independent routes. This parallels the copolymer's trafficking itinerary with that of biological pathogens. The similarity is reinforced since both bypass early endosomes/lysosomes and transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. The copolymer finally reaches the mitochondrion that serves as its final destination. Notably, it also succeeds to gain entry in brain microvessel endothelial cells through caveolae and in primary neurons through caveolae- and clathrin-independent pathway. In neurons the copolymer accumulates in the cell body followed by anterograde trafficking towards the axons/dendrites. Overall, dissecting the trafficking of a synthetic polymer in multiple cell types triggers development of novel delivery systems that can selectively target intracellular compartments and provide entry in cells currently considered impenetrable.
|Determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron in emulsified egg samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.|
Ieggli CV, Bohrer D, do Nascimento PC, de Carvalho LM, Garcia SC
Talanta 80 1282-6. 2010
In this study, oil-in-water formulations were optimized to determine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and iron in emulsified egg samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This method is simpler and requires fewer reagents when compared with other sample pre-treatment procedures and allows the calibration to be carried out using aqueous standards. Different oily phases such as corn oil, decyl oleate and octyl stearate were tested, as well as Tween 80, Triton X-100 and Triton 114 were analyzed as surfactants. The optimum type and proportion of formulations were determined and their use depended on the element studied. The emulsion preparation was performed by a conventional method that involves mixing both phases at 60 degrees C by magnetic stirring and phase inversion to change the water-to-oil ratio by increasing the volume of the surfactant-water external phase and correspondingly decreasing the volume of internal phase. The accuracy of the method was further confirmed by determining the metals in a whole egg powder CRM and recoveries ranged from 97.5% for Mg to 102.2% for Na, with relative standard deviations lower than 2.3%. The precision of the procedures was determined through repeatability (intra-day precision) and intermediate precision (inter-day). The repeatability presented RSD values lower than 4.2%. The intermediate precision was evaluated using the RSD and F-test. The RSD values to intermediate precision was lower than 5.3% and the computed F-values were lower than tabulated F-values, indicating no significant difference between the results obtained on different days. The proposed method including, sample emulsification for subsequent metal determination for FAAS, has proved to be sensitive, reproducible, simple and economical.
|Pulse sequence and timing of contrast-enhanced MRI for assessing blood-brain barrier disruption after transcranial focused ultrasound in the presence of hemorrhage.|
Weng JC, Wu SK, Yang FY, Lin WL, Tseng WY
J Magn Reson Imaging 31 1323-30. 2010
PURPOSE: To optimize the timing of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that best indicates blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption induced by focused ultrasound (FUS) along with an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) and to verify that the contrast-enhanced spin-echo MRI sequence can indicate the degree and location of BBB disruption in the presence of hemorrhage better than a gradient-echo sequence.
|A membrane-bound trehalase from Chironomus riparius larvae: purification and sensitivity to inhibition.|
Forcella M, Cardona F, Goti A, Parmeggiani C, Cipolla L, Gregori M, Schirone R, Fusi P, Parenti P
Glycobiology 20 1186-95. Epub 2010 Jun 11. 2010
A preparation of a membrane-bound trehalase from the larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) was obtained by detergent solubilization, ion-exchange chromatography and concanavalin A affinity chromatography. Trehalase was purified 1080-fold to a specific activity of 75 U mg(-)(1). The initial rate of trehalase activity followed Henri-Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K(m) of 0.48 +/- 0.04 mM. Catalytic efficiency was maximal at pH 6.5. The activity was highly inhibited by mono- and bicyclic iminosugar alkaloids such as (in order of potency) casuarine (IC(50) = 0.25 +/- 0.03 microM), deoxynojirimycin (IC(50) = 2.83 +/- 0.34 microM) and castanospermine (IC(50) = 12.7 +/- 1.4 microM). Increasing substrate concentration reduced the inhibition. However, in the presence of deoxynojirimycin, Lineweaver-Burk plots were curvilinear upward. Linear plots were obtained with porcine trehalase. Here, we propose that deoxynojirimycin inhibits the activity of trehalase from C. riparius according to a ligand exclusion model. Inhibition was further characterized by measuring enzyme activity in the presence of a series of casuarine and deoxynojirimycin derivatives. For comparison, inhibition studies were also performed with porcine trehalase. Results indicate substantial differences between midge trehalase and mammalian trehalase suggesting that, in principle, inhibitors against insect pests having trehalase as biochemical targets can be developed.
|In vitro screening for angiostatic potential of herbal chemicals.|
Liming Cao,Huanming Liu,Dennis Shun-Chiu Lam,Gary Hin-Fai Yam,Chi-Pui Pang
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 51 2010
Herbal medicine has long been used in traditional medicinal systems. The authors carried out a first-line screening of four herbal chemicals with reported antioxidative properties and capabilities to suppress endothelial cell growth and migration. These herbal chemicals were isoliquiritigenin (ISL) from licorice, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from green tea, resveratrol (Rst) from grapes, and gambogic acid (GA) from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.
|Retinyl palmitate flexible polymeric nanocapsules: characterization and permeation studies.|
Teixeira Z, Zanchetta B, Melo BA, Oliveira LL, Santana MH, Paredes-Gamero EJ, Justo GZ, Nader HB, Guterres SS, Durán N
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 81 374-80. Epub 2010 Jun 26. 2010
Polymeric nanocapsules with elastic characteristics were prepared by the pre-formed polymer interfacial deposition method. The system consists of an oily core of retinyl palmitate with Span 60 and a polymeric wall of poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA). A narrow size distribution (215 nm, P.D.I. 0.10) was showed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) analyses. Particle deformability was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and permeation of the particles through two superposed membranes of smaller pore diameters. Permeation studies were achieved using plastic surgery abdominal human skin by Franz diffusion cell. Retinyl palmitate permeates into deep skin layers. Besides, a PLA fluorescent derivative conjugated with Nile blue dye by an amide covalent bound was additionally obtained. Permeation profile of the nanocapsules with the fluorescent polymer was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The CLSM showed that nanocapsules were distributed uniformly, suggesting that the permeation mechanism through skin is intercellular. Thus, the use of these nanocapsules may be a feasible strategy to enhance the permeation of actives into the skin when delivery to deep layers is aimed.
|BrdU Cell Proliferation Assay 1000 Tests|