|Type- and subtype-specific detection of influenza viruses in clinical specimens by rapid culture assay. |
Ziegler, T, et al.
J. Clin. Microbiol., 33: 318-21 (1995)
A rapid culture assay which allows for the simultaneous typing and subtyping of currently circulating influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and B viruses in clinical specimens was developed. Pools of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against influenza A and B viruses and MAbs HA1-71 and HA2-76, obtained by immunizing mice with the denatured hemagglutinin subfragments HA1 and HA2 of influenza virus A/Victoria/3/75, were used for immunoperoxidase staining of antigens in infected MDCK cells. MAb HA1-71 reacted exclusively with influenza A viruses of the H3 subtype, while MAb HA2-76 reacted with subtypes H1, H3, H4, H6, H8, H9, H10, H11, and H12, as determined with 78 human, 4 swine, and 10 avian influenza virus reference strains subtyped by the hemagglutination inhibition test. To determine if the technique can be used as a rapid diagnostic test, 263 known influenza virus-positive frozen nasal or throat swabs were inoculated into MDCK cells. After an overnight incubation, the cells were fixed and viral antigens were detected by immunoperoxidase staining. Influenza A viruses of the H1 and H3 subtypes were detected in 31 and 113 specimens, respectively. The subtypes of 10 influenza A virus-positive specimens could not be determined because they contained too little virus. Influenza B viruses were detected in 84 specimens, and 25 specimens were negative. We conclude that this assay is a rapid, convenient, non-labor-intensive, and relatively inexpensive test for detecting, typing, and subtyping influenza viruses in clinical specimens.
|Prospective application of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing influenza infections in respiratory samples from a children's hospital. |
Claas, E C, et al.
J. Clin. Microbiol., 31: 2218-21 (1993)
A prospective clinical evaluation of the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RNA PCR) for detection of influenza viruses was carried out with specimens from 342 patients of a children's hospital in The Netherlands. The RNA PCR, carried out directly on the specimens without an organic extraction, showed a sensitivity and specificity which are superior to those of direct immunofluorescence and comparable to those of cell culture combined with immunofluorescence (culture/IF). Negative results can be obtained within 2 days by the RNA PCR but may take up to 14 days by culture/IF. Because culturing is the standard technique for the detection of respiratory viruses, at this moment there are no strong arguments to replace culture/IF with RNA PCR for the detection of influenza A virus.