Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, WB||Rb||Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-PRMT5 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - DAM1412892||DAM1412892|
|Anti-PRMT5 - 2424769||2424769|
|Anti-PRMT5 - 2450176||2450176|
|Anti-PRMT5 - 1993943||1993943|
|Anti-PRMT5 - 2080918||2080918|
|Anti-PRMT5 - 2202546||2202546|
|Anti-PRMT5 - 2325113||2325113|
|Anti-PRMT5 - 24334||24334|
|Anti-PRMT5 - 32626||32626|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|SOX17 is a critical specifier of human primordial germ cell fate.|
Irie, N; Weinberger, L; Tang, WW; Kobayashi, T; Viukov, S; Manor, YS; Dietmann, S; Hanna, JH; Surani, MA
Cell 160 253-68 2015
Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) marks the beginning of the totipotent state. However, without a tractable experimental model, the mechanism of human PGC (hPGC) specification remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate specification of hPGC-like cells (hPGCLCs) from germline competent pluripotent stem cells. The characteristics of hPGCLCs are consistent with the embryonic hPGCs and a germline seminoma that share a CD38 cell-surface marker, which collectively defines likely progression of the early human germline. Remarkably, SOX17 is the key regulator of hPGC-like fate, whereas BLIMP1 represses endodermal and other somatic genes during specification of hPGCLCs. Notable mechanistic differences between mouse and human PGC specification could be attributed to their divergent embryonic development and pluripotent states, which might affect other early cell-fate decisions. We have established a foundation for future studies on resetting of the epigenome in hPGCLCs and hPGCs for totipotency and the transmission of genetic and epigenetic information.
|Prmt5 is required for germ cell survival during spermatogenesis in mice.|
Wang, Y; Zhu, T; Li, Q; Liu, C; Han, F; Chen, M; Zhang, L; Cui, X; Qin, Y; Bao, S; Gao, F
Scientific reports 5 11031 2015
During germ cell development, epigenetic modifications undergo extensive remodeling. Abnormal epigenetic modifications usually result in germ cell loss and reproductive defect. Prmt5 (Protein arginine methyltransferase 5) encodes a protein arginine methyltransferase which has been demonstrated to play important roles in germ cell development during embryonic stages. In the present study, we found that Prmt5 was also abundantly expressed in male germ cells after birth. Inactivation of this gene by crossing with Stra8-Cre transgenic mice resulted in germ cell loss during spermatogenesis. Further study revealed that the germ cell development was grossly normal before P10. However, most of the germ cells in Prmt5(Δ/f); Stra8-Cre mice were blocked at meiotic stage. The expression of meiosis associated genes was reduced in Prmt5(Δ/f); Stra8-Cre testes compared to control testes at P10. γH2AX was detected in sex body of control germ cells at P12, whereas multiple foci were observed in Prmt5-deficient germ cells. Further study revealed that H4R3me2s was virtually absent in germ cells after Prmt5 inactivation. The results of this study indicate that Prmt5 also plays important roles in germ cell development during spermatogenesis.
|Interplay between arginine methylation and ubiquitylation regulates KLF4-mediated genome stability and carcinogenesis.|
Hu, D; Gur, M; Zhou, Z; Gamper, A; Hung, MC; Fujita, N; Lan, L; Bahar, I; Wan, Y
Nature communications 6 8419 2015
KLF4 is an important regulator of cell-fate decision, including DNA damage response and apoptosis. We identify a novel interplay between protein modifications in regulating KLF4 function. Here we show that arginine methylation of KLF4 by PRMT5 inhibits KLF4 ubiquitylation by VHL and thereby reduces KLF4 turnover, resulting in the elevation of KLF4 protein levels concomitant with increased transcription of KLF4-dependent p21 and reduced expression of KLF4-repressed Bax. Structure-based modelling and simulations provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of KLF4 recognition and catalysis by PRMT5. Following genotoxic stress, disruption of PRMT5-mediated KLF4 methylation leads to abrogation of KLF4 accumulation, which, in turn, attenuates cell cycle arrest. Mutating KLF4 methylation sites suppresses breast tumour initiation and progression, and immunohistochemical stain shows increased levels of both KLF4 and PRMT5 in breast cancer tissues. Taken together, our results point to a critical role for aberrant KLF4 regulation by PRMT5 in genome stability and breast carcinogenesis.
|PRMT5 is required for human embryonic stem cell proliferation but not pluripotency.|
Gkountela, S; Li, Z; Chin, CJ; Lee, SA; Clark, AT
Stem cell reviews 10 230-9 2014
Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are critical in vitro tools for understanding mechanisms that regulate lineage differentiation in the human embryo as well as a potentially unlimited supply of stem cells for regenerative medicine. Pluripotent human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts share a similar transcription factor network to maintain pluripotency and self-renewal, yet there are considerable molecular differences reflecting the diverse environments in which mouse and human ESCs are derived. In the current study we evaluated the role of Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) in human ESC (hESC) self-renewal and pluripotency given its critical role in safeguarding mouse ESC pluripotency. Unlike the mouse, we discovered that PRMT5 has no role in hESC pluripotency. Using microarray analysis we discovered that a significant depletion in PRMT5 RNA and protein from hESCs changed the expression of only 78 genes, with the majority being repressed. Functionally, we discovered that depletion of PRMT5 had no effect on expression of OCT4, NANOG or SOX2, and did not prevent teratoma formation. Instead, we show that PRMT5 functions in hESCs to regulate proliferation in the self-renewing state by regulating the fraction of cells in Gap 1 (G1) of the cell cycle and increasing expression of the G1 cell cycle inhibitor P57. Taken together our data unveils a distinct role for PRMT5 in hESCs and identifies P57 as new target.
|The SWI/SNF subunit/tumor suppressor BAF47/INI1 is essential in cell cycle arrest upon skeletal muscle terminal differentiation.|
Joliot, V; Ait-Mohamed, O; Battisti, V; Pontis, J; Philipot, O; Robin, P; Ito, H; Ait-Si-Ali, S
PloS one 9 e108858 2014
Myogenic terminal differentiation is a well-orchestrated process starting with permanent cell cycle exit followed by muscle-specific genetic program activation. Individual SWI/SNF components have been involved in muscle differentiation. Here, we show that the master myogenic differentiation factor MyoD interacts with more than one SWI/SNF subunit, including the catalytic subunit BRG1, BAF53a and the tumor suppressor BAF47/INI1. Downregulation of each of these SWI/SNF subunits inhibits skeletal muscle terminal differentiation but, interestingly, at different differentiation steps and extents. BAF53a downregulation inhibits myotube formation but not the expression of early muscle-specific genes. BRG1 or BAF47 downregulation disrupt both proliferation and differentiation genetic programs expression. Interestingly, BRG1 and BAF47 are part of the SWI/SNF remodeling complex as well as the N-CoR-1 repressor complex in proliferating myoblasts. However, our data show that, upon myogenic differentiation, BAF47 shifts in favor of N-CoR-1 complex. Finally, BRG1 and BAF47 are well-known tumor suppressors but, strikingly, only BAF47 seems essential in the myoblasts irreversible cell cycle exit. Together, our data unravel differential roles for SWI/SNF subunits in muscle differentiation, with BAF47 playing a dual role both in the permanent cell cycle exit and in the regulation of muscle-specific genes.
|Mediator complex recruits epigenetic regulators via its two cyclin-dependent kinase subunits to repress transcription of immune response genes.|
Tsutsui, T; Fukasawa, R; Shinmyouzu, K; Nakagawa, R; Tobe, K; Tanaka, A; Ohkuma, Y
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 20955-65 2013
The Mediator complex (Mediator) plays pivotal roles in activating transcription by RNA polymerase II, but relatively little is known about its roles in repression. Here, we identified the histone arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 and WD repeat protein 77/methylosome protein 50 (WDR77/MEP50) as Mediator cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-interacting proteins and studied the roles of PRMT5 in the transcriptional regulation of CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β target genes. First, we purified CDK8- and CDK19-containing complexes from HeLa nuclear extracts and subjected these purified complexes to mass spectrometric analyses. These experiments revealed that two Mediator CDKs, CDK8 and CDK19, individually interact with PRMT5 and WDR77, and their interactions with PRMT5 cause transcriptional repression of C/EBPβ target genes by regulating symmetric dimethylation of histone H4 arginine 3 (H4R3me2s) in the promoter regions of those genes. Furthermore, the recruitment of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A correlated with H4R3 dimethylation potentially leading to DNA methylation at the promoter proximal region and tight inhibition of preinitiation complex formation. In vertebrates, C/EBPβ regulates many genes involved in immune responses and cell differentiation. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms of the repressive roles of Mediator CDKs in transcription of C/EBPβ target genes and might provide clues that enable future studies of the functional associations between Mediators and epigenetic regulation.
|Alternative splicing regulates Prdm1/Blimp-1 DNA binding activities and corepressor interactions.|
Morgan, MA; Mould, AW; Li, L; Robertson, EJ; Bikoff, EK
Molecular and cellular biology 32 3403-13 2012
Prdm1/Blimp-1 is a master regulator of gene expression in diverse tissues of the developing embryo and adult organism. Its C-terminal zinc finger domain mediates nuclear import, DNA binding, and recruitment of the corepressors G9a and HDAC1/2. Alternatively spliced transcripts lacking exon 7 sequences encode a structurally divergent isoform (Blimp-1Δexon7) predicted to have distinct functions. Here we demonstrate that the short Blimp-1Δexon7 isoform lacks DNA binding activity and fails to bind G9a or HDAC1/2 but retains the ability to interact with PRMT5. To investigate functional roles of alternative splicing in vivo, we engineered novel mouse strains via embryonic stem (ES) cell technology. Like null mutants, embryos carrying a targeted deletion of exon 7 and exclusively expressing Blimp-1Δexon7 die at around embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5) due to placental defects. In heterozygous Δexon7 mice, there is no evidence of dominant-negative effects. Mice carrying a knock-in allele with an exon 6-exon 7 fusion express full-length Blimp-1 only, develop normally, are healthy and fertile as adults, and efficiently generate mature plasma cells. These findings strongly suggest that the short Blimp-1Δexon7 isoform is dispensable. We propose that developmentally regulated alternative splicing is influenced by chromatin structure at the locus and fine-tunes Blimp-1's functional capabilities.
|Epigenetic mechanisms of Groucho/Grg/TLE mediated transcriptional repression.|
Patel, SR; Bhumbra, SS; Paknikar, RS; Dressler, GR
Molecular cell 45 185-95 2012
The repression of transcription, through the concerted actions of tissue specific DNA binding proteins, Polycomb repressor complexes, and DNA methylation, is essential for maintaining stem cell pluripotency and for cell fate specification in development. In this report, we show that recruitment of the co-repressor protein Grg4 to a Pax DNA-binding site displaces the adaptor protein PTIP and a histone H3K4me complex. Grg4 recruits the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 to chromatin resulting in symmetric H4R3 dimethylation. PRMT5 is essential for recruiting Polycomb proteins, in a Pax2/Grg4 dependent manner, which results in H3K27 methylation. These data define the early epigenetic events in response to Pax/Grg mediated gene repression and demonstrate that a single DNA binding protein can recruit either an activator or a repressor complex depending on the availability of Grg4. These data suggest a model for understanding the initiation of Groucho/Grg/TLE mediated gene silencing.
|Role of type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in the regulation of Circadian Per1 gene.|
Na, J; Lee, K; Kim, HG; Shin, JY; Na, W; Jeong, H; Lee, JW; Cho, S; Kim, WS; Ju, BG
PloS one 7 e48152 2012
Circadian clocks are the endogenous oscillators that regulate rhythmic physiological and behavioral changes to correspond to daily light-dark cycles. Molecular dissections have revealed that transcriptional feedback loops of the circadian clock genes drive the molecular oscillation, in which PER/CRY complexes inhibit the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to constitute a negative feedback loop. In this study, we identified the type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) as an interacting molecule of CRY1. Although the Prmt5 gene was constitutively expressed, increased interaction of PRMT5 with CRY1 was observed when the Per1 gene was repressed both in synchronized mouse liver and NIH3T3 cells. Moreover, rhythmic recruitment of PRMT5 and CRY1 to the Per1 gene promoter was found to be associated with an increased level of histone H4R3 dimethylation and Per1 gene repression. Consistently, decreased histone H4R3 dimethylation and altered rhythmic Per1 gene expression were observed in Prmt5-depleted cells. Taken together, these findings provide an insight into the link between histone arginine methylation by PRMT5 and transcriptional regulation of the circadian Per1 gene.
|Arginine Methyltransferases Are Regulated by Epstein-Barr Virus in B Cells and Are Differentially Expressed in Hodgkin's Lymphoma.|
Leonard, S; Gordon, N; Smith, N; Rowe, M; Murray, PG; Woodman, CB
Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) 1 52-64 2012
Although there is increasing evidence that aberrant expression of those enzymes which control protein arginine methylation contribute to carcinogenesis, their de-regulation by oncogenic viruses in primary cells has yet to be reported. We first show that the protein arginine methyltransferases, CARM1, PRMT1 and PRMT5 are strongly expressed in Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, and up-regulated in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) cell lines. Given that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can be detected in approximately 50% of primary HL, we next examined how EBV infection of germinal centre (GC) B cells, the presumptive precursors of HRS cells, modulated the expression of these proteins. EBV infection of GC B cells was followed by the up-regulation of CARM1, PRMT1 and PRMT5, and by the down-regulation of the arginine deiminase, PADI4. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the major EBV transforming gene was shown to induce PRMT1 in GC B cells and in a stably transfected B cell line. The recent development of compounds which inhibit PRMT-mediated reactions provides a compelling case for continuing to dissect the contribution of virus induced changes in these proteins to lymphomagenesis.