Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Description||Anti-ATM Antibody, clone AM9|
|Presentation||mouse ascites containing 0.05% sodium azide|
|Application||Detect ATM also known as Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated with Anti-ATM Antibody, clone AM9 (Mouse Monoclonal Antibody), that has been demonstrated to work in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µL|
|Anti-ATM, clone AM9 - 18793||18793|
|Anti-ATM, clone AM9 - 23560||23560|
|Anti-ATM, clone AM9 - 27273||27273|
|Anti-ATM, clone AM9 - DAM1794279||DAM1794279|
|Anti-ATM, clone AM9 -2575524||2575524|
|Anti-ATM, clone AM9 -2691204||2691204|
|Anti-ATM, clone AM9 -2697421||2697421|
|Anti-ATM, clone AM9 -2829468||2829468|
|Anti-ATM, clone AM9 Monoclonal Antibody||2896054|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Mir-23a induces telomere dysfunction and cellular senescence by inhibiting TRF2 expression.|
Luo, Z; Feng, X; Wang, H; Xu, W; Zhao, Y; Ma, W; Jiang, S; Liu, D; Huang, J; Songyang, Z
Aging cell 14 391-9 2015
Telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) is essential for telomere maintenance and has been implicated in DNA damage response and aging. Telomere dysfunction induced by TRF2 inhibition can accelerate cellular senescence in human fibroblasts. While previous work has demonstrated that a variety of factors can regulate TRF2 expression transcriptionally and post-translationally, whether microRNAs (miRNAs) also participate in post-transcriptionally modulating TRF2 levels remains largely unknown. To better understand the regulatory pathways that control TRF2, we carried out a large-scale luciferase reporter screen using a miRNA expression library and identified four miRNAs that could target human TRF2 and significantly reduce the level of endogenous TRF2 proteins. In particular, our data revealed that miR-23a could directly target the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of TRF2. Overexpression of miR-23a not only reduced telomere-bound TRF2 and increased telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIFs), but also accelerated senescence of human fibroblast cells, which could be rescued by ectopically expressed TRF2. Our findings demonstrate that TRF2 is a specific target of miR-23a, and uncover a previously unknown role for miR-23a in telomere regulation and cellular senescence.
|Systems-level overview of host protein phosphorylation during Shigella flexneri infection revealed by phosphoproteomics.|
Schmutz, C; Ahrné, E; Kasper, CA; Tschon, T; Sorg, I; Dreier, RF; Schmidt, A; Arrieumerlou, C
Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 12 2952-68 2013
The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the intestinal epithelium of humans. During infection, several injected effector proteins promote bacterial internalization, and interfere with multiple host cell responses. To obtain a systems-level overview of host signaling during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein phosphorylation by liquid chromatography-tandem MS and identified several hundred of proteins undergoing a phosphorylation change during the first hours of infection. Functional bioinformatic analysis revealed that they were mostly related to the cytoskeleton, transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle. Fuzzy c-means clustering identified six temporal profiles of phosphorylation and a functional module composed of ATM-phosphorylated proteins related to genotoxic stress. Pathway enrichment analysis defined mTOR as the most overrepresented pathway. We showed that mTOR complex 1 and 2 were required for S6 kinase and AKT activation, respectively. Comparison with a published phosphoproteome of Salmonella typhimurium-infected cells revealed a large subset of coregulated phosphoproteins. Finally, we showed that S. flexneri effector OspF affected the phosphorylation of several hundred proteins, thereby demonstrating the wide-reaching impact of a single bacterial effector on the host signaling network.
|Characterization of mre11 loss following HSV-1 infection.|
Gregory, DA; Bachenheimer, SL
Virology 373 124-36 2008
Herpes simplex virus induces the activation of the cellular DNA double strand break response pathway dependent upon initiation of viral DNA replication. The MRN complex, consisting of Mre11, Rad50 and Nbs1, is an essential component of the DNA double strand break response and other reports have documented its presence at sites of viral DNA replication, interaction with ICP8 and its contribution to efficient viral DNA replication. During our characterization of the DSB response following infection of normal human fibroblasts and telomerase-immortalized keratinocytes, we observed the loss of Mre11 protein at late times following infection. The loss was not dependent upon ICP0, the proteasome or lysosomal protease activity. Like activation of the DSB response pathway, Mre11 loss was prevented under conditions which inhibited viral DNA replication. Analysis of a series of mutant viruses with defects in cleavage and packaging (UL6, UL15, UL17, UL25, UL28, UL32) of viral DNA or in the maturational protease (UL26) failed to identify a viral gene product necessary for Mre11 loss. Inactivation of ATM, a key effector kinase in the DNA double strand break response, had no effect on Mre11 loss and only a moderate effect on HSV yield. Finally, treatment of uninfected cells with the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin, to induce generation of free DNA ends, also resulted in Mre11 loss. These results suggest that Mre11 loss following infection is caused by the generation of free DNA ends during or following viral DNA replication.
|ATM is a cytoplasmic protein in mouse brain required to prevent lysosomal accumulation|
Barlow, C, et al
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 97:871-6 (2000) 2000
|Requirement of ATM in phosphorylation of the human p53 protein at serine 15 following DNA double-strand breaks.|
Nakagawa, K, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 19: 2828-34 (1999) 1999
Microinjection of the restriction endonuclease HaeIII, which causes DNA double-strand breaks with blunt ends, induces nuclear accumulation of p53 protein in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) primary fibroblasts. In contrast, this induction of p53 accumulation is not observed in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) fibroblasts. HaeIII-induced p53 protein in normal fibroblasts is phosphorylated at serine 15, as determined by immunostaining with an antibody specific for phosphorylated serine 15 of p53. This phosphorylation correlates well with p53 accumulation. Treatment with lactacystin (an inhibitor of the proteasome) or heat shock leads to similar levels of p53 accumulation in normal and AT fibroblasts, but the p53 protein lacks a phosphorylated serine 15. Following microinjection of HaeIII into lactacystin-treated normal fibroblasts, lactacystin-induced p53 protein is phosphorylated at serine 15 and stabilized even in the presence of cycloheximide. However, neither stabilization nor phosphorylation at serine 15 is observed in AT fibroblasts under the same conditions. These results indicate the significance of serine 15 phosphorylation for p53 stabilization after DNA double-strand breaks and an absolute requirement for ATM in this phosphorylation process.
|Radiation-induced assembly of Rad51 and Rad52 recombination complex requires ATM and c-Abl.|
Chen, G, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 274: 12748-52 (1999) 1999
Cells from individuals with the recessive cancer-prone disorder ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation (I-R). ATM (mutated in A-T) is a protein kinase whose activity is stimulated by I-R. c-Abl, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, interacts with ATM and is activated by ATM following I-R. Rad51 is a homologue of bacterial RecA protein required for DNA recombination and repair. Here we demonstrate that there is an I-R-induced Rad51 tyrosine phosphorylation, and this induction is dependent on both ATM and c-Abl. ATM, c-Abl, and Rad51 can be co-immunoprecipitated from cell extracts. Consistent with the physical interaction, c-Abl phosphorylates Rad51 in vitro and in vivo. In assays using purified components, phosphorylation of Rad51 by c-Abl enhances complex formation between Rad51 and Rad52, which cooperates with Rad51 in recombination and repair. After I-R, an increase in association between Rad51 and Rad52 occurs in wild-type cells but not in cells with mutations that compromise ATM or c-Abl. Our data suggest signaling mediated through ATM, and c-Abl is required for the correct post-translational modification of Rad51, which is critical for the assembly of Rad51 repair protein complex following I-R.
|Atm inactivation results in aberrant telomere clustering during meiotic prophase.|
Pandita, T K, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 19: 5096-105 (1999) 1999
A-T (ataxia telangiectasia) individuals frequently display gonadal atrophy, and Atm-/- mice show spermatogenic failure due to arrest at prophase of meiosis I. Chromosomal movements take place during meiotic prophase, with telomeres congregating on the nuclear envelope to transiently form a cluster during the leptotene/zygotene transition (bouquet arrangement). Since the ATM protein has been implicated in telomere metabolism of somatic cells, we have set out to investigate the effects of Atm inactivation on meiotic telomere behavior. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and synaptonemal complex (SC) immunostaining of structurally preserved spermatocytes I revealed that telomere clustering occurs aberrantly in Atm-/- mice. Numerous spermatocytes of Atm-/- mice displayed locally accumulated telomeres with stretches of SC near the clustered chromosome ends. This contrasted with spermatogenesis of normal mice, where only a few leptotene/zygotene spermatocytes I with clustered telomeres were detected. Pachytene nuclei, which were much more abundant in normal mice, displayed telomeres scattered over the nuclear periphery. It appears that the timing and occurrence of chromosome polarization is altered in Atm-/- mice. When we examined telomere-nuclear matrix interactions in spermatocytes I, a significant difference was observed in the ratio of soluble versus matrix-associated telomeric DNA sequences between meiocytes of Atm-/- and control mice. We propose that the severe disruption of spermatogenesis during early prophase I in the absence of functional Atm may be partly due to altered interactions of telomeres with the nuclear matrix and distorted meiotic telomere clustering.