Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Presentation||Protein A Purified immunoglobulin in 30% glycerol, 0.07M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.105 M NaCl, 0.035% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Application||Anti-Ago 2 Antibody is a Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody for detection of Ago 2 also known as argonaute 2 & has been tested in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-Ago 2 (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||Q2922231|
|Anti-Ago 2 (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2991975|
|Anti-Ago 2 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2026215||2026215|
|Anti-Ago 2 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2149493||2149493|
|Anti-Ago 2 (rabbit polyclonal IgG) - 2325114||2325114|
|Anti-Ago 2 - 2446911||2446911|
|Anti-Ago 2 - 26966||26966|
|Anti-Ago 2 - 32488||32488|
|Anti-Ago 2 - DAM1713231||DAM1713231|
|Anti-Ago 2 - DAM1764454||DAM1764454|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Human immunodeficiency virus Tat associates with a specific set of cellular RNAs.|
Bouwman, RD; Palser, A; Parry, CM; Coulter, E; Rasaiyaah, J; Kellam, P; Jenner, RG
Retrovirology 11 53 2014
Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) exhibits a wide range of interactions with the host cell but whether viral proteins interact with cellular RNA is not clear. A candidate interacting factor is the trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein. Tat is required for expression of virus genes but activates transcription through an unusual mechanism; binding to an RNA stem-loop, the transactivation response element (TAR), with the host elongation factor P-TEFb. HIV-1 Tat has also been shown to alter the expression of host genes during infection, contributing to viral pathogenesis but, whether Tat also interacts with cellular RNAs is unknown.Using RNA immunoprecipitation coupled with microarray analysis, we have discovered that HIV-1 Tat is associated with a specific set of human mRNAs in T cells. mRNAs bound by Tat share a stem-loop structural element and encode proteins with common biological roles. In contrast, we do not find evidence that Tat associates with microRNAs or the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The interaction of Tat with cellular RNA requires an intact RNA binding domain and Tat RNA binding is linked to an increase in RNA abundance in cell lines and during infection of primary CD4+ T cells by HIV.We conclude that Tat interacts with a specific set of human mRNAs in T cells, many of which show changes in abundance in response to Tat and HIV infection. This work uncovers a previously unrecognised interaction between HIV and its host that may contribute to viral alteration of the host cellular environment.
|Identification of distinct miRNA target regulation between breast cancer molecular subtypes using AGO2-PAR-CLIP and patient datasets.|
Farazi, TA; Ten Hoeve, JJ; Brown, M; Mihailovic, A; Horlings, HM; van de Vijver, MJ; Tuschl, T; Wessels, LF
Genome biology 15 R9 2014
Various microRNAs (miRNAs) are up- or downregulated in tumors. However, the repression of cognate miRNA targets responsible for the phenotypic effects of this dysregulation in patients remains largely unexplored. To define miRNA targets and associated pathways, together with their relationship to outcome in breast cancer, we integrated patient-paired miRNA-mRNA expression data with a set of validated miRNA targets and pathway inference.To generate a biochemically-validated set of miRNA-binding sites, we performed argonaute-2 photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (AGO2-PAR-CLIP) in MCF7 cells. We then defined putative miRNA-target interactions using a computational model, which ranked and selected additional TargetScan-predicted interactions based on features of our AGO2-PAR-CLIP binding-site data. We subselected modeled interactions according to the abundance of their constituent miRNA and mRNA transcripts in tumors, and we took advantage of the variability of miRNA expression within molecular subtypes to detect miRNA repression. Interestingly, our data suggest that miRNA families control subtype-specific pathways; for example, miR-17, miR-19a, miR-25, and miR-200b show high miRNA regulatory activity in the triple-negative, basal-like subtype, whereas miR-22 and miR-24 do so in the HER2 subtype. An independent dataset validated our findings for miR-17 and miR-25, and showed a correlation between the expression levels of miR-182 targets and overall patient survival. Pathway analysis associated miR-17, miR-19a, and miR-200b with leukocyte transendothelial migration.We combined PAR-CLIP data with patient expression data to predict regulatory miRNAs, revealing potential therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in breast cancer.
|High-resolution profiling and analysis of viral and host small RNAs during human cytomegalovirus infection.|
Stark, TJ; Arnold, JD; Spector, DH; Yeo, GW
Journal of virology 86 226-35 2012
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) contributes its own set of microRNAs (miRNAs) during lytic infection of cells, likely fine-tuning conditions important for viral replication. To enhance our understanding of this component of the HCMV-host transcriptome, we have conducted deep-sequencing analysis of small RNAs (smRNA-seq) from infected human fibroblast cells. We found that HCMV-encoded miRNAs accumulate to ∼20% of the total smRNA population at late stages of infection, and our analysis led to improvements in viral miRNA annotations and identification of two novel HCMV miRNAs, miR-US22 and miR-US33as. Both of these miRNAs were capable of functionally repressing synthetic targets in transient transfection experiments. Additionally, through cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) of Argonaute (Ago)-bound RNAs from infected cells, followed by high-throughput sequencing, we have obtained direct evidence for incorporation of all HCMV miRNAs into the endogenous host silencing machinery. Surprisingly, three HCMV miRNA precursors exhibited differential incorporation of their mature miRNA arms between Ago2 and Ago1 complexes. Host miRNA abundances were also affected by HCMV infection, with significant upregulation observed for an miRNA cluster containing miR-96, miR-182, and miR-183. In addition to miRNAs, we also identified novel forms of virus-derived smRNAs, revealing greater complexity within the smRNA population during HCMV infection.
|Two-step cleavage of hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs by human DICER.|
Ando, Y; Maida, Y; Morinaga, A; Burroughs, AM; Kimura, R; Chiba, J; Suzuki, H; Masutomi, K; Hayashizaki, Y
BMC molecular biology 12 6 2011
DICER is an RNase III family endoribonuclease that processes precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and long double-stranded RNAs, generating microRNA (miRNA) duplexes and short interfering RNA duplexes with 20~23 nucleotides (nts) in length. The typical form of pre-miRNA processed by the Drosha protein is a hairpin RNA with 2-nt 3' overhangs. On the other hand, production of mature miRNA from an endogenous hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs has also been reported, although the mechanism for this process is unknown.In this study, we show that human recombinant DICER protein (rDICER) processes a hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs in vitro and generates an intermediate duplex with a 29 nt-5' strand and a 23 nt-3' strand, which was eventually cleaved into a canonical miRNA duplex via a two-step cleavage. The previously identified endogenous pre-miRNA with 5' overhangs, pre-mmu-mir-1982 RNA, is also determined to be a substrate of rDICER through the same two-step cleavage.The two-step cleavage of a hairpin RNA with 5' overhangs shows that DICER releases double-stranded RNAs after the first cleavage and binds them again in the inverse direction for a second cleavage. These findings have implications for how DICER may be able to interact with or process differing precursor structures.Full Text Article
|Limiting Ago protein restricts RNAi and microRNA biogenesis during early development in Xenopus laevis.|
Lund, E; Sheets, MD; Imboden, SB; Dahlberg, JE
Genes & development 25 1121-31 2011
We show that, in Xenopus laevis oocytes and early embryos, double-stranded exogenous siRNAs cannot function as microRNA (miRNA) mimics in either deadenylation or guided mRNA cleavage (RNAi). Instead, siRNAs saturate and inactivate maternal Argonaute (Ago) proteins, which are present in low amounts but are needed for Dicer processing of pre-miRNAs at the midblastula transition (MBT). Consequently, siRNAs impair accumulation of newly made miRNAs, such as the abundant embryonic pre-miR-427, but inhibition dissipates upon synthesis of zygotic Ago proteins after MBT. These effects of siRNAs, which are independent of sequence, result in morphological defects at later stages of development. The expression of any of several exogenous human Ago proteins, including catalytically inactive Ago2 (Ago2mut), can overcome the siRNA-mediated inhibition of miR-427 biogenesis and function. However, expression of wild-type, catalytically active hAgo2 is required to elicit RNAi in both early embryos and oocytes using either siRNA or endogenous miRNAs as guides. The lack of endogenous Ago2 endonuclease activity explains why these cells normally are unable to support RNAi. Expression of catalytically active exogenous Ago2, which appears not to perturb normal Xenopus embryonic development, can now be exploited for RNAi in this vertebrate model organism.
|A role for human Dicer in pre-RISC loading of siRNAs.|
Sakurai, K; Amarzguioui, M; Kim, DH; Alluin, J; Heale, B; Song, MS; Gatignol, A; Behlke, MA; Rossi, JJ
Nucleic acids research 39 1510-25 2011
RNA interference is a powerful mechanism for sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression. It is widely known that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the same region of a target-messenger RNA can have widely different efficacies. In efforts to better understand the siRNA features that influence knockdown efficiency, we analyzed siRNA interactions with a high-molecular weight complex in whole cell extracts prepared from two different cell lines. Using biochemical tools to study the nature of the complex, our results demonstrate that the primary siRNA-binding protein in the whole cell extracts is Dicer. We find that Dicer is capable of discriminating highly functional versus poorly functional siRNAs by recognizing the presence of 2-nt 3' overhangs and the thermodynamic properties of 2-4 bp on both ends of effective siRNAs. Our results suggest a role for Dicer in pre-selection of effective siRNAs for handoff to Ago2. This initial selection is reflective of the overall silencing potential of an siRNA.
|A comprehensive survey of 3' animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3' adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness.|
Burroughs, AM; Ando, Y; de Hoon, MJ; Tomaru, Y; Nishibu, T; Ukekawa, R; Funakoshi, T; Kurokawa, T; Suzuki, H; Hayashizaki, Y; Daub, CO
Genome research 20 1398-410 2010
Animal microRNA sequences are subject to 3' nucleotide addition. Through detailed analysis of deep-sequenced short RNA data sets, we show adenylation and uridylation of miRNA is globally present and conserved across Drosophila and vertebrates. To better understand 3' adenylation function, we deep-sequenced RNA after knockdown of nucleotidyltransferase enzymes. The PAPD4 nucleotidyltransferase adenylates a wide range of miRNA loci, but adenylation does not appear to affect miRNA stability on a genome-wide scale. Adenine addition appears to reduce effectiveness of miRNA targeting of mRNA transcripts while deep-sequencing of RNA bound to immunoprecipitated Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins EIF2C1-EIF2C3 revealed substantial reduction of adenine addition in miRNA associated with EIF2C2 and EIF2C3. Our findings show 3' addition events are widespread and conserved across animals, PAPD4 is a primary miRNA adenylating enzyme, and suggest a role for 3' adenine addition in modulating miRNA effectiveness, possibly through interfering with incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a regulatory role that would complement the role of miRNA uridylation in blocking DICER1 uptake.
|Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs at sequences downstream from 3' gene termini.|
Yue, X; Schwartz, JC; Chu, Y; Younger, ST; Gagnon, KT; Elbashir, S; Janowski, BA; Corey, DR
Nature chemical biology 6 621-9 2010
Transcriptome studies reveal many noncoding transcripts overlapping 3' gene termini. The function of these transcripts is unknown. Here we have characterized transcription at the progesterone receptor (PR) locus and identified noncoding transcripts that overlap the 3' end of the gene. Small RNAs complementary to sequences beyond the 3' terminus of PR mRNA modulated expression of PR, recruited argonaute 2 to a 3' noncoding transcript, altered occupancy of RNA polymerase II, induced chromatin changes at the PR promoter and affected responses to physiological stimuli. We found that the promoter and 3' terminal regions of the PR locus are in close proximity, providing a potential mechanism for RNA-mediated control of transcription over long genomic distances. These results extend the potential for small RNAs to regulate transcription to target sequences beyond the 3' termini of mRNA.
|The expression of Argonaute2 and related microRNA biogenesis proteins in normal and hypoxic trophoblasts.|
Donker, RB; Mouillet, JF; Nelson, DM; Sadovsky, Y
Molecular human reproduction 13 273-9 2007
Endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate mRNA and protein expression during tissue development and function. Whereas adaptation to environmental insults are tightly regulated in human tissues, the role of miRNAs and miRNA biogenesis proteins in this context is inadequately explored. We sought to analyse the expression of the key RNAi enzyme Argonaute2 (Ago2) and other miRNA biogenesis proteins in human trophoblasts during differentiation and in hypoxic environment. Using an in vitro analysis of primary term human trophoblasts, we identified the expression of the core miRNA biogenesis proteins in human villous trophoblasts, with expression levels unaffected by cellular differentiation. We found that the miRNA biosynthetic pathway was functional and produced miRNAs, with miR-93 up-regulated and miR-424 down-regulated in hypoxic environment. In contrast, hypoxia did not alter the expression of key miRNA machinery proteins. The pivotal miRNA processing enzyme Ago2, along with its interacting protein DP103, were expressed in normal placentas as well as in placentas from pregnancies complicated by placental hypoperfusion that resulted in fetal growth restriction. Ago2 and DP103 co-immunoprecipitated, and did not limit trophoblast response to hypoxic stress. We concluded that the core miRNA machinery proteins are expressed and functional in human trophoblasts. The influence of hypoxia on the expression of a subset of placental miRNA species is unlikely to reflect altered expression of key miRNA biogenesis proteins.
|Involvement of AGO1 and AGO2 in mammalian transcriptional silencing.|
Janowski, BA; Huffman, KE; Schwartz, JC; Ram, R; Nordsell, R; Shames, DS; Minna, JD; Corey, DR
Nat Struct Mol Biol 13 787-92 2006
Duplex RNAs complementary to messenger RNA inhibit translation in mammalian cells by RNA interference (RNAi). Studies have reported that RNAs complementary to promoter DNA also inhibit gene expression. Here we show that the human homologs of Argonaute-1 (AGO1) and Argonaute-2 (AGO2) link the silencing pathways that target mRNA with pathways mediating recognition of DNA. We find that synthetic antigene RNAs (agRNAs) complementary to transcription start sites or more upstream regions of gene promoters inhibit gene transcription. This silencing occurs in the nucleus, requires high promoter activity and does not necessarily require histone modification. AGO1 and AGO2 associate with promoter DNA in cells treated with agRNAs, and inhibiting expression of AGO1 or AGO2 reverses transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing. Our data indicate key linkages and important mechanistic distinctions between transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing pathways in mammalian cells.
|RNA-Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation|