Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||FC, ICC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Application||Detect Akt/PKB using this Anti-Akt/PKB Antibody, PH Domain, clone SKB1 validated for use in FC, IC, IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, clone SKB1 - 2123701||2123701|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, -2557589||2557589|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, -2603798||2603798|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, -2626023||2626023|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, -2654216||2654216|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, -2697425||2697425|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, -2759752||2759752|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, -2798557||2798557|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, clone SKB1 (mouse ascites) - DAM1475050||DAM1475050|
|Anti-Akt/PKB, PH Domain, clone SKB1 - 1988743||1988743|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Cardiomyocyte-specific BMAL1 plays critical roles in metabolism, signaling, and maintenance of contractile function of the heart.|
Young, ME; Brewer, RA; Peliciari-Garcia, RA; Collins, HE; He, L; Birky, TL; Peden, BW; Thompson, EG; Ammons, BJ; Bray, MS; Chatham, JC; Wende, AR; Yang, Q; Chow, CW; Martino, TA; Gamble, KL
Journal of biological rhythms 29 257-76 2014
Circadian clocks are cell autonomous, transcriptionally based, molecular mechanisms that confer the selective advantage of anticipation, enabling cells/organs to respond to environmental factors in a temporally appropriate manner. Critical to circadian clock function are 2 transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1. The purpose of the present study was to reveal novel physiologic functions of BMAL1 in the heart, as well as to determine the pathologic consequences of chronic disruption of this circadian clock component. To address this goal, we generated cardiomyocyte-specific Bmal1 knockout (CBK) mice. Following validation of the CBK model, combined microarray and in silico analyses were performed, identifying 19 putative direct BMAL1 target genes, which included a number of metabolic (e.g., β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 [Bdh1]) and signaling (e.g., the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [Pik3r1]) genes. Results from subsequent validation studies were consistent with regulation of Bdh1 and Pik3r1 by BMAL1, with predicted impairments in ketone body metabolism and signaling observed in CBK hearts. Furthermore, CBK hearts exhibited depressed glucose utilization, as well as a differential response to a physiologic metabolic stress (i.e., fasting). Consistent with BMAL1 influencing critical functions in the heart, echocardiographic, gravimetric, histologic, and molecular analyses revealed age-onset development of dilated cardiomyopathy in CBK mice, which was associated with a severe reduction in life span. Collectively, our studies reveal that BMAL1 influences metabolism, signaling, and contractile function of the heart.
|Exercise modulation of the host-tumor interaction in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer.|
Jones, LW; Antonelli, J; Masko, EM; Broadwater, G; Lascola, CD; Fels, D; Dewhirst, MW; Dyck, JR; Nagendran, J; Flores, CT; Betof, AS; Nelson, ER; Pollak, M; Dash, RC; Young, ME; Freedland, SJ
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 113 263-72 2012
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of exercise on cancer progression, metastasis, and underlying mechanisms in an orthotopic model of murine prostate cancer. C57BL/6 male mice (6-8 wk of age) were orthotopically injected with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate C-1 cells (5 × 10(5)) and randomly assigned to exercise (n = 28) or a non-intervention control (n = 31) groups. The exercise group was given voluntary access to a wheel 24 h/day for the duration of the study. Four mice per group were serially killed on days 14, 31, and 36; the remaining 38 mice (exercise, n = 18; control, n = 20) were killed on day 53. Before death, MRI was performed to assess tumor blood perfusion. Primary tumor growth rate was comparable between groups, but expression of prometastatic genes was significantly modulated in exercising animals with a shift toward reduced metastasis. Exercise was associated with increased activity of protein kinases within the MEK/MAPK and PI3K/mTOR signaling cascades with subsequent increased intratumoral protein levels of HIF-1α and VEGF. This was associated with improved tumor vascularization. Multiplex ELISAs revealed distinct reductions in plasma concentrations of several angiogenic cytokines in the exercise group, which was associated with increased expression of angiogenic and metabolic genes in the skeletal muscle. Exercise-induced stabilization of HIF-1α and subsequent upregulation of VEGF was associated with "productive" tumor vascularization with a shift toward suppressed metastasis in an orthotopic model of prostate cancer.
|Resveratrol helps recovery from fatty liver and protects against hepatocellular carcinoma induced by hepatitis B virus X protein in a mouse model.|
Lin, HC; Chen, YF; Hsu, WH; Yang, CW; Kao, CH; Tsai, TF
Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.) 5 952-62 2012
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that has beneficial effects across species and various disease models. Here, we investigate whether resveratrol is effective against hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using HBV X protein (HBx) transgenic mice. We found that resveratrol (30 mg/kg/d) has a therapeutic effect on HBx-induced fatty liver and the early stages of liver damage. Resveratrol decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and transiently stimulated hepatocyte proliferation. Interestingly, resveratrol inhibited LXRα and downregulated the expression of the lipogenic genes, Srebp1-c and PPARγ. The decrease in Srebp1-c seems to further downregulate the expression of its target genes, Acc and Fas. In addition, resveratrol stimulated the activity of Ampk and SirT1. Thus, resveratrol has a pleiotropic effect on HBx transgenic mice in terms of the downregulation of lipogenesis, the promotion of transient liver regeneration, and the stimulation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, at the later precancerous stages, resveratrol delayed HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis and reduced HCC incidence from 80% to 15%, a 5.3-fold reduction. Resveratrol should be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent for HBV-associated HCC.
|Interrogating signaling nodes involved in cellular transformations using kinase activity probes.|
Stains, CI; Tedford, NC; Walkup, TC; Luković, E; Goguen, BN; Griffith, LG; Lauffenburger, DA; Imperiali, B
Chemistry & biology 19 210-7 2012
Protein kinases catalyze protein phosphorylation and thereby control the flow of information through signaling cascades. Currently available methods for concomitant assessment of the enzymatic activities of multiple kinases in complex biological samples rely on indirect proxies for enzymatic activity, such as posttranslational modifications to protein kinases. Our laboratories have recently described a method for directly quantifying the enzymatic activity of kinases in unfractionated cell lysates using substrates containing a phosphorylation-sensitive unnatural amino acid termed CSox, which can be monitored using fluorescence. Here, we demonstrate the utility of this method using a probe set encompassing p38α, MK2, ERK1/2, Akt, and PKA. This panel of chemosensors provides activity measurements of individual kinases in a model of skeletal muscle differentiation and can be readily used to generate individualized kinase activity profiles for tissue samples from clinical cancer patients.
|Thermogenic activation induces FGF21 expression and release in brown adipose tissue.|
Hondares E, Iglesias R, Giralt A, Gonzalez FJ, Giralt M, Mampel T, Villarroya F
J Biol Chem 2011
FGF21 is a novel metabolic regulator involved in the control of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and ketogenesis. The liver has been considered the main site of production and release of FGF21 into the blood. Here we show that, after thermogenic activation, brown adipose tissue (BAT) becomes a source of systemic FGF21. This is due to a powerful cAMP-mediated pathway of regulation of FGF21 gene transcription. Norepinephrine, acting via β-adrenergic, cAMP-mediated, mechanisms and subsequent activation of protein kinase-A and p38 MAP kinase, induces FGF21 gene transcription and also FGF21 release in brown adipocytes. ATF2 binding to the FGF21 gene promoter mediates cAMP-dependent induction of FGF21 gene transcription. FGF21 release by brown fat in vivo was directly assessed by analyzing arterio-venous differences in FGF21 concentration across interscapular brown fat, in combination with blood flow to BAT and assessment of FGF21 half-life. This analysis demonstrates that exposure of rats to cold induced a marked release of FGF21 by brown fat in vivo, in association with a reduction in systemic FGF21 half-life. The present findings lead to the recognition of a novel pathway of regulation the FGF21 gene and an endocrine role of brown fat, as a source of FGF21 that may be specially relevant in conditions of activation of thermogenic activity.
|Delayed treatment with a novel neurotrophic compound reduces behavioral deficits in rabbit ischemic stroke.|
Lapchak, PA; Schubert, DR; Maher, PA
Journal of neurochemistry 116 122-31 2011
Acute ischemic stroke is a major risk for morbidity and mortality in our aging population. Currently only one drug, the thrombolytic tissue plasminogen activator, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat stroke. Therefore, there is a need to develop new drugs that promote neuronal survival following stroke. We have synthesized a novel neuroprotective molecule called CNB-001 (a pyrazole derivative of curcumin) that has neurotrophic activity, enhances memory, and blocks cell death in multiple toxicity assays related to ischemic stroke. In this study, we tested the efficacy of CNB-001 in a rigorous rabbit ischemic stroke model and determined the molecular basis of its in vivo activity. CNB-001 has substantial beneficial properties in an in vitro ischemia assay and improves the behavioral outcome of rabbit ischemic stroke even when administered 1 h after the insult, a therapeutic window in this model comparable to tissue plasminogen activator. In addition, we elucidated the protein kinase pathways involved in neuroprotection. CNB-001 maintains the calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase signaling pathways associated with neurotrophic growth factors that are critical for the maintenance of neuronal function. On the basis of its in vivo efficacy and novel mode of action, we conclude that CNB-001 has a great potential for the treatment of ischemic stroke as well as other CNS pathologies.Full Text Article
|Adrenergic regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in brown adipose tissue in vivo.|
Pulinilkunnil, T; He, H; Kong, D; Asakura, K; Peroni, OD; Lee, A; Kahn, BB
The Journal of biological chemistry 286 8798-809 2011
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase that senses cellular energy status, is activated by stress and neurohumoral stimuli. We investigated the mechanisms by which adrenergic signaling alters AMPK activation in vivo. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is highly enriched in sympathetic innervation, which is critical for regulation of energy homeostasis. We performed unilateral denervation of BAT in wild type (WT) mice to abolish neural input. Six days post-denervation, UCP-1 protein levels and AMPK α2 protein and activity were reduced by 45%. In β(1,2,3)-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice, unilateral denervation led to a 25-45% decrease in AMPK activity, protein expression, and Thr(172) phosphorylation. In contrast, acute α- or β-adrenergic blockade in WT mice resulted in increased AMPK α Thr(172) phosphorylation and AMPK α1 and α2 activity in BAT. But short term blockade of α-adrenergic signaling in β(1,2,3)-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice resulted in decreased AMPK activity in BAT, which strongly correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK on Ser(485/491), a site associated with inhibition of AMPK activity. Both PKA and AKT inhibitors attenuated AMPK Ser(485/491) phosphorylation resulting from α-adrenergic blockade and prevented decreases in AMPK activity. In vitro mechanistic studies in BAT explants showed that the effects of α-adrenergic blockade appeared to be secondary to inhibition of oxygen consumption. In conclusion, adrenergic pathways regulate AMPK activity in vivo acutely via alterations in Thr(172) phosphorylation and chronically through changes in the α catalytic subunit protein levels. Furthermore, AMPK α Ser(485/491) phosphorylation may be a novel mechanism to inhibit AMPK activity in vivo and alter its biological effects.
|Identification of a novel phosphorylation site on TBC1D4 regulated by AMP-activated protein kinase in skeletal muscle.|
Treebak, JT; Taylor, EB; Witczak, CA; An, D; Toyoda, T; Koh, HJ; Xie, J; Feener, EP; Wojtaszewski, JF; Hirshman, MF; Goodyear, LJ
American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 298 C377-85 2010
TBC1D4 (also known as AS160) regulates glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscle. Its mode of action involves phosphorylation of serine (S)/threonine (T) residues by upstream kinases resulting in inactivation of Rab-GTPase-activating protein (Rab-GAP) activity leading to GLUT4 mobilization. The majority of known phosphorylation sites on TBC1D4 lie within the Akt consensus motif and are phosphorylated by insulin stimulation. However, the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and other kinases may also phosphorylate TBC1D4, and therefore we hypothesized the presence of additional phosphorylation sites. Mouse skeletal muscles were contracted or stimulated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), and muscle lysates were subjected to mass spectrometry analyses resulting in identification of novel putative phosphorylation sites on TBC1D4. The surrounding amino acid sequence predicted that S711 would be recognized by AMPK. Using a phosphospecific antibody against S711, we found that AICAR and contraction increased S711 phosphorylation in mouse skeletal muscle, and this increase was abolished in muscle-specific AMPKalpha2 kinase-dead transgenic mice. Exercise in human vastus lateralis muscle also increased TBC1D4 S711 phosphorylation. Recombinant AMPK, but not Akt1, Akt2, or PKCzeta, phosphorylated purified muscle TBC1D4 on S711 in vitro. Interestingly, S711 was also phosphorylated in response to insulin in an Akt2- and rapamycin-independent, but a wortmannin-sensitive, manner, suggesting this site is regulated by one or more additional upstream kinases. Despite increased S711 phosphorylation with AICAR, contraction, and insulin, mutation of S711 to alanine did not alter glucose uptake in response to these stimuli. S711 is a novel TBC1D4 phosphorylation site regulated by AMPK in skeletal muscle.Full Text Article
|Therapeutically targeting ErbB3: a key node in ligand-induced activation of the ErbB receptor-PI3K axis.|
Birgit Schoeberl,Emily A Pace,Jonathan B Fitzgerald,Brian D Harms,Lihui Xu,Lin Nie,Bryan Linggi,Ashish Kalra,Violette Paragas,Raghida Bukhalid,Viara Grantcharova,Neeraj Kohli,Kip A West,Magdalena Leszczyniecka,Michael J Feldhaus,Arthur J Kudla,Ulrik B Nielsen
Science signaling 2 2009
The signaling network downstream of the ErbB family of receptors has been extensively targeted by cancer therapeutics; however, understanding the relative importance of the different components of the ErbB network is nontrivial. To explore the optimal way to therapeutically inhibit combinatorial, ligand-induced activation of the ErbB-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) axis, we built a computational model of the ErbB signaling network that describes the most effective ErbB ligands, as well as known and previously unidentified ErbB inhibitors. Sensitivity analysis identified ErbB3 as the key node in response to ligands that can bind either ErbB3 or EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor). We describe MM-121, a human monoclonal antibody that halts the growth of tumor xenografts in mice and, consistent with model-simulated inhibitor data, potently inhibits ErbB3 phosphorylation in a manner distinct from that of other ErbB-targeted therapies. MM-121, a previously unidentified anticancer therapeutic designed using a systems approach, promises to benefit patients with combinatorial, ligand-induced activation of the ErbB signaling network that are not effectively treated by current therapies targeting overexpressed or mutated oncogenes.
|Increased AS160 phosphorylation, but not TBC1D1 phosphorylation, with increased postexercise insulin sensitivity in rat skeletal muscle.|
Funai, K; Schweitzer, GG; Sharma, N; Kanzaki, M; Cartee, GD
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism 297 E242-51 2009
A single exercise bout can increase insulin-independent glucose transport immediately postexercise and insulin-dependent glucose transport (GT) for several hours postexercise. Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and TBC1D1 are paralog Rab GTPase-activating proteins that have been proposed to contribute to these exercise effects. Previous research demonstrated greater AS160 and Akt threonine phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle at 3-4 h postexercise concomitant with enhanced insulin-stimulated GT. To further probe whether these signaling events or TBC1D1 phosphorylation were important for the enhanced postexercise insulin-stimulated GT, male Wistar rats were studied using four experimental protocols (2-h swim exercise, differing with regard to timing of muscle sampling and whether food was provided postexercise) that were known to vary in their influence of insulin-independent and insulin-dependent GT postexercise. The results indicated that, in isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle, 1) elevated phosphorylation of AS160 (measured using anti-phospho-Akt substrate, PAS-AS160, and phosphospecific anti-Thr(642)-AS160, pThr(642)-AS160) consistently tracked with elevated insulin-stimulated GT; 2) PAS-TBC1D1 was not different from sedentary values at 3 or 27 h postexercise, when insulin sensitivity was increased; 3) insulin-stimulated Akt activity was not increased postexercise in muscles with increased insulin sensitivity; 4) PAS-TBC1D1 was increased immediately postexercise, when insulin-independent GT was elevated, and reversed at 3 and 27 h postexercise, when insulin-independent GT was also reversed; and 5) there was no significant effect of exercise or insulin on total abundance of AS160, TBC1D1, Akt, or GLUT4 protein with any of the protocols. The results are consistent with increased AS160 phosphorylation (PAS-AS160 or pThr(642)-AS160) but not increased PAS-TBC1D1 or Akt activity, which is important for increased postexercise insulin-stimulated GT in rat skeletal muscle. They also support the idea that increased TBC1D1 phosphorylation may play a role in the insulin-independent increase in GT postexercise.Full Text Article