|Specific binding of the Akt-1 protein kinase to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate without subsequent activation.|
James, SR; Downes, CP; Gigg, R; Grove, SJ; Holmes, AB; Alessi, DR
The Biochemical journal
315 ( Pt 3)
Recent evidence has suggested that activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is required for the activation of Akt-1 by growth factors and insulin. Here we demonstrate by two independent methods that Akt-1 from L6 myotubes binds to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, PtdIns(3,4)P2 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 when presented against a background of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) or a 1:1 mixture of PtdSer and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). No binding was observed with the lipids PtdIns(3,5)P2, PtdIns4P and PtdIns3P or background lipids. Activated, hyperphosphorylated forms of Akt-1 from insulin-stimulated L6 myotubes bound to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 in a similar manner as inactive Akt-1. Quantitative analysis using surface plasmon resonance showed that the equilibrium association constant for the binding of Akt-1 to PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 was submicromolar and that PtdIns(3,4)P2 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 bound to Akt-1 with 3- and 6-fold lower affinities respectively. Interaction of Akt-1 with PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 did not activate the protein kinase activity, either before or after incubation with MgATP. A model is presented in which PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 may prime Akt-1 for activation by another protein kinase, perhaps by recruiting it to the plasma membrane.
|Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin mediated by protein kinase B.|
Cross, D A, et al.
Nature, 378: 785-9 (1995)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is implicated in the regulation of several physiological processes, including the control of glycogen and protein synthesis by insulin, modulation of the transcription factors AP-1 and CREB, the specification of cell fate in Drosophila and dorsoventral patterning in Xenopus embryos. GSK3 is inhibited by serine phosphorylation in response to insulin or growth factors and in vitro by either MAP kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-1 (also known as p90rsk) or p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6k). Here we show, however, that agents which prevent the activation of both MAPKAP kinase-1 and p70S6k by insulin in vivo do not block the phosphorylation and inhibition of GSK3. Another insulin-stimulated protein kinase inactivates GSK3 under these conditions, and we demonstrate that it is the product of the proto-oncogene protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt/RAC). Like the inhibition of GSK3 (refs 10, 14), the activation of PKB is prevented by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase.