Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Description||Anti-Caspase 9 Antibody, clone 96-2-22|
|Application||This Anti-Caspase 9 Antibody, clone 96-2-22 is validated for use in WB for the detection of Caspase 9.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Anti-Caspase 9, clone 96-2-22||2476951|
|Anti-Caspase 9, clone 96-2-22 (mouse monoclonal IgG)||3051265|
|Anti-Caspase 9, clone 96-2-22 - 20080||20080|
|Anti-Caspase 9, clone 96-2-22 - 21577||21577|
|Anti-Caspase 9, clone 96-2-22 - 23678||23678|
|Anti-Caspase 9, clone 96-2-22 - 2952654||2952654|
|Anti-Caspase 9, clone 96-2-22 - DAM1647092||DAM1647092|
|Anti-Caspase 9, clone 96-2-22_2839442||2839442|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Caspase-1 promotes Epstein-Barr virus replication by targeting the large tegument protein deneddylase to the nucleus of productively infected cells.|
Gastaldello, S; Chen, X; Callegari, S; Masucci, MG
PLoS pathogens 9 e1003664 2013
The large tegument proteins of herpesviruses contain N-terminal cysteine proteases with potent ubiquitin and NEDD8-specific deconjugase activities, but the function of the enzymes during virus replication remains largely unknown. Using as model BPLF1, the homologue encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), we found that induction of the productive virus cycle does not affect the total level of ubiquitin-conjugation but is accompanied by a BPLF1-dependent decrease of NEDD8-adducts and accumulation of free NEDD8. Expression of BPLF1 promotes cullin degradation and the stabilization of cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) substrates in the nucleus, while cytoplasmic CRLs and their substrates are not affected. The inactivation of nuclear CRLs is reversed by the N-terminus of CAND1, which inhibits the binding of BPLF1 to cullins and prevents efficient viral DNA replication. Targeting of the deneddylase activity to the nucleus is dependent on processing of the catalytic N-terminus by caspase-1. Inhibition of caspase-1 severely impairs viral DNA synthesis and the release of infectious virus, pointing a previously unrecognized role of the cellular response to danger signals triggered by EBV reactivation in promoting virus replication.
|BITC Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas to TRAIL-induced Apoptosis.|
Wicker CA, Sahu RP, Kulkarni-Datar K, Srivastava SK, Brown TL
Cancer Growth Metastasis 2009 45-55. 2010
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a greater than 95% mortality rate and short survival after diagnosis. Chemotherapeutic resistance hinders successful treatment. This resistance is often associated with mutations in codon 12 of the K-Ras gene (K-Ras 12), which is present in over 90% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Codon 12 mutations maintain Ras in a constitutively active state leading to continuous cellular proliferation. Our study determined if TRAIL resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinomas with K-Ras 12 mutations could be overcome by first sensitizing the cells with Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC is a component of cruciferous vegetables and a cell cycle inhibitor. BxPC3, MiaPaCa2 and Panc-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines were examined for TRAIL resistance. Our studies show BITC induced TRAIL sensitization by dual activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.Full Text Article
|Heat shock protein inhibitors increase the efficacy of measles virotherapy.|
Liu, C; Erlichman, C; McDonald, CJ; Ingle, JN; Zollman, P; Iankov, I; Russell, SJ; Galanis, E
Gene therapy 15 1024-34 2008
Oncolytic measles virus strains have activity against multiple tumor types and are currently in phase I clinical testing. Induction of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) constitutes one of the earliest changes in cellular gene expression following infection with RNA viruses including measles virus, and HSP70 upregulation induced by heat shock has been shown to result in increased measles virus cytotoxicity. HSP90 inhibitors such as geldanamycin (GA) or 17-allylaminogeldanamycin result in pharmacologic upregulation of HSP70 and they are currently in clinical testing as cancer therapeutics. We therefore investigated the hypothesis that heat shock protein inhibitors could augment the measles virus-induced cytopathic effect. We tested the combination of a measles virus derivative expressing soluble human carcinoembryonic antigen (MV-CEA) and GA in MDA-MB-231 (breast), SKOV3.IP (ovarian) and TE671 (rhabdomyosarcoma) cancer cell lines. Optimal synergy was accomplished when GA treatment was initiated 6-24 h following MV infection. Western immunoblotting confirmed HSP70 upregulation in combination-treated cells. Combination treatment resulted in statistically significant increase in syncytia formation as compared to MV-CEA infection alone. Clonogenic assays demonstrated significant decrease in tumor colony formation in MV-CEA/GA combination-treated cells. In addition there was increase in apoptosis by 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. Western immunoblotting for caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) demonstrated increase in cleaved caspase-8 and PARP. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, but not the caspase-9 inhibitor Z-IEHD-FMK, protected tumor cells from MV-CEA/GA-induced PARP activation, indicating that apoptosis in combination-treated cells occurs mainly via the extrinsic caspase pathway. Treatment of normal cells, such as normal human fibroblasts, however, with the MV-CEA/GA combination, did not result in cytopathic effect, indicating that GA did not alter the MV-CEA specificity for tumor cells. One-step viral growth curves, western immunoblotting for MV-N protein expression, QRT-PCR quantitation of MV-genome copy number and CEA levels showed comparable proliferation of MV-CEA in GA-treated vs -untreated tumor cells. Rho activation assays and western blot for total RhoA, a GTPase associated with the actin cytoskeleton, demonstrated decrease in RhoA activation in combination-treated cells, a change previously shown to be associated with increase in paramyxovirus-induced cell-cell fusion. The enhanced cytopathic effect resulting from measles virus/GA combination supports the translational potential of this approach in the treatment of cancer.
|Cell cycle arrest and proapoptotic effects of the anticancer cyclodepsipeptide serratamolide (AT514) are independent of p53 status in breast cancer cells.|
Vanessa Soto-Cerrato, Beatriz Montaner, Marc Martinell, Marta Vilaseca, Ernest Giralt, Ricardo Pérez-Tomás
Biochemical pharmacology 71 32-41 2005
In a search for new anticancer agents, we have identified serratamolide (AT514), a cyclodepsipeptide from Serratia marcescens 2170 that induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. A cell viability assay showed that the concentrations that cause 50% inhibition (IC50) in human cancer cell lines range from 5.6 to 11.5 microM depending on the cell line. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that AT514 caused cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 or cell death, depending on the cell type and the length of time for which the cells were exposed to the drug. Subsequent studies revealed that AT514-induced cell death is caused by apoptosis, as indicated by caspases activation (8, 9, 2 and 3) and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), release of cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria, and the appearance of apoptotic bodies and DNA laddering. Alterations in protein levels of Bcl-2 family members might be involved in the mitochondrial disruption observed. AT514 induced p53 accumulation in wild-type p53 cells but cell death was observed in both deficient and wild-type p53 cells. Our results indicate that AT514 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in breast cancer cells irrespectively of p53 status, suggesting that it might represent a potential new chemotherapeutic agent.
|Proapoptotic, antimigratory, antiproliferative, and antiangiogenic effects of commercial C-reactive protein on various human endothelial cell types in vitro: implications of contaminating presence of sodium azide in commercial preparation.|
Liu, C; Wang, S; Deb, A; Nath, KA; Katusic, ZS; McConnell, JP; Caplice, NM
Circulation research 97 135-43 2005
Recent experimental studies suggest C-reactive protein (CRP) may be a potential mediator of atherosclerosis and its complications. However, there is growing criticism of in vitro CRP studies that use commercial CRP preparations containing biologically active contaminants. The effects of commercial CRP, dialyzed commercial CRP (dCRP) to remove azide, and sodium azide (NaN3) alone at equivalent concentrations to the undialyzed preparation were tested at varying concentrations on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), circulating endothelial outgrowth cells (EOC), and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in vitro. CRP and NaN3 alone exhibited equivalent concentration-dependent, proapoptotic effects on HUVEC, EOC, and EPC (Pless than 0.01 versus control), whereas dCRP had no such effect. Similarly, CRP and NaN3 alone caused equivalent concentration-dependent decreases in migration, proliferation, and matrigel tube formation (Pless than 0.01 versus control) in EOC and HUVEC, whereas dCRP had absolutely no effect on these biological functions at any of the concentrations used. We conclude that proapoptotic, antiproliferative, antimigratory, and antiangiogenic effects of this commercial CRP preparation on a number of endothelial cell phenotypes in culture may be explained by the presence of sodium azide in this preparation. This study has implications for interpretation of in vitro studies using CRP preparations containing azide at equivalent or higher concentrations.
|Inhibition of integrin-linked kinase/protein kinase B/Akt signaling: mechanism for ganglioside-induced apoptosis|
Wang, X. Q., et al
J Biol Chem, 276:44504-11 (2001) 2001
|Immunoprecipitation, Immunoblotting (Western)||11577096|
|Caspase-9 and APAF-1 form an active holoenzyme.|
Rodriguez, J and Lazebnik, Y
Genes Dev., 13: 3179-84 (1999) 1999
Autocatalytic activation of initiator caspases is the link between pro-apoptotic signals and the destruction machinery of apoptosis. Activation of caspase-9, which mediates oncogene and drug-induced apoptosis, requires binding to the protein APAF-1. We found that the proteolytic activity of caspase-9 in a complex with APAF-1 is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the free enzyme. Thus, this complex functions as a holoenzyme in which caspase-9 is the catalytic subunit and APAF-1 its allosteric regulator. We argue that caspase-9 is activated by allosteric regulation and suggest that this mechanism is common for other initiator caspases.
|Oncogene-dependent apoptosis is mediated by caspase-9.|
Fearnhead, H O, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 95: 13664-9 (1998) 1998
Understanding how oncogenic transformation sensitizes cells to apoptosis may provide a strategy to kill tumor cells selectively. We previously developed a cell-free system that recapitulates oncogene dependent apoptosis as reflected by activation of caspases, the core of the apoptotic machinery. Here, we show that this activation requires a previously identified apoptosis-promoting complex consisting of caspase-9, APAF-1, and cytochrome c. As predicted by the in vitro system, preventing caspase-9 activation blocked drug-induced apoptosis in cells sensitized by E1A, an adenoviral oncogene. Oncogenes, such as E1A, appear to facilitate caspase-9 activation by several mechanisms, including the control of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria.