Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Av, B, H, Ht, M, R||ICC, IHC, IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|In vivo imaging and characterization of actin microridges.|
Lam, PY; Mangos, S; Green, JM; Reiser, J; Huttenlocher, A
PloS one 10 e0115639 2015
Actin microridges form labyrinth like patterns on superficial epithelial cells across animal species. This highly organized assembly has been implicated in mucus retention and in the mechanical structure of mucosal surfaces, however the mechanisms that regulate actin microridges remain largely unknown. Here we characterize the composition and dynamics of actin microridges on the surface of zebrafish larvae using live imaging. Microridges contain phospho-tyrosine, cortactin and VASP, but not focal adhesion kinase. Time-lapse imaging reveals dynamic changes in the length and branching of microridges in intact animals. Transient perturbation of the microridge pattern occurs before cell division with rapid re-assembly during and after cytokinesis. Microridge assembly is maintained with constitutive activation of Rho or inhibition of myosin II activity. However, expression of dominant negative RhoA or Rac alters microridge organization, with an increase in distance between microridges. Latrunculin A treatment and photoconversion experiments suggest that the F-actin filaments are actively treadmilling in microridges. Accordingly, inhibition of Arp2/3 or PI3K signaling impairs microridge structure and length. Taken together, actin microridges in zebrafish represent a tractable in vivo model to probe pattern formation and dissect Arp2/3-mediated actin dynamics in vivo.
|Overexpression of galectin-7 in mouse epidermis leads to loss of cell junctions and defective skin repair.|
Gendronneau, G; Sanii, S; Dang, T; Deshayes, F; Delacour, D; Pichard, E; Advedissian, T; Sidhu, SS; Viguier, M; Magnaldo, T; Poirier, F
PloS one 10 e0119031 2015
The proteins of the galectin family are implicated in many cellular processes, including cell interactions, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. In human and mouse, galectin-7 is almost exclusively expressed in stratified epithelia, notably in the epidermis. Galectin-7 expression is also altered in several human tumors of epithelial origin. This study aimed at dissecting the consequences of galectin-7 overexpression on epidermis structure and functions in vivo.We established transgenic mice specifically overexpressing galectin-7 in the basal epidermal keratinocytes and analyzed the consequences on untreated skin and after UVB irradiation or mechanical injury.The intercellular cohesion of the epidermis is impaired in transgenic animals, with gaps developing between adjacent keratinocytes, associated with loss of adherens junctions. The epidermal architecture is aberrant with perturbations in the multilayered cellular organisation of the tissue, and structural defects in the basement membrane. These transgenic animals displayed a reduced re-epithelialisation potential following superficial wound, due to a defective collective migration of keratinocytes. Finally, a single mild dose of UVB induced an abnormal apoptotic response in the transgenic epidermis.These results indicate that an excess of galectin-7 leads to a destabilisation of adherens junctions associated with defects in epidermal repair. As this phenotype shares similarities with that of galectin-7 null mutant mice, we conclude that a critical level of this protein is required for maintaining proper epidermal homeostasis. This study brings new insight into the mode of action of galectins in normal and pathological situations.
|Hippocampal Cortactin Levels are Reduced Following Spatial Working Memory Formation, an Effect Blocked by Chronic Calpain Inhibition.|
Olson, ML; Ingebretson, AE; Harmelink, KM
Brain sciences 5 241-57 2015
The mechanism by which the hippocampus facilitates declarative memory formation appears to involve, among other things, restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton within neuronal dendrites. One protein involved in this process is cortactin, which is an important link between extracellular signaling and cytoskeletal reorganization. In this paper, we demonstrate that total hippocampal cortactin, as well as Y421-phosphorylated cortactin are transiently reduced following spatial working memory formation in the radial arm maze (RAM). Because cortactin is a substrate of the cysteine protease calpain, we also assessed the effect of chronic calpain inhibition on RAM performance and cortactin expression. Calpain inhibition impaired spatial working memory and blocked the reduction in hippocampal cortactin levels following RAM training. These findings add to a growing body of research implicating cortactin and calpain in hippocampus-dependent memory formation.
|Gap geometry dictates epithelial closure efficiency.|
Ravasio, A; Cheddadi, I; Chen, T; Pereira, T; Ong, HT; Bertocchi, C; Brugues, A; Jacinto, A; Kabla, AJ; Toyama, Y; Trepat, X; Gov, N; Neves de Almeida, L; Ladoux, B
Nature communications 6 7683 2015
Closure of wounds and gaps in tissues is fundamental for the correct development and physiology of multicellular organisms and, when misregulated, may lead to inflammation and tumorigenesis. To re-establish tissue integrity, epithelial cells exhibit coordinated motion into the void by active crawling on the substrate and by constricting a supracellular actomyosin cable. Coexistence of these two mechanisms strongly depends on the environment. However, the nature of their coupling remains elusive because of the complexity of the overall process. Here we demonstrate that epithelial gap geometry in both in vitro and in vivo regulates these collective mechanisms. In addition, the mechanical coupling between actomyosin cable contraction and cell crawling acts as a large-scale regulator to control the dynamics of gap closure. Finally, our computational modelling clarifies the respective roles of the two mechanisms during this process, providing a robust and universal mechanism to explain how epithelial tissues restore their integrity.
|Fe65 Suppresses Breast Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion through Tip60 Mediated Cortactin Acetylation.|
Sun, Y; Sun, J; Lungchukiet, P; Quarni, W; Yang, S; Zhang, X; Bai, W
Scientific reports 5 11529 2015
Fe65 is a brain-enriched adaptor protein known for its role in the action of the Aβ amyloid precursor protein in neuronal cells and Alzheimer's disease, but little is known about its functions in cancer cells. The present study documents for the first time a role of Fe65 in suppressing breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Mechanistic studies suggest that the suppression is mediated through its phosphotyrosine binding domain 1 that mediates the recruitment of Tip60 to cortactin to stimulate its acetylation. The studies identify the Tip60 acetyltransferase as a cytoplasmic drug target for the therapeutic intervention of metastatic breast cancers.
|STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillation orchestrates invadopodium formation and melanoma invasion.|
Sun, J; Lu, F; He, H; Shen, J; Messina, J; Mathew, R; Wang, D; Sarnaik, AA; Chang, WC; Kim, M; Cheng, H; Yang, S
The Journal of cell biology 207 535-48 2014
Ca(2+) signaling has been increasingly implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis, and yet, the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. In this paper, we report that STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations promote melanoma invasion by orchestrating invadopodium assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Ca(2+) oscillation signals facilitate invadopodial precursor assembly by activating Src. Disruption of Ca(2+) oscillations inhibited invadopodium assembly. Furthermore, STIM1 and Orai1 regulate the proteolysis activity of individual invadopodia. Mechanistically, Orai1 blockade inhibited the recycling of MT1-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) to the plasma membrane and entrapped MT1-MMP in the endocytic compartment to inhibit ECM degradation. STIM1 knockdown significantly inhibited melanoma lung metastasis in a xenograft mouse model, implicating the importance of this pathway in metastatic dissemination. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for Ca(2+)-mediated cancer cell invasion and shed new light on the spatiotemporal organization of store-operated Ca(2+) signals during melanoma invasion and metastasis.
|Capping protein regulatory cycle driven by CARMIL and V-1 may promote actin network assembly at protruding edges.|
Fujiwara, I; Remmert, K; Piszczek, G; Hammer, JA
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 E1970-9 2014
Although capping protein (CP) terminates actin filament elongation, it promotes Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly and accelerates actin-based motility both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, capping protein Arp2/3 myosin I linker (CARMIL) antagonizes CP by reducing its affinity for the barbed end and by uncapping CP-capped filaments, whereas the protein V-1/myotrophin sequesters CP in an inactive complex. Previous work showed that CARMIL can readily retrieve CP from the CP:V-1 complex, thereby converting inactive CP into a version with moderate affinity for the barbed end. Here we further clarify the mechanism of this exchange reaction, and we demonstrate that the CP:CARMIL complex created by complex exchange slows the rate of barbed-end elongation by rapidly associating with, and dissociating from, the barbed end. Importantly, the cellular concentrations of V-1 and CP determined here argue that most CP is sequestered by V-1 at steady state in vivo. Finally, we show that CARMIL is recruited to the plasma membrane and only at cell edges undergoing active protrusion. Assuming that CARMIL is active only at this location, our data argue that a large pool of freely diffusing, inactive CP (CP:V-1) feeds, via CARMIL-driven complex exchange, the formation of weak-capping complexes (CP:CARMIL) at the plasma membrane of protruding edges. In vivo, therefore, CARMIL should promote Arp2/3-dependent actin network assembly at the leading edge by promoting barbed-end capping there.
|Clathrin light chains are required for the gyrating-clathrin recycling pathway and thereby promote cell migration.|
Majeed, SR; Vasudevan, L; Chen, CY; Luo, Y; Torres, JA; Evans, TM; Sharkey, A; Foraker, AB; Wong, NM; Esk, C; Freeman, TA; Moffett, A; Keen, JH; Brodsky, FM
Nature communications 5 3891 2014
The clathrin light chain (CLC) subunits participate in several membrane traffic pathways involving both clathrin and actin, through binding the actin-organizing huntingtin-interacting proteins (Hip). However, CLCs are dispensable for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of many cargoes. Here we observe that CLC depletion affects cell migration through Hip binding and reduces surface expression of β1-integrin by interference with recycling following normal endocytosis of inactive β1-integrin. CLC depletion and expression of a modified CLC also inhibit the appearance of gyrating (G)-clathrin structures, known mediators of rapid recycling of transferrin receptor from endosomes. Expression of the modified CLC reduces β1-integrin and transferrin receptor recycling, as well as cell migration, implicating G-clathrin in these processes. Supporting a physiological role for CLC in migration, the CLCb isoform of CLC is upregulated in migratory human trophoblast cells during uterine invasion. Together, these studies establish CLCs as mediating clathrin-actin interactions needed for recycling by G-clathrin during migration.
|Comparative transcriptomics reveals RhoE as a novel regulator of actin dynamics in bone-resorbing osteoclasts.|
Georgess, D; Mazzorana, M; Terrado, J; Delprat, C; Chamot, C; Guasch, RM; Pérez-Roger, I; Jurdic, P; Machuca-Gayet, I
Molecular biology of the cell 25 380-96 2014
The function of osteoclasts (OCs), multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) of the monocytic lineage, is bone resorption. To resorb bone, OCs form podosomes. These are actin-rich adhesive structures that pattern into rings that drive OC migration and into "sealing-zones" (SZs) that confine the resorption lacuna. Although changes in actin dynamics during podosome patterning have been documented, the mechanisms that regulate these changes are largely unknown. From human monocytic precursors, we differentiated MGCs that express OC degradation enzymes but are unable to resorb the mineral matrix. We demonstrated that, despite exhibiting bona fide podosomes, these cells presented dysfunctional SZs. We then performed two-step differential transcriptomic profiling of bone-resorbing OCs versus nonresorbing MGCs to generate a list of genes implicated in bone resorption. From this list of candidate genes, we investigated the role of Rho/Rnd3. Using primary RhoE-deficient OCs, we demonstrated that RhoE is indispensable for OC migration and bone resorption by maintaining fast actin turnover in podosomes. We further showed that RhoE activates podosome component cofilin by inhibiting its Rock-mediated phosphorylation. We conclude that the RhoE-Rock-cofilin pathway, by promoting podosome dynamics and patterning, is central for OC migration, SZ formation, and, ultimately, bone resorption.
|Alternative splice isoforms of small conductance calcium-activated SK2 channels differ in molecular interactions and surface levels.|
Scholl, ES; Pirone, A; Cox, DH; Duncan, RK; Jacob, MH
Channels (Austin, Tex.) 8 62-75 2014
Small conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive potassium (SK2) channels are voltage-independent, Ca(2+)-activated ion channels that conduct potassium cations and thereby modulate the intrinsic excitability and synaptic transmission of neurons and sensory hair cells. In the cochlea, SK2 channels are functionally coupled to the highly Ca(2+) permeant α9/10-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at olivocochlear postsynaptic sites. SK2 activation leads to outer hair cell hyperpolarization and frequency-selective suppression of afferent sound transmission. These inhibitory responses are essential for normal regulation of sound sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and suppression of background noise. However, little is known about the molecular interactions of these key functional channels. Here we show that SK2 channels co-precipitate with α9/10-nAChRs and with the actin-binding protein α-actinin-1. SK2 alternative splicing, resulting in a 3 amino acid insertion in the intracellular 3' terminus, modulates these interactions. Further, relative abundance of the SK2 splice variants changes during developmental stages of synapse maturation in both the avian cochlea and the mammalian forebrain. Using heterologous cell expression to separately study the 2 distinct isoforms, we show that the variants differ in protein interactions and surface expression levels, and that Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-bound calmodulin differentially regulate their protein interactions. Our findings suggest that the SK2 isoforms may be distinctly modulated by activity-induced Ca(2+) influx. Alternative splicing of SK2 may serve as a novel mechanism to differentially regulate the maturation and function of olivocochlear and neuronal synapses.
|Fluorescent Gelatin Degradation Assays for Investigating Invadopodia Formation|
Newsletters / Publications
|Cellutions Newsletter: 2011, Vol. 2|