Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Ht, M, R||IP, WB, ICC||Rb||Serum||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.15M NaCl, 0.05% sodium azide before the addition of glycerol to 30%|
|Application||Anti-Daxx Antibody is an antibody against Daxx for use in IP, WB & IC.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||200 µL|
|Anti-Daxx (rabbit antiserum)||2931110|
|Anti-Daxx (rabbit antiserum) -2828854||2828854|
|Anti-Daxx - 24496||24496|
|Anti-Daxx - 3019771||3019771|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Influence of ND10 components on epigenetic determinants of early KSHV latency establishment.|
Günther, T; Schreiner, S; Dobner, T; Tessmer, U; Grundhoff, A
PLoS pathogens 10 e1004274 2014
We have previously demonstrated that acquisition of intricate patterns of activating (H3K4me3, H3K9/K14ac) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications is a hallmark of KSHV latency establishment. The precise molecular mechanisms that shape the latent histone modification landscape, however, remain unknown. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NB), also called nuclear domain 10 (ND10), have emerged as mediators of innate immune responses that can limit viral gene expression via chromatin based mechanisms. Consequently, although ND10 functions thus far have been almost exclusively investigated in models of productive herpesvirus infection, it has been proposed that they also may contribute to the establishment of viral latency. Here, we report the first systematic study of the role of ND10 during KSHV latency establishment, and link alterations in the subcellular distribution of ND10 components to a temporal analysis of histone modification acquisition and host cell gene expression during the early infection phase. Our study demonstrates that KSHV infection results in a transient interferon response that leads to induction of the ND10 components PML and Sp100, but that repression by ND10 bodies is unlikely to contribute to KSHV latency establishment. Instead, we uncover an unexpected role for soluble Sp100 protein, which is efficiently and permanently relocalized from nucleoplasmic and chromatin-associated fractions into the insoluble matrix. We show that LANA expression is sufficient to induce Sp100 relocalization, likely via mediating SUMOylation of Sp100. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of soluble Sp100 occurs precisely when repressive H3K27me3 marks first accumulate on viral genomes, and that knock-down of Sp100 (but not PML or Daxx) facilitates H3K27me3 acquisition. Collectively, our data support a model in which non-ND10 resident Sp100 acts as a negative regulator of polycomb repressive complex-2 (PRC2) recruitment, and suggest that KSHV may actively escape ND10 silencing mechanisms to promote establishment of latent chromatin.
|Control of human adenovirus type 5 gene expression by cellular Daxx/ATRX chromatin-associated complexes.|
Schreiner, S; Bürck, C; Glass, M; Groitl, P; Wimmer, P; Kinkley, S; Mund, A; Everett, RD; Dobner, T
Nucleic acids research 41 3532-50 2013
Death domain-associated protein (Daxx) cooperates with X-linked α-thalassaemia retardation syndrome protein (ATRX), a putative member of the sucrose non-fermentable 2 family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling proteins, acting as the core ATPase subunit in this complex, whereas Daxx is the targeting factor, leading to histone deacetylase recruitment, H3.3 deposition and transcriptional repression of cellular promoters. Despite recent findings on the fundamental importance of chromatin modification in host-cell gene regulation, it remains unclear whether adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) transcription is regulated by cellular chromatin remodelling to allow efficient virus gene expression. Here, we focus on the repressive role of the Daxx/ATRX complex during Ad5 replication, which depends on intact protein-protein interaction, as negative regulation could be relieved with a Daxx mutant that is unable to interact with ATRX. To ensure efficient viral replication, Ad5 E1B-55K protein inhibits Daxx and targets ATRX for proteasomal degradation in cooperation with early region 4 open reading frame protein 6 and cellular components of a cullin-dependent E3-ubiquitin ligase. Our studies illustrate the importance and diversity of viral factors antagonizing Daxx/ATRX-mediated repression of viral gene expression and shed new light on the modulation of cellular chromatin remodelling factors by Ad5. We show for the first time that cellular Daxx/ATRX chromatin remodelling complexes play essential roles in Ad gene expression and illustrate the importance of early viral proteins to counteract cellular chromatin remodelling.
|The replication defect of ICP0-null mutant herpes simplex virus 1 can be largely complemented by the combined activities of human cytomegalovirus proteins IE1 and pp71.|
Everett, RD; Bell, AJ; Lu, Y; Orr, A
Journal of virology 87 978-90 2013
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early protein ICP0 is required for efficient lytic infection and productive reactivation from latency and induces derepression of quiescent viral genomes. Despite being unrelated at the sequence level, ICP0 and human cytomegalovirus proteins IE1 and pp71 share some functional similarities in their abilities to counteract antiviral restriction mediated by components of cellular nuclear structures known as ND10. To investigate the extent to which IE1 and pp71 might substitute for ICP0, cell lines were developed that express either IE1 or pp71, or both together, in an inducible manner. We found that pp71 dissociated the hDaxx-ATRX complex and inhibited accumulation of these proteins at sites juxtaposed to HSV-1 genomes but had no effect on the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) or Sp100. IE1 caused loss of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-conjugated forms of PML and Sp100 and inhibited the recruitment of these proteins to HSV-1 genome foci but had little effect on hDaxx or ATRX in these assays. Both IE1 and pp71 stimulated ICP0-null mutant plaque formation, but neither to the extent achieved by ICP0. The combination of IE1 and pp71, however, inhibited recruitment of all ND10 proteins to viral genome foci, stimulated ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 plaque formation to near wild-type levels, and efficiently induced derepression of quiescent HSV-1 genomes. These results suggest that ND10-related intrinsic resistance results from the additive effects of several ND10 components and that the effects of IE1 and pp71 on subsets of these components combine to mirror the overall activities of ICP0.
|The viral ubiquitin ligase ICP0 is neither sufficient nor necessary for degradation of the cellular DNA sensor IFI16 during herpes simplex virus 1 infection.|
Cuchet-Lourenço, D; Anderson, G; Sloan, E; Orr, A; Everett, RD
Journal of virology 87 13422-32 2013
The cellular protein IFI16 colocalizes with the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ubiquitin ligase ICP0 at early times of infection and is degraded as infection progresses. Here, we report that the factors governing the degradation of IFI16 and its colocalization with ICP0 are distinct from those of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), a well-characterized ICP0 substrate. Unlike PML, IFI16 colocalization with ICP0 was dependent on the ICP0 RING finger and did not occur when proteasome activity was inhibited. Expression of ICP0 in the absence of infection did not destabilize IFI16, the degradation occurred efficiently in the absence of ICP0 if infection was progressing efficiently, and IFI16 was relatively stable in wild-type (wt) HSV-1-infected U2OS cells. Therefore, IFI16 stability appears to be regulated by cellular factors in response to active HSV-1 infection rather than directly by ICP0. Because IFI16 is a DNA sensor that becomes associated with viral genomes during the early stages of infection, we investigated its role in the recruitment of PML nuclear body (PML NB) components to viral genomes. Recruitment of PML and hDaxx was less efficient in a proportion of IFI16-depleted cells, and this correlated with improved replication efficiency of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1. Because the absence of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) does not increase the plaque formation efficiency of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1, we speculate that IFI16 contributes to cell-mediated restriction of HSV-1 in a manner that is separable from its roles in IRF3-mediated interferon induction, but that may be linked to the PML NB response to viral infection.
|Components of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (ND10) act cooperatively to repress herpesvirus infection.|
Glass, M; Everett, RD
Journal of virology 87 2174-85 2013
Upon the entry of the viral genome into the nucleus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene expression is rapidly repressed by constitutively expressed cellular proteins. This intrinsic antiviral defense is normally counteracted by ICP0, which allows virus infection to proceed efficiently. Replication of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1, however, is severely repressed by mechanisms that are conferred, at least in part, by nuclear domain 10 (ND10) components, including hDaxx, the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein, and Sp100. To investigate if these ND10 components repress viral gene expression in a cooperative manner, we simultaneously depleted host cells for hDaxx, PML, and Sp100 by multiple short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown from a single lentivirus vector. We found that replication and gene expression of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 were cooperatively repressed by hDaxx, PML, and Sp100 immediately upon infection, and all stages of virus replication were inhibited. Plaque-forming efficiency was enhanced at least 50-fold in the triple-depleted cells, a much larger increase than achieved by depletion of any single ND10 protein. Similar effects were also observed during infection of triple-depleted cells with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Moreover, using a cell culture model of quiescent infection, we found that triple depletion resulted in a much larger number of viral genomes escaping repression. However, triple depletion was unable to fully overcome the ICP0-null phenotype, implying the presence of additional repressive host factors, possibly components of the SUMO modification or DNA repair pathways. We conclude that several ND10 components cooperate in an additive manner to regulate HSV-1 and HCMV infection.
|Herpes simplex virus 1 ubiquitin ligase ICP0 interacts with PML isoform I and induces its SUMO-independent degradation.|
Cuchet-Lourenço, D; Vanni, E; Glass, M; Orr, A; Everett, RD
Journal of virology 86 11209-22 2012
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early protein ICP0 localizes to cellular structures known as promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies or ND10 and disrupts their integrity by inducing the degradation of PML. There are six PML isoforms with different C-terminal regions in ND10, of which PML isoform I (PML.I) is the most abundant. Depletion of all PML isoforms increases the plaque formation efficiency of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1, and reconstitution of expression of PML.I and PML.II partially reverses this improved replication. ICP0 also induces widespread degradation of SUMO-conjugated proteins during HSV-1 infection, and this activity is linked to its ability to counteract cellular intrinsic antiviral resistance. All PML isoforms are highly SUMO modified, and all such modified forms are sensitive to ICP0-mediated degradation. However, in contrast to the situation with the other isoforms, ICP0 also targets PML.I that is not modified by SUMO, and PML in general is degraded more rapidly than the bulk of other SUMO-modified proteins. We report here that ICP0 interacts with PML.I in both yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays. This interaction is dependent on PML.I isoform-specific sequences and the N-terminal half of ICP0 and is required for SUMO-modification-independent degradation of PML.I by ICP0. Degradation of the other PML isoforms by ICP0 was less efficient in cells specifically depleted of PML.I. Therefore, ICP0 has two distinct mechanisms of targeting PML: one dependent on SUMO modification and the other via SUMO-independent interaction with PML.I. We conclude that the ICP0-PML.I interaction reflects a countermeasure to PML-related antiviral restriction.
|Single-cell analysis of Daxx and ATRX-dependent transcriptional repression.|
Newhart, A; Rafalska-Metcalf, IU; Yang, T; Negorev, DG; Janicki, SM
Journal of cell science 125 5489-501 2012
Histone H3.3 is a constitutively expressed H3 variant implicated in the epigenetic inheritance of chromatin structures. Recently, the PML-nuclear body (PML-NB)/Nuclear Domain 10 (ND10) proteins, Daxx and ATRX, were found to regulate replication-independent histone H3.3 chromatin assembly at telomeres and pericentric heterochromatin. As it is not completely understood how PML-NBs/ND10s regulate transcription and resistance to viral infection, we have used a CMV-promoter-regulated inducible transgene array, at which Daxx and ATRX are enriched, to delineate the mechanisms through which they regulate transcription. When integrated into HeLa cells, which express both Daxx and ATRX, the array is refractory to activation. However, transcription can be induced when ICP0, the HSV-1 E3 ubiquitin ligase required to reverse latency, is expressed. As ATRX and Daxx are depleted from the activated array in ICP0-expressing HeLa cells, this suggests that they are required to maintain a repressed chromatin environment. As histone H3.3 is strongly recruited to the ICP0-activated array but does not co-localize with the DNA, this also suggests that chromatin assembly is blocked during activation. The conclusion that the Daxx and ATRX pathway is required for transcriptional repression and chromatin assembly at this site is further supported by the finding that an array integrated into the ATRX-negative U2OS cell line can be robustly activated and that histone H3.3 is similarly recruited and unincorporated into the chromatin. Therefore, this study has important implications for understanding gene silencing, viral latency and PML-NB/ND10 function.
|Adenovirus type 5 early region 1B 55K oncoprotein-dependent degradation of cellular factor Daxx is required for efficient transformation of primary rodent cells.|
Schreiner, S; Wimmer, P; Groitl, P; Chen, SY; Blanchette, P; Branton, PE; Dobner, T
Journal of virology 85 8752-65 2011
Early region 1B 55K (E1B-55K) from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) is a multifunctional regulator of lytic infection and contributes in vitro to complete cell transformation of primary rodent cells in combination with Ad5 E1A. Inhibition of p53 activated transcription plays a key role in processes by which E1B-55K executes its oncogenic potential. Nevertheless, additional functions of E1B-55K or further protein interactions with cellular factors of DNA repair, transcription, and apoptosis, including Mre11, PML, and Daxx, may also contribute to the transformation process. In line with previous results, we performed mutational analysis to define a Daxx interaction motif within the E1B-55K polypeptide. The results from these studies showed that E1B-55K/Daxx binding is not required for inhibition of p53-mediated transactivation or binding and degradation of cellular factors (p53/Mre11). Surprisingly, these mutants lost the ability to degrade Daxx and showed reduced transforming potential in primary rodent cells. In addition, we observed that E1B-55K lacking the SUMO-1 conjugation site (SCS/K104R) was sufficient for Daxx interaction but no longer capable of E1B-55K-dependent proteasomal degradation of the cellular factor Daxx. These results, together with the observation that E1B-55K SUMOylation is required for efficient transformation, provides evidence for the idea that SUMO-1-conjugated E1B-55K-mediated degradation of Daxx plays a key role in adenoviral oncogenic transformation. We assume that the viral protein contributes to cell transformation through the modulation of Daxx-dependent pathways. This further substantiates the assumption that further mechanisms for efficient transformation of primary cells can be separated from functions required for the inhibition of p53-stimulated transcription.
|Human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene expression in the osteosarcoma line U2OS is repressed by the cell protein ATRX.|
Steven McFarlane,Chris M Preston
Virus research 157 2011
The control of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early (IE) gene expression in infected human fibroblasts was compared with that in the U2OS human osteosarcoma cells. Viral IE expression was stimulated by the virion protein pp71 and repressed by the cell protein hDaxx in fibroblasts, as expected from published data. Neither of these events occurred in infected U2OS cells, suggesting that this cell line lacks one or more factors that repress HCMV IE expression. The chromatin remodeling factor ATRX is absent from U2OS cells, therefore the effect of introducing this protein by electroporation of plasmid DNA was investigated. Provision of ATRX inhibited HCMV IE expression, and the presence of the HCMV-specified virion phosphoprotein pp71 overcame the repression. The experiments demonstrate that ATRX can act as a cellular intrinsic antiviral defense in U2OS cells by blocking gene expression from incoming HCMV genomes. In contrast, ATRX did not affect the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1, showing that there are differences in the way U2OS cells respond to the presence of the herpesviral genomes.
|SUMO pathway dependent recruitment of cellular repressors to herpes simplex virus type 1 genomes.|
Cuchet-Lourenço, D; Boutell, C; Lukashchuk, V; Grant, K; Sykes, A; Murray, J; Orr, A; Everett, RD
PLoS pathogens 7 e1002123 2011
Components of promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) nuclear bodies (ND10) are recruited to sites associated with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genomes soon after they enter the nucleus. This cellular response is linked to intrinsic antiviral resistance and is counteracted by viral regulatory protein ICP0. We report that the SUMO interaction motifs of PML, Sp100 and hDaxx are required for recruitment of these repressive proteins to HSV-1 induced foci, which also contain SUMO conjugates and PIAS2β, a SUMO E3 ligase. SUMO modification of PML and elements of its tripartite motif (TRIM) are also required for recruitment in cells lacking endogenous PML. Mutants of PML isoform I and hDaxx that are not recruited to virus induced foci are unable to reproduce the repression of ICP0 null mutant HSV-1 infection mediated by their wild type counterparts. We conclude that recruitment of ND10 components to sites associated with HSV-1 genomes reflects a cellular defence against invading pathogen DNA that is regulated through the SUMO modification pathway.