Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, Vrt||WB, ELISA, ICC, IP, Mplex, ChIP||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Mouse monoclonal IgG1κ supernatant in PBS with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Pub Med ID|
|Transcriptional activation of transposable elements in mouse zygotes is independent of Tet3-mediated 5-methylcytosine oxidation.|
Inoue, A; Matoba, S; Zhang, Y
Cell research 22 1640-9 2012
The methylation state of the paternal genome is rapidly reprogrammed shortly after fertilization. Recent studies have revealed that loss of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in zygotes correlates with appearance of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). This process is mediated by Tet3 and the 5mC oxidation products generated in zygotes are gradually lost during preimplantation development through a replication-dependent dilution process. Despite these findings, the biological significance of Tet3-mediated oxidation of 5mC to 5hmC/5fC/5caC in zygotes is unknown. DNA methylation plays an important role in silencing gene expression including the repression of transposable elements (TEs). Given that the activation of TEs during preimplantation development correlates with loss of DNA methylation, it is believed that paternal DNA demethylation may have an important role in TE activation. Here we examined this hypothesis and found that Tet3-mediated 5mC oxidation does not have a significant contribution to TE activation. We show that the expression of LINE-1 (long interspersed nucleotide element 1) and ERVL (endogenous retroviruses class III) are activated from both paternal and maternal genomes in zygotes. Inhibition of 5mC oxidation by siRNA-mediated depletion of Tet3 affected neither TE activation, nor global transcription in zygotes. Thus, our study provides the first evidence demonstrating that activation of both TEs and global transcription in zygotes are independent of Tet3-mediated 5mC oxidation.
|Protocol: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) methodology to investigate histone modifications in two model diatom species.|
Lin, X; Tirichine, L; Bowler, C
Plant methods 8 48 2012
In this report we describe a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol for two fully sequenced model diatom species Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. This protocol allows the extraction of satisfactory amounts of chromatin and gives reproducible results. We coupled the ChIP assay with real time quantitative PCR. Our results reveal that the two major histone marks H3K4me2 and H3K9me2 exist in P. tricornutum and T. pseudonana. As in other eukaryotes, H3K4me2 marks active genes whereas H3K9me2 marks transcriptionally inactive transposable elements. Unexpectedly however, T. pseudonana housekeeping genes also show a relative enrichment of H3K9me2. We also discuss optimization of the procedure, including growth conditions, cross linking and sonication. Validation of the protocol provides a set of genes and transposable elements that can be used as controls for studies using ChIP in each diatom species. This protocol can be easily adapted to other diatoms and eukaryotic phytoplankton species for genetic and biochemical studies.
|Cooperative and antagonistic contributions of two heterochromatin proteins to transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila sex determination decision.|
Li, H; Rodriguez, J; Yoo, Y; Shareef, MM; Badugu, R; Horabin, JI; Kellum, R
PLoS genetics 7 e1002122 2011
Eukaryotic nuclei contain regions of differentially staining chromatin (heterochromatin), which remain condensed throughout the cell cycle and are largely transcriptionally silent. RNAi knockdown of the highly conserved heterochromatin protein HP1 in Drosophila was previously shown to preferentially reduce male viability. Here we report a similar phenotype for the telomeric partner of HP1, HOAP, and roles for both proteins in regulating the Drosophila sex determination pathway. Specifically, these proteins regulate the critical decision in this pathway, firing of the establishment promoter of the masterswitch gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl). Female-specific activation of this promoter, Sxl(Pe), is essential to females, as it provides SXL protein to initiate the productive female-specific splicing of later Sxl transcripts, which are transcribed from the maintenance promoter (Sxl(Pm)) in both sexes. HOAP mutants show inappropriate Sxl(Pe) firing in males and the concomitant inappropriate splicing of Sxl(Pm)-derived transcripts, while females show premature firing of Sxl(Pe). HP1 mutants, by contrast, display Sxl(Pm) splicing defects in both sexes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show both proteins are associated with Sxl(Pe) sequences. In embryos from HP1 mutant mothers and Sxl mutant fathers, female viability and RNA polymerase II recruitment to Sxl(Pe) are severely compromised. Our genetic and biochemical assays indicate a repressing activity for HOAP and both activating and repressing roles for HP1 at Sxl(Pe).
|The organization of histone H3 modifications as revealed by a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies.|
Kimura, Hiroshi, et al.
Cell Struct. Funct., 33: 61-73 (2008) 2008
|Differential H3K4 methylation identifies developmentally poised hematopoietic genes.|
Orford, Keith, et al.
Dev. Cell, 14: 798-809 (2008) 2008