|The failure in the stabilization of glioblastoma-derived cell lines: spontaneous in vitro senescence as the main culprit.|
Stoczynska-Fidelus, E; Piaskowski, S; Bienkowski, M; Banaszczyk, M; Hulas-Bigoszewska, K; Winiecka-Klimek, M; Radomiak-Zaluska, A; Och, W; Borowiec, M; Zieba, J; Treda, C; Rieske, P
Cell line analysis is an important element of cancer research. Despite the progress in glioblastoma cell culturing, the cells isolated from the majority of specimens cannot be propagated infinitely in vitro. The aim of this study was to identify the processes responsible for the stabilization failure. Therefore, we analyzed 56 primary GB cultures, 7 of which were stabilized. Our results indicate that senescence is primarily responsible for the glioblastoma cell line stabilization failure, while mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis play a minor role. Moreover, a new technical approach allowed for a more profound analysis of the senescent cells in primary cultures, including the distinction between tumor and normal cells. In addition, we observed that glioblastoma cells in primary cultures have a varied potential to undergo spontaneous in vitro senescence, which is often higher than that of the normal cells infiltrating the tumor. Thus, this is the first report of GB cells in primary cell cultures (including both monolayer and spheroid conditions) rapidly and spontaneously becoming senescent. Intriguingly, our data also suggest that nearly half of GB cell lines have a combination of TP53 mutation and CDKN2A homozygous deletion, which are considered as mutually exclusive in glioblastoma. Moreover, recognition of the mechanisms of senescence and mitotic catastrophe in glioblastoma cells may be a step towards a potential new therapeutic approach.
|EGF receptor and COX-1/COX-2 enzyme proteins as related to corresponding mRNAs in human per-operative biopsies of colorectal cancer.|
Asting, AG; Farivar, A; Iresjö, BM; Svensson, H; Gustavsson, B; Lundholm, K
Cyclooxygenase (COX) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activities promote progression of colorectal cancer. Combined treatment against these targets has not been more effective than single treatments alone. Therefore, our aim was to analyze relationships between COX and EGFR in peroperative colorectal tumor biopsies.Tumor and colon mucosa tissue were collected at primary intended curative operations in patients according to well-recognized statistical distributions of tumor stages in colorectal cancer. COX-1, COX-2 and EGFR content in tumor and colon mucosa tissue were quantified by western blot and Q-PCR.COX-2 protein appeared as two bands, one at 66 kDa in almost all tumor and mucosa samples and one at 74 kDa in 73% of the tumors and in 23% of the mucosa samples. Tumor COX-2 mRNA was not different from the content in mucosa samples, while COX-2 protein was increased in tumor tissue (p less than 0.0003). A correlation between 74 kDa COX-2 protein and COX-2 mRNA occurred in tumor tissue, with significantly increasing COX-2 mRNA across tumor stages. EGFR mRNA content was lower in tumor tissue (p less than 0.0001), while EGFR protein was similar in tumor and mucosa samples. COX-2 and EGFR proteins showed a positive correlation in mucosa, while a negative correlation occurred in tumor tissue. Tumor tissue with high COX-2 74 kDa protein lacked EGFR protein.Our present results are compatible with the theory that COX-2 and EGFR signalling pathways are inversely related in colorectal cancer tissue. This may explain why combinatorial clinical treatments have been less rewarding.
|The MARCH family E3 ubiquitin ligase K5 alters monocyte metabolism and proliferation through receptor tyrosine kinase modulation.|
Karki, R; Lang, SM; Means, RE
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesions are complex mixtures of KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected spindle and inflammatory cells. In order to survive the host immune responses, KSHV encodes a number of immunomodulatory proteins, including the E3 ubiquitin ligase K5. In exploring the role of this viral protein in monocytes, we made the surprising discovery that in addition to a potential role in down regulation of immune responses, K5 also contributes to increased proliferation and alters cellular metabolism. This ubiquitin ligase increases aerobic glycolysis and lactate production through modulation of cellular growth factor-binding receptor tyrosine kinase endocytosis, increasing the sensitivity of cells to autocrine and paracrine factors. This leads to an altered pattern of cellular phosphorylation, increases in Akt activation and a longer duration of Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Overall, we believe this to be the first report of a virally-encoded ubiquitin ligase potentially contributing to oncogenesis through alterations in growth factor signaling cascades and opens a new avenue of research in K5 biology.
|Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)||21490960
|Integration of growth factor, extracellular matrix, and retinoid signals during bronchial epithelial cell differentiation.|
Moghal, N and Neel, B G
Mol. Cell. Biol., 18: 6666-78 (1998)
Epithelial cell differentiation is regulated by specific combinations of growth factors, hormones, and extracellular matrix (ECM). How these divergent signals are integrated is largely unknown. We used primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs) to investigate mechanisms of signal integration. In defined, serum-free media, NHBEs undergo mucosecretory differentiation only when grown in the presence of retinoids and on the appropriate substratum (collagen gels). We identified the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) gene as an early marker of NHBE differentiation. In contrast to immortalized cell lines, in NHBEs strong retinoid-induced RARbeta transcription occurs only when cells are grown on collagen gels, and it requires new protein synthesis and a cis-acting element that maps outside the known RARbeta promoter elements. NHBEs grown on collagen gels exhibit reduced epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced Raf, MEK, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. This correlates with a specific inability to achieve high levels of p66(SHC) tyrosyl phosphorylation and association of p66(SHC) with GRB2, despite high levels of EGF receptor (EGFR) autophosphorylation. Notably, inhibition of EGFR or MEK/MAPK activation replaces the ECM requirement for RARbeta induction. Our results strongly suggest that a key mechanism by which specific ECMs facilitate retinoid-induced mucosecretory differentiation of NHBEs is by restricting the level of EGFR-dependent MEK/MAPK activation evoked by autocrine and/or paracrine EGFR ligands.