Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H||WB, FC, NEUT||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Ammonium sulfate and purified mouse monoclonal IgG1 in PBS containing 50% glycerol. Store at -20°C.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||Stable for 1 year at from date of receipt.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Networked T cell death following macrophage infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.|
Macdonald, SH; Woodward, E; Coleman, MM; Dorris, ER; Nadarajan, P; Chew, WM; McLaughlin, AM; Keane, J
PloS one 7 e38488 2012
Depletion of T cells following infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) impairs disease resolution, and interferes with clinical test performance that relies on cell-mediated immunity. A number of mechanisms contribute to this T cell suppression, such as activation-induced death and trafficking of T cells out of the peripheral circulation and into the diseased lungs. The extent to which Mtb infection of human macrophages affects T cell viability however, is not well characterised.We found that lymphopenia (less than 1.5 × 10(9) cells/l) was prevalent among culture-positive tuberculosis patients, and lymphocyte counts significantly improved post-therapy. We previously reported that Mtb-infected human macrophages resulted in death of infected and uninfected bystander macrophages. In the current study, we sought to examine the influence of infected human alveolar macrophages on T cells. We infected primary human alveolar macrophages (the primary host cell for Mtb) or PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells with Mtb H37Ra, then prepared cell-free supernatants. The supernatants of Mtb-infected macrophages caused dose-dependent, caspase-dependent, T cell apoptosis. This toxic effect of infected macrophage secreted factors did not require TNF-α or Fas. The supernatant cytotoxic signal(s) were heat-labile and greater than 50 kDa in molecular size. Although ESAT-6 was toxic to T cells, other Mtb-secreted factors tested did not influence T cell viability; nor did macrophage-free Mtb bacilli or broth from Mtb cultures. Furthermore, supernatants from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG)- infected macrophages also elicited T cell death suggesting that ESAT-6 itself, although cytotoxic, was not the principal mediator of T cell death in our system.Mtb-Infected macrophages secrete heat-labile factors that are toxic to T cells, and may contribute to the immunosuppression seen in tuberculosis as well as interfere with microbial eradication in the granuloma.
|p53-mediated delayed NF-κB activity enhances etoposide-induced cell death in medulloblastoma.|
Meley, D; Spiller, DG; White, MR; McDowell, H; Pizer, B; Sée, V
Cell death & disease 1 e41 2010
Medulloblastoma (MB) is an embryonic brain tumour that arises in the cerebellum. Using several MB cell lines, we have demonstrated that the chemotherapeutic drug etoposide induces a p53- and caspase-dependent cell death. We have observed an additional caspase-independent cell death mechanism involving delayed nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity. The delayed induction was controlled by a p53-dependent transcription step and the production of death receptors (especially CD95/Fas). We further demonstrated that in both MB and glioblastoma (GM) cell lines, in which the p53 pathway was not functional, no p65 activation could be detected upon etoposide treatment. MB cell lines that have mutations in p53 or NF-κB are either less sensitive (NF-κB mutant) or even completely resistant (p53 mutant) to chemotherapeutic intervention. The optimal cell death was only achieved when both p53 and NF-κB were switched on. Taken together, our results shed light on the mechanism of NF-κB activation by etoposide in brain tumours and show that the genetic background of MB and GM cells determines their sensitivity to chemotherapy and has to be taken into account for efficient therapeutic intervention.
|Elucidation of molecular events leading to neutrophil apoptosis following phagocytosis: cross-talk between caspase 8, reactive oxygen species, and MAPK/ERK activation.|
Zhang, Bin, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 278: 28443-54 (2003) 2003
Phagocytosis of complement-opsonized targets is a primary function of neutrophils at sites of inflammation, and the clearance of neutrophils that have phagocytosed microbes is important for the resolution of inflammation. Our previous work suggests that phagocytosis leads to rapid neutrophil apoptosis that is inhibited by antibody to the beta2 integrin, Mac-1, and requires NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during phagocytosis. Here we report that phagocytosis-induced cell death (PICD) does not occur in Mac-1-deficient murine neutrophils, suggesting that PICD proceeds through a bona fide Mac-1-dependent pathway. A sustained, intracellular oxidative burst is associated with PICD. Furthermore, PICD does not require traditional death receptors, Fas, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor. TNF but not Fas synergizes with phagocytosis to enhance significantly PICD by increasing the oxidative burst, and this is Mac-1-dependent. Phagocytosis-induced ROS promote cleavage/activation of caspases 8 and 3, key players in most extrinsic ("death receptor") mediated pathways of apoptosis, and caspases 8 and 3 but not caspase 9/mitochondria, are required for PICD. This suggests that ROS target the extrinsic versus the intrinsic ("stress stimulus") apoptotic pathway. Phagocytosis also triggers a competing MAPK/ERK-dependent survival pathway that provides resistance to PICD likely by down-regulating caspase 8 activation. The anti-apoptotic factor granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) significantly enhances ROS generation associated with phagocytosis. Despite this, it completely suppresses PICD by sustaining ERK activation and inhibiting caspase 8 activation in phagocytosing neutrophils. Together, these studies suggest that Mac-1-mediated phagocytosis promotes apoptosis through a caspase 8/3-dependent pathway that is modulated by NADPH oxidase-generated ROS and MAPK/ERK. Moreover, TNF and GM-CSF, likely encountered by phagocytosing neutrophils at inflammatory sites, exploit pro-(ROS) and anti-apoptotic (ERK) signals triggered by phagocytosis to promote or suppress PICD, respectively, and thus modulate the fate of phagocytosing neutrophils.
|Molecular determinants of apoptosis induced by the cytotoxic ribonuclease onconase: evidence for cytotoxic mechanisms different from inhibition of protein synthesis.|
M S Iordanov, O P Ryabinina, J Wong, T H Dinh, D L Newton, S M Rybak, B E Magun
Cancer research 60 1983-94 2000
Cytotoxic endoribonucleases (RNases) possess a potential for use in cancer therapy. However, the molecular determinants of RNase-induced cell death are not well understood. In this work, we identify such determinants of the cytotoxicity induced by onconase, an amphibian cytotoxic RNase. Onconase displayed a remarkable specificity for tRNA in vivo, leaving rRNA and mRNA apparently undamaged. Onconase-treated cells displayed apoptosis-associated cell blebbing, nuclear pyknosis and fragmentation (karyorrhexis), DNA fragmentation, and activation of caspase-3-like activity. The cytotoxic action of onconase correlated with inhibition of protein synthesis; however, we present evidence for the existence of a mechanism of onconase-induced apoptosis that is independent of inhibition of protein synthesis. The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe) fluoromethyl ketone (zVADfmk), at concentrations that completely prevent apoptosis and caspase activation induced by ligation of the death receptor Fas, had only a partial protective effect on onconase-induced cell death. The proapoptotic activity of the p53 tumor suppressor protein and the Fas ligand/Fas/Fas-associating protein with death domain (FADD)/caspase-8 proapoptotic cascade were not required for onconase-induced apoptosis. Procaspases-9, -3, and -7 were processed in onconase-treated cells, suggesting the involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery in onconase-induced apoptosis. However, the onconase-induced activation of the caspase-9/caspase-3 cascade correlated with atypically little release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In turn, the low levels of cytochrome c released from mitochondria correlated with a lack of detectable translocation of proapoptotic Bax from the cytosol onto mitochondria in response to onconase. This suggests the possibility of involvement of a different, potentially Bax- and cytochrome c-independent mechanism of caspase-9 activation in onconase-treated cells. As one possible mechanism, we demonstrate that procaspase-9 is released from mitochondria in onconase-treated cells. A detailed understanding of the molecular determinants of the cytotoxic action of onconase could provide means of positive or negative therapeutic modulation of the activity of this potent anticancer agent.
|Regulation of Fas ligand expression and cell death by apoptosis-linked gene 4|
Lacana, E. and D'Adamio, L.
Nat Med, 5:542-7 (1999) 1999
|Stimulated human lamina propria T cells manifest enhanced Fas-mediated apoptosis|
Boirivant, M., et al
J Clin Invest, 98:2616-22 (1996) 1996
|Involvement of apoptosis antigen Fas in clonal deletion of human thymocytes|
Yonehara, S, et al
Int Immunol, 6:1849-56 (1994) 1994