Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, R, M, B, Ch, Po, Rb||IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Desensitization and internalization of endothelin receptor A: impact of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)-mediated phosphorylation.|
Gärtner, F; Seidel, T; Schulz, U; Gummert, J; Milting, H
The Journal of biological chemistry 288 32138-48 2013
Endothelin receptor A (ETA), a G protein-coupled receptor, mediates endothelin signaling, which is regulated by GRK2. Three Ser and seven Thr residues recently proven to be phosphoacceptor sites are located in the C-terminal extremity (CTE) of the receptor following its palmitoylation site. We created various phosphorylation-deficient ETA mutants. The phospholipase C activity of mutant receptors in HEK-293 cells was analyzed during continuous endothelin stimulation to investigate the impact of phosphorylation sites on ETA desensitization. Total deletion of phosphoacceptor sites in the CTE affected proper receptor regulation. However, proximal and distal phosphoacceptor sites both turned out to be sufficient to induce WT-like desensitization. Overexpression of the Gαq coupling-deficient mutant GRK2-D110A suppressed ETA-WT signaling but failed to decrease phospholipase C activity mediated by the phosphorylation-deficient mutant ETA-6PD. In contrast, GRK2-WT acted on both receptors, whereas the kinase-inactive mutant GRK2-D110A/K220R failed to inhibit signaling of ETA-WT and ETA-6PD. This demonstrates that ETA desensitization involves at least two autonomous GRK2-mediated components: 1) a phosphorylation-independent signal decrease mediated by blocking of Gαq and 2) a mechanism involving phosphorylation of Ser and Thr residues in the CTE of the receptor in a redundant fashion, able to incorporate either proximal or distal phosphoacceptor sites. High level transfection of GRK2 variants influenced signaling of ETA-WT and ETA-6PD and hints at an additional phosphorylation-independent regulatory mechanism. Furthermore, internalization of mRuby-tagged receptors was observed with ETA-WT and the phosphorylation-deficient mutant ETA-14PD (lacking 14 phosphoacceptor sites) and turned out to be based on a phosphorylation-independent mechanism.
|Toll-like receptors differentially regulate GPCR kinases and arrestins in primary macrophages.|
Loniewski, Katie, et al.
Mol. Immunol., 45: 2312-22 (2008) 2008
G-protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and arrestins (ARRs) are ubiquitously distributed crucial signaling proteins that are critical in the regulation of responsiveness of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (class of pattern recognition receptors) play a vital role in macrophage biology and innate immunity. Because GPCR responsiveness is regulated in part by the expression levels of GRKs/ARRs, the focus of this work was to uncover potential cross-talk mechanisms between TLRs and GPCRs via regulation of GRK/ARR expression in primary mouse macrophages. We demonstrate here that activation of TLR2 and 4 (but not TLR3 and 7) significantly decrease ARR2 but not ARR3 protein levels in macrophages. Compared to this, activation of TLR2, 4, and 7 (but not TLR3) significantly decrease GRK5 and 6 protein levels. Surprisingly, GRK2 protein levels are markedly increased by TLR2, 3, 4 and 7. Mechanistically, expression of ARR2 and GRK5 are regulated at transcriptional as well as post-translational levels. Downregulation of GRK6 by LPS is regulated primarily at the post-translational level. TLR4-induced GRK2 level, however, is both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated. Our results demonstrate previously unknown crucial regulatory mechanisms that alter ARR/GRK expression levels in macrophages that might modify many, if not all, GPCR-mediated innate immune responses.
|Maternal low-protein diet programs cardiac beta-adrenergic response and signaling in 3-mo-old male offspring.|
Fernandez-Twinn, DS; Ekizoglou, S; Wayman, A; Petry, CJ; Ozanne, SE
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 291 R429-36 2006
Low birth weight in humans is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Humans with heart failure have a reduced beta-adrenergic response. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic response to the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol and to identify molecular deficiencies that may be predictive of cardiac failure in a low-birth weight rodent model that develops insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Wistar rats were fed a control or a low-protein (LP) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. The resting heart rate and blood pressure of the 3-mo-old male offspring of these dams, termed "control" and "LP" groups, respectively, and their responses to isoproterenol (ISO) infusion were monitored by radiotelemetry. The protein expression of beta-adrenergic signaling components was also measured by Western blot analysis. Basal heart rate was increased in LP offspring (Pless than 0.04), although mean arterial pressure was comparable with controls. Chronotropic effects of ISO were blunted in LP offspring with significant delays to maximal response (P=0.01), a shorter duration of response (P=0.03), and a delayed return to baseline (P=0.01) at the lower dose (0.1 microg.kg-1.min-1). At the higher dose (1.0 microg.kg-1.min-1 ISO), inotropic response was blunted (P=0.03) but quicker (P=0.001). In heart tissue of LP offspring, beta1-adrenergic receptor expression was reduced (Pless than 0.03). beta1-Adrenergic receptor kinase and both stimulatory and inhibitory G protein levels remained unchanged, whereas beta-arrestin levels were higher (Pless than 0.03). Finally, insulin receptor-beta expression was reduced in LP offspring (Pless than 0.012). LP offspring have reduced beta-adrenergic responsiveness and attenuated adrenergic and insulin signaling, suggesting that intrauterine undernutrition alters heart failure risk.
|Phosphorylation and desensitization of human endothelin A and B receptors. Evidence for G protein-coupled receptor kinase specificity.|
Freedman, N J, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 272: 17734-43 (1997) 1997
Although endothelin-1 can elicit prolonged physiologic responses, accumulating evidence suggests that rapid desensitization affects the primary G protein-coupled receptors mediating these responses, the endothelin A and B receptors (ETA-R and ETB-R). The mechanisms by which this desensitization proceeds remain obscure, however. Because some intracellular domain sequences of the ETA-R and ETB-R differ substantially, we tested the possibility that these receptor subtypes might be differentially regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). Homologous, or receptor-specific, desensitization occurred within 4 min both in the ETA-R-expressing A10 cells and in 293 cells transfected with either the human ETA-R or ETB-R. In 293 cells, this desensitization corresponded temporally with agonist-induced phosphorylation of each receptor, assessed by receptor immunoprecipitation from 32Pi-labeled cells. Agonist-induced receptor phosphorylation was not substantially affected by PKC inhibition but was reduced 40% (p < 0.03) by GRK inhibition, effected by a dominant negative GRK2 mutant. Inhibition of agonist-induced phosphorylation abrogated agonist-induced ETA-R desensitization. Overexpression of GRK2, -5, or -6 in 293 cells augmented agonist-induced ET-R phosphorylation approximately 2-fold (p < 0.02), but each kinase reduced receptor-promoted phosphoinositide hydrolysis differently. While GRK5 inhibited ET-R signaling by only approximately 25%, GRK2 inhibited ET-R signaling by 80% (p < 0.01). Congruent with its superior efficacy in suppressing ET-R signaling, GRK2, but not GRK5, co-immunoprecipitated with the ET-Rs in an agonist-dependent manner. We conclude that both the ETA-R and ETB-R can be regulated indistinguishably by GRK-initiated desensitization. We propose that because of its affinity for ET-Rs demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation, GRK2 is the most likely of the GRKs to initiate ET-R desensitization.
|Receptor and G betagamma isoform-specific interactions with G protein-coupled receptor kinases.|
Daaka, Y, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 94: 2180-5 (1997) 1997
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate and desensitize agonist-occupied GPCRs. GRK2-mediated receptor phosphorylation is preceded by the agonist-dependent membrane association of this enzyme. Previous in vitro studies with purified proteins have suggested that this translocation may be mediated by the recruitment of GRK2 to the plasma membrane by its interaction with the free betagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (G betagamma). Here we demonstrate that this mechanism operates in intact cells and that specificity is imparted by the selective interaction of discrete pools of G betagamma with receptors and GRKs. Treatment of Cos-7 cells transiently overexpressing GRK2 with a beta-receptor agonist promotes a 3-fold increase in plasma membrane-associated GRK2. This translocation of GRK2 is inhibited by the carboxyl terminus of GRK2, a known G betagamma sequestrant. Furthermore, in cells overexpressing both GRK2 and G beta1 gamma2, activation of lysophosphatidic acid receptors leads to the rapid and transient formation of a GRK/G betagamma complex. That G betagamma specificity exists at the level of the GPCR and the GRK is indicated by the observation that a GRK2/G betagamma complex is formed after agonist occupancy of the lysophosphatidic acid and beta-adrenergic but not thrombin receptors. In contrast to GRK2, GRK3 forms a G betagamma complex after stimulation of all three GPCRs. This G betagamma binding specificity of the GRKs is also reflected at the level of the purified proteins. Thus the GRK2 carboxyl terminus binds G beta1 and G beta2 but not G beta3, while the GRK3 fusion protein binds all three G beta isoforms. This study provides a direct demonstration of a role for G betagamma in mediating the agonist-stimulated translocation of GRK2 and GRK3 in an intact cellular system and demonstrates isoform specificity in the interaction of these components.
|G protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK2 is a phospholipid-dependent enzyme that can be conditionally activated by G protein betagamma subunits.|
DebBurman, S K, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 271: 22552-62 (1996) 1996
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) mediate agonist-dependent phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) and initiate homologous receptor desensitization. Previously, we reported that charged phospholipids directly interacted with the two GRK isoforms, GRK2 and GKR3, via a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain to regulate GRK activity (DebBurman, S. K., Ptasienski, J., Boetticher, E., Lomasney, J. W., Benovic, J. L., and Hosey, M. M. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270: 5742-5747). Here, evidence is provided to support the hypothesis that charged phospholipids are required for agonist-dependent phosphorylation of receptors by GRK2. In the absence of charged phospholipids, the purified human m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (hm2mAChR) reconstituted in pure phosphatidylcholine vesicles or in a noninhibitory detergent was not a substrate for GRK2. However, these receptor preparations were stoichiometrically phosphorylated in an agonist-dependent manner upon addition of charged phospholipids. The known ability of G protein betagamma subunits to stimulate mAChR phosphorylation also was found to be absolutely dependent on the presence of charged phospholipids, including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Phospholipids also regulated GRK-mediated phosphorylation of casein, a nonreceptor-soluble substrate. Among lipids tested, lipid inositol phosphates, PIP2 and phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate, were found to be the most potent activators of GRK2 and were the only lipids that regulated GRK2 in a complex biphasic manner. At low micro concentrations, PIP2 activated GRK2 via an interaction with the GRK pleckstrin homology domain; however, at high micro concentrations, PIP2 inhibited GRK2, apparently via another mechanism. PIP2-mediated inhibition could be partly relieved by increasing ATP. The results support the hypothesis that GRK2 is a lipid-dependent protein kinase that requires charged phospholipids for enzyme activation, for regulation by Gbetagamma subunits, and potentially for membrane association.
|Monoclonal antibodies reveal receptor specificity among G-protein-coupled receptor kinases.|
Oppermann, M, et al.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 93: 7649-54 (1996) 1996
Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) constitute a family of serine/threonine kinases that play a major role in the agonist-induced phosphorylation and desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors. Herein we describe the generation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically react with GRK2 and GRK3 or with GRK4, GRK5, and GRK6. They are used in several different receptor systems to identify the kinases that are responsible for receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. The ability of these reagents to inhibit GRK- mediated receptor phosphorylation is demonstrated in permeabilized 293 cells that overexpress individual GRKs and the type 1A angiotensin II receptor. We also use this approach to identify the endogenous GRKs that are responsible for the agonist-induced phosphorylation of epitope-tagged beta2- adrenergic receptors (beta2ARs) overexpressed in rabbit ventricular myocytes that are infected with a recombinant adenovirus. In these myocytes, anti-GRK2/3 mAbs inhibit isoproterenol-induced receptor phosphorylation by 77%, while GRK4-6-specific mAbs have no effect. Consistent with the operation of a betaAR kinase-mediated mechanism, GRK2 is identified by immunoblot analysis as well as in a functional assay as the predominant GRK expressed in these cells. Microinjection of GRK2/3-specific mAbs into chicken sensory neurons, which have been shown to express a GRK3-like protein, abolishes desensitization of the alpha2AR-mediated calcium current inhibition. The intracellular inhibition of endogenous GRKs by mAbs represents a novel approach to the study of receptor specificities among GRKs that should be widely applicable to many G-protein-coupled receptors.
|Inhibition of G protein-coupled receptor kinase subtypes by Ca2+/calmodulin.|
Chuang, T T, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 271: 28691-6 (1996) 1996
|Product Selection Guide - Antibodies, small molecule inhibitors, kits, assays and proteins for signaling research.|