Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Description||Anti-GST Tag Antibody|
|Presentation||Protein A Purified immunoglobulin in 30% glycerol, 0.07M Tris-glycine, pH 7.4, 0.105 M NaCl, 0.035% sodium azide as a preservative.|
|Application||Anti-GST Tag Antibody detects level of GST Tag & has been published & validated for use in WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||200 µg|
|Anti-GST (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2943743|
|Anti-GST (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2885513|
|Anti-GST (rabbit polyclonal IgG)||2927683|
|Anti-GST - DAM1567247||DAM1567247|
|Anti-GST Tag - 16389||16389|
|Anti-GST Tag - 18084||18084|
|Anti-GST Tag - 20969||20969|
|Anti-GST Tag - 22583||22583|
|Anti-GST Tag - 23321||23321|
|Reference overview||Application||Species||Pub Med ID|
|Intracellular Analysis of the Interaction between the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Oncoprotein and Inhibitory Peptides.|
Stutz, C; Reinz, E; Honegger, A; Bulkescher, J; Schweizer, J; Zanier, K; Travé, G; Lohrey, C; Hoppe-Seyler, K; Hoppe-Seyler, F
PloS one 10 e0132339 2015
Oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer and other malignancies in humans. The HPV E6 oncoprotein is considered to be an attractive therapeutic target since its inhibition can lead to the apoptotic cell death of HPV-positive cancer cells. The HPV type 16 (HPV16) E6-binding peptide pep11, and variants thereof, induce cell death specifically in HPV16-positive cancer cells. Although they do not encompass the LxxLL binding motif found in cellular HPV16 E6 interaction partners, such as E6AP, the pep11 variants strongly bind to HPV16 E6 by contacting the recently identified E6AP binding pocket. Thus, these peptides can serve as prototype E6-inhibitory molecules which target the E6AP pocket. We here analyzed their intracellular interaction with HPV16 E6. By comprehensive intracellular binding studies and GST pull-down assays, we show that E6-binding competent pep11 variants induce the formation of a trimeric complex, consisting of pep11, HPV16 E6 and p53. These findings indicate that peptides, which do not contain the LxxLL motif, can reshape E6 to enable its interaction with p53. The formation of the trimeric HPV16 E6 / peptide / p53 complex was associated with an increase of endogenous HPV16 E6 protein amounts. Yet, total cellular p53 amounts were also increased, indicating that the E6 / E6AP-mediated degradation of p53 is blocked. These findings suggest that inhibition of oncogenic activities by targeting the E6AP pocket on HPV16 E6 could be a strategy for therapeutic intervention.
|Ring finger protein 34 (RNF34) interacts with and promotes γ-aminobutyric acid type-A receptor degradation via ubiquitination of the γ2 subunit.|
Jin, H; Chiou, TT; Serwanski, DR; Miralles, CP; Pinal, N; De Blas, AL
The Journal of biological chemistry 289 29420-36 2014
We have found that the large intracellular loop of the γ2 GABAA receptor (R) subunit (γ2IL) interacts with RNF34 (an E3 ubiquitin ligase), as shown by yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pulldown assays. In brain extracts, RNF34 co-immunoprecipitates with assembled GABAARs. In co-transfected HEK293 cells, RNF34 reduces the expression of the γ2 GABAAR subunit by increasing the ratio of ubiquitinated/nonubiquitinated γ2. Mutating several lysines of the γ2IL into arginines makes the γ2 subunit resistant to RNF34-induced degradation. RNF34 also reduces the expression of the γ2 subunit when α1 and β3 subunits are co-assembled with γ2. This effect is partially reversed by leupeptin or MG132, indicating that both the lysosomal and proteasomal degradation pathways are involved. Immunofluorescence of cultured hippocampal neurons shows that RNF34 forms clusters and that a subset of these clusters is associated with GABAergic synapses. This association is also observed in the intact rat brain by electron microscopy immunocytochemistry. RNF34 is not expressed until the 2nd postnatal week of rat brain development, being highly expressed in some interneurons. Overexpression of RNF34 in hippocampal neurons decreases the density of γ2 GABAAR clusters and the number of GABAergic contacts that these neurons receive. Knocking down endogenous RNF34 with shRNA leads to increased γ2 GABAAR cluster density and GABAergic innervation. The results indicate that RNF34 regulates postsynaptic γ2-GABAAR clustering and GABAergic synaptic innervation by interacting with and ubiquitinating the γ2-GABAAR subunit promoting GABAAR degradation.
|Novel somatic single nucleotide variants within the RNA binding protein hnRNP A1 in multiple sclerosis patients.|
Lee, S; Levin, M
F1000Research 3 132 2014
Some somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are thought to be pathogenic, leading to neurological disease. We hypothesized that heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein A1 (hnRNP A1), an autoantigen associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) would contain SNVs. MS patients develop antibodies to hnRNP A1 (293-304), an epitope within the M9 domain (AA (268-305)) of hnRNP A1. M9 is hnRNP A1's nucleocytoplasmic transport domain, which binds transportin-1 (TPNO-1) and allows for hnRNP A1's transport into and out of the nucleus. Genomic DNA sequencing of M9 revealed nine novel SNVs that resulted in an amino acid substitution in MS patients that were not present in controls. SNVs occurred within the TPNO-1 binding domain (hnRNP A1 (268-289)) and the MS IgG epitope (hnRNP A1 (293-304)), within M9. In contrast to the nuclear localization of wild type (WT) hnRNP A1, mutant hnRNP A1 mis-localized to the cytoplasm, co-localized with stress granules and caused cellular apoptosis. Whilst WT hnRNP A1 bound TPNO-1, mutant hnRNP A1 showed reduced TPNO-1 binding. These data suggest SNVs in hnRNP A1 might contribute to pathogenesis of MS.
|Tyrosine phosphorylation of the orphan receptor ESDN/DCBLD2 serves as a scaffold for the signaling adaptor CrkL.|
Aten, TM; Redmond, MM; Weaver, SO; Love, CC; Joy, RM; Lapp, AS; Rivera, OD; Hinkle, KL; Ballif, BA
FEBS letters 587 2313-8 2013
A quantitative proteomics screen to identify substrates of the Src family of tyrosine kinases (SFKs) whose phosphorylation promotes CrkL-SH2 binding identified the known Crk-associated substrate (Cas) of Src as well as the orphan receptor endothelial and smooth muscle cell-derived neuropilin-like protein (ESDN). Mutagenesis analysis of ESDN's seven intracellular tyrosines in YxxP motifs found several contribute to the binding of ESDN to the SH2 domains of both CrkCT10 regulator of kinase Crk-Like (CrkL) and a representative SFK Fyn. Quantitative mass spectrometry showed that at least three of these (Y565, Y621 and Y750), as well as non-YxxP Y715, are reversibly phosphorylated. SFK activity was shown to be sufficient, but not required for the interaction between ESDN and the CrkL-SH2 domain. Finally, antibody-mediated ESDN clustering induces ESDN tyrosine phosphorylation and CrkL-SH2 binding.
|Lotus japonicus E3 ligase SEVEN IN ABSENTIA4 destabilizes the symbiosis receptor-like kinase SYMRK and negatively regulates rhizobial infection.|
Den Herder, G; Yoshida, S; Antolín-Llovera, M; Ried, MK; Parniske, M
The Plant cell 24 1691-707 2012
The Lotus japonicus SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SYMRK) is required for symbiotic signal transduction upon stimulation of root cells by microbial signaling molecules. Here, we identified members of the SEVEN IN ABSENTIA (SINA) E3 ubiquitin-ligase family as SYMRK interactors and confirmed their predicted ubiquitin-ligase activity. In Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, SYMRK-yellow fluorescent protein was localized at the plasma membrane, and interaction with SINAs, as determined by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, was observed in small punctae at the cytosolic interface of the plasma membrane. Moreover, fluorescence-tagged SINA4 partially colocalized with SYMRK and caused SYMRK relocalization as well as disappearance of SYMRK from the plasma membrane. Neither the localization nor the abundance of Nod-factor receptor1 was altered by the presence of SINA4. SINA4 was transcriptionally upregulated during root symbiosis, and rhizobia inoculated roots ectopically expressing SINA4 showed reduced SYMRK protein levels. In accordance with a negative regulatory role in symbiosis, infection thread development was impaired upon ectopic expression of SINA4. Our results implicate SINA4 E3 ubiquitin ligase in the turnover of SYMRK and provide a conceptual mechanism for its symbiosis-appropriate spatio-temporal containment.
|Revisiting G3BP1 as a RasGAP binding protein: sensitization of tumor cells to chemotherapy by the RasGAP 317-326 sequence does not involve G3BP1.|
Annibaldi, A; Dousse, A; Martin, S; Tazi, J; Widmann, C
PloS one 6 e29024 2011
RasGAP is a multifunctional protein that controls Ras activity and that is found in chromosomal passenger complexes. It also negatively or positively regulates apoptosis depending on the extent of its cleavage by caspase-3. RasGAP has been reported to bind to G3BP1 (RasGAP SH3-domain-binding protein 1), a protein regulating mRNA stability and stress granule formation. The region of RasGAP (amino acids 317-326) thought to bind to G3BP1 corresponds exactly to the sequence within fragment N2, a caspase-3-generated fragment of RasGAP, that mediates sensitization of tumor cells to genotoxins. While assessing the contribution of G3BP1 in the anti-cancer function of a cell-permeable peptide containing the 317-326 sequence of RasGAP (TAT-RasGAP₃₁₇₋₃₂₆), we found that, in conditions where G3BP1 and RasGAP bind to known partners, no interaction between G3BP1 and RasGAP could be detected. TAT-RasGAP₃₁₇₋₃₂₆ did not modulate binding of G3BP1 to USP10, stress granule formation or c-myc mRNA levels. Finally, TAT-RasGAP₃₁₇₋₃₂₆ was able to sensitize G3BP1 knock-out cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Collectively these results indicate that G3BP1 and its putative RasGAP binding region have no functional influence on each other. Importantly, our data provide arguments against G3BP1 being a genuine RasGAP-binding partner. Hence, G3BP1-mediated signaling may not involve RasGAP.
|Regulation of nuclear import/export of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP): interaction of an alpha-helix of ChREBP with the 14-3-3 proteins and regulation by phosphorylation.|
Sakiyama, H; Wynn, RM; Lee, WR; Fukasawa, M; Mizuguchi, H; Gardner, KH; Repa, JJ; Uyeda, K
The Journal of biological chemistry 283 24899-908 2008
Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-responsive transcription factor that plays a critical role in the glucose-mediated induction of gene products involved in hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis. Glucose affects the activity of ChREBP largely through post-translational mechanisms involving phosphorylation-dependent cellular localization. In this work we show that the N-terminal region of ChREBP (residues 1-251) regulates its subcellular localization via an interaction with 14-3-3. 14-3-3 binds an alpha-helix in this region (residues 125-135) to retain ChREBP in the cytosol, and binding of 14-3-3 is facilitated by phosphorylation of nearby Ser-140 and Ser-196. Phosphorylation of ChREBP at these sites was essential for its interaction with CRM1 for export to the cytosol, whereas nuclear import of ChREBP requires dephosphorylated ChREBP to interact with importin alpha. Notably, 14-3-3 appears to compete with importin alpha for ChREBP binding. 14-3-3beta bound to a synthetic peptide spanning residues 125-144 and bearing a phosphate at Ser-140 with a dissociation constant of 1.1 microm, as determined by isothermal calorimetry. The interaction caused a shift in the fluorescence maximum of the tryptophan residues of the peptide. The corresponding unphosphorylated peptide failed to bind 14-3-3beta. These results suggest that interactions with importin alpha and 14-3-3 regulate movement of ChREBP into and out of the nucleus, respectively, and that these interactions are regulated by the ChREBP phosphorylation status.
|Proteomic analysis of bovine sperm YWHA binding partners identify proteins involved in signaling and metabolism.|
Puri, P; Myers, K; Kline, D; Vijayaraghavan, S
Biology of reproduction 79 1183-91 2008
Posttranslational modification of proteins by phosphorylation is involved in regulation of sperm function. Protein phosphatase 1 gamma isoform 2 (PPP1CC_v2) and protein YWHA (also known as 14-3-3) are likely to be key molecules in pathways involving sperm protein phosphorylation. We have shown that phosphorylated PPP1CC_v2 is bound to protein YWHAZ in spermatozoa. In somatic cells, protein YWHA is known to bind a number of phosphoproteins involved in signaling and energy metabolism. Thus, in addition to PPP1CC_v2, it is likely that sperm contain other YWHA-binding proteins. A goal of the present study was to identify these sperm YWHA-binding proteins. The binding proteins were isolated by affinity chromatography with GST-YWHAZ followed by elution with a peptide, R-11, which is known to disrupt YWHA complexes. The YWHA-binding proteins in sperm can be classified as those involved in fertilization, acrosome reaction, energy metabolism, protein folding, and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. A subset of these putative YWHA-binding proteins contain known amino acid consensus motifs, not only for YWHA binding but also for PPP1C binding. Identification of sperm PPP1CC_v2-binding proteins by microcystin-agarose chromatography confirmed that PPP1CC_v2 and YWHA interactomes contain several common proteins. These are metabolic enzymes phosphoglycerate kinase 2, hexokinase 1, and glucose phosphate isomerase; proteins involved in sperm-egg fusion; angiotensin-converting enzyme, sperm adhesion molecule, and chaperones; heat shock 70-kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa; and heat shock 70-kDa protein 1-like. These proteins are likely to be phosphoproteins and potential PPP1CC_v2 substrates. Our data suggest that in addition to potential regulation of a number of important sperm functions, YWHA may act as an adaptor molecule for a subset of PPP1CC_v2 substrates.
|The telomeric protein TRF2 binds the ATM kinase and can inhibit the ATM-dependent DNA damage response.|
Karlseder, J; Hoke, K; Mirzoeva, OK; Bakkenist, C; Kastan, MB; Petrini, JH; de Lange, T
PLoS biology 2 E240 2004
The telomeric protein TRF2 is required to prevent mammalian telomeres from activating DNA damage checkpoints. Here we show that overexpression of TRF2 affects the response of the ATM kinase to DNA damage. Overexpression of TRF2 abrogated the cell cycle arrest after ionizing radiation and diminished several other readouts of the DNA damage response, including phosphorylation of Nbs1, induction of p53, and upregulation of p53 targets. TRF2 inhibited autophosphorylation of ATM on S1981, an early step in the activation of this kinase. A region of ATM containing S1981 was found to directly interact with TRF2 in vitro, and ATM immunoprecipitates contained TRF2. We propose that TRF2 has the ability to inhibit ATM activation at telomeres. Because TRF2 is abundant at chromosome ends but not elsewhere in the nucleus, this mechanism of checkpoint control could specifically block a DNA damage response at telomeres without affecting the surveillance of chromosome internal damage.
|Association of connexin36 with zonula occludens-1 in HeLa cells, betaTC-3 cells, pancreas, and adrenal gland.|
Xinbo Li, Carl Olson, Shijun Lu, James I Nagy
Histochemistry and cell biology 122 485-98 2004
The PDZ domain-containing protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), a well-established component of tight junctions, has recently been shown to interact with various connexin proteins that form gap junctions. We investigated the association of connexin36 (Cx36) with ZO-1 in various cultured cells and tissues. Punctate immunofluorescence labeling for Cx36 was detected in Cx36-transfected HeLa cells, betaTC-3 cells, pancreatic islets, and adrenal medulla. Immunofluorescence for ZO-1 was also punctate in cells and tissues, and was colocalized with Cx36 at points of cell-cell contact. Immunoprecipitation of either Cx36 or ZO-1 from cell lysates and tissue homogenates resulted in immunoblot detection of ZO-1 or Cx36, respectively, in immunoprecipitates. A 14-amino acid peptide corresponding to the carboxy-terminus of Cx36 showed binding capacity to the PDZ1 domain of ZO-1, which was eliminated after removal of the last 4 carboxy-terminus amino acids. Low micromolar concentrations of the 14-amino acid peptide produced up to 85% inhibition of Cx36 interaction with the PDZ1 domain of ZO-1. These results provide evidence for molecular interaction between Cx36 and ZO-1 in vitro, and in vivo, and suggest that the interference with Cx36/ZO-1 interaction by short carboxy-terminus peptides of Cx36 may be of value for functional studies of this interaction.