Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|A||IP, WB||M||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-GST Tag Antibody, clone DG122-2A7|
|Application||Detect GST Tag using this Anti-GST Tag Antibody, clone DG122-2A7 validated for use in IP & WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||250 µg|
|Anti-GST (mouse monoclonal IgG)||2944488|
|Anti-GST (mouse monoclonal IgG)||2896052|
|Anti-GST - 27898||27898|
|Anti-GST Tag, clone DG122-2A7 - 14462||14462|
|Anti-GST Tag, clone DG122-2A7 - 18281||18281|
|Anti-GST Tag, clone DG122-2A7 - 21035||21035|
|Anti-GST Tag, clone DG122-2A7 - 22588||22588|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Cellular retinoic acid binding protein I mediates rapid non-canonical activation of ERK1/2 by all-trans retinoic acid.|
Persaud, SD; Lin, YW; Wu, CY; Kagechika, H; Wei, LN
Cellular signalling 25 19-25 2013
All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), one of the active ingredients of vitamin A, exerts canonical activities to regulate gene expression mediated by nuclear RA receptors (RARs). AtRA could also elicit certain non-canonical activities including, mostly, rapid activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2); but the mechanism was unclear. In this study, we have found that cellular retinoic acid binding protein I (CRABPI) mediates the non-canonical, RAR- and membrane signal-independent activation of ERK1/2 by atRA in various cellular backgrounds. In the context of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), atRA/CRABPI-dependent ERK1/2 activation rapidly affects ESC cell cycle, specifically to expand the G1 phase. This is mediated by ERK stimulation resulting in dephosphorylation of nuclear p27, which elevates nuclear p27 protein levels to block G1 progression to S phase. This is the first study to identify CRABPI as the mediator for non-canonical activation of ERK1/2 by atRA, and demonstrate a new functional role for CRABPI in modulating ESC cell cycle progression.
|IDH mutation impairs histone demethylation and results in a block to cell differentiation.|
Lu, C; Ward, PS; Kapoor, GS; Rohle, D; Turcan, S; Abdel-Wahab, O; Edwards, CR; Khanin, R; Figueroa, ME; Melnick, A; Wellen, KE; O'Rourke, DM; Berger, SL; Chan, TA; Levine, RL; Mellinghoff, IK; Thompson, CB
Nature 483 474-8 2012
Recurrent mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 have been identified in gliomas, acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and chondrosarcomas, and share a novel enzymatic property of producing 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from α-ketoglutarate. Here we report that 2HG-producing IDH mutants can prevent the histone demethylation that is required for lineage-specific progenitor cells to differentiate into terminally differentiated cells. In tumour samples from glioma patients, IDH mutations were associated with a distinct gene expression profile enriched for genes expressed in neural progenitor cells, and this was associated with increased histone methylation. To test whether the ability of IDH mutants to promote histone methylation contributes to a block in cell differentiation in non-transformed cells, we tested the effect of neomorphic IDH mutants on adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Introduction of either mutant IDH or cell-permeable 2HG was associated with repression of the inducible expression of lineage-specific differentiation genes and a block to differentiation. This correlated with a significant increase in repressive histone methylation marks without observable changes in promoter DNA methylation. Gliomas were found to have elevated levels of similar histone repressive marks. Stable transfection of a 2HG-producing mutant IDH into immortalized astrocytes resulted in progressive accumulation of histone methylation. Of the marks examined, increased H3K9 methylation reproducibly preceded a rise in DNA methylation as cells were passaged in culture. Furthermore, we found that the 2HG-inhibitable H3K9 demethylase KDM4C was induced during adipocyte differentiation, and that RNA-interference suppression of KDM4C was sufficient to block differentiation. Together these data demonstrate that 2HG can inhibit histone demethylation and that inhibition of histone demethylation can be sufficient to block the differentiation of non-transformed cells.
|Functional protein microarrays: just how functional are they?|
Janie S Merkel,Gregory A Michaud,Michael Salcius,Barry Schweitzer,Paul F Predki
Current opinion in biotechnology 16 2005
Arrays of immobilized proteins have been developed for the discovery and characterization of protein functions ranging from molecular recognition to enzymatic activity. The success of these applications is highly dependent upon the maintenance of protein structure and function while in an immobilized state - a largely untested hypothesis. However, the immobilization of functional proteins is not without precedent. Active enzymes have been successfully immobilized for industrial applications for several decades. Furthermore, a survey of recent protein microarray literature reveals that an even wider range of proteins can maintain 'proper' function while immobilized. These reports help to validate the functionality of so-called functional protein microarrays.
|Expression and purification of active PKB kinase from Escherichia coli.|
Shoshana Klein, Tamar Geiger, Inbal Linchevski, Mario Lebendiker, Anna Itkin, Karin Assayag, Alexander Levitzki
Protein expression and purification 41 162-9 2005
PKB/Akt is a protein involved in control of apoptosis, proliferation and cellular metabolism, and it has been found to be activated in many cancers. Activation of PKB involves recruitment of the enzyme by its PH domain to the cell membrane, and phosphorylation at two residues, T308 and S473. To produce active PKB kinase from Escherichia coli, we constructed a derivative of PKB lacking the PH domain and mutated to glutamate at residues S124, T450 and the activating residue S473 (DeltaPH-PKB-EEE). DeltaPH-PKB-EEE was expressed in E. coli together with PDK1, the kinase responsible for phosphorylating PKB at T308, which was expressed as a GST-fusion. Full-length DeltaPH-PKB-EEE was obtained by using a double tag strategy: His6 at the N-terminus and FLAG at the C-terminus. The protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography, followed by passage over an anti-FLAG column. The final purification step, anion exchange over a monoQ column, separated phosphorylated from unphosphorylated protein. Active recombinant PKB kinase was thus produced from E. coli, by a simple, reproducible procedure.
|PPM1D dephosphorylates Chk1 and p53 and abrogates cell cycle checkpoints.|
Lu, X; Nannenga, B; Donehower, LA
Genes & development 19 1162-74 2005
The ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related) kinases respond to DNA damage by phosphorylating cellular target proteins that activate DNA repair pathways and cell cycle checkpoints in order to maintain genomic integrity. Here we show that the oncogenic p53-induced serine/threonine phosphatase, PPM1D (or Wip1), dephosphorylates two ATM/ATR targets, Chk1 and p53. PPM1D binds Chk1 and dephosphorylates the ATR-targeted phospho-Ser 345, leading to decreased Chk1 kinase activity. PPM1D also dephosphorylates p53 at phospho-Ser 15. PPM1D dephosphorylations are correlated with reduced cellular intra-S and G2/M checkpoint activity in response to DNA damage induced by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. Thus, a primary function of PPM1D may be to reverse the p53 and Chk1-induced DNA damage and cell cycle checkpoint responses and return the cell to a homeostatic state following completion of DNA repair. These homeostatic functions may be partially responsible for the oncogenic effects of PPM1D when it is amplified and overexpressed in human tumors.
|MEK kinase 1, a substrate for DEVD-directed caspases, is involved in genotoxin-induced apoptosis.|
Widmann, C, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 18: 2416-29 (1998) 1998
MEK kinase 1 (MEKK1) is a 196-kDa protein that, in response to genotoxic agents, was found to undergo phosphorylation-dependent activation. The expression of kinase-inactive MEKK1 inhibited genotoxin-induced apoptosis. Following activation by genotoxins, MEKK1 was cleaved in a caspase-dependent manner into an active 91-kDa kinase fragment. Expression of MEKK1 stimulated DEVD-directed caspase activity and induced apoptosis. MEKK1 is itself a substrate for CPP32 (caspase-3). A mutant MEKK1 that is resistant to caspase cleavage was impaired in its ability to induce apoptosis. These findings demonstrate that MEKK1 contributes to the apoptotic response to genotoxins. The regulation of MEKK1 by genotoxins involves its activation, which may be part of survival pathways, followed by its cleavage, which generates a proapoptotic kinase fragment able to activate caspases. MEKK1 and caspases are predicted to be part of an amplification loop to increase caspase activity during apoptosis.