Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M, R||IP, WB||Rb||Affinity Purified||Polyclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Glucose Transporter GLUT-1 Antibody, CT|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||For use within 1 month of purchase store at +4°C, for long term storage aliquot antibody into small volumes and store at -20°C for up to one year.|
|Material Size||100 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Rugby-specific small-sided games training is an effective alternative to stationary cycling at reducing clinical risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled trial.|
Mendham, AE; Duffield, R; Coutts, AJ; Marino, F; Boyko, A; Bishop, DJ
PloS one 10 e0127548 2015
The present study investigated whether rugby small-sided games (SSG) could be an effective alternative to continuous stationary cycling (CYC) training at reducing clinical risk factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Thirty-three middle-aged (48.6±6.6y), inactive men were randomized into a CYC (n=11), SSG (n=11), or control (CON, n=11) group. Participants trained 3d·wk(-1) for 8 weeks, while control participants maintained normal activity and dietary patterns. Exercise duration was matched between groups, which involved CYC or SSG (four quarters, interspersed with 2-min passive recovery). Both training programs were designed to induce similar internal loads of maximal heart rate (~80-85%HRmax) and rating of perceived exertion. Pre- and post-intervention testing included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, graded exercise test, fasting 2 h oral glucose tolerance test and resting muscle biopsy. Western blotting was used to assess the content of skeletal muscle proteins associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose regulation.Both CYC and SSG increased VO2 at 80%HRmax, and reduced glycated haemoglobin, glucose area under the curve (AUC; SSG, -2.3±2.4; CYC -2.2±1.6 mmol·L(1)(120 min)(1); pless than 0.05), and total body fat-mass (SSG -2.6±0.9%; CYC -2.9±1.1%), compared to no change in CON (pless than 0.05). SSG reduced insulin AUC (-30.4±40.7 µlU·mL(1)(120 min)(1); pless than 0.05) and increased total body fat-free mass (1.1±1.2 kg; pless than 0.05), with no change in CYC or CON (Pgreater than 0.05). There were no differences within or between conditions for protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, sirtuin-1, p53, glucose transporter-4, protein kinase AKT/PKB, myocyte enhancer factor 2A, mitochondrial transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-1, NRF-2 or mitochondrial complexes I-V (pgreater than 0.05).Rugby small-sided games is an effective alternative to continuous cycling for improving metabolic risk-factors associated with the prevention of T2DM. Despite such positive adaptations in clinical risk factors, there were no changes in the content of skeletal muscle proteins associated with glucose regulation and mitochondrial biogenesis.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12613000874718.
|Role of plasma membrane caveolae/lipid rafts in VEGF-induced redox signaling in human leukemia cells.|
Caliceti, C; Zambonin, L; Rizzo, B; Fiorentini, D; Vieceli Dalla Sega, F; Hrelia, S; Prata, C
BioMed research international 2014 857504 2014
Caveolae/lipid rafts are membrane-rich cholesterol domains endowed with several functions in signal transduction and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) has been reported to be implicated in regulating multiple cancer-associated processes, ranging from tumor growth to multidrug resistance and angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and Cav-1 are frequently colocalized, suggesting an important role played by this interaction on cancer cell survival and proliferation. Thus, our attention was directed to a leukemia cell line (B1647) that constitutively produces VEGF and expresses the tyrosine-kinase receptor VEGFR-2. We investigated the presence of VEGFR-2 in caveolae/lipid rafts, focusing on the correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glucose transport modulation induced by VEGF, peculiar features of tumor proliferation. In order to better understand the involvement of VEGF/VEGFR-2 in the redox signal transduction, we evaluated the effect of different compounds able to inhibit VEGF interaction with its receptor by different mechanisms, corroborating the obtained results by immunoprecipitation and fluorescence techniques. Results here reported showed that, in B1647 leukemia cells, VEGFR-2 is present in caveolae through association with Cav-1, demonstrating that caveolae/lipid rafts act as platforms for negative modulation of VEGF redox signal transduction cascades leading to glucose uptake and cell proliferation, suggesting therefore novel potential targets.
|Metformin and male reproduction: effects on Sertoli cell metabolism.|
Alves, MG; Martins, AD; Vaz, CV; Correia, S; Moreira, PI; Oliveira, PF; Socorro, S
British journal of pharmacology 171 1033-42 2014
Metformin is commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D). While new clinical applications have been ascribed to metformin, including treatment of anovulatory infertility, its effects on male reproduction have not been investigated. The Sertoli cell (SC) is crucial for germ cell development, exerting metabolic control of spermatogenesis, therefore, we investigated the effects of metformin on SC metabolism.Rat SCs were cultured in the absence and presence of metformin (5, 50 and 500 μM). mRNA and protein levels of glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK 1), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) were determined by quantitative PCR and Western blot respectively. LDH activity was assessed and metabolite production/consumption determined by (1) H-NMR.Metformin (50 μM) decreased mRNA and protein levels of GLUT1, GLUT3, MCT4 and PFK 1 but did not affect LDH mRNA or protein levels. However, although glucose consumption was maintained in metformin-treated cells, LDH activity, lactate and alanine production were increased, indicating an enhanced glycolytic flux. No metabolic cytotoxicity was detected in SCs exposed to supra-pharmacological concentration of metformin.Our results indicate that metformin: (i) decreases mRNA and protein levels of glycolysis-related transporters in SCs but increases their activity; and (ii) stimulates alanine production, which induces antioxidant activity and maintains the NADH/NAD(+) equilibrium. The increased lactate in metformin-treated SCs provides nutritional support and has an anti-apoptotic effect in developing germ cells. Thus, metformin can be considered as a suitable antidiabetic drug for male patients of reproductive age with T2D.
|Glycolytic switch in response to betulinic acid in non-cancer cells.|
Heiss, EH; Kramer, MP; Atanasov, AG; Beres, H; Schachner, D; Dirsch, VM
PloS one 9 e115683 2014
The naturally occurring triterpenoid betulinic acid (BA) shows pronounced polypharmacology ranging from anti-inflammatory to anti-lipogenic activities. Recent evidence suggests that rather diverse cellular signaling events may be attributed to the same common upstream switch in cellular metabolism. In this study we therefore examined the metabolic changes induced by BA (10 µM) administration, with focus on cellular glucose metabolism. We demonstrate that BA elevates the rates of cellular glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts with concomitant reduction of glucose oxidation. Without eliciting signs of obvious cell death BA leads to compromised mitochondrial function, increased expression of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1 and 2, and liver kinase B1 (LKB1)-dependent activation AMP-activated protein kinase. AMPK activation accounts for the increased glucose uptake and glycolysis which in turn are indispensable for cell viability upon BA treatment. Overall, we show for the first time a significant impact of BA on cellular bioenergetics which may be a central mediator of the pleiotropic actions of BA.
|γ-secretase binding sites in aged and Alzheimer's disease human cerebrum: the choroid plexus as a putative origin of CSF Aβ.|
Liu, F; Xue, ZQ; Deng, SH; Kun, X; Luo, XG; Patrylo, PR; Rose, GM; Cai, H; Struble, RG; Cai, Y; Yan, XX
The European journal of neuroscience 37 1714-25 2013
Deposition of β -amyloid (Aβ) peptides, cleavage products of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase-1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase, is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). γ-Secretase inhibition is a therapeutical anti-Aβ approach, although changes in the enzyme's activity in AD brain are unclear. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ peptides are thought to derive from brain parenchyma and thus may serve as biomarkers for assessing cerebral amyloidosis and anti-Aβ efficacy. The present study compared active γ-secretase binding sites with Aβ deposition in aged and AD human cerebrum, and explored the possibility of Aβ production and secretion by the choroid plexus (CP). The specific binding density of [(3) H]-L-685,458, a radiolabeled high-affinity γ-secretase inhibitor, in the temporal neocortex and hippocampal formation was similar for AD and control cases with similar ages and post-mortem delays. The CP in post-mortem samples exhibited exceptionally high [(3) H]-L-685,458 binding density, with the estimated maximal binding sites (Bmax) reduced in the AD relative to control groups. Surgically resected human CP exhibited APP, BACE1 and presenilin-1 immunoreactivity, and β-site APP cleavage enzymatic activity. In primary culture, human CP cells also expressed these amyloidogenic proteins and released Aβ40 and Aβ42 into the medium. Overall, our results suggest that γ-secretase activity appears unaltered in the cerebrum in AD and is not correlated with regional amyloid plaque pathology. The CP appears to be a previously unrecognised non-neuronal contributor to CSF Aβ, probably at reduced levels in AD.
|Androgen-responsive and nonresponsive prostate cancer cells present a distinct glycolytic metabolism profile.|
C Vaz,Marco G Alves,Ricardo Marques,Paula I Moreira,Pedro F Oliveira,Cl Maia,S Socorro
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 44 2012
Prostate cancer (PCa) progresses from an early stage, confined to prostate, to a more aggressive metastasized cancer related with loss of androgen responsiveness. Although, it has been recognized that PCa cells have unique metabolic features, their glycolytic profile in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent stages of disease is much less known. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to compare glucose metabolism in androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) PCa cells. Cell culture medium was collected and differences in glucose consumption and, lactate and alanine production were measured using Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra analysis. The mRNA and protein expression of glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT4) were determined by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. The obtained results demonstrate that androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) cells consumed similar amounts of glucose, whereas PC3 cells present higher lactate production. This increase in lactate production was concomitant with higher levels of MCT4 protein, increased LDH activity and higher lactate/alanine ratio, also suggesting increased levels of oxidative stress in PC3 cells. However, protein levels of LDH, associated with lactate metabolism, and GLUT3, involved in glucose uptake, were decreased in PC3 comparatively with LNCaP. Androgen-responsive and nonresponsive PCa cells present distinct glycolytic metabolism profiles, which suggest that targeting LDH and MCT4 metabolic pathways may be an important step for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in the different stages of PCa.
|Effect of plasma membrane cholesterol depletion on glucose transport regulation in leukemia cells.|
Caliceti, C; Zambonin, L; Prata, C; Vieceli Dalla Sega, F; Hakim, G; Hrelia, S; Fiorentini, D
PloS one 7 e41246 2012
GLUT1 is the predominant glucose transporter in leukemia cells, and the modulation of glucose transport activity by cytokines, oncogenes or metabolic stresses is essential for their survival and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms allowing to control GLUT1 trafficking and degradation are still under debate. In this study we investigated whether plasma membrane cholesterol depletion plays a role in glucose transport activity in M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia line. To this purpose, the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) on both GLUT1 activity and trafficking was compared to that of the cytokine Stem Cell Factor (SCF). Results show that, like SCF, MBCD led to an increased glucose transport rate and caused a subcellular redistribution of GLUT1, recruiting intracellular transporter molecules to the plasma membrane. Due to the role of caveolae/lipid rafts in GLUT1 stimulation in response to many stimuli, we have also investigated the GLUT1 distribution along the fractions obtained after non ionic detergent treatment and density gradient centrifugation, which was only slightly changed upon MBCD treatment. The data suggest that MBCD exerts its action via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism that ultimately results in augmented GLUT1 translocation. Moreover, cholesterol depletion triggers GLUT1 translocation without the involvement of c-kit signalling pathway, in fact MBCD effect does not involve Akt and PLCγ phosphorylation. These data, together with the observation that the combined MBCD/SCF cell treatment caused an additive effect on glucose uptake, suggest that the action of SCF and MBCD may proceed through two distinct mechanisms, the former following a signalling pathway, and the latter possibly involving a novel cholesterol dependent mechanism.
|TBC1D1 regulates insulin- and contraction-induced glucose transport in mouse skeletal muscle.|
An, D; Toyoda, T; Taylor, EB; Yu, H; Fujii, N; Hirshman, MF; Goodyear, LJ
Diabetes 59 1358-65 2010
TBC1D1 is a member of the TBC1 Rab-GTPase family of proteins and is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Insulin and contraction increase TBC1D1 phosphorylation on phospho-Akt substrate motifs (PASs), but the function of TBC1D1 in muscle is not known. Genetic linkage analyses show a TBC1D1 R125W missense variant confers risk for severe obesity in humans. The objective of this study was to determine whether TBC1D1 regulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle.In vivo gene injection and electroporation were used to overexpress wild-type and several mutant TBC1D1 proteins in mouse tibialis anterior muscles, and glucose transport was measured in vivo.Expression of the obesity-associated R125W mutant significantly decreased insulin-stimulated glucose transport in the absence of changes in TBC1D1 PAS phosphorylation. Simultaneous expression of an inactive Rab-GTPase (GAP) domain of TBC1D1 in the R125W mutant reversed this decrease in glucose transport caused by the R125W mutant. Surprisingly, expression of TBC1D1 mutated to Ala on four conserved Akt and/or AMP-activated protein kinase predicted phosphorylation sites (4P) had no effect on insulin-stimulated glucose transport. In contrast, expression of the TBC1D1 4P mutant decreased contraction-stimulated glucose transport, an effect prevented by concomitant disruption of TBC1D1 Rab-GAP activity. There was no effect of the R125W mutation on contraction-stimulated glucose transport.TBC1D1 regulates both insulin- and contraction-stimulated glucose transport, and this occurs via distinct mechanisms. The R125W mutation of TBC1D1 impairs skeletal muscle glucose transport, which could be a mechanism for the obesity associated with this mutation.Full Text Article
|Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation||20299473|
|Rapid upregulation of GLUT-4 and MCT-4 expression during 16 h of heavy intermittent cycle exercise.|
Green, HJ; Duhamel, TA; Holloway, GP; Moule, JW; Ranney, DW; Tupling, AR; Ouyang, J
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology 294 R594-600 2008
In this study, we have investigated the hypothesis that an exercise protocol designed to repeatedly induce a large dependence on carbohydrate and large increases in glycolytic flux rate would result in rapid increases in the principal glucose and lactate transporters in working muscle, glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)4, respectively, and in activity of hexokinase (Hex), the enzyme used to phosphorylate glucose. Transporter abundance and Hex activity were assessed in homogenates by Western blotting and quantitative chemiluminescence and fluorometric techniques, respectively, in samples of tissue obtained from the vastus lateralis in 12 untrained volunteers [peak aerobic power (.VO(2peak)) = 44.3 +/- 2.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] before cycle exercise at repetitions 1 (R1), 2 (R2), 9 (R9), and 16 (R16). The 16 repetitions of the exercise were performed for 6 min at approximately 90% .VO(2peak), once per hour. Compared with R1, GLUT-4 increased (P less than 0.05) by 28% at R2 and remained elevated (P less than 0.05) at R9 and R16. For MCT-4, increases (P less than 0.05) of 24% were first observed at R9 and persisted at R16. No changes were observed in GLUT-1 and MCT-1 or in Hex activity. The approximately 17- to 24-fold increase (P less than 0.05) in muscle lactate observed at R1 and R2 was reduced (P less than 0.05) to an 11-fold increase at R9 and R16. It is concluded that an exercise protocol designed to strain muscle carbohydrate reserves and to result in large increases in lactic acid results in a rapid upregulation of both GLUT-4 and MCT-4.
|Altered metabolic and transporter characteristics of vastus lateralis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.|
Green, HJ; Burnett, ME; D'Arsigny, CL; O'Donnell, DE; Ouyang, J; Webb, KA
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 105 879-86 2008
To investigate energy metabolic and transporter characteristics in resting muscle of patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) = 42 +/- 6.0% (mean +/- SE)], tissue was extracted from resting vastus lateralis (VL) of 9 COPD patients and compared with that of 12 healthy control subjects (FEV(1) = 114 +/- 3.4%). Compared with controls, lower (P less than 0.05) concentrations (mmol/kg dry wt) of ATP (19.6 +/- 0.65 vs. 17.8 +/- 0.69) and phosphocreatine (81.3 +/- 2.3 vs. 69.1 +/- 4.2) were observed in COPD, which occurred in the absence of differences in the total adenine nucleotide and total creatine pools. Higher concentrations were observed in COPD for several glycolytic metabolites (glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, pyruvate) but not lactate. Glycogen storage was not affected by the disease (289 +/- 20 vs. 269 +/- 20 mmol glucosyl units/kg dry wt). Although no difference between groups was observed for the glucose transporter GLUT1, GLUT4 was reduced by 28% in COPD. For the monocarboxylate transporters, MCT4 was 35% lower in COPD, with no differences observed for MCT1. These results indicate that in resting VL, moderate to severe COPD results in a reduction in phosphorylation potential, an apparent elevation of glycolytic flux rate, and a potential defect in glucose and lactate transport as a result of reduced levels of the principal isoforms.
|RABBIT ANTI-HUMAN INSULIN REGULATABLE GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER 1 (GLUT-1) POLYCLONAL ANTISERA|