|Methotrexate Increases Skeletal Muscle GLUT4 Expression and Improves Metabolic Control in Experimental Diabetes.|
Russo, GT; Minutoli, L; Bitto, A; Altavilla, D; Alessi, E; Giandalia, A; Romeo, EL; Stagno, MF; Squadrito, F; Cucinotta, D; Selhub, J
Journal of nutrition and metabolism
Long-term administration of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) mimics the effects of endurance exercise by activating AMP kinase and by increasing skeletal muscle expression of GLUT4 glucose transporter. AICAR is an intermediate in the purine de novo synthesis, and its tissue concentrations can be increased, in vivo, by low doses of methotrexate (MTX) through the inhibition of the enzyme AICAR transformylase. We report here the first evidence that, in experimental type 2 diabetes, chronic treatment with low doses of MTX increases skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression and improves metabolic control. MTX (0.5 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally, once a week for 4 weeks, to genetically diabetic female C57BL/KsJ-m(+)/(+)Lept(db) mice (db(+)/db(+)) and their normoglycemic littermates (db(+)/(+)m). In the db(+)/db(+) mice, MTX treatment was associated with a ∼2-fold increase in skeletal muscle GLUT4 protein concentration and a greater than 4-fold increase in GLUT4 mRNA expression (P less than 0.01, all), as compared to vehicle-treated mice; no significant differences were noted in controls. MTX treatment was also associated with a significant reduction of glucose and insulin serum concentrations in diabetic mice (P less than 0.001), and glucose levels only (P less than 0.05) in controls. These data indicate a different route to increase skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression, through the potential inhibition of the enzyme AICAR transformylase.
|The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism.|
Szekeres, F; Chadt, A; Tom, RZ; Deshmukh, AS; Chibalin, AV; Björnholm, M; Al-Hasani, H; Zierath, JR
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has emerged as a novel candidate involved in metabolic regulation. Our aim was to determine whether TBC1D1 is involved in insulin as well as energy-sensing signals controlling skeletal muscle metabolism. TBC1D1-deficient congenic B6.SJL-Nob1.10 (Nob1.10(SJL)) and wild-type littermates were studied. Glucose and insulin tolerance, glucose utilization, hepatic glucose production, and tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake were determined. The effect of insulin, AICAR, or contraction on glucose transport was studied in isolated skeletal muscle. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were normal in TBC1D1-deficient Nob1.10(SJL) mice, yet the 4-h-fasted insulin concentration was increased. Insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose utilization during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was similar between genotypes, whereas the suppression of hepatic glucose production was increased in TBC1D1-deficient mice. In isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) but not soleus muscle, glucose transport in response to insulin, AICAR, or contraction was impaired by TBC1D1 deficiency. The reduction in glucose transport in EDL muscle from TBC1D1-deficient Nob1.10(SJL) mice may be explained partly by a 50% reduction in GLUT4 protein, since proximal signaling at the level of Akt, AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was unaltered. Paradoxically, in vivo insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was increased in EDL and tibialis anterior muscle from TBC1D1-deficient mice. In conclusion, TBC1D1 plays a role in regulation of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Moreover, functional TBC1D1 is required for AICAR- or contraction-induced metabolic responses, implicating a role in energy-sensing signals.
|Preventing the calorie restriction-induced increase in insulin-stimulated Akt2 phosphorylation eliminates calorie restriction's effect on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.|
Sharma, N; Arias, EB; Sequea, DA; Cartee, GD
Biochimica et biophysica acta
Calorie restriction (CR; ~60% of ad libitum, AL, consumption) improves insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The precise cellular mechanism for this healthful outcome is unknown, but it is accompanied by enhanced insulin-stimulated activation of Akt. Previous research using Akt2-null mice demonstrated that Akt2 is essential for the full CR-effect on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle. However, because Akt2-null mice were completely deficient in Akt2 in every cell throughout life, it would be valuable to assess the efficacy of transient, muscle-specific Akt inhibition for attenuation of CR-effects on glucose uptake. Accordingly, we used a selective Akt inhibitor (MK-2206) to eliminate the CR-induced elevation in insulin-stimulated Akt2 phosphorylation and determined the effects on Akt substrates and glucose uptake. We incubated isolated epitrochlearis muscles from 9-month-old AL and CR (~60-65% of AL intake for 6months) rats with or without MK-2206 and measured insulin-stimulated (1.2nM) glucose uptake and phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (Tyr1162/1163), pan-Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), Akt2 (Thr308 and Ser473), AS160/TBC1D4 (Thr642), and Filamin C (Ser2213). Incubation of isolated skeletal muscles with a dose of a selective Akt inhibitor that eliminated the CR-induced increases in Akt2 phosphorylation prevented CR's effects on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, pAS160(Thr642) and pFilamin C(Ser2213) without altering pIR(Tyr1162/1163). These data provide compelling new evidence linking the CR-induced increase in insulin-stimulated Akt2 phosphorylation to CR's effects on insulin-mediated phosphorylation of Akt substrates and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.
|Rapid upregulation of GLUT-4 and MCT-4 expression during 16 h of heavy intermittent cycle exercise.|
Green, HJ; Duhamel, TA; Holloway, GP; Moule, JW; Ranney, DW; Tupling, AR; Ouyang, J
American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
In this study, we have investigated the hypothesis that an exercise protocol designed to repeatedly induce a large dependence on carbohydrate and large increases in glycolytic flux rate would result in rapid increases in the principal glucose and lactate transporters in working muscle, glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 and monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)4, respectively, and in activity of hexokinase (Hex), the enzyme used to phosphorylate glucose. Transporter abundance and Hex activity were assessed in homogenates by Western blotting and quantitative chemiluminescence and fluorometric techniques, respectively, in samples of tissue obtained from the vastus lateralis in 12 untrained volunteers [peak aerobic power (.VO(2peak)) = 44.3 +/- 2.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] before cycle exercise at repetitions 1 (R1), 2 (R2), 9 (R9), and 16 (R16). The 16 repetitions of the exercise were performed for 6 min at approximately 90% .VO(2peak), once per hour. Compared with R1, GLUT-4 increased (P less than 0.05) by 28% at R2 and remained elevated (P less than 0.05) at R9 and R16. For MCT-4, increases (P less than 0.05) of 24% were first observed at R9 and persisted at R16. No changes were observed in GLUT-1 and MCT-1 or in Hex activity. The approximately 17- to 24-fold increase (P less than 0.05) in muscle lactate observed at R1 and R2 was reduced (P less than 0.05) to an 11-fold increase at R9 and R16. It is concluded that an exercise protocol designed to strain muscle carbohydrate reserves and to result in large increases in lactic acid results in a rapid upregulation of both GLUT-4 and MCT-4.