Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|Ch, H, M, R, Yeast (S. cerevisiae)||WB, ChIP||Rb||Culture Supernatant||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Presentation||Cultured supernantant in 0.05% sodium azide|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Material Size||100 µL|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Histone titration against the genome sets the DNA-to-cytoplasm threshold for the Xenopus midblastula transition.|
Amodeo, AA; Jukam, D; Straight, AF; Skotheim, JM
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 E1086-95 2015
During early development, animal embryos depend on maternally deposited RNA until zygotic genes become transcriptionally active. Before this maternal-to-zygotic transition, many species execute rapid and synchronous cell divisions without growth phases or cell cycle checkpoints. The coordinated onset of transcription, cell cycle lengthening, and cell cycle checkpoints comprise the midblastula transition (MBT). A long-standing model in the frog, Xenopus laevis, posits that MBT timing is controlled by a maternally loaded inhibitory factor that is titrated against the exponentially increasing amount of DNA. To identify MBT regulators, we developed an assay using Xenopus egg extract that recapitulates the activation of transcription only above the DNA-to-cytoplasm ratio found in embryos at the MBT. We used this system to biochemically purify factors responsible for inhibiting transcription below the threshold DNA-to-cytoplasm ratio. This unbiased approach identified histones H3 and H4 as concentration-dependent inhibitory factors. Addition or depletion of H3/H4 from the extract quantitatively shifted the amount of DNA required for transcriptional activation in vitro. Moreover, reduction of H3 protein in embryos induced premature transcriptional activation and cell cycle lengthening, and the addition of H3/H4 shortened post-MBT cell cycles. Our observations support a model for MBT regulation by DNA-based titration and suggest that depletion of free histones regulates the MBT. More broadly, our work shows how a constant concentration DNA binding molecule can effectively measure the amount of cytoplasm per genome to coordinate division, growth, and development.
|The Phaseolus vulgaris PvTRX1h gene regulates plant hormone biosynthesis in embryogenic callus from common bean.|
Barraza, A; Cabrera-Ponce, JL; Gamboa-Becerra, R; Luna-Martínez, F; Winkler, R; Álvarez-Venegas, R
Frontiers in plant science 6 577 2015
Common bean is the most important grain legume in the human diet. Bean improvement efforts have been focused on classical breeding techniques because bean is recalcitrant to both somatic embryogenesis and in vitro regeneration. This study was undertaken to better understand the process of somatic embryogenesis in the common bean. We focused on the mechanisms by which somatic embryogenesis in plants is regulated and the interaction of these mechanisms with plant hormones. Specifically, we examined the role of the gene PvTRX1h, an ortholog of a major known histone lysine methyltransferase in plants, in somatic embryo generation. Given the problems with regeneration and transformation, we chose to develop and use regeneration-competent callus that could be successively transformed. Embryogenic calli of common bean were generated and transformed with the PvTRX1hRiA construction to down-regulate, by RNA interference, expression of the PvTRX1h gene. Plant hormone content was measured by mass spectrometry and gene expression was assessed by q-PCR. Detailed histological analysis was performed on selected transgenic embryogenic calli. It was determined that down-regulation of PvTRX1h gene was accompanied by altered concentrations of plant hormones in the calli. PvTRX1h regulated the expression of genes involved in auxin biosynthesis and embryogenic calli in which PvTRX1h was down-regulated were capable of differentiation into somatic embryos. Also, down-regulation of PvTRX1h showed increased transcript abundance of a gene coding for a second histone lysine methyltransferase, PvASHH2h. Accordingly, the PvTRX1h gene is involved in the synthesis of plant hormones in common bean callus. These results shed light on the crosstalk among histone methyltransferases and plant hormone signaling and on gene regulation during somatic embryo generation.
|Histone demethylase Jumonji D3 (JMJD3) as a tumor suppressor by regulating p53 protein nuclear stabilization.|
Ene, CI; Edwards, L; Riddick, G; Baysan, M; Woolard, K; Kotliarova, S; Lai, C; Belova, G; Cam, M; Walling, J; Zhou, M; Stevenson, H; Kim, HS; Killian, K; Veenstra, T; Bailey, R; Song, H; Zhang, W; Fine, HA
PloS one 7 e51407 2012
Histone methylation regulates normal stem cell fate decisions through a coordinated interplay between histone methyltransferases and demethylases at lineage specific genes. Malignant transformation is associated with aberrant accumulation of repressive histone modifications, such as polycomb mediated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) resulting in a histone methylation mediated block to differentiation. The relevance, however, of histone demethylases in cancer remains less clear. We report that JMJD3, a H3K27me3 demethylase, is induced during differentiation of glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), where it promotes a differentiation-like phenotype via chromatin dependent (INK4A/ARF locus activation) and chromatin independent (nuclear p53 protein stabilization) mechanisms. Our findings indicate that deregulation of JMJD3 may contribute to gliomagenesis via inhibition of the p53 pathway resulting in a block to terminal differentiation.
|A novel domain in Set2 mediates RNA polymerase II interaction and couples histone H3 K36 methylation with transcript elongation.|
Kizer, Kelby O, et al.
Mol. Cell. Biol., 25: 3305-16 (2005) 2005
|Phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II CTD regulates H3 methylation in yeast.|
Xiao, Tiaojiang, et al.
Genes Dev., 17: 654-63 (2003) 2003
Histone methylation is now realized to be a pivotal regulator of gene transcription. Although recent studies have shed light on a trans-histone regulatory pathway that controls H3 Lys 4 and H3 Lys 79 methylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the regulatory pathway that affects Set2-mediated H3 Lys 36 methylation is unknown. To determine the functions of Set2, and identify factors that regulate its site of methylation, we genomically tagged Set2 and identified its associated proteins. Here, we show that Set2 is associated with Rbp1 and Rbp2, the two largest subunits of RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II). Moreover, we find that this association is specific for the interaction of Set2 with the hyperphosphorylated form of RNA pol II. We further show that deletion of the RNA pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) kinase Ctk1, or partial deletion of the CTD, results in a selective abolishment of H3 Lys 36 methylation, implying a pathway of Set2 recruitment to chromatin and a role for H3 Lys 36 methylation in transcription elongation. In support, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate the presence of Set2 methylation in the coding regions, as well as promoters, of genes regulated by Ctk1 or Set2. These data document a new link between histone methylation and the transcription apparatus and uncover a regulatory pathway that is selective for H3 Lys 36 methylation.
|Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation is mediated by Set1 and required for cell growth and rDNA silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.|
Briggs, S D, et al.
Genes Dev., 15: 3286-95 (2001) 2001
Histone methylation is known to be associated with both transcriptionally active and repressive chromatin states. Recent studies have identified SET domain-containing proteins such as SUV39H1 and Clr4 as mediators of H3 lysine 9 (Lys9) methylation and heterochromatin formation. Interestingly, H3 Lys9 methylation is not observed from bulk histones isolated from asynchronous populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Tetrahymena thermophila. In contrast, H3 lysine 4 (Lys4) methylation is a predominant modification in these smaller eukaryotes. To identify the responsible methyltransferase(s) and to gain insight into the function of H3 Lys4 methylation, we have developed a histone H3 Lys4 methyl-specific antiserum. With this antiserum, we show that deletion of SET1, but not of other putative SET domain-containing genes, in S. cerevisiae, results in the complete abolishment of H3 Lys4 methylation in vivo. Furthermore, loss of H3 Lys4 methylation in a set1 Delta strain can be rescued by SET1. Analysis of histone H3 mutations at Lys4 revealed a slow-growth defect similar to a set1 Delta strain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that H3 Lys4 methylation is present at the rDNA locus and that Set1-mediated H3 Lys4 methylation is required for repression of RNA polymerase II transcription within rDNA. Taken together, these data suggest that Set1-mediated H3 Lys4 methylation is required for normal cell growth and transcriptional silencing.