|Elevated expression of TANK-binding kinase 1 enhances tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.|
Wei, C; Cao, Y; Yang, X; Zheng, Z; Guan, K; Wang, Q; Tai, Y; Zhang, Y; Ma, S; Cao, Y; Ge, X; Xu, C; Li, J; Yan, H; Ling, Y; Song, T; Zhu, L; Zhang, B; Xu, Q; Hu, C; Bian, XW; He, X; Zhong, H
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Resistance to antiestrogens is one of the major challenges in breast cancer treatment. Although phosphorylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα) is an important factor in endocrine resistance, the contributions of specific kinases in endocrine resistance are still not fully understood. Here, we report that an important innate immune response kinase, the IκB kinase-related TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), is a crucial determinant of resistance to tamoxifen therapies. We show that TBK1 increases ERα transcriptional activity through phosphorylation modification of ERα at the Ser-305 site. Ectopic TBK1 expression impairs the responsiveness of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen. By studying the specimens from patients with breast cancer, we find a strong positive correlation of TBK1 with ERα, ERα Ser-305, and cyclin D1. Notably, patients with tumors highly expressing TBK1 respond poorly to tamoxifen treatment and show high potential for relapse. Therefore, our findings suggest that TBK1 contributes to tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer via phosphorylation modification of ERα.
|IKKi/IKKepsilon plays a key role in integrating signals induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli.|
Kravchenko, Vladimir V, et al.
J. Biol. Chem., 278: 26612-9 (2003)
We report that the product of the inducible gene encoding the kinase known as IKKi/IKKepsilon (IKKi) is required for expression of a group of genes up-regulated by pro-inflammatory stimuli such as bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Here, using murine embryonic fibroblasts obtained from mice bearing deletions in IKK2, p65, and IKKi genes, we provide evidence to support a link between signaling through the NF-kappaB and CCAAA/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) pathways. This link includes an NF-kappaB-dependent regulation of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta gene transcription and IKKi-mediated activation of C/EBP. Disruption of the NF-kappaB pathway results in the blockade of the inducible up-regulation of C/EBPbeta, C/EBPdelta, and IKKi genes. Cells lacking IKKi are normal in activation of the canonical NF-kappaB pathway but fail to induce C/EBPdelta activity and transcription of C/EBP and C/EBP-NF-kappaB target genes in response to LPS. In addition we show that, in response to LPS or tumor necrosis factor alpha, both beta and delta subunits of C/EBP interact with IKKi promoter, suggesting a feedback mechanism in the regulation of IKKi-dependent cellular processes. These data are among the first to provide insights into the biological function of IKKi.