Key Spec Table
|Species Reactivity||Key Applications||Host||Format||Antibody Type|
|H, M||IP, IHC||R||Purified||Monoclonal Antibody|
|Description||Anti-Laminin B2 Antibody, clone A5|
|Presentation||0.1M Tris-glycine, pH 7.0|
|Application||Anti-Laminin B2 Antibody, clone A5 is an antibody against Laminin B2 for use in IP, IH.|
|Application Notes||Not recommended for WB.|
|Safety Information according to GHS|
|Storage and Shipping Information|
|Storage Conditions||2 years at -20°C|
|Material Size||50 µg|
|Reference overview||Application||Pub Med ID|
|Macromolecular organization and fine structure of the human basilar membrane - RELEVANCE for cochlear implantation.|
Liu, W; Atturo, F; Aldaya, R; Santi, P; Cureoglu, S; Obwegeser, S; Glueckert, R; Pfaller, K; Schrott-Fischer, A; Rask-Andersen, H
Cell and tissue research 360 245-62 2015
Cochlear micromechanics and frequency tuning depend on the macromolecular organization of the basilar membrane (BM), which is still unclear in man. Novel techniques in cochlear implantation (CI) motivate further analyses of the BM.Normal cochleae from patients undergoing removal of life-threatening petro-clival meningioma and an autopsy specimen from a normal human were used. Laser-confocal microscopy, high resolution scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out in combination. In addition, one human temporal bone was decellularized and investigated by SEM.The human BM consisted in four separate layers: (1) epithelial basement membrane positive for laminin-β2 and collagen IV, (2) BM "proper" composed of radial fibers expressing collagen II and XI, (3) layer of collagen IV and (4) tympanic covering layer (TCL) expressing collagen IV, fibronectin and integrin. BM thickness varied both radially and longitudinally (mean 0.55-1.16 μm). BM was thinnest near the OHC region and laterally.There are several important similarities and differences between the morphology of the BM in humans and animals. Unlike in animals, it does not contain a distinct pars tecta (arcuate) and pectinata. Its width increases and thickness decreases as it travels apically in the cochlea. Findings show that the human BM is thinnest and probably most vibration-sensitive at the outer pillar feet/Deiter cells at the OHCs. The inner pillar and IHCs seem situated on a fairly rigid part of the BM. The gradient design of the BM suggests that its vulnerability increases apical wards when performing hearing preservation CI surgery.
|The pre- and post-somatic segments of the human type I spiral ganglion neurons--structural and functional considerations related to cochlear implantation.|
Liu, W; Edin, F; Atturo, F; Rieger, G; Löwenheim, H; Senn, P; Blumer, M; Schrott-Fischer, A; Rask-Andersen, H; Glueckert, R
Neuroscience 284 470-82 2015
Human auditory nerve afferents consist of two separate systems; one is represented by the large type I cells innervating the inner hair cells and the other one by the small type II cells innervating the outer hair cells. Type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) constitute 96% of the afferent nerve population and, in contrast to other mammals, their soma and pre- and post-somatic segments are unmyelinated. Type II nerve soma and fibers are unmyelinated. Histopathology and clinical experience imply that human SGNs can persist electrically excitable without dendrites, thus lacking connection to the organ of Corti. The biological background to this phenomenon remains elusive. We analyzed the pre- and post-somatic segments of the type I human SGNs using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in normal and pathological conditions. These segments were found surrounded by non-myelinated Schwann cells (NMSCs) showing strong intracellular expression of laminin-β2/collagen IV. These cells also bordered the perikaryal entry zone and disclosed surface rugosities outlined by a folded basement membrane (BM) expressing laminin-β2 and collagen IV. It is presumed that human large SGNs are demarcated by three cell categories: (a) myelinated Schwann cells, (b) NMSCs and (c) satellite glial cells (SGCs). Their BMs express laminin-β2/collagen IV and reaches the BM of the sensory epithelium at the habenula perforata. We speculate that the NMSCs protect SGNs from further degeneration following dendrite loss. It may give further explanation why SGNs can persist as electrically excitable monopolar cells even after long-time deafness, a blessing for the deaf treated with cochlear implantation.
|Rejuvenation of the muscle stem cell population restores strength to injured aged muscles.|
Cosgrove, BD; Gilbert, PM; Porpiglia, E; Mourkioti, F; Lee, SP; Corbel, SY; Llewellyn, ME; Delp, SL; Blau, HM
Nature medicine 20 255-64 2014
The elderly often suffer from progressive muscle weakness and regenerative failure. We demonstrate that muscle regeneration is impaired with aging owing in part to a cell-autonomous functional decline in skeletal muscle stem cells (MuSCs). Two-thirds of MuSCs from aged mice are intrinsically defective relative to MuSCs from young mice, with reduced capacity to repair myofibers and repopulate the stem cell reservoir in vivo following transplantation. This deficiency is correlated with a higher incidence of cells that express senescence markers and is due to elevated activity of the p38α and p38β mitogen-activated kinase pathway. We show that these limitations cannot be overcome by transplantation into the microenvironment of young recipient muscles. In contrast, subjecting the MuSC population from aged mice to transient inhibition of p38α and p38β in conjunction with culture on soft hydrogel substrates rapidly expands the residual functional MuSC population from aged mice, rejuvenating its potential for regeneration and serial transplantation as well as strengthening of damaged muscles of aged mice. These findings reveal a synergy between biophysical and biochemical cues that provides a paradigm for a localized autologous muscle stem cell therapy for the elderly.
|Immunohistochemical distribution of basement membrane proteins in the human inner ear from older subjects.|
Akira Ishiyama,Sarah E Mowry,Ivan A Lopez,Gail Ishiyama
Hearing research 254 2009
The immunolocalization of several basement membrane (BM) proteins was investigated in vestibular endorgans microdissected from temporal bones obtained from subjects with a documented normal auditory and vestibular function (n=5, average age=88 years old). Fluorescent immunostaining using antibodies directed at collagen IV alpha 2, nidogen-1, laminin-beta2, alpha-dystroglycan, and tenascin-C was applied to cryosections from human cochlea, cristae ampullares, utricular and saccular maculae. Collagen IV alpha 2, nidogen-1, and laminin-beta2 localized to all subepithelial cochlear BMs, Reissner's membrane, strial and spiral ligamental perineural and perivascular BMs, and the spiral limbus. Tenascin-C localized to the basilar membrane and the osseous spiral lamina. alpha-Dystroglycan localized to most cochlear BMs except those in the spiral ligament, basilar membrane and spiral limbus. Collagen IV, nidogen-1, and laminin-beta2 localized to the subepithelial BMs of the maculae and cristae ampullares, and the perineural and perivascular BMs within the underlying stroma. The BM underlying the transitional and dark cell region of the cristae ampullares also expressed collagen IV, nidogen-1, and laminin-beta2. Tenascin-C localized to the subepithelial BMs of the utricular maculae and cristae ampullares, and to calyx-like profiles throughout the vestibular epithelium, but not to the perineural and perivascular BMs. alpha-Dystroglycan colocalized with aquaporin-4 in the basal vestibular supporting cell, and was also expressed in the subepithelial BMs, as well as perivascular and perineural BMs. This study provides the first comprehensive immunolocalization of these ECM proteins in the human inner ear. The validity of the rodent models for inner ear disorders secondary to BM pathologies was confirmed as there is a high degree of conservation of expression of these proteins in the human inner ear. This information is critical to begin to unravel the role that BMs may play in human inner ear physiology and audiovestibular pathologies.Full Text Article
|Cdc42 is crucial for the establishment of epithelial polarity during early mammalian development.|
Xunwei Wu,Shaohua Li,Anna Chrostek-Grashoff,Aleksandra Czuchra,Hannelore Meyer,Peter D Yurchenco,Cord Brakebusch
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 236 2007
To study the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of epithelial polarity during mammalian development, we generated murine Cdc42-null embryonic stem cells and analyzed peri-implantation development using embryoid bodies (EBs). Mutant EBs developed endoderm and underlying basement membrane, but exhibited defects of cell polarity, cell-cell junctions, survival, and cavitation. These defects corresponded to a decreased phosphorylation and membrane localization of aPKC, a reduced phosphorylation of GSK3beta, and a diminished activity of Rac1. However, neither Rac1 nor the kinase function of GSK3beta seem to contribute to cell polarization and cell-cell contacts. In contrast, EBs expressing dominant-negative (dn) PKCzeta mimicked well the phenotype of Cdc42-null EBs, suggesting a major role of aPKC in mediating cell polarization downstream of Cdc42. Finally, aggregation experiments with endodermal cell lines suggested that Cdc42 might affect formation of adherens and tight junctions by PKCzeta-dependent regulation of the protein levels of p120 catenin and E-cadherin.
|Integrin beta1 is required for the invasive behaviour but not proliferation of squamous cell carcinoma cells in vivo.|
Brockbank, EC; Bridges, J; Marshall, CJ; Sahai, E
British journal of cancer 92 102-12 2005
Integrin beta1 is both overexpressed and in an 'active' conformation in vulval squamous cell carcinomas (VSCCs) compared to matched normal skin. To investigate the significance of integrin beta1 deregulation we stably knocked-down integrin beta1 expression in the VSCC cell line A431. In vitro analysis revealed that integrin beta1 is required for cell adhesion, cell spreading and invasion. However, integrin beta1 is not required for cell growth or activation of FAK and ERK signalling in vitro or in vivo. Strikingly, while control tumours were able to invade the dermis, integrin beta1 knockdown tumours were significantly more encapsulated and less invasive.
|Contributions of the LG modules and furin processing to laminin-2 functions|
Smirnov, S. P., et al
J Biol Chem, 277:18928-37 (2002) 2002
|Distribution of individual components of basement membrane in human colon polyps and adenocarcinomas as revealed by monoclonal antibodies|
Ljubimov, A. V., et al
Int J Cancer, 50:562-6 (1992) 1992
|Immunoprecipitation, Immunohistochemistry (Tissue)||1371500|
|Optimization of immunohistochemical techniques to detect extracellular matrix proteins in fixed skin specimens.|
Folkvord, J M, et al.
J. Histochem. Cytochem., 37: 105-13 (1989) 1989
Complete antigen visualization in the context of well-preserved tissue architecture is the goal of all immunohistochemical techniques. Frozen tissue section techniques achieve optimal antigen visualization but preserve tissue architecture poorly. On the other hand, formalin-fixed tissue section techniques preserve tissue architecture very well but result in antigen masking. Enzymatic digestion or salt extraction of formalin-fixed sections has been used to reestablish antigen expression. Recently acid-alcohol-fixed tissue has been used as a successful compromise between tissue architecture preservation and the visualization of cytoskeletal antigens. In an attempt to find an improved immunohistochemical process for non-cytoskeletal antigens, we compared avidin-biotin immunofluorescence staining in frozen, formalin-fixed, and acid-alcohol-fixed tissues. The fixed tissues were either untreated or treated with enzyme digestion or salt extraction. For this study, we examined healing cutaneous wounds in Yorkshire pigs with antibodies to fibronectin, laminin, von Willebrand factor VIII, and keratin. Although tissue architecture was poor, frozen sections provided the best antigen visualization and were therefore used as the standard for complete antigen expression. Formalin-fixed tissues had excellent tissue architecture, but most antigens were completely masked. Pre-treatment technique only partially overcame the antigen masking caused by formalin. In contrast, acid-alcohol fixation preserved tissue architecture almost as well as formalin and sometimes allowed complete antigen visualization; however, laminin and fibronectin were partially masked. Total recovery of the expression of these antigens could be obtained by pre-treating the acid-alcohol-fixed tissue with either hyaluronidase or 1 M NaCl. Therefore, acid-alcohol-fixed tissue appears best for extracellular matrix (ECM) protein immunostaining as well as for cytoskeletal staining. However, certain ECM antigens require hyaluronidase or 1 M NaCl treatment for optimal visualization.
|Basement membrane components produced by a mouse ascites teratocarcinoma TB24. Analysis with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.|
Ljubimov, A V, et al.
Exp. Cell Res., 165: 530-40 (1986) 1986
Monoclonal antibodies were produced against two basement membrane glycoproteins, laminin and entactin. The specificity of the antibodies and the absence of cross-reactivity were established by radio-immunoprecipitation of mouse ascites teratocarcinoma cell lysates. This teratocarcinoma, TB24, formed large embryoid bodies filled with extracellular matrix. The major component of the matrix was laminin. Abundant entactin, substantial amounts of fibronectin and rather little collagen type IV were also found in the matrix by biochemical and immunofluorescence analyses. TB24 teratocarcinoma appears to be a good model to test anti-basement membrane antibodies and to isolate certain extracellular matrix components in preparative quantities.